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The internet is more than what it appears to many of its users. The orld ide eb is the standard and most popular method or protocol of acquiring information off the interconnectivity that the internet provides. The purpose of this essay is to define an internet protocols and give examples of several different types and the advantages and disadvantages they provide for myself and other users of this technology.
HTTP stands for Hyper Text Transfer Protocol and is most likely the most commonly used but least understood of all the internet protocols in use today. This protocol allows web servers to display their information and data to other remote computers. Addresses are used to route and direct communication.
File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is method of transferring files from computer to computer has its own unique rules and methods of use. This protocol allows a user to remotely…
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) technology, one of the technologies listed on Gartner's 2004 Hype Cycle that has high visibility today because new IPv4 addresses are nearly exhausted. On the 2012 Hype Cycle, IPv6 is now listed in the "Trough of Disillusionment," yet the U.. government is still directing that transition to this protocol continue:
Name at least three advantages that government organizations will gain by transitioning to IPv6 technology today, in 2013. Explain why.
The government may actually do well by transitioning to IPv6 technology. There are3 various reasons for its doing so. Three of the reasons are the following:
More Efficient Routing
Given that government networking and cloud computing can be 'stuffed' with heavy traffic, it is essential that the government archives as effective a routing process as possible. This is particularly so since it is essential for the government to have instant and faultless communication with its…
Tech Republic Consider the pros and cons of IPv6 http://www.techrepublic.com/article/consider-the-pros-and-cons-of-ipv6/5429361
Network Computing Six Benefits of IPv6
The address classes are the defined as a, B, C, D or E.This is however dependent on the initial bits. The total of number of addresses in IPv4 are 4 294-967-296. As for IPv6, the address is made up of 128 bit long pieces which are 16 bytes. The fundamental structure of IPv6 is 64 bits (network number) and 64 bits (host number). In most case the host portion of a given IPv6 address or at least part of it is delivered from the device's MAC address .
For IPv4, the address allocation was originally done using a network class. As the system's address space gets depleted, certain smaller allocation are made using Classless Inter-Domain outing (CID).These allocation are however not balanced among various nations and institutions.
For IPv4 the concept of address lifetime is not applicable except for the cases of addresses that are assigned…
Deering, S Hinden, R (1995)RFC 1883, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification,
Deering, S Hinden, R (1998)RFC 2460, Internet Protocol, Version 6 (IPv6) Specification.The
International Business Machines ( 2011). Comparison of IPv4 and IPv6
With the growth of VoIP, new requirements are brought forwarded, such as providing communication between a PC-based soft phone and a phone on PSTN. Such requirements strengthen the need for a standard for IP telephony. Same as other technologies, there are various standards proposed to be accepted by the industry. Two major standard bodies which govern the multimedia transmission over IP network are:
International Telecommunications Union (ITU)
Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
Besides ITU and IETF, there are other standard bodies exist, for instance, European
Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI), the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA).
Critical Success Factors in VoIP
The popularity of VoIP and the enhanced Quality of Service (QoS) on IP network clearly brings major opportunities to manufacturing and services companies to serve their customers. The listed the following critical success factors for VoIP (Howe 2001):
VoIP maximizes the usability of network, reduces cost and time, and provides new…
Aberdeen Research, 2002. Best Practices in Creating Value with VoIP. August, 2002. Aberdeen Research. Boston, MA.
Economist (2006) - Virtual champions. Economist Magazine. June 1, 2006. Retrieved from the Internet on November 28, 2007:
Forrester Research (2007). The Forrester Wave: U.S. Enterprise-Class VoIP Services, A1, 2007. Lisa Pierce. Forrester Research, Boston, MA.
Internet Way: a Unifying Theory and Methodology for Corporate Systems Development
The face of business has changed drastically since the advent of the Internet. Traditional brick and mortar businesses are finding themselves with new marketing avenues. The Internet has led to the invention of a new comer to the business world as well, the e-business. These businesses exist only on the Internet. They do not have a traditional brick and mortar structure. In these businesses, customers place orders by phone or online, Pay for it via credit card, bankcard, or e-check. The item is shipped right to the customer's door.
This new type of retail store offers many advantages over the traditional brick and mortar storefront. Often e-stores can offer items at a fraction of the cost of traditional stores. They do not have the expenses involved in maintaining a storefront. The customer must pay for shipping; however, in many…
The market was not ready for wireless even five years ago, but that has definitely changed. When Levi's launched its latest 501s marketing campaign earlier this year, a wireless site was a central part of its digital strategy. Now there are nearly 30,000 public wireless "hot spots" in the United States. Advertisers believe that now that wireless has finally become a medium with which consumers are comfortable, the next stage is its exploitation by brands. Many feel that the wireless sites will increasingly become a part of marketing campaigns.
The semi-technical arena is seeing the rise of numerous new search engines, especially since ones such as Google have become so successful. Increasing numbers of Web surfers are going to alternative search engines that specialize in finding certain kinds of information or offering additional capabilities to well-known search sites (Kharif). AOL launched a test version of its new travel search site,…
Clendenning, a. (March 11, 2005). Are specialty search engines a future trend?
America's Intelligence Wire. [electronic version]
E-Commerce Trends. Website retrieved July 12, 2005. http://www.ecommercetimes.com/story/16967.html
Frenzel, L.E. (2005). The Internet's next evolution beckons. Electronic Design.
Through these applications, corrections officers can also help reduce internal violence by providing better command and control. These interfaces include criminal intelligence information, such as photographs, fingerprints and documents. These information can be transferred or shared with institutions. These functions, in combination with location identification devices facilitate the tracking down of the movements of high-risk inmates or at-risk personnel in any facility or area. For parole and probation functions, these internet applications perform client mapping and allow better and more efficient workload distribution according to user-determined criteria. Automated routing enables an officer to conduct residence checks and related activities and saves hours of preparation time every week. This, in turn, reduces lead time for route planning and monitors cost per visit (Geographical Institute Systems).
The safety and security of citizens and the community are another primary concern and responsibility of the government (Geographic Institute Systems 2006). In addressing this function,…
Dozono, Elisa. Crime Mapping Now Available on the Internet. Portland Police Bureau, 2001. http://www.ci.portland.org/MAYOR/press4/crimemap.htm
Environmental Systems Research Institute, Inc. Law Enforcement and the GIS Enterprise. GIS for Law Enforcement, 2007.
Geographic Information Systems. Crime Mapping: GIS Goes Mainstream. GIS Lounge, 2006.
Heffernan, Sloane. Law Enforcement Uses Internet to Solve Offline Crimes. Capitol Broadcasting Company, Inc., 2007. http://www.wral.com
It presumes interacting elements in non-deterministic systems, which possess the capability and possibility to render decisions independently." (Bose & Windt) "Sensor networks and pervasive networking approaches are also of high interest to the mobile industry. Context aware applications using mobile devices with dynamically varying service platforms are currently under investigation by mobile operators." (Buckley, 2006) "Growing demand for radio usage implies either the spread of unlicensed bands in breadth and number, or the spread of new technology which: allows transparent overlap of multiple signals (direct spread spectrum): adapts and compensates for already occupied spectrum with cognitive radio and software defined radio." (Buckley, 2006)
The issues presented that intend to hinder the development of the IoT include linking a large number of decentralized servers. "Afilias believes that DNS provides a publicly available platform that can be leveraged for homing multiple, decentralized ONS services." (Cute, Young, 2008) it is generally easier…
Buckley, J. "FROM RFID to the INTERNET of THINGS" Pervasive networked systems. March 6 & 7, 2006, CCAB, Brussels
Cute B., Young M. "FINDING YOUR WAY in the INTERNET of TIHNGS" an Afilias Whitepaper September 2008 www.afilias.info
Chui M., Loffler M., Roberts R. "THE INTERNET of THINGS" the Mc Kinsey Quarterly 2010 Number 2.
Hribernik K., Warden T., Thoben K., Herzong O. "AN INTERNET of THINGS for TRANSPORT LOGISTICS -- an APPROACH to CONNECTING the INFORMATION and MATERIAL FLOWSS in AUTONOMOUS COOPERATING LOGISTICS PROCESSES" MITIP 2010 Aslborg University, Denmark
This lead was accomplished through a partnership nearly a half-century old among government, industry and academia. I member of that partnership was the National Science Foundation (NSF). As Strawn noted, early on, scientists and engineers at American universities began to join the young APANet, as they worked on basic research funded primarily by the NSF. Acknowledging this, the NSF began supporting national supercomputing centers, in the mid-1980s, as a means of giving American scientists, engineers, and students greater access to high-performance computing that was state of the art, and developed Computer Science Network (CSNET).
Creation of these national supercomputer centers by NSF was critical to the development of the Internet. To further enhance U.S. scientists' access to these centers, NSF established the NSFNET national backbone network that connected the NSF supercomputing centers to U.S. universities. NSF also promoted the creation of regional networks to connect colleges and universities to the…
Bellis, M. Inventors of the Modern Computer. 2007. About.com. November 7, 2007 http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aa091598.htm .
Brief History of the Internet. 10 Dec 2003. Internet Society. November 7, 2007 http://www.isoc.org/internet/history/brief.shtml .
Cold War. 2003. National Park Service. November 7, 2007 http://www.nps.gov/archive/elro/glossary/cold-war.htm .
DARPA Over the Years. 27 Oct 2003. DARPA. November 7, 2007 http://www.darpa.mil/body/overtheyears.html .
The twenty-first century observed the information and computer revolution; empowering people to have instant communication and permitting them in carrying out activities using computers. The use of the computer is not limited to a single or specific industry and its use would be seen in all the industries or sectors. Presently, we are living in a world wherein nearly everyone has heard about computer technology and over sixty percent of people have information on its usage. We can now find laptops or computers in shops, homes, educational institutions, ticket counters, and so on (Daily Alert, 2013). It is important to have an understanding of some important terms used in the field of computer technology. This essay will provide an understanding of the various terms involving the Internet such as, web browser, URL, Wi-Fi, network, firewalls, email, phishing, malware, and more.
The internet, in simple terms, occasionally called as…
THE NEXT GENEATION INTENET
The Internet was developed during the late 1960s and early 1970s as a network or computers capable of sustaining global communication. The original Internet, initially intended as and educational and governmental tool, has since reached a global commercial user base. The original Internet has proven a successful means of disseminating and communicating information to more than a billion users, thanks to technological advances.
A new wave however, has occurred in Internet technology. Educators and researchers are currently investigating and implementing new technology, referred to as Internet2. This new communication outlet was built to help ease the congestion researchers, government agents and educators currently face when attempting to access the Internet. The information superhighway has in fact, become jam packed, as an interstate during rush hour. Scientists, educators and government officials have invested in a program that will hopefully result in a more technologically advanced superhighway…
Dimitrov, Ivan. "Network Security: Limitations of the Internet Protocol." Retrieved April 10, 2004. Available: http://www.cas.mcmaster.ca/~wmfarmer/SE-4C03-01/papers/Dimitrov-IPSec.html
Emory. "Van Houweling talks about benefits of the Internet of Tomorrow." Emory Report, December 1999, Vol. 52, No. 15. Available: http://www.emory.edu/EMORY_REPORT/erarchive/1999/December/erdecember.13/12_13_99Internet.html
Harper, Jennifer. "Internet May Leap Beyond Its Problems." The Washington Times, April 1997
Int2. Retrieved April 10, 2004. Available: http://k20.Internet2.edu/inex.php
Cole, C., ay, K., & Zanetis, J. (2004). Videoconferencing for K-12 Classrooms: A Program Development Guide. Eugene, or: International Society for Technology in Education. etrieved November 26, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=113454035
FAQs about Internet2. etrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.internet2.edu/about/faq.html www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106217067
Goodman, P.S. (Ed.). (2002). Technology Enhanced Learning: Opportunities for Change. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. etrieved November 26, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106217070
Hanss T. Internet2: Building and Deploying Advanced, Networked Applications.
etrieved November 26, 2008, at http://net.educause.edu/ir/library/html/cem/cem97/cem9722.html
Internet2: About us. etrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.internet2.edu/about/
Internet2 Announces New Initiative to Accelerate Advanced Network Application
Development. etrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.icair.org/pr/newinit.html
Internet2 Network. etrieved November 26, 2008, at http://www.internet2.edu/network / www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106217067
eddy, ., & Goodma, P.S. (2002). Chapter 1 Technology Trends and Implications for Learning in Tertiary Institutions. In Technology Enhanced Learning: Opportunities for Change, Goodman, P.S. (Ed.) (pp. 3-20). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum…
Cole, C., Ray, K., & Zanetis, J. (2004). Videoconferencing for K-12 Classrooms: A Program Development Guide. Eugene, or: International Society for Technology in Education. Retrieved November 26, 2008, from Questia database:
One of the best examples of a mash-up being made possible by the AJAX programming language is the work of Dr. Hans Rosling and his apMinder program at apminder.org (Phelps, Cseh, 2009). Dr. Rosling has taken the data set from the United Nations and added in analytics to determine the correlation of income to health. He is a regular speaker at TED (Technology, Entertainment & Design) Conferences and is considered one of the top 20 presenters of all time at this distinguished and prestigious global conference. His insights into the correlation of income and health have been widely used by governments globally and he is a frequent lecturer at the U.S. State Department. Dr. Rosling's insights are well worth listening to on the TED site and also working with his apminder.org application as well. If JAX had not been invented and the rapid gains in programming performance not achieved, it…
Given the fact that users have come to expect more and more data being available in their Web-based applications and the delivery of it to be personalized and fast, AJAX has also been expanded to support much greater levels of integration as well (Robertson, Saxton, Van Gucht, Vansummeren, 2009). This aspect of being able to integrate data from XML data streams for other Web applications' use, integrating to legacy systems in companies and also from Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems for pricing and product data for example, is establishing AJAX as a standard in corporations. As more corporations adopt AJAX as a standard there will continue to be more integration options defined and greater use of mash-ups in mainstream Web applications as a result. This is going to greatly enrich the user experience online as it will present data in entirely new contexts and with entirely new relationships.
Impact of Web-based Application Development on Society
Google fans globally don't realize it but they are reaping the benefits of AJAX application development advances daily (MacVittie, 2007). Google has customized their own version of AJAX, which is called Python. The Google version of AJAX is quickly revolutionizing how the world searches out and finds information online. In speaking previously about how quickly Internet users' expectations are increasing with regard to application performance, AJAX is a catalyst of these expectations growing continually. The one areas this is particularly true is in social networking applications including Facebook, Friendfeed, Twitter and many others discussed in Appendix B of this paper. AJAX is making it possible for these applications to deliver real-time updates and also stay secure and reliable enough to scale
The ftp protocol making possible file transfers within the sites of the Internet was published as an FC in 1973 and since then FC
was made available electronically to anyone those had applied the ftp protocol. The libraries started to automate and network their catalogs in the later part of 1960s quite independent from APA. The thinker Frederick G. Kigour of the Ohio College Library Center championed the networking of Ohio libraries during the decades of 60s and 70s. The TCP/IP architecture first proposed by Bob Kahn at BBN and again developed by Kahn and Vint Cerf at Stanford and others all through 70s. It was applied by the Defense Department in 1980 substituting the earlier Network Control Protocol --NCP and commonly adopted by 1983. The UNIC to UNIX copy Protocol or UUCP was discovered in 1978 at Bell Labs. Usenet was originated in 1979 on the basis…
Griffiths, Richard T. "Chapter Three: History of Electronic Mail." Leiden University.
Retrieved from http://www.let.leidenuniv.nl/history/ivh/chap3.htm#ARPANET%20and%20the%20Invention%20of%20E-mail Accessed on 27 May, 2005
Howe, Walt. (17 September 2004) "A Brief History of the Internet." Retrieved from http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/history.html Accessed on 27 May, 2005
Meyers, Jeremy. "A Short History of the Computer (b.c -- 1993 a.d)" Retrieved from http://www.softlord.com/comp / Accessed on 27 May, 2005
The eb has grown increasingly fast and sophisticated, as podcasts, streaming video, and other movie-like aspects of entertainment have become part of the eb experience. Features such as YourTube allow persons to see videos, homemade by uses, over the web. As digital cameras and video cameras become more common, the language of the eb and the media exposed upon eb blogs are sure to expand in the future, and to incorporate more visual elements.
As technology changes and expands into every day life, the language used to describe Internet technology is likely to become more blurred and less specific.
One example, previously discussed, is the fact that the Internet and orld ide eb are often incorrectly used as synonyms. Another example is how the verb "blog" has been modified to become a verb, so to "blog" is to write a blog, as well as the document of a blog itself.…
Blog," (2006) Webopedia. Retrieved 12 Aug 2006 at http://www.webopedia.com/ TERM/B/blog.html
The Difference Between the Internet and the World Wide Web." (2006) Webopedia. Retrieved 12 Aug 2006 at
Internet and Society
The Internet and American Society
In the history of humankind there have been very few inventions which have completely transformed human society. Inventions like the wheel, agriculture, astronomy and geometry have all transformed humankind from uncivilized barbarians into a creatures of culture and society. The invention of science, discovery of electricity, the atom, and other inventions have then propelled the human race forward into a more technologically society, one which is primarily an information-based society. As a result of these technological advancements, scientists have been able to create something that has again transformed human society, one which has in a relatively short time, infiltrated every aspect of scholarship, research, business, and life in general. Beginning with the computer, and an idea that many computers could be joined together and their information shared; scientists and researchers have created an interconnected system of personal, business, academic, research, library, and…
"An anecdotal history of the people and communities that brought about the Internet and the Web." A Brief History of the Internet. Retrieved from http://www.walthowe.com/navnet/history.html
Chan-Olmsted, SM, & Ha, LS (Dec 2003). Internet business models for broadcasters: how television stations perceive and integrate the Internet. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 47, 4. p.597(21).
Domke-Damonte, D., & Levsen, VB (Summer 2002). The effect of Internet usage on cooperation and performance in small hotels. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 67, 3. p.31(8).
Goldsborough, R. (Dec 2008). Daily newspapers face challenges from the Internet. Teacher Librarian, 36, 2. p.72(1).
"What's more, many teachers lack technical support; unlike businesses, most schools don't have an it guy down the hall to save the day when computers go haywire." (Wohl, 2001) central contemporary concern is the problem of Internet security and access to quality information. Without the necessary security measures and administrative restrictions, access to the Internet can also mean access to harmful pornographic material. These administrative procedures once again require technical expertise and time on the part of the teacher.
Another aspect that is of concern in today's online environment is that while there is a plethora of information available, this is not always of the best quality. Many teachers and institutions have banned student access to open -source sites such as Wikipedia for this reason. It is very difficult if not impossible for the teacher to monitor and check the validity and quality of the sites and sources that their…
Chanlin, L., & Chang, C. (2003). Web-Based Library Instruction for Promoting
Information Skills. Journal of Instructional Psychology, 30(4), 265+. Retrieved March 5, 2008, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com .
Collis, B.A. (1996). Children and Computers in School. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
Internet Privacy for High School Students
The unrestrained stream of information is conceived necessary for democracies and market-based economies. The capability of the Internet to make available the vast quantity of information to practically everyone, irrespective of their locations thus entails large benefits. The Internet provides access to the greatest libraries of the world to the students even in the smallest towns and permit the medical specialists to analyze the patients situated about thousands of miles away. The attribute of interactivity of the Internet fosters communication and personal and political expression. The Internet also assists to make the economies progress as it enhances the ease, speed and cost effectiveness with regard to the collection, compilation and delivery around the world to the multiple extent. The electronic commerce will decline the business costs as companies are able to take the benefits of enhanced access to customers, products and suppliers worldwide along…
Baskin, Joy Surratt; Surratt, Jim. "Student Privacy Rights and Wrongs on the Web" School Administrator. Vol: 35; No: 2; pp: 102, 114-116
Beth Givens, (February 2000) "Privacy Expectations in a High Tech World" Computer and High Technology Law Journal. Retrieved from http://www.privacyrights.org/ar/expect.htm Accessed on 14 April, 2005
'Board Policy with Guidelines Date Subject: Student Technology Acceptable Use Policy" (17 July, 2001) North Sanpete School District Policy. Number V-30. Retrieved from http://www.nsanpete.k12.ut.us/~nshs/nslibrary/accuse.html Accessed on 14 April, 2005
Brooks-Young, Susan. (November-December, 2000) "Internet usage update" Today's Catholic Teacher. Vol: 17: No: 2; pp: 53-56
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Despite the importance of the internet to businesses and individual, people are increasingly using the internet to engage in unethical behaviors making governments to regulate the use of internet. The need to curb children pornographic is one of the major factors that make governments regulating the use of the internet. The internet regulation is very critical to limit the exposure of children to pornographic content because governments believe that pornographic content is harmful to children.
However, extensive government regulations of the internet usage can still be challenging to implement. The rights of individual such as freedom of expression, and children rights are the major issues that could make the government to face challenges in regulating the internet. Essentially, internet is increasingly beneficial to both adults and children. While adults use the internet to transact business and make an effective communication, children use the internet at schools. Thus, extensive regulation could…
Choi, C.J. Kim, S.W. & Yu, S. (2009). Global Ethics of Collective Internet Governance: Intrinsic Motivation and Open Source Software. Journal of Business Ethics. 90:523 -- 531.
Mansell, R. (2011). New visions, old practices: Policy and regulation in the Internet era. Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies. 25(1): 19-32.
Nair, a. (2007). Internet Content Regulation: Is a Global Community Standard a Fallacy or the Only Way Out? International Review of Law Computers & Technology. 21 (1): 15 -- 25.
Internet 2 and IPv6?
Internet2 is collaboration among more than two hundred universities, industry and government to develop networking and advanced applications for learning and research. The primary objects of Internet2 are to create a leading edge network for the national research community, enable new Internet applications, and to ensure the rapid transfer of new network services and applications to the broader Internet community. ecause learning and research often requires real-time multimedia and high-bandwidth interconnections, Internet2 is adding the network infrastructure to support these applications. Internet2 is not a separate physical network and is not intended to replace the Internet, but its collaborators will share with developments with the Internet and other networks as appropriate.
Abilene is a high-performance backbone network used by the Internet2 community. The Abilene network supports the Internet2 by providing an effective interconnect among the regional networking aggregation points called gigaPoPs, pioneered by Internet2 universities. Abilene…
Internet2. 23 Feb. 2003. http://www.internet2.edu/ .
Internet2." TechTarget Network. 23 Feb. 2003. http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,sid9_gci214029,00.html
IPv6 Forum. 23 Feb. 2003. http://www.ipv6forum.com/ .
Yegulalp, Serdar. "IPv6: The Promise, The Problems, The Protocol." Extremetech. 26 Mar. 2002. Extremetech. 23 Feb. 2003. http://www.extremetech.com/print_article/0,3998,a=24586,00.asp .
This problem was solved in the following way: the program uuencode which is used by email-clients transforms its binary code (code of bits and bytes) into text code using ASCII table principle and it's send in the form of text character set in the following form (begin file name reports text translated binary body end). The recipient's email-client executes uudecode program and transforms it to binary primary code.
Telnet is a program for computer networks that use TCP/IP, for example Internet. It allows terminal emulation, as it connects user's computer to a networks' server. This program which works in console mode allows to manage the controll over server as if the commands were executed on the server computer initially, as well as it allows to control, communicate and do data exchange with other computers and servers. Telecom uses identification policies as username and password and allows control of web…
Hahn, Harley Hahn Teaches the Internet 2nd ed., Que 2002
Kasser, Barbara Using the Internet, Fourth Edition,
Gralla, Preston How the Internet Works, Fourth Edition, Que. 2001
TCP/IP Protocol Suite
For the average computer user, TCP/IP probably doesn't mean a whole lot, except maybe when it comes to "configuring" their computer so they can get online, but without the TCP/IP protocol, the activity experienced on the Internet up until this point would not be possible. This paper will examine some of the components of the TCP/IP protocol and explore their uses as they apply to relevant parts of the Internet.
TCP/IP is the acronym for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, which was originally established by the Department of Defense in 1993 to connect defense department computers with other computer networks. This network grew to include government and educational institution computers and eventually it has grown to include the widespread use of commercial and private networks.1
Simply put, TCP/IP "allows cooperating computers to share resources across a network." 2 Developed by Department of Defense researchers, TCP/IP once revolved around…
Jim Carr. Network Magazine. The TCP/IP Protocol Suite November 1990. (9 December 2002). http://networkmagazine.com/article/printablearticle-doc_id=.NMG20000727S0022htm .(9 December 2002).
H. Gilbert. Introduction to TCP/IP. 1995. http://www.yale.edu/pclt/COMM/TCPIP.htm (December 2002).
Internet Guide. What is TCP/IP? 2002. http://Internet-guide.co.uk/tcp-ip.html (9 December 2002).
Introduction to TCP/IP. September 1998. http://msdnmicrosoft.com/library/en-us/dniph/html/tcpipintro.asp?fr.htm (9 December 2002).
This occurs when a server happens to receive more connection requests that are incomplete and that it cannot possibly handle. This kind of attack's source code were released in 2006 by 2600 and Phracks two well-known underground hacker magazines. The second threat is IP Spoofing which is an attack which involves the impersonation of a legitimate host user at the IP layer. The third one is sequence number attack. The third one is TCP session hijacking. The third threat is denial of service attacks Security strategies to address various threats that are addressed by IPSec that users who use unsecured TCP/IP face
In order to ensure that users of unsecured TCP/IP don't fall victims to the threats outlined above, the following strategies must be employed;
Countering SYN Flooding:
The ISPs that are responsible for the IP packets must block the non-internal addresses that are responsible for the flooding. The attacker…
CEEnet (2000)Applications of IPSec
Ferguson, B Poulton, D and Barrett, D (2004). MCSA/MCSE 70-299 Exam Cram 2:
Implementing and Administering Security in a Windows 2003 Network
IT Management Class
Networking Protocols Are Powerful Catalysts of Collaboration
Across Organizational Boundaries
The foundation of the Internet is based on the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) networking protocol that serves to arbitrate control of the many connections that comprise the Web, with design criterion specifically designed to avoid packet collisions and ensure the highest performance possible. The TCP/IP protocol is based on the Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detect (CSMA/CD), an approach to managing network traffic to anticipate and reduce packet collisions, increasing networking fidelity, performance and stability over the long-term. Inherent in the design of the CSMA/CD standard is support for simplex transmission, half-duplex and full duplex transmission approaches, all designed to enable the highest levels of performance possible for a given TCP/IP network configuration (Cisco Tutorial, 2007). The CSMA/CD standard is credited with the proliferation of the World Wide Web, as it successfully supported the Hypertext Transfer Protocol…
Ciampa, Mark (2005). Security+ Guide to Network Security Fundamentals. 2nd Edition. Massachusetts: Thomson Course Technology, 2005
Cisco Tutorial (2007). Basics of the OSI Model and associated documents. Accessed from the Internet on March 27,2011from location: http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/introint.htm
Cisco Systems (2007). Networking Guides and Programs for Protocol Support . Retrieved March 27, 2011 from location:
iSCSI block-Level storage protocol and IP SAN
In the world of computing, iSCSI is an abbreviation used for Internet Small Computer System Interface. It is based on IP (Internet Protocol) storage, and is the standard that is used on most networks for the linking together of facilities for the storage of data (Dell, n.d.). By making sure that the commands created by SCSI are carried over specific IP networks, data can be easily transferred and storage can be managed (Dell, n.d.). That holds true even over very long distances, no matter what is being sent. Wide area networks and local area networks can be used for the transmission of data, and that same data can also just be sent over the Internet (Oppenheimer & Patterson, 2002). The storage and the retrieval of the data are both independent of location, meaning that it is possible to store things "in the cloud"…
Dell.com (n.d.). http://www.dell.com/downloads/global/products/pvaul/en/ip-san-best-practices-en.pdf
Oppenheimer, D., & Patterson, D.A. (2002). Architecture and dependability of large-scale internet services. IEEE Internet Computing, September -- October 2002.
In addition, The potential for IPv6 to significantly reduce the overall costs of supporting an enterprise-wide network are also very clear as well.
ATM portals and technologies are ideal for creating a unified computing and networking platform corporate-wide, especially if a company has operations in several countries, and across continents. The speed and bandwidth considerations of running a global enterprise are also accentuated by this technology, as is a drastic reduction in Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) for a given network topology that must scale to be global. In addition, ATM could be used for unifying diverse legacy systems into a single, cohesive network architecture that capitalizes on the many information assets a company has (Dunne, Klementowski, 1982). In addition, these networks also make it possible to create entirely new approaches to solving very complex problems in enterprise, including the ability to collaborate and produce new product designs in real-time…
Dunne, Edward J.,,Jr., & Klementowski, L.J. (1982). An investigation of the use of network techniques in research and development management. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, EM29(3), 74-74.
Etkin, J., & Zinky, J.A. (1989). Development life cycle of computer networks: The executable model approach. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 15(9), 1078-1089.
Soon-Young, H., Chung, Q.B., & Hyung-Min, K. (2000). Collaborative model management in departmental computing. INFOR, 38(4), 373-389.
Internet and LANS
Overview love the internet. For example, I can't live without my daily emails and I am a big fan of music downloads and bargain shopping. Those individuals not in tune with what's currently happening all around us in regard to email, websites like KaZaA and eBay, or even the phenomena of file swapping for that matter may be a bit out of touch. The future of information technology is here right now on can be found on the internet. The bottom line is that the internet is really comprised of physical hardware and software known as routers and lots of Local Area Networks (LANs).
To get a fix on how the internet has changed the world, it is estimated that file swapping sites like KaZaA have more than one hundred sixty million people worldwide downloading at least one version of their software. Of those millions, over sixty…
History of TCP/IP
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP) are two of the leading protocols that were developed for the transmission of data between computers, servers and other devices. They were developed during the 1960s with the development of the Network Control Protocol, which would allow the existence of ARPANET, basically the first network. Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn were the key players who proposed a set of key protocols and standards to allow these machines to transmit packets of information to each other (Studenting, n.d.), with the idea being that this would serve as the basis for conventions for interconnecting networks, and for routing traffic.
The initial design for TCP came with four objectives: network connectivity, distribution, error recovery and black box design. The latter term meant that no internal changes would be needed to a network for it to connect to other networks; in other words…
E-Commerce Security Measures
The Internet has positively created new life in business commerce, through website development. It has also opened up a new way for criminals to steal secret data of businesses and information regarding clients' banks details and contacts. This has made customers to becoming rapidly more aware of the websites they visit and where they input their personal information to avoid fraud cases (Corr S. Pondent, 2009).
However, e-commerce security measures deal with issues such as protecting the integrity of the business network and its internal systems. Besides, it ensures that the customer's information is shielded from everybody else, and must not be open to alteration or tampering, whilst going through the process of authentication and receipt. This ensures that there are secure business transaction between the customer and the business (andy C. Marchany, 2002).
E-commerce business has put in place several different security measures to protect customers…
1. Corr S. Pondent, (2009). Security Techniques Used to Protect an E-Commerce System
2. Randy C. Marchany (2002) E-Commerce Security Issues
Proceedings of the 35th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences
3. Avi Rushinek, Sara Rushinek (2002). E-commerce security measures are they worth it
E-business is also known as electronic business and is defined as the use of elements of information technology (ICT) in the provision of support of all the key activities of a particular organization. The methods applied in the electronic business enable firms to link up both their internal and external data processing facilities and systems in order to improve efficiency and flexibility. This enables the firms to work hand in hand with their suppliers, partners and employees so as to come up with better satisfaction of the needs and demands of their clientele. The concept of e-commerce has brought about enormous transformations in business corporations, markets and the general consumer behavior ( Laudon and Traver, 2007,p5).
It is important to note that e-business has more details as compared to e-commerce. The key difference is evident even in terms of their fundamental definition. The difference is that e-business refers to the…
Beynon-Davies P. (2004). E-Business. Palgrave, Basingstoke. ISBN 1-4039-1348-X
Enterprise Ireland. Combolift Ltd.: SME eBusiness Case Studies
Timmers, P (2000), Electronic Commerce - strategies & models for business-to-business trading, pp.31, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.,
Gerstner, L (2002), Who says Elephants can't dance pg 172
In the majority of homes globally, dial-up telephone connection is by far the most commonly used approach to gaining access to the Internet. There are more and more free providers in this area, offering their services in exchange for having subscribers view advertisements. The majority of services however are fee-based where the subscribers contract with Internet Service Provider (ISP)'s dial-up modems. The ISP then acts as the intermediary to allow access to the Internet.
Once someone is connected, a web browser is used for accessing websites, reading e-mail from servers that rely on e-mail publishing protocols, and access Web servers for specific content on subjects of interest. The web browser is comprised of the HTTP protocol, which is the same one that is used on Web servers to present, publish and distributed information online.
Schuler (2005) - How Does the Internet Work? White paper by uss Schuler. Accessed from…
Schuler (2005) - How Does the Internet Work? White paper by Russ Schuler. Accessed from the Internet on September 8, 2007 from location:
This is usually a low standard to achieve. As long as a person acts in a way which avails the person of the protection of the laws of that state, that person has subjected themselves to the jurisdiction of that state (International Shoe).
Next, the complaint will allege subject matter jurisdiction, i.e., that the lawsuit fulfill the requirements for this court to hear it? Pertinent requirements can include how much money haws plaintiff sued for or whether the case poses a question about a federal statute or the U.S. constitution. In many cases involving litigants from different states, the Plaintiff will allege that he is suing the Defendant for an amount greater than $75,000.00, which is the minimum monetary amount for federal subject matter jurisdiction (Title 28 U.S.C. § 1332(a)) and that the Plaintiff does not reside in the state in the same state as any defendant (Am Jur Pleading…
Alternative dispute resolution. U.S. Office of Special Counsel (2010, January 18).
Retrieved from http://www.osc.gov/adr.htm
Altonaga, Honorable Cecilia Marie. (2002, May 04). Federal court judge's practice guide. Retrieved from http://www.flabar.org/divpgm/pu/fcpcsurvey.nsf
American Jurisprudence 2d (1997). St. Paul, MN: Thompson Reuters.
wartime communication, business operations, or protecting oneself from identity theft, secure communication via the Internet is a top priority. Every day, malicious users are creating and releasing new forms of malware that are increasingly difficult to detect and combat. Many of these hackers are motivated by a desire to steal private information -- a crime that can be devastating to any victim. Fortunately, many "good guys" are also working to protect this information. Cryptography, authentication, message integrity, and operational security are the main focus of their work. Other issues include how to secure network layers for specific operations: email, TCP connections, the network layer, or a wireless LAN . The war against cyber criminals of all kinds is an exciting and vibrant area of research and development; this mission poses greater and greater challenges to scientists as criminals perfect their craft .
So what are malicious internet abusers getting away…
Barrett, Larry. Malware, Mobile Device Threats Surge in Q3: McAfee. 17-11 2010. 20-11 2010 .
Cisco, staff. "Cisco Extends Security Leadership With Advances in Cloud Protection." 28 4 2010. newsroom.cisco.com. 2010 20-11 .
Esecurity, staff. IT Security Salaries on the Rise. 26-10 2010. 2010 20-11 .
Glenny, Misha. What makes a cyber criminal? 19 5 2008. 20-11 2010 .
Wireless connections today are ubiquitous and taken for granted; however, there is a complex world at work behind the scenes that relies on highly specific conditions. Whether on a laptop, cell phone, or other wireless handheld device, everyone has experienced the frustration of a faulty wireless signal. For this reason, it is helpful to understand some causes of signal weakness or failure. A brief study of the differences between wired and wireless networks, the basics of multiple access protocols, and increased challenges posed by mobility will offer a basic understanding of the complexities involved in successful wireless data transmission, or what can be described as the "21st century grease of the daily grind."
When a user chooses to "unplug" from the wired internet and connect through a virtual wire instead, they introduce a myriad of problems. Some basic challenges result from the differences between a wired and wireless network: decreasing…
Privacy Protection Features Present
Social Security Number:
Customer Information Sharing:
Information Provided by Website
Comparison among Top E-commerce Websites
First Mover vs. Follower in E-Commerce
Disadvantage of First Mover
Throughout the major part of the last century, there has been a lot of development and advancement in the field of information and technology (Jing, 2009). Most of the business activities have shifted base from being orthodox setups towards the IT portals. This development has also given rise to certain issues which were not present with the business fraternity earlier. In the past two decades, there has…
C. Juan. (2006). The electronic commerce security architecture and the safety technology apply. Net Security Technologies and Application. 7(1), 56-58. C. O'Connor. (2013). Wal-Mart Vs. Amazon: World's Biggest E-Commerce Battle Could Boil Down To Vegetables. Available: http://www.forbes.com/sites/clareoconnor/2013/04/23/wal-mart-vs.-amazon-worlds-biggest-e-commerce-battle-could-boil-down-to-vegetables/ . Last accessed 31 December 2014.
C.O' Connor. (2013). Wal-Mart Vs. Amazon: World's Biggest E-Commerce Battle Could Boil Down To Vegetables. Available:
ritten Summary of Chapter Seven "Multimedia Networking" from the text
"Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach"
The internet is becoming a place which increasingly meets the all the electronic needs of its users. ith the advent of multimedia content and the ability of people, even in remote areas, to have access to broadband capabilities, any function of a telephone, television, or other single-use multimedia device is becoming intertwined with a computer's new multimedia ability. Chapter seven in the text defines and discusses the technologies that are, and are becoming, available to the public. This summary will include what these multimedia services are, a simple synopsis of how they work, and, finally, the future of the many applications that providers continue to implement.
The text broke the advances into three simple groupings -- streaming stored audio and video, one-to-many real-time audio and video, and real-time interactive audio and video (Krouse…
Krouse, James F., and Keith W. Ross. Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Addison-Wesley, 2009. Web.
competitive, fast-paced business world, a network failure can be disastrous. The pressure placed on network administrators to fix issues immediately is daunting; these important players need all the tools they can get to troubleshoot, prevent, and repair problems. Network administrators must remain vigilant and work constantly to monitor for interface or host failures, detect route flapping or intrusions, perform LAN segment switches or bandwidth adjustments, and monitoring overall performance for Service Level Agreements (SLAs). The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has grouped these tasks into five main management categories: performance, fault, configuration, accounting, and security. Successful network administration across these categories requires sophisticated tools and technology, and as with other aspects of computer networking, network administration is based on protocols. The most popular network management protocol in place today is the Internet SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol), although this standard is far from simple. In fact, this protocol is just…
Augustine, Thomas, et al. "Cyber competitions as a computer science recruiting tool." ACM Digital Library (2010).
Clemm, Alexander. "On the Job with a Network Manager." 12-01 2007. www.ciscopress.com. 23-11 2010 .
Jones, Curt, Lisa Lister and John Polhill. "Recruiting Students in Computer Science and Mathematics through High School Programming and Mathematics Contests." Electronic Proceedings of the ICTCM (2003).
"Computer Networking: A Top-Down Approach, Fifth Edition." Kurose, James F. And Keith W. Ross. Addison Wesley, 2009. 687-759.
Internet and K-12 Schools
The history and effects of internet
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
History of the Internet in K-12 Schools
Interactive Websites and Games as Computer-Aided Instruction
The History and Effects of the Internet on Instruction in K-12 Schools
Creating and sustaining a literate nation capable of democracy, self-government and continuous improvement of quality of life has been a dominant and critical aspect of public education throughout America's history (Ferguson & Huebner, 1996). The amount of information available to students has grown exponentially in recent years. The Internet is a broad and vast territory of information that many children are not equipped to navigate. Now more than ever students need the skills to wade through the waters of information. The current essay is aimed at exploring the history and…
Chapman, C. (2009). The history of the Internet in a nutshell. Retrieved from http://sixrevisions.com/resources/the-history-of-the-internet-in-a-nutshell/
Chapman, G. (2000). Federal support for technology in K -- 12 education. Brookings Papers on Education Policy, pp. 307 -- 343. Retrieved from http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/brookings_papers_on_education_policy/v2000/2000.1chapman.html
Koster, R. (2005). A theory of fun for game design. Scottsdale, AZ: Paraglyph Press.
Moore, R. (2006). Cybercrime: Investigation high-technology computer crime. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson.
Internet has grown exponentially since its first introduction to the public. The precursor to the Internet was the ARPANET. The Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) of the Department of Defense (Carlitz and Zinga, 1997) and the National Science Foundation (NSF) were the primary creators of the ARPANET. Subsequently however, efforts from private entities and universities have helped develop the network infrastructure, as it exists today. "The goals of ARPA's 'Resource Sharing Computer Network' project were to develop the technology for and demonstrate the feasibility of a computer network while improving communication and collaboration between research centers with grants from ARPA's Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO)." (Press, 1996) J.C.R. Licklider of MIT undertook groundbreaking work in developing computer interactivity. Later, he implemented his vision though time-sharing systems-affordable interactive computing. The effort of the NSF also helped to distribute the features of this new networking capability to all major universities and research…
Ansari, Asim, Skander Essegaier, and Rajeev Kohli. "Internet Recommendation Systems." Journal of Marketing Research 37.3 (2000).
Bannan, Karen J. "Clean It Up." PC Magazine 20.16 (2001).
Beguette, Glenda, et al. Internet Content Filtering and Cipa Legislation. 2002. Available: http://lrs.ed.uiuc.edu/students/tsullivl/469Sp02/filtering.html. June 26, 2005.
Bell, Bernard W. "Filth, Filtering, and the First Amendment: Ruminations on Public Libraries' Use of Internet Filtering Software." Federal Communications Law Journal 53.2 (2001): 191-238.
Standards and Protocols
hat are standards/protocols?
The evolution and proliferation of web usage has prompted the need for a wide variance of governing rules, regulations and conventions. The purposes of these standards and protocols is to promote consistency, control and oversight even as new communication and data exchange technologies emerge. Thus, simply stated, a web or network protocol is a system regulating the format of messages being exchanged across said network. The wide host of telecommunications, media and computing devices in circulation invoke the use of an equally wide host of protocols.
hy are standards/protocols needed within the networking industry?
Networking provides for the exchange of information between different systems or between different units within a system. However, as the text by Javvin Company (2009) clarifies, the network does not itself enable communication. The text indicates that the network is merely a conduit for communication. Instead, communication is…
Block, P. (2011). Network Standards and Protocols. Philblock.info.
Cahill, S. (2010). Networking Standards and Protocols. SlideShare.net.
Javvin Company (JC). (2009). Network Protocols: Definition and Overview. Javvin.com.
Webopedia. (2011). Wireless Networking Standards Webopedia.com.
Wireless and Wi-Fi
The dominant approach used today for connecting to network, wireless technologies including W-Fi is dominating the entire area of networking, from 3G and 4G on smartphones and tablet PCs to the development of hotspot technology on the attest iPad. This is the future of networking for many consumers. The reliance on Wi-Fi as a means to stay connected to business and friends has exponentially increased and will continue to for the long-term (Gilmer, 2010). The fundamentals of Wi-Fi are easily taught as they are based on IEEE standards that create a framework for teaching these technologies with clarity and insight (Greiner, 2001). Wi-Fi continues to increase in terms of speed as well, with 3G and 4G now commonplace. Consumers need to know about this technology and how it works to troubleshoot problems on their smartphones, tablet PCs and laptops. The best approach to managing the teaching process…
Gilmer, B. (2010). Networking software. Broadcast Engineering, 52(3), 24-27.
Greiner, L. (2001, Nov 16). Wireless networking wave. Computing Canada, 27(24), 16-17.
Mingail, H. (1995, Feb 15). Neural networks vs. knowledge systems. Computing Canada, 21(4), 30-30.
Solomon, H. (2003, May 02). Storage networking vendor warns of security pitfalls. Computer Dealer News, 19(7), 8-8
Columbus (3) found that within the customer service arena, one CRM capability in particular demonstrated the greatest impact on profit improvement -- customer service execution.
Integration into Overall Marketing Strategy
SAP seeks to improve global campaigns' effectiveness at generating qualified sales leads, and to do so at lower cost per lead and greater speed over the Internet. To accomplish this SAP conducts an internal evaluation of its Marketing practices and uncovers the following problems during one of its marketing audits:
Regions often choose irrelevant communication tactics for the campaign goal or target customer and these tactics often end up on specific countries' websites.
Regions may sequence communications and target interactions ineffectively.
Regions often fail to share best practices across borders, leading to repetition of common mistakes.
Regions may experience difficulty translating campaign themes into local marketing messages, leading to globally inconsistent messages.
Moreover, Central Internet Marketing finds that regional groups…
Columbus - the Sell-Side E-Commerce Market: It's All About Integration. AMR Research Report. Monday April 1, 2002. Retrieved from the Internet on May 9, 2007:
Friedman, Billings, Ramsey - Technology, Media and Telecom: Enterprise Software. SAP Overview Initiating Coverage. Arlington, VA. November 8, 2006.
Murphy, Jim. Introducing the Active Knowledge Framework: Putting Knowledge Management to Work. AMR Research Report
The same survey quoted by Ries noted that 92% of respondents do not trust online companies to keep personal information confidential and 82% believe that the government should regulate use of personal information by online companies. (FTC Study, 2-3)
If companies do not respond, not only will business stand in danger of being over-regulated by the government, but also consumers may not trust sites and withdraw their business. This was recognized, not by a liberal publication, but the stalwart defender of capitalism known as Business eek. To stem consumer privacy fears, the publication proposed a four-point plan to protect online consumer privacy through relatively non-invasive federal legislation. The plan has the added advantage of being similar to the data privacy requirements adopted by the European Union, another concern, given the increasingly international nature of internet commerce -- and it might be added the United States cannot afford to lag behind…
Business Week. (29 Mar 2000) "Online Privacy it's time for rules in Wonderland." Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 from www.businessweek.com.Online version, www.businessweek.com/2000/00_12/b3673001.htm
FTC. (2000) "Privacy Online." A Report to Congress. Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 from www.ftc.gov/privacy/index.html
Ries, David. (2001) "Protecting online consumer privacy: an overview." Pbi.org. Retrieved 5 Mar 2005 at http://www.pbi.org/Goodies/privacy/privacy_ries.htm
INTENET-BASED MANUFACTUING SYSTEM.
Design internet-based manufacturing system for the oversea small manufacturing companies
Global competitions and rapid changes in the customers' requirements are forcing the manufacturing companies to adopt the Information Technology (IT) for the production and the configuration of manufacturing process. With the increase in demand for more specialized products, the traditional mode of production is no more capable to meet the customers' requirements. In the present competitive market environment, more customers are increasingly demanding for custom designed products within the short time. ecently, there have been rapid changes in the manufacturing paradigms where many manufacturing companies have started to adopt new enterprises strategy to remain competitive in the present international volatile markets. To be competitive in the present volatile markets, some organizations have started to adopt the concepts such as virtual enterprises, agile manufacturing etc. (Tian, Yin, & Taylor 2001). Virtual enterprises have become the most advanced and…
Dai, W. (2009). The Impact of Emerging Technologies on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. Journal of Business Systems, Governance and Ethics. 4(5): 53-61.
Hamill, J. (1997). The Internet and international marketing. International Marketing Review. 14(5): 300-323.
Kushwah, G.S. (2011). Competitive Advantages through Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Enabled Supply Chain Management Practices. International Journal of Enterprise Computing and Business Systems. 1( 2).
Moen, Q. (2004). Internationalization of the small and computer software ?rms for the Entry forms and market selection. European Journal of Marketing. 38(9/10): 1236-1251.
complexities of doing business in our virtual age, looking in particular at e-commerce but also asking how the presence of e-commerce on the market has affected traditional businesses as well. Once upon a time - that golden age - things were simple. You decided you wanted to grow up to be a bookstore owner. Or a hardware store manager. Or a florist. So you leased a store, bought some books, and lovingly hand-sold them to each customer who flocked to your door and then went home at night to count your money.
Of course, owning a bookstore or a hardware store or a flower shop was actually never that simple. But the picture now is even more complicated as virtual stores have entered the picture. Part of what makes engaging in e-commerce so difficult is that there are no paths that others have trod before one. And the costs of…
VI.Appendix (ces)(please write around 2-3 pages)
MY ROUGH IDEA:
1.To successful launch an e-commerce Web site, the question is not just about if we build it, will they come?" But also if we build it, will they come to purchase and repeat purchase?" A scenario closer to the truth is that many online companies experience disappointment in converting consumers' clicks into purchases. It means attracting a large number of shoppers to the site is not the only ultimate measure of success. The true measure of success should be included retaining customers and converting them into repeat buyers. Positive shopping experiences on the site can help online buyers make an effective decision. It means positive feeling is the optimal experience that consumers will desire to repeat buying online. Therefore, marketers need to create effective Web sites for winning consumer satisfaction. Since Web sites are often the main contact with consumer in the Internet market, a company's Web site elements may include some persuasive components that has imp!
particularly topical instance, lets say the internet or the SMS service that everybody is abundantly using these days. There are different shades of technology that color this kind of communication between two communicating devices like the cell phones. Following are the three main types of platforms for this technology and their suitability with the consumers: Wireless Access Protocol, General Packet Radio Service, and the third generation Universal Mobile Telecommunication System.
The acronym WAP stands for Wireless Access Protocol. This simply means that it is through WAP the wireless devices communicate. A lot of different types of data can be sent via a WAP. One of the main uses of WAP is in cellular phones and the exchange of data being voice or short messages. WAP is technically compatible with most of the GSM services and clients. There can be either a dedicated WAP server or a traditional web server to…
Ericsson Website: http://www.ericsson.com/technology/GPRS.shtml , http://www.ericsson.com/technology/WAP.shtml (Accessed April 15, 2002)
DSC Website: http://www.dsc.net/whitepapers/wap.html (Accessed April 15, 2002)
Appoximately one in six students enolled in a college o univesity, o ove 3 million individuals, paticipated in one o moe online couse in 2004. This was despite the fact that a leveling off was expected.
Anothe epot fo 2005 by Sloan showed that 850,000 moe students took distance couses in the fall this yea than 2004, an incease of nealy 40%. Once again the slowing o leveling did not come. Many seconday schools ae putting consideable esouces towad online leaning, in expectation that this appoach will be moe economical than taditional classes and also expanding thei each.
In addition, a suvey by the consulting and eseach fim Eduventues found 50% of the consumes who planned to enoll in a highe education pogam stated they would instead like to take some of thei couses online. About 80% of online students ae undegaduates, but ae nomally olde and moe apt to…
references when there is a contingency change. The relative response strength is changed by differential reinforcement of alternative courses of action. It is then that behaviors change. It is possible to conclude that adult students' observations about educational technology will change when the contingencies toward participation are strengthened. The clientele of higher education, its students, now enroll in college with expectations of learning about and to learn with technology (Green 1999).
How students deal with change and their ability to accept it has much to do with their observed satisfaction of the course that implements the most up-to-date technologies.
Merriam and Caffarella (1991) say that the more that is known about adult learners and the changes they go through and how these changes motivate and interact with learning, the better educators will be able to develop learning experiences that respond and stimulate development. This is an essential factor in adult learning and requires additional research regarding the implications for quality educational programs. This present research acknowledges the influence of the adult learners' attitudes and observations toward change. However, so that the emphasis remains on learning styles, no data will be collected to measure change in attitudes and perspectives.
Tools for Measuring Distance Education Courses
It is essential that there is an evaluation of educational curricula to determine what is and is not efficient in relationship to learning style. Technological courses have altered the evaluation process due to the additional factors of equipment, cost and knowledge of using technology. It is critical to keep in mind, however, that educators control technology, since technology is only one of many different tools. Technology is easy to assess; one knows immediately if an software does not work. It is necessary for instructors to spend more time considering the educational experience that they want to create and what is not working properly in terms of education results. Are students interested and engaged? Are they communicating with one another? Do they find the information challenging and productive? Are they receiving enough feedback from the instructor? Ultimately, an effective evaluation tool will help the teacher recognize if the conditions for quality learning are present or need improving and that the instructors and students feel their use of technology was considerably helpful.
Students are encouraged by the staff to find their own goals for leaning, and this keeps them intensely motivated until the time when they complete the courses that they have undertaken to study. (Stephanie De Pinto, Axia Instructor)
Axia College, about us" etrieved at http://www.careerbuilder.com/JobSeeker/Companies/CompanyDetails.aspx?Comp_DID=C8D87Q73JJ8X88G6SDJ&cbecursionCnt=1&cbsid=b1be63891fa4449fa6edef78767a2eeb-206412479-XH-2Accessed 17 July, 2006
Axia College benefits" etrieved at http://www.careerbuilder.com/JobSeeker/Companies/CompanyDetails.aspx?Comp_DID=C8D87Q73JJ8X88G6SDJAccessed 17 July, 2006
Career Planning, goal setting" etrieved at http://workinfonet.bc.ca/youth/mycareerviews.cfm?id=137Accessed 17 July, 2006
Conducting esearch on the Internet" etrieved at http://library.albany.edu/internet/research.html. Accessed 17 July, 2006
Gorski, Paul. (December, 1999) "Towards a Multi-cultural approach for evaluating websites"
Multicultural Perspectives. Vol. 2, No. 3. pp: 28-33.
Managing Test Anxiety, ideas for Students" etrieved at http://www.interventioncentral.org/htmdocs/interventions/study/testtips.shtml. Accessed 17 July, 2006
McDonnell, Sharon. (1999) "You're Hired, Secrets to a successful job search"
Montgomery, Kristen S; Fitzpatrick, Joyce J. (2002) "Essentials of Internet use in Nursing"
Peterson's Guides. (2003) "Guide to Distance Learning Programs"
Axia College, about us" Retrieved at http://www.careerbuilder.com/JobSeeker/Companies/CompanyDetails.aspx?Comp_DID=C8D87Q73JJ8X88G6SDJ&cbRecursionCnt=1&cbsid=b1be63891fa4449fa6edef78767a2eeb-206412479-XH-2Accessed 17 July, 2006
Axia College benefits" Retrieved at http://www.careerbuilder.com/JobSeeker/Companies/CompanyDetails.aspx?Comp_DID=C8D87Q73JJ8X88G6SDJAccessed 17 July, 2006
Career Planning, goal setting" Retrieved at http://workinfonet.bc.ca/youth/mycareerviews.cfm?id=137Accessed 17 July, 2006
Conducting Research on the Internet" Retrieved at http://library.albany.edu/internet/research.html . Accessed 17 July, 2006
This software is used to perform common tasks like storage, data back up and data transfers.
Small and medium businesses have embraced this technology because it involves no start up costs (like servers, hard disks, technicians etc.) therefore making it cost effective. Basically payment is based on the storage space taken by the user, again, this makes it user friendly. It may also be referred to as hosted storage.
The flying Organizations
Smart companies are looking at the various aspects of the cloud and pushing some application into the cloud and some into the traditional data center environment. The most significant value of cloud computing is not just the cost benefit but agility for the whole business. This is done by creating an opportunity for firms to upload anything concerning their IT infrastructure to an outside provider. With cloud you only contract for the services you need and at the…
Allen, B (2009).Cloud Computing Will Reshape IT Forever
Beaman, K. (2010). "Continued Growth of SaaS for HCM."
eal World company (Experian) on the Internet. It has 4 (APA) sources.
Experian is a global organization that provides financial reporting services to its subscribers. The organization helps its users in making informed decisions in the field of marketing, advertising, decision-making and consumer related services (such as CM). Further, Experian also provides outsourcing services to businesses. (Experian Web Site, 2003)
Experian is the biggest consumer and business information provider in the world. The wide network of consumers and businesses subscribed with the organization compliments the status of the company within the industry. The company has maintained a consistent focus on integration with its consumers/businesses. This is significant reason for the magnitude of operations of the organization. (Experian Web Site, 2003)
Experian and the Internet
One of the plots of the high-scale integration of the company includes provision of online services to the consumers/businesses subscribed to the organization. The…
Experian Web Site. (2003) "About Experian: Corporate information." Accessed December 3, 2003. http://www.experian.com/corporate/index.html
Lash, A. (1997). "Credit Reports Taken off Net." August 15, 1997. http://www.pacificnet.net/jue/humor/docs/970815d.html
O'Harrow, R. Jr., Chandrasekaran, R. (1997) "Credit Reports Made Available Online Experian's Move Draws Criticism From Privacy Advocates" The Washington Post, August 15, 1997; Page D01. http://www.pacificnet.net/jue/humor/docs/970815c.html
Saunders, C. (2002). "Experian Offers Credit Card E-mail Service." August 23, 2002. http://www.internetnews.com/IAR/article.php/1451591
Brix can use NTP, but in our testing its active Verifiers employed small Code Division Multiple Access receivers, which receive timing signals similar to what is used for cellular telephony. Most vendors also support an option for satellite-based global positioning system (GPS) receivers" (22).
The research showed that Network Time Protocol is a longstanding Internet protocol that is used to ensure the accurate synchronization to the millisecond of computer clock times in a network of computers. The research also showed that in spite of its workhouse history, earlier versions of NTP are no longer adequate and improvements are in the works. hile NTP is widely used, some vendors have elected for alternative approaches that accomplish the same thing in a different manner, but even here, NTP was shown to be on the cutting edge by recognizing these constraints and taking steps to address them. In the final analysis, NTP…
Battistelli, Vincent J., Edwin E. Mier and Alan R. Miner. (2003, March). "Monitoring the QOS Monitors: Vendors of QOS Measuring/monitoring Products View Network Performance from Very Different Perspectives. Their Goals Are the Same, but Are Their Results?" Business Communications Review 33(3):22.
Hommer, Michael B., Edwin E. Mier and Cheryl a. Molle. (2002, June). "WAN Watchers: Testing the Testers; More IP Traffic Is 'Disappearing' into the Carriers' Network Cloud. How Can You Tell What's Really Happening in the WAN?" Business Communications Review 32(6):40.
Mier, Edwin E. And Kenneth M. Percy. (2001, May). "Measuring SLA Compliance." Business Communications Review 31(5):34.
Mills, David L. (2007, January 20). "Network Time Protocol (NTP) -- General Overview." Network Time Protocol Project. [Online]. Available: http://www.eecis.udel.edu/~mills/database/brief/overview/overview.ppt .
Synchronous data communication between sender and receiver occurs at regular or predetermined intervals, the timing of which is usually governed by a microprocessor clock. Asynchronous communication occurs intermittently at irregular intervals rather than in a steady stream. In the absence of clocking, a start and stop bit may be employed at the beginning and end of each piece of data (ebopedia, 2011).
Analog describes a device or system that represents changing values as continuously variable physical quantities. hen used to describe data storage and transmission, analog format allows information to be transmitted by modulating a continuous transmission signal, such as amplifying a signal's strength or varying its frequency to add or take away data. In general, humans experience the world analogically. Digital describes any system based on discontinuous data or events. Computers are digital machines because at their most basic level, they can distinguish between just two values, 0…
Ahsan, M. (2000). What's baseband & broadband? Retrieved November 13, 2011 from: http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/laning_retired/44742
Amitash. (2011). Difference between TCP and IP. Retrieved November 13, 2011 from: http://www.differencebetween.net/technology/internet/difference-between-tcp-and-ip/
Bookrags. (2011). SLIP/PPP (Serial line internet protocol / Point-to-point protocol). Retrieved November 13, 2011 from: http://www.bookrags.com/research/slipppp-serial-line-internet-protoc-wcs/
Computer Hope. (2011). XON/XOFF. Retrieved November 13, 2011 from: http://www.computerhope.com/jargon/x/xonxoff.htm
Transitioning From IPv4 to IPv6
The proposed migration from IPv4 to IPv6 is on in some organizations though some organizations have not put in place measures to ensure the transition. The transition has been initiated since IPv6 offers increased addressing capacity, quality of service provisioning as well as improved routing efficiency. However, shifting from the current platform, IPv4 is not easy given the incompatibility of these two internet protocols. In addition, network specialists have created several technologies and address types to help in the proposed migration. Therefore, this paper describes the IPv6 transition technologies and constraints likely to impede the migration from IPv4 to IPv6 platforms.
The proposed protocol transition from IPv4 to IPv6 is quite challenging just like other former transitions in the Internet domain. Protocol transitions involve the installation and configuration of new protocols on all existing nodes within the network and ascertaining that all the nodes…
Amoss, J.J. & Minoli, D., 2007. Handbook of IPv4 to IPv6 Transition: Methodologies for Institutional and Corporate Networks. Auerbach Publications.
Bin, D., De-pei, Q., Yi, L. & Peng, Z., 2004. Experimental Research on IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechanism. Microelectronics & Computer.
Bi, J., Wu, J. & Leng, X., 2007. IPv4/IPv6 Transition Technologies and Univer6 Architecture. International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 7(1), pp.232-43.
Chen, J.-L., Chang, Y.-C. & Lin, C.-H., 2004. Performance Investigation of IPv4/IPv6 Transition Mechanisms. In The 6th International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology., 2004.
" The problem with these primitive models is that they are still mainly oriented on data retrieval rather than optimal voice transmission.
However, research is well on the way and it seems that it will be less than a year before we can talk about Voice over WiFi or VoWiFi. On the other hand, it is obvious that there are several problems that the VoWiFi providers will have to deal with before the models are commercialized on the market.
First of all, there is the issue of security, something I have also referred to when discussing Voice over IP. The problem does not actually refer to security itself, but to the fact that voice transmission may be affected by the security protocols installed to protect the data exchange. In many ways, this is similar to what we are experiencing nowadays when we have a firewall installed. The problem with voice…
1. Brown, Eric. Voice Over WiFi: the Great Disrupter. August 2004. On the Internet at http://www.technologyreview.com/articles/04/08/wo_brown081104.asp
2. VoIP: It's not just saving money. On the Internet at http://www.worldonip.com/voip.htm
3. Voice over Internet Protocol. White Paper, on the Internet at http://searchnetworking.techtarget.com/searchNetworking/downloads/VoIP_Dvorak.pdf
VoIP: It's not just saving money. On the Internet at
This makes it easier for investigators to identify connections by clicking on a particular item in the three-dimensional link.
The difficulties of this process of proving such a chain indicates the importance of creating steps that can help companies simplify the task of conducting a computer forensic investigation, should one ever be required. The article stresses that the most important step is to ensure that network logging devices are turned on, even though these devices use disk space and processor time. If they are turned off, investigations can become impossible. Closing any unneeded ports on the company firewall and patching systems regularly, are also helpful.
This article paints an overall benign portrait of law enforcement, zealously protecting user privacy and safety. It demonstrates how an apparently invisible crime can be rendered visible through the use of technology, and both the law and law enforcement's attempts to stay one step ahead…
Burke, Dan. "Transborder Intellectual Property Issues on the Electronic Frontier." Volume 5. Stanford Law & Policy Review
Lang, David. "A Graphic Picture of Crime." ASIS. Sept 2002.
Domain Name System
DNS (Domain Name System)
The internet has rapidly grown and expanded. Its expansion and progress is unstoppable as the rate of growth recently has been increasing tremendously. With a few keystrokes one is able to visit an online library, bookstore, newsstands, and connect with family and friends. Nowadays searching for a website or email is like visiting a library. As is the case with physical addresses, the internet to uses addresses to locate specific devices found online. "The addresses can either be 32 or 128 bit number, which is referred to as Internet Protocol (IP) addresses" Graham, 2001, p. 35.
The virtual world too uses names referred to as domains, just as in the physical world. Domain names are easily remembered and more informative than the IP addresses. To ensure that domain names are properly associated with their respective IP addresses, the internet uses Name servers. These…
Ballard, J. (2005). Dynamic DNS Keeps Names Up to Date. [Article]. Network Computing, 16(19), 63-68.
Bixler, D., Chambers, L., & Phillips, J. (2002). McSe Windows 2000 Network Infrastructure: Exam 70-216 Training Guide. Indianapolis, Indiana: Que.
Graham, B. (2001). TCP/IP Addressing: Designing and Optimizing Your Ip Addressing Scheme. San Francisco, California: Morgan Kaufmann.
Implications, C.I.N.D.N.S.T.A.P., & Council, N.R. (2005). Signposts in Cyberspace: The Domain Name System and Internet Navigation. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press.
With the advent of information technology, the ways different aspects of life work and operate have changed a great deal. The advancement in telecommunication sector have revolutionized and redefined the communication systems at all aspects around the world. The process of bringing the world closer that started with the invention of Morse codes has now entered an era of its own where distances of miles are bridged to a few seconds. This is the world of internet protocol. The invention of the internet and then its integration with the telecommunication system has redefined the meaning of communication and revolutionized the way it is done all together.
Blue Wire Communication Solutions Inc. is a company that deals in providing to comprehensive communication solutions, products and services to its customers. The customer base of the company includes both B2B and B2C customers. The company will be providing a diverse range of…
Bielski, L. (2005). IP Call Centers: Coming Online Slowly but Surely Especially for Small to Midsize Firms, Options Begin to Emerge for Banks. ABA Banking Journal, 97(2), 70+. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com /PM.qst?a=o&d=5008964700
Godwin-Jones, R. (2005). Skype and Podcasting: Disruptive Technologies for Language Learning. Language, Learning & Technology, 9(3), 9+. Retrieved March 4, 2012, from Questia database:
Web conferencing systems have been faced with resistance to change by those responsible for knowledge transfer and knowledge management, as these systems are seen as a threat to the more costly and time-consuming approaches to sharing knowledge. It has been seen that employees will resist using Web Ex-systems as they are afraid it makes the transfer of their knowledge too easy, and therefore is a risk to their status in the organization (Hu, Hafsi, 2010). Studies of change management indicate that when the Chief Executive Officer (CEO) or comparable leader within a business supports and provides pragmatic, honest feedback about how the Web conferencing system will be used, resistance is minimized and broader adoption occurs.
The rapid growth of Web conferencing systems has been accelerated by the growing reliance on more advanced security technologies and features in these platforms (Pearce, 2009). In conjunction with this development has been the…
Bayer, N., Xu, B., Rakocevic, V., & Habermann, J.. (2010). Application-aware scheduling for VoIP in Wireless Mesh Networks. Computer Networks, 54(2), 257.
Burrows, P.. (2010, November). Cisco Scales Back Forecasts. Business Week,1.
Hu, H., & Hafsi, T.. (2010). Strategic Change in a Shifting Institutional Context. Journal of Change Management, 10(3), 293.
John Lund. (2006). Web Conferences and Labor Education: An After-Action Report. Labor Studies Journal, 31(2), 93-100.
AOL, for example, drew users away from DSL with its broadband services, simply because it was easier to add broadband to one's existing AOL account than to go through a new service. Thus, through using Shaw rather than Skype, a user could consolidate his or her computer services. So, Shaw could thus make use of its current marketing position as a more tried and true organization in contrast to the upstart Skype.
Shaw could thus create a new, combined product service of VOIP and other Internet services to compete with Skype, although it might have to consider offering this service free for a time to lure customers in, as a promotional device. Shaw could even make more efficient use of placing than Skype by specifically emphasizing its Canadian/North America location, to corner that area of the VOIP market, stressing the greater and more personalized services it could offer North American…
Shaw Communications. (2005) Official website. Retrieved 31 Jan 2005 at www.shaw.ca
Skype. (2005) Official website. Retrieved 31 Jan 2005 at www.skype.com