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Dear John and Marry
I want to congratulate you on your wedding. I hope that both of you will have a happy life and you can understand each other well. In this letter, I want to give you some guidelines regarding the basic principles of interpersonal communication.
Some of the principles and misconceptions in interpersonal communication
The sharing of thoughts, feelings and ideas with the other person is referred as interpersonal communication. These skills of sharing our feelings are developed through learned behaviors and they can be further improved with practice, reflection, knowledge and feedback. People deal with interpersonal communication on routine basis and it is imperative to understand some of the basic principles of interpersonal communication. These basic principles are described below:
Interpersonal communication is not reversible:
This means that interpersonal communication cannot be reversed back. When a person says something, he cannot take his words back…
DeVito, J.A. (2012). The Interpersonal Communication. Boston: Pearson.
Floyd, K. (2011). Interpersonal Communication. New York: McGraw-Hill.
West, R., & Turner, L.H. (2011). Understanding Interpersonal Communication. Boston: Wadsworth.
Interpersonal communication is a form of communication that takes place between two or more people who are close to one another unlike other forms of communication it does not involve a lot of people. There are various aspects of interpersonal communication that can be discussed but for purposes of this paper it has been narrowed to look at the principles and misconceptions in effective interpersonal communications, the barriers to effective interpersonal interactions, how perceptions, emotions, and nonverbal expression affect interpersonal relationships, the impact of gender and culture on interpersonal communications and the strategies for managing interpersonal conflicts.
The first principle states that interpersonal communication is irreversible, it indicates that once a communication has occurred between two or more people, it can never be taken back, the effects are felt by the receiver based on the interpretation, it can either be verbal or non-verbal, whether intentional or unintentional provided there is…
Laurel J. Dunn, (2009). Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through the Use of Body Language. Retrieved May 5, 2012 from http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/70.php
Thomson learning, (2007). The principles and Misconceptions in Effective Interpersonal
Communication. Retrieved May 5, 2012 from http://books.google.co.ke/books-id
William A. Donohue, & Robert Kolt, (1992). Managing Interpersonal Conflicts. Newbury Park,
Communication skills are a bulwark to effective relationships and successful living. Effective communications are not innate attributes; they are acquired skills that can be honed to achieve not only successful dialogues, but meaningful connections between people. For the purposes of this paper, I have chosen to focus on the topic of communication in interpersonal relationships. I will then explain the principles and misconceptions in effective interpersonal communications, discuss the impact of gender and culture on interpersonal communications, and describe the process by which self-concept is developed and maintained.
"Communication" may be defined as "any process in which people share information, ideas, and feelings" that incorporates both the written and spoken word as well as "body language, personal mannerisms, and style" (Hybels & Weaver, 2007, pg. 8). While the communication process is made up of various elements (i.e. sender-receivers, messages, channels, noise, feedback, and setting) it is important to…
Barnes, S.B. (2003). Computer-mediated communication: Human-to-human communication across the Internet. Boston: Pearson Education.
Campbell, a.; Converse, P.; and Rodgers, W. (1976). The Quality of American Life: Perceptions, Evaluations, and Satisfactions. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Forney, W.S., Forney, J.C., Crutsinger, C. (2005). Gender, Delinquent Status, and Social Acceptance as Predictors of the Global Self-Esteem of Teens. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 33, 3, 208-219.
Hook, M.K., Gerstein, L.H., Detterich, L., & Gridley, B. (2003). How close are we? Measuring intimacy and examining gender differences. Journal of Counseling and Development, 81, 462-472.
As English is my second language, I tend to be more shy with those whom I am in charge of. and, at the same time, they may have low self-esteem too, which makes a hazard for ineffective communication (Lemay, E., & O'Leary, K 2012).
When this occurs, people only hear the negative, therefore the sender has take that into consideration when talking to someone who has low self-esteem (ower,2010).
From research, it was discovered that human beings identify with the fact that the physical body is not the core or "eternal dimension" of human nature but rather the "vehicle" of the eternal spirit as it presents itself in the world. This eternal spirit lives in every body by spiritually connecting everyone through the ultimate source of life. In addition to this spiritual connection, there are important social and ecological connections between and among the living especially between nurse and patient.…
a, D. j. (2005). Messages: Building Interpersonal Communication Skills. Pearson Education, 220-232.
DeVito, J. (2005). Messages: Building Interpersonal Communication Skills. Pearson Education, 258-273.
Irwin, H.G. (2012). Interpersonal Communication. Southern Cross Universit .
Akomolafe, M., & Adebayo, M.. (2012). ASSESSMENT of EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE AMONG SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS in IBADAN METROPOLIS, OYO STATE, NIGERIA. Ife Psychologia, 20(1), 214-228. Retrieved May 17, 2012, from ProQuest Social Science Journals. (Document ID: 2613272711).
The art of communication is the certainly that- an art. One must be educated in the art in order to learn the beauty, the essence and the wisdom of what it is trying to portray. Art contributes to one's life in a dynamic and multi-faceted way. The art of interpersonal communication is certainly one that has contributed to my life in a multi-faceted way and there a myriad of different topics that I have encountered that have helped me grow as a person. Interpersonal communication "can be defined as: communication that occurs between two or more people in an organization" (Trauernicht). Using this definition as a foundation and further reflecting upon where I started before taking the class and where I am now, it does seem that I have experienced some personal growth over the course of the interpersonal communication class. It seems that I have learned that…
Trauernicht, Nathan. "The Importance of Interpersonal Communication." Firehouse.com, 14 Jun 2007. Web. 11 Aug 2011. .
Such situations may occur in negotiations among business partners, marriage partners, families, political parties, and so on. Negotiation is a process that occurs for the purpose of consensus.
When a process approach is taken to interpersonal communication, both or all parties enter the conversation with the purpose of influence or being influenced. It is also accepted that all parties have specific goals, aspirations, fears, expectations and so on, which are either related or unrelated to the negotiation at hand. The process approach is then useful in working towards a common goal for the benefit of both the group and the wider sphere of influence, where decisions or consensus reached has wider effects. Examples of this can be political, educational, or family settings.
Each persons participating in interpersonal communication brings a variety of communicative skills to the conversation. These skills are enhanced while participating in the conversation. In this way, the…
Although I have been through many of these encounters in my career, this one was going to be different because I knew that she was going to ask my opinion on how our hurricane evacuation and subsequent command relocation went. Although I prepared myself and practiced my answer, I let my nerves get the best of me and did not even come close to communicating the message that I intended. I think this happened because I was going to tell her that I didn't feel the command did enough in supporting their people during the recovery effort and that the people that were still in need are being ignored. Instead, I painted a rosy picture and basically told her that everything was moving along smoothly. By not communicating my message properly, I'm sure she now incorrectly perceives that everything is good and that her people are being taken care of…
Argyle, M., Alkema, F., Gilmour, R., (1971): The communication of friendly and hostile attitudes by verbal and nonverbal signals. European Journal of Social Psychology. Vol. 1, pp. 385-402.
Cozby, P.C. "Self-disclosure: A literature review." Psychological Bulletin. 79.2 (1973).
DeVito, Joseph A, The Interpersonal Communication Book, 11th ed
Hall, Edward T., The Silent Language, 1973.
Instead I interpreted from her seemed lack of concern, and ease at which she consented to help me as affirmation that she had the task under control. Had I simply asked her if she had any immediate conflicts, such as other work, I might have known that she did not have time to complete the task in time for the deadline or that I would be better served in asking someone else or doing the task myself, possibly with her guidance.
When I spoke with Nancy I should have said "Nancy, are you really bogged down, this week? Or would you have time to make this reservation for me? In that communication there is a clear idea of timeline and Nancy could have said, "I have time, this week what do you need?" Or "No, I am really busy this week working on other projects. Can I give you the…
Anon. Communication. etrieved from http://www.communication-type.com/
Barker, L. & Edwards, . (1980). Intrapersonal Communication. Dubuque, IA: Gorsuch Scarisbrick.
Blanford, oxanne. Paul Watzlawick's First Axiom of Communication: One Cannot Not Communicate. etrieved from http://self-awareness.suite101.com/article.cfm/paul_watzlawicks_first_axiom_of_communication.
Greene, G. (1996). Communication Theory and Social Work Treatment. In Turner, F.J. (Ed.), Social Work Treatment: Interlocking Theoretical Approaches (pp. 116-145). New York: Simon and Shuster. 1996.
Hargie, O. & Dickson, D. (2004). Skilled Interpersonal Communication: esearch, Theory, and Practice. New York: outledge.
Hartley, P. (1999). Interpersonal Communication. New York: outledge.
Honeycutt, J.M & Mapp, C., Knasser, K. & Banner, J. (2008). Intrapersonal communication and imagined interactions. In Stacks, D.W. (Ed.), an Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and esearch (pp. 323-336). New York: outledge.
Littlejohn, S.W.(2002). Theories of Human Communication. United States: Wadsworth Group.
Myers, S.A. & Anderson, C. (2008). The Fundamentals of Small Group Communication. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Nohria N. & Eccles, . Face-to-face:…
Anon. Communication. Retrieved from http://www.communication-type.com/
Barker, L. & Edwards, R. (1980). Intrapersonal Communication. Dubuque, IA: Gorsuch Scarisbrick.
Blanford, Roxanne. Paul Watzlawick's First Axiom of Communication: One Cannot Not Communicate. Retrieved from http://self-awareness.suite101.com/article.cfm/paul_watzlawicks_first_axiom_of_communication.
Greene, G. (1996). Communication Theory and Social Work Treatment. In Turner, F.J. (Ed.), Social Work Treatment: Interlocking Theoretical Approaches (pp. 116-145). New York: Simon and Shuster. 1996.
Interpersonal Communication in Boyz in the Hood
Boyz in the Hood (1991), directed by John Singleton, examines the obstacles that individuals in 1980s Crenshaw, California are forced to face and the struggles endured to overcome them. The film focuses on Tre Styles and icky Baker, two friends from different backgrounds who attempt to overcome their struggles together. These obstacles include, but are not limited to, Tre and icky's individual and shared socio-economic status, the stigma associated with youths from Crenshaw, and personal life goals and ambitions.
In the film, language helps the viewer understand how the characters view themselves and how they view each other. One term that is used frequently and in a derogatory manner is n-. The term appears to be used as an attempt to subjugate individuals. For instance, when Furious Styles, Tre's father, calls the police after shooting at an intruder, one of the police officers…
Boyz in the Hood. (1991). Directed by John Singleton. United States: Columbia Pictures.
Accessed 23 February 2013, from Netflix Instant Streaming.
Changing the Distance Between You. (2010). Retrieved 23 February 2013, from http://wps.ablongman.com/ab_devito_intrprsnl_11/43/11049/2828785.cw/content/index.html
McLeod, S. (2008). Self-concept. SimplyPsychology. Retrieved 23 February 2013, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/self-concept.html
In western culture, the touching of cheeks generally mean a greeting more personal than a hand shake but less intimate than an actual kiss. Most of the non-verbals they displayed, like the smiles and the touches (which stood out the most among all non-verbals displayed), seem to be intentional but nevertheless unforced due to their apparent fondness of each other.
The third is between two teenagers playing in a basketball in a backyard court. As they were playing, both of them were not taking their eyes off the ball. Once, one of them stole the ball from the other and took a shot which went in. As the ball dropped to the ground, the stealer grinned broadly and raised both his arms while the other one shook his head while looking at the ground. In this situation, both of them exhibited rule-guided non-verbals as in our society, raising your arms…
There is a comfort in us assigning roles to one another, a division of labor that makes our lives easier. We have had to negotiate this relational profile because, when we began dating, he was convinced that intimacy required constant togetherness, while I require a significant amount of alone time. We had to develop rules that made him understand that I need alone time in order to be a better partner.
I would say that our way of knowing one another is both particular and universal. I am very adept at picking up on body language and other forms of nonverbal communication, and, to me, that is a universal way of knowing someone. He is very empathetic, and seems to genuinely feel pain when people he knows are hurting. Because of that, both of us have always related to the world at large in more of a particular/private manner than…
How Can Email Communication Affect Your Business? Ed. Chris McClean: Internet Consultant. Pertinent Information: Interpersonal Communication Articles. March 28, 2004. 28 Mar. 2004 http://www.pertinent.com/articles/communication/chrisCom1.asp.
In his interpersonal communication article "How Can Email Communication Affect Your Business?" Chris McClean attempts to help current and potential business owners, business partners, employees and customers to be careful in how they use or abuse email. McClean shares a personal anecdote about how he once almost made a negative assumption about an entire business entity based solely on a response from that organization to an email he had sent to them. Conveniently, the story in the article has a happy ending because both he and the company rectified the situation by sending apologetic emails to each other. However, McClean does point out that there are those individuals who are out there in cyber land that may not use an apology to 'right' a…
Communication Differences of Men and Women
That women and men communicate very differently is an idea that has attracted the attention of the media since the 1990s. The debate has been so intense and the variations so apparent, that such books as 'Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus', which postulate that the two genders must have originated from different planets, have become some of the century's bestsellers. It is precisely because of these differences that men and women would often interpret the same message differently, and it is for the very same reason that the 'battle of the sexes' would often arise. Women are highly sensitive to the feelings of others, and would often use conversations to build interpersonal relationships and establish lasting rapports. Men, on the other hand, are often less attuned to the feelings of others, and often take conversations as a competitive sport or as…
Beasley, A.L. (2005). The Style Split: Good Communication Has No Gender. Journal of Accountancy, 200(3), 91-92.
Cameron, D. (2008). Language Variation: Gender under the Microscope: Deborah Cameron Puts New Questions to the Way We Interpret Research Findings about Gender Differences in Language Use. The English Review, 18(4), 11.
James, M.L. & Peltier, J. (1998). Bridging the Gender Gap in Business Communication. Journal of Organizational Culture, Communication, and Conflict, 2(1), 1.
Merchant, K. (2012). How Men and Women Differ: Gender Differences in Communication Styles, Influence Tactics, and Leadership Styles. CMC Senior Thesis Paper 513. Retrieved 24 April 2014 from http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1521&context=cmc_theses
Interpersonal Communication: A Plan for Growth
Hello. My name is XYZ, and I am presenting today my interpersonal communication plan, which will demonstrate the course-related knowledge with a commitment to developing and maintaining healthy, healing, and helping relationships. With effective communication, I will express my ability to compose and deliver a message effectually. The main points of my presentation are:
· An overarching life or career goal and the role of interpersonal communication in line.
· Behavioral blend along with my background and identity and challenges/opportunities I have faced as a communicator
· Communication barriers I have faced throughout this course and their effect on my relations
· Strategies that I feel might help remove those barriers
· Action plan for implementation of those strategies
· To become a motivational speaker or teaching.
· Both of these involve speaking in crowds, and this is the…
BrainyQuote. (2020). Perceive Quotes. Retrieved from https://www.brainyquote.com/topics/perceive-quotes
I have chosen interpersonal communication theory as it is really an interactional procedure among two individuals, both in person or via mediated methods. It is, quite simply, a conversation or discussion which is personalized, immediate and private. A great deal depends upon the connection involving the two people, their equality of position, the socio-social atmosphere where the communication happens and so on. Whenever a mechanized equipment mediates within a social communication, it is referred to as "interpersonal mediated communication". Reviews are instant and uncomplicated to calculate. The subsequent essential aspects are emphasized on:
Relational (Qualitative) - Interaction where the functions of sender and recipient are discussed by two individuals at the same time to create meaning.
Situational (Contextual) - Interaction that develops among two individuals inside a particular framework.
Quantitative - Dyadic relationships, such as impersonal interaction
Practical (Tactical) - Interaction with regards to attaining social objectives.
Dermody, Sarah S., Thomas, Katherine M., Hopwood, Christopher J., Durbin, C. Emily, and Wright, Aidan G.C. Modelin3 the complexity of dynamic, momentary interpersonal behaviour: Applying the time-varying effect model to test predictions from interpersonal theory. Journal of Research in Personality. Jun2017, Vol. 68, p54-62. 9p.
Thompson, C. and Kleine, M. Using Literature to Explore Interpersonal Theory: Representation of Rhetorical Objectification and Oppression. Journal of Pedagogy , v7 n2 p97-115 Dec 2016. 19 pp.
Yuqing R., Harper, F. M., Drenner, S., Terveen, L., Kiesler, S., Riedl, J., and Kraut, Robert E. Building member attachment in online communities: applying theories of group identity and interpersonal bonds. MIS Quarterly. Sep2012, Vol. 36 Issue 3, p841-864. 24p.
Interpersonal Communication and Its Decline
Decline of communication due to technology
Communication is a necessity for human survival. In recent decades, there is more advancement in thinking of why and how communication is crucial. This is mainly because people depend on others for providing love, support, and comfort. Other generations have continued growing through the development of communication skills with individuals by way of talking with each of them in person and through the phone. Modern generation exhibits poor communication skills due to overemphasis on communication mainly based on texting (DeVito, 2012). Although the current generation maintains person-to-person levels of communication, it is not the major communication mode among younger generations. The in-person conversation leaves exposure to questioning about what other persons are saying due to the body and facial expressions aiding their words. Further, texting does not allow people to follow through facial expressions (Solomon & Theiss,…
DeVito, J.A. (2012). The Interpersonal Communication Book. New York: Pearson Education.
Monaghan, L., Goodman, J.E., & Robinson, J.M. (2012). A Cultural Approach to Interpersonal Communication: Essential Readings. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Solomon, D., Theiss, J., (2013). Interpersonal Communication: Putting Theory into Practice. New York: Routledge.
West, R., & Turner, L., (2010). Understanding Interpersonal Communication: Making Choices in Changing Times, Enhanced Edition. New York: Cengage Learning.
Managing an Interpersonal Communication Environment
Identify a communication environment encountered managed strategies found textbook, Adler & odman, Understanding human communication (11th edition). Using topics intrapersonal, interpersonal, small group, public communication.
The interpersonal communication environment has been described greatly by various scholars. The basic premise is that it involves sending and receiving of messages between two or more people. It includes all other aspects of communication such as persuading, nonverbal communication, asserting, and listening. One important concept of interpersonal communication is that it is learned through knowledge, feedback, practice and reflection. These are the same concepts by which interpersonal communication is improved. Another important concept of interpersonal communication is that it looks at the communicative acts when there are just a few individuals involved in the conversation rather than in group interaction where there are a large number of individuals involved in the communicative act. Interpersonal communication can be done using…
Adler, R.B., Rodman, G.R., & Sevigny, A. (2011). Understanding Human Communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Floyd, K. (2009). Interpersonal Communication: The Whole Story. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Littlejohn, S. (1996). Theories of human communication (Ed 5). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing.
Management Communication - the ole of Workplace Interpersonal Communication
Communication, in simple terms, refers to "the process of sending and receiving messages" (Bovee & Thill, 2008, p. 2). Baack (2012); Bovee and Thill (2008) agree that there are two major facets of organizational communication -- internal communication (exchange of ideas and information within the boundaries of an organization) and external communication (exchange of information beyond an organization's borders). Internal communication can further be divided into interpersonal communication (between individuals) and communication within the organization; whereas external organization can be subdivided into communication across domestic borders and communication across international borders (Baack, 2012). esearchers and scholars alike contend that achieving success in the marketplace today is dependent upon one's ability to communicate effectively with different audiences.
Effective Communication in Business Settings
Numerous views have been put forth to explain what exactly constitutes effective communication. A widely-accepted view is that communication is…
Baack, D. (2012). Management Communication. San Diego, CA: Bridgepoint Education, Inc.
Bovee, C.L. & Thill, J.V. (2008). Business Communication Essentials (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Bull, P. (2001). State of the Art: Non-Verbal Communication. The Psychologist, 14(12), 644-647.
Goldberg, D.M. (2012). Communication -- the Missing Piece. ISACA Journal, 3(1), 1-4.
Ethical Interpersonal Communication
The case focuses on the disagreement about the Bush Era Tax Cuts between Harry eid, the Senate Majority Leader, and John Boehner, the Speaker of the House. The two leaders take a different stance about the Tax cuts, while Senator eid believes that the tax cuts policy should focus on people earning less than $250,000 yearly, however, Speaker Boehner disagrees with eid by believing that tax cuts should be for everyone including wealthiest people in the United States. However, both Boehner, and eid had problem in arriving at consensus and enhancing effective communication in the past. In essence, both parties are aware that they should not allow the tax cuts policy to expire because allowing the tax cut policy to expire can have a significant detrimental effect on the nation's economic discovery.
Objective of this report is to guide both eid and Boeher to achieve a…
Johnson, C.E. (2012). Organizational Ethics: A Practical Approach. (Second Edition) Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Spaeth, R. (2013).Fiscal-cliff drama: John Boehner reportedly told Harry Reid to go f- himself. The Week. January 2, 2013.
What are the Impacts of Long-Distance Relationships on Interpersonal Communication?
Long-distance relationships can essentially go one of two ways: they can make relationships stronger and fortify the bond between people, or they can reveal that distance is too great an obstacle for the relationship to be sustained. One of the major factors in determining which way the long-distance relationship will go is the factor of interpersonal communication and what the two parties expect, need and can deliver. If the distance cannot meet expectations or needs and support delivery, the interpersonal communication variable is likely to be negatively impacted. This paper will explain how it depends completely upon what type of communication is needed by the individuals in the long-distance relationship and what kind of relationship they have had in the past. Distance is unlikely to be the only issue to impact interpersonal communication; however, it is the one that…
Men-Women Interpersonal Communication
Both men and women want happy relationship. It is one of the most wanted qualities of life that anyone in the world would like to achieve in their life. Expectations and achievements however do not always come in accordance as the cause-and-effect or results of long time efforts. Many men and women work hard to build their relationship and shape it up to meet their quality exactly like they dream of for a long time, just to find that some simple miscommunications would ruin it and end it up in disappointment to their partner. Or, in the not-so-extreme cases, some couples have found the person that they thought would be able to fulfill their dreams and become an ideal soul mate, but after a series of some hard works and nerve-racking conversations to understand what each other's wants.
Experts and psychologists continue to work out on finding…
Louise Allen is a PCO that has just been awarded a large conference project. Her team will consist of six individuals and she will be operating with a tight six-month lead time to achieve many objectives including finding a sponsorship contract. Louise will need to be an effective team leader in order to motivate the team to meet all of their shared goals and desired group outcomes. The first step in this process will be to define the group's objectives in real terms. This will provide a vision for the project that can be shared amongst the members. The planning will need to be proactive and informative so that it can serve as the basis for collaboration and cooperation amongst the team.
Not only will the objectives need to be clarified, but the expectations for how the team will work together should also be shared. This…
Hunting: Interpersonal communication concepts
Good ill Hunting is the story of a working-class young man who possesses an extraordinary mathematical gift. Over the course of the film, ill must overcome practical and psychological barriers to be able to realize his true potential. He must review his self-concept as a 'blue-collar' guy and instead entertain the possibility that he deserves to attend an institution of higher learning. ith the support and aid of a teacher, he becomes capable of doing so. ill must reevaluate his current self-conception, the social roles offered to him by his immediate environment, and find different sources of social comparison to model.
At the beginning of the film, ill makes a joke to his best friend Chuckie about beating up on some 'smart kids' for fun. ill does not see himself as a genius. He works as a janitor, and everything in his life -- from his…
Good Will Hunting. Directed by Gus Van Sant. 1997.
This, perhaps, has made me more of an avid listener that is eager to appreciate what others have got to say rather than being a high decibel demagogue that would neither brook any resistance nor would tolerate any dissidence, however mild that may be.
Thus, the very essence of communication, which is nothing but a means of encouraging and stimulating others to share their views while attempting to skillfully shepherd them to veer around towards the speaker's perspectives, and the form it would finally acquire, is heavily influenced by the speaker's personal behavioral traits.
Listening as a Potent Tool for Effective Communication
We must have heard numerous times the exhortation, "Listen carefully, I don't want repeat myself," in some form or the other but in our excessive eagerness to make ourselves heard, we have ignored such requests and pleas and put an unceremonious end to many a potentially enriching communication.…
Carbonell, M. (2005). Extreme personality makeover: How to develop a winning Christ-like personality to improve your effectiveness! . Blue Ridge, GA: Uniquely You Resources.
Donahue, M.C. (1996, December 1). How active is your listening? (communication technique; includes advice for managing anger) . Current Health 2, a Weekly Reader Publication, pp. 23-25.
Frisk, B. (2007, May 11). Effective Listening a Forgotten Art That Can Open Many Doors. Daily Herald, p. 12.
Madrigal, D., & McClain, B. (2001, August). The secret of active listening. Tactical Response, pp. 50-52.
Neither Paul nor Frank ever recognized that this was the principal source of their mutual rivalry, resentment, and antagonism. In fact, to hear either of them discuss their relationship, one would think that the main issue between them is that Frank is meticulously neat and fastidiously clean whereas Paul is notoriously sloppy.
While those characterizations are completely accurate, they are not the source of conflict within their interpersonal relationship. Their respective differences in that regard need not necessarily cause interpersonal conflict; in their case, they do because their respective preferences and comfort zones became the battlefield for their underlying mutual resentment created by the way that their father pitted them against one another in lashing out against them. Just as their father retaliated against each of them indirectly and in emotional ways without ever actually expressing his anger over their relationship with (or perceived "favoritism") toward her, so did Paul…
Aronson, E., Wilson, T., and Akert, R. (2008). Social Psychology. New York:
Blair, G. (2007). Groups that Work. Washington, DC: IEEE Press.
Branden, N. (2008). The Psychology of Self-Esteem. New York: Bantam.
2008). The actual task of monitoring shrinkage on a daily basis in the produce department is generally given to entry-level employees, and positive encouragement in this task as well as clearly defining the task and using other effective communication techniques can ensure that these employees appreciate the importance of completing this task efficiently and accurately (Papa et al. 2008). Without strong interpersonal communication, this task would not be properly completed.
There are several reasons that properly completing the task of produce shrinking is important. The sale of past-prime fruits and vegetables could be incredibly harmful to the health of a store's customers, and is in fact illegal because of this. In addition, the company does not wish to earn itself a reputation of selling sub-par produce, and even when fruits and vegetables have not reached a point of true spoilage -- where they have begun to rot and…
Papa, M., Daniels, T. & Spiker, B. (2008). Organizational Communication: Perspectives and Trends. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
PB. (2010). Produce Business. Accessed 16 December 2010. http://www.producebusiness.com/
Prevor, J. (2008). Straight Talk on Food Safety. Produce Business 24(8): 8.
More specifically, because the potential for miscommunication, misunderstanding, and pejorative or other negative interpretations is so much greater in remote communications especially through email (SHM, 2010), the implications of failure to establish trust remotely are even greater. As Yoong (2009) points out, that is largely a function of the fact that genuineness in expressions of cultural awareness and sensitivity (as opposed to patronizing or otherwise insincere) expressions is absolutely crucial.
Sincerity and genuineness are much more difficult to communicate effectively in impersonal communications media (SHM, 2010; Yoong, 2009). Therefore, appropriate expressions and other manifestations of cultural awareness and sensitivity are most appropriately communicated to virtual working groups via two-way video conferencing instead of other less personal methods of communications, notwithstanding the substantive sufficiency or factual accuracy of those expressions in writing, for example (SHM, 2010;Yoong, 2009).
This project relies primarily on a review of secondary research in the…
Douglas, C. And Zivnuska, S. "Developing trust in leaders: an antecedent of firm performance." SAM Advanced Management Journal. Society for the Advancement of Management. 2008. Retrieved December 30, 2010 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-177101798.html
George, J.M. And Jones G.R. (2008). Understanding and Managing Organizational
Behavior. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Maxwell, J.C. (2007). The 21 Irrefutable Rules of Leadership. Georgia: Maxwell
Communication and Culture
An Analysis of the Dangerous Effects of New Communication Technology on Society
Technology is making communication easier in today's world, but often at the expense of personal contact as many people choose to socialize in front of a computer screen. What dangers are there for a society which depends on computer screens rather than face-to-face contact for its main means of communication? This paper will analyze the effects of today's communication technology (social media, chat rooms, networking) on society and culture.
Michel Metz (1995) argues "that cultures are both possible and prevalent among communities connected only by computer as the preferred mode of communication" (p. 1). But Metz is writing perhaps too soon. The explosion of social media in the 21st century has essentially redefined the way we communicate and form relationships -- which no longer require face-to-face encounters; they can exist globally, with face-to-face simulation offered…
Bugeja, M. 2005, Interpersonal Divide: the search for community in a technological
Age, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Causes of Divorce in Saudi Arabia 2009, Available from http://home-
family.top54u.com/post/Causes-of-Divorce-in-Saudi-Arabia.aspx [Accessed 3 Sept 2011].
17. Johann calls you and says that Billy smells and he needs a shower. If you don't move Billy to another ward, Johann will sign himself out. Explain in details what you would do to resolve this cross cultural situation.
I would tell Johann that we are doing all we can to ensure Billy's hygiene and that if his body odor continued to bother Johann that we can move him to another room or ward in the hospital.
18. There seems to be a language and cultural barrier that's blocking effective communication occurring between these two gentlemen. Considering they are both your clients, what strategies would you put in place to improve this situation?
The best way to remedy the situation would be to introduce the two patients to each other. A handshake, some eye contact, and small personal interactions can go a long way toward eliminating prejudices and stereotypes…
Australian Indigenous HealthInfo.net (2008). Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.healthinfonet.ecu.edu.au/
Department of Education and Training (2005). "Racism No Way." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.racismnoway.com.au/library/cultural/
Indigenous Peoples of Australia: Health." Retrieved Feb 29, 2008 at http://www.ldb.org/oz_h.htm
2003) Men and women: Becoming together. Intimate artners. (pp. 389-397).
This article stated that gender is ultimately a mystery that cannot be solved scientifically. Men and women can, however, come together in love and sex. Love increases this mystery.
Although gender is not a science, we can see obvious differences in gender. Thus results love between men and women.
Lewis, C.S. (1988) The four loves. Retrieved from http://duquesne.docutek.com/eres
This article spoke of need-love and gift-love. Gift-love is what moves people to work and plan for the future of their children. Need-love is what drives a child to run to his or her mother. Need-love is necessary for forgiveness.
It is obvious that need-love is necessary for a relationship, but perhaps the best relationships integrate gift-love as well.
The National Marriage roject. (2009, February) The state of our unions 2008: The social health of marriage in America. Retrieved from http://www.virginia.edu/marriageproject…
Popenoe, David. (2004) Top ten myths of divorce. Retrieved from http://duquesne.docutek.com
Wilcox, W.B. (2009) The evolution of divorce. National affairs, 81-94. http://www.virginia.edu/marriageproject/pdfs/Wilcox_Fall09.pdf
Skilss in Interpersonal, Group and Organizational Communications
The objective of this study is to examine interpersonal communication and spoken skills. This work will examine communication skills using the theories of Pragmatic Perspective, Psychological Perspective, Social Constructionist, and social responsibility theory. Trenholm (2008) states that communication "is very important to everyone. One form of communication that occurs among individuals is known as interpersonal communication. Interpersonal communication is a term "reserved for two-person, face-to-face interaction and is often used interchangeably with the term dyadic communication."
Interpersonal Communication: Speaking and Listening Skills
Interpersonal communication can be understood as the interaction that takes place between individuals and concerns the deliver and receipt of information or a message. Involved in interpersonal communication are listening as well as nonverbal forms of communication and speaking. Listening is the capacity to both understand and provide appropriate response to what others are saying. Listening requires the evaluation of what…
Pearce, WB (nd) Communication and Social Construction: Claiming our Birthright. pp. 33-56 in Wendy Leeds-Hurwitz and Gloria Galanes (Eds). Socially Constructing Communication. Cresskill, N.J.: Hampton Press. 2009.
Ramaraju, S. (nd) Psychological Perspective: Interpersonal Communication. Journal of Arts, Science and Commerce. Retrieved from: http://www.researchersworld.com/vol3/issue4/vol3_issue4_2/Paper_09.pdf
Suresh, K. (nd) Theories of Communication CHAPTER 2: Retrieved from: http://www.peoi.org/Courses/Coursesch/mass/mass2.html
Tips for Communication Skills with Groups. About Leaders. Retrieved from: http://www.aboutleaders.com/tips-for-communication-skills-with-groups/
He is concerned that as the social sciences increasingly becomes more quantified, they loffer less understanding into the concepts behind symbols. This is especially of concern, since symbols have played such an important role throughout history. Duncan gives examples of symbol misunderstandings such as: confusion of the symbolic and subjective, failure to study symbolic forms, and sociologists' inability to use non-mechanistic models. Even worse, there is no agreement between scholars on how to define the concept of symbol nor explain the ambiguity of symbols. Is this lack of definitive agreement the reason why people perceive reality differently? Does this lead to misunderstandings and a failure to communicate?
Berger and Luckmann. Social construction.
QUESTION: Berger and Luckman state that society is a human product. Can it also be the product of lower animals? Recently, it was shown that chimpanzees actually are capable of culture or the passing of knowledge from one…
Whether or not we are experts in technical fields, practically all contemporary business communications require the ability to communicate similar ideas to audiences with different comprehension levels about our topic. In that respect, Zeltser's article is helpful to a very wide audience.
Another useful source of information about communications skills is the article titled "Nonverbal Communication Tips: Improve Your Nonverbal
Communication Skills with these Tips" by About.com contributing writer Kendra Cherry (2012). Cherry explains the importance of understanding nonverbal communications in face-to-face interactions. Those skills may be especially important to practice in an age where so much of our interpersonal communications take place via a digital medium.
Communications Skills Self-Assessment
In college, the majority of our graded academic assignments involve the formal written expression of ideas (such as on examinations and in out-of-class writing assignments). As a result, it is likely that we receive much better feedback and constructive criticism…
Cherry, K. (2012). Top 10 Nonverbal Communication Tips: Improve Your Nonverbal
Communication Skills with these Tips. Accessed online
September 5, 2012
Healthcare Service Delivery
Interpersonal communication in delivery of health communication
Interpersonal communication is the form of communication that exists between two people and it is the type of communication that is deemed universal in many measures. Interpersonal communication involves the daily exchange which could be informal or formal in nature depending on the purpose and surrounding, it can take the form of facial expression, sounds, gestures, written words, spoken words and postures (MBA Knowledge base, 2011).
Interpersonal communication, involves dissemination and reception of objective message or information between two or more people/groups with an aim of getting the desired effect on the receiving individual or groups (Ally & Bacon, 1999). Some professional however contend that for a communication to qualify to be considered interpersonal communication then the two parties involved must be at close proximity and must be familiar with each other or share something in common. The health sector…
Ally & Bacon, 1999. Interpersonal Communication: Definition of Interpersonal Communication.
Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.abacon.com/commstudies/interpersonal/indefinition.html
Education Resources Information Center, (2008). International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders. Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=EJ818590&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=EJ818590
Health Promotion at EACH, (2014). Planning: Needs assessment: what issue should your program address? Retrieved March 30, 2014 from http://www.each.com.au/health-promotion/health-promotion-at-each/what-is-health-promotion/planning/
Sociolinguistics - How gender influences the way people speak?
Definition of keywords
Sociolinguistics: This is a study of language in respect of social, class, regional, gender and occupational factors.
Gender: It is the condition of being a female or a male and is mostly used in relation to cultural and social differences.
Gender Equality: A condition in which the opportunities and rights are not affected by the change of gender.
Speak: To say in order to express or convey feelings or conversation (oxforddictionaries.com)
Within the study of discourse, comparative analysis of the way women and men use language has been a topic of interest for quite some time. However, to date no coherent framework for gender differences in language and its use has been established empirically, despite relatively extensive theorizing. One reason for this lack of framework lies in the absence of a consensus in how language, whether written or…
Bridges of Madison County.(2010). Daily Motion.com. (Video) Retrieved from: http://www.dailymotion.com/video/xehubk_the-bridges-of-madison-county-1995_music
Cameron, D., 2007. The Guardian. [Online] Available at: http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/oct/01/gender.books [Accessed 29 November 2014].
Carli, L.L. (1999). Gender, interpersonal power, and social influence. Journal of Social Issues, 55, 81-99.
Freilino, J.P., Caswell, A. & Laasko, E., 2012. The Gendering of Language: A Comparison of Gender Equality in Countries with Gendered, Natural Gender, and Genderless Languages. Springer, pp. 268-281
The success of any business enterprise depends on a multitude of crucial factors, one of them being the ability of its administrators to communicate in a clear and effective manner. The quality of business communications therefore, having a direct impact on the economic act, is hereby studied at four specific levels, as follows:
Interpersonal business communication
Conflict management, and last
Inter-cultural business communication
Interpersonal business communication
Melinda Knight starts her 2005 article at the premise that efficient business communications at the managerial level are quintessential for the overall success of the enterprise. Yet, despite this generally accepted notion, the managers have little actual training of interpersonal communications during their formation in universities or other non- U.S. MBA programs. While some programs have some unaligned courses of interpersonal communications in the business settings, other programs do not include the subject in their curricula at all. Knight asserts the…
Agndal, H., (2005) Current trends in business negotiation research, Stockholm School of Economics, http://swoba.hhs.se/hastba/papers/hastba2007_003.pdf accessed on March 23, 2016
Beckers, A.M., Bsat, M.Z. (2014) An analysis of intercultural business communications, Journal of Business & Behavioral Sciences, Vol. 26, No. 3
Corkindale, G., (2007) How to manage conflict, Harvard Business Review, https://hbr.org/2007/11/how-to-manage-conflict / accessed on March 23, 2016
Hynes, G.E., (2012) Improving employees' interpersonal communication competencies, Business Communication Quarterly, Vol. 75, No. 4
eadership and Solitude
When talking about effective and compelling leaders in education and other important social fields most people tend to envision a certain type of individual. This individual is usually envisioned as a very social, affable, outspoken and extroverted person. William Dereziwics challenges and questions this character perception of leadership in his article titled earn To Be Alone With Your Thoughts. This article presents a clear connection that exists between leadership and solitude, Dereziwics supports his opinion about leadership by commenting and discussing several situations where solitude directly results in leadership. He also talks about social and media interaction and how this conflicts with leadership. Derecziwics begins his article by stating that solitude is necessary for leadership, he says that this is so because solitude allows a person to think and critically analyze. Derecziwics states that it is very difficult to become an effective leader for someone who is…
Leadership is a very important element in virtually all fields of employment, especially in education. Therefore, it is also very important to establish quality and effective leadership at the head of an organization or entity in order for it to be successful and accomplish its organizational goals. In her article titled What is Quality Leadership?, Misty Laucour explains and defines how delegation and empowerment are important as leadership strategies. She explains that it is important for leaders to delegate responsibilities to employees or members of an organization while at the same time empowering those individuals. Lacours states that leaders can empower individuals by allowing them to take part in the decisions making process, thus creating an environment where the quality of work goes up due to good employee morale. Lacour lists that following actions as vital to the empowerment of follower: " (a) effectively match people to assignments; (b) engage all in active listening; (c) engage in purposeful actions based on goals and vision; (d) focus on growth and opportunities, not failures; (e) encourage others to think critically"(Lacour).
Taking into account what is presented in the article one would have to agree with Lacour's assessment of what quality leadership really is. Our contemporary society is one that is heavily influenced by Democracy, in this type of social and political atmosphere people in general are encouraged to be involved and make decisions. Our society is not one where dictatorship is accepted, that is to say that people do not like being told what to without having any sort of input. It has been proven that the most effective workers and members of an organization are those that are happy and have good morale. In order for good employee morale to be established empowerment of the followers should be present, this way they can feel important and significant in the overall process, thus creating a more productive and effective atmosphere.
Lacour, M., et. al., What is Quality Leadership?. Academic Leadership v. 8 no. 3 (Summer 2010) p. 320-1
Electronic communication such as texting and emailing are not as effective as talking face-to-face with someone.
Premises/Data: Studies have showed that without face-to-face interaction, the lack of nonverbal cues, facial emotions prevents successful communication and hinders growth in a relationship. One study of preteens at a summer camp found that with just five days without electronics, the children showed improvement in there nonverbal communication skills (Uhls et al., 2014). We already know that non-verbal communication is a significant portion of communication, that when presented with a person face-to-face, as little as 7% of communication was verbal (Yaffe, 2011). Thus, these preteens were improving immediately their ability to comprehend what is in many cases the majority of communication messages.
Studies of virtual teams have found that people are even inclined to interpret email text for non-verbal messages. The problem with doing so is that we tend to use shorthand for…
Bitti, P. & Garotti, P. (2011). Nonverbal communication and cultural differences: Issues for face-to-face communication over the Internet. face-to-face Communication Over the Internet. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge.
Cheshin, A., Rafaeli, A. & Bos, N. (2011). Anger and happiness in virtual teams: Emotional influences of text and behavior on others' affect in the absence of non-verbal cues. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. Vol. 116 (1) 2-16.
Uhls, Y., Michikyan, M., Morris, J., Garcia, D., Small, G., Zgourou, E. & Greenfield, P. (2014). Five days at outdoor education camp without screens improves preteen skills with nonverbal emotion cues. Computers in Human Behavior. Vol. 39 (Oct 2014) 387-392.
Yaffe, P. (2011). The 7% rule, fact, fiction or misunderstanding. Ubiquity Vol. 2011 (Oct) 1-5.
Interpersonal Conflict in Past Year
Varying interests, scarcity of resources or divergent opinions will always result in interpersonal conflicts. Such conflicts may be expressed in different ways including word of mouth, signs and gestures or through silence (212books).
I have an older brother named Charles. We have been very close since childhood. When our parents divorced back then he was there for me and I regarded him like a father figure. He always made sure I did the right thing and would also help me sort out my problems. He guided me throughout childhood and adolescence and helped me to get into the university am currently in. We like every other siblings out there always had small disagreements but things never got out of hand not until early 2012 when I became very close to my brother and his girlfriend at that time (Yoojung). Yoojung was a Korean native and…
212 books. (n.d.). Conflict and Interpersonal Communication. In A Primer on Communication Studies.
Moyer, M. (2015, November 2). Examples Of Interpersonal Conflict Help You Assess. Retrieved from My Interpersonal: http://www.myinterpersonal.com/examples-of-interpersonal-conflict.html
Interpersonal Conflict in Film
An expressed struggle between at least two interdependent parties who perceive incompatible goals, scarce resources, and interference from others in achieving their goals. (Wilmot and Hocker, 2001)
Interpersonal conflict arises when there is a difference of perception between the interdependent parties. For a conflict to arise the two sides must communicate to each other about the existence of the problem and make an effort towards resolving the issue. Hence, communication plays not only an important but the very basic role during interpersonal conflicts, as without communication there can be no solution.
There are a few problems that are observed to arise in interpersonal conflict situations (Satir, 1998). The first problem that is encountered during such situation is that both parties will ignore the issue. This is very harmful in the way that avoiding confronting the issues at hand can lead up to greater problems…
Satir, V. (1998). The New Peoplemaking, Mountain View, CA: Science and Behavior Books.
Wilmot, W.W., & Hocker, J.L. (2007). Interpersonal Conflict. Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Interpersonal Efficacy -- Using Empathetic Listening
Empathetic listening is a form of listening that takes into account more than just the words spoken. Empathetic listening involves a more holistic approach to listening and communication in general. Empathetic listening is sometimes also called active listening. It is a type of listening where the meaning of a communication lies in the verbal and non-verbal cues. Empathetic listening is a technique of listening that requires that the listener follow the words of the speaker and understand the intent behind the words, as well as the aspects involved during the delivery of the words. To empathetically listen without much practice is pretty strenuous and requires substantial concentration. Empathetic listening requires self-control on behalf of the listener because very often while people are speaking, the people who are listening have thoughts that they want to express that are directly related to statements made…
Bookbinder, PhD, L.J., & Johnson, J. (2006) Empathy, Listening Skills & Relationships. Available from: www.touch-another-heart.com. 2012 August 20.
However, gender expectations of different nations can impede free and open discussion in intercultural communications, if a particular culture has yet to accept that it is appropriate for women to confidently assume positions of authority.
Although cross-cultural communication presents a challenge, globalization has made understanding the difference between high-context and low-context cultures even more vital than ever before. Implied meanings in different cultures have different levels of signification, based upon relationships. "In relationship-oriented countries like Mexico, India and China, people tend to prioritize projects based on the hierarchy of the person who owns it" in contrast to the United States, where the project itself is viewed more important than the person in charge (Frase 2007).
Much like male-female communication tropes, social expectations rather than actual message or even delivery can affect the message conveyed and impede communication. An analysis of diverse work teams at international firms by Brett et al.…
Bond, J. (2007, December). Training in a diverse environment. Canadian HR
Reporter, 20(21), 19, 26. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global
through ProQuest (Document ID: 1410548371).
Brett, Jeanne, Kristin Behfar, & Mary C. Kern. (2006, November). Managing multicultural teams. Harvard Business Review, 84(11), 84-91. Retrieved July 21, 2009, from ABI/INFORM Global through ProQuest (Document ID: 1151916931).
acism in the United States is often seen as the methodical oppression of African-Americans and other people of color and the related ideology of white supremacy and black inferiority. These two aspects of racism have influenced the U.S. society from the early 1600's until the present (Bohmer 1998). It all comes down to everyone being different and people being unable to accept these differences.
I have often found myself when choosing people to date letting the fact of whether these people had any college education or not influence my decision on who to go out with and who not to. After evaluating that way of thinking, I have come to the realization that this is just silly and that this factor should not be something that I take into the equation when deciding who to go out with.
Effective communication occurs mainly at an unconscious level and this…
Bohmer, P., 1998, Marxist Theory of Racism and Racial Inequality, Available at:
Effective Communication Skills, 2009, Available at: http://www.maximumadvantage.com/
Horton, J, 2008, Why Looking Different Upsets Many People: Evolution, Available at:
Communication in a Nursing Environment
This research paper deals with the subject of ensuring effective communication between nursing staff, their patients, and the patient's family. It is proposed that understanding and utilizing body language would be an effective way for a nurse to improve communication.
The nature of communication and of the importance of body language in the communication process was researched, with a focus on how this can be used to assist in communication. ased on the research, it is seen that body language can be used by nursing staff to ensure they send the right message to patients and their families and also to ensure the real message and the real state of patients can be understood.
From the research and its application to nursing and the environment of nursing, it can be seen that body language could be an effective tool in improving communication processes. In turn,…
Ashcroft, Norman & Scheflen, Albert. (1976). Human Territories: How We Behave in Space-Time. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice Hall.
Bolton, Robert. (1987). People Skills. Roseville: Simon and Schuster.
Carnegie, Dale. (1981). How To Win Friends and Influence People. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Friedrich, G.W., O'Hair, D., Wiemann, J.M., & Wiemann, M.O. (1995). Competent Communication. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Interpersonal conflict is a daily part of human existence," ("Resolving Interpersonal Conflicts," n.d.). The hard part is learning how to resolve interpersonal conflicts, because they are inevitable. One of the reasons television shows are popular is that they mirror the genuine interpersonal conflicts that people have in their daily lives. This can be seen on the television show Modern Family, which depicts several interpersonal conflicts. One conflict that is developed early in the show is between Mitch and his father Jay. Mitch is gay, and although his father pretends to be fine with it and accepting of his son, his homophobia comes to the surface during the wedding planning. When Mitch mentions some problem he is having with deciding on the decor of the wedding, Jay gets impatient and says, "Why do you guys have to do this, anyway?" His outburst signals the deeper-rooted antagonism Jay had been harboring all…
Communication in organizations includes all the means, both formal and informal, by which information is passed up, down, and across the network of managers and workers in a business. These various types of communication may be used to distribute official information between workers and management, to trade hearsay and rumors, or anything in between. The dispute for businesses is to control these countless communications so they serve to advance customer relations, encourage employee satisfaction, build knowledge-sharing all through the organization, and most significantly, improve the firm's competitiveness (Communication in Organizations, 2012).
Communication is one of the most prevailing and important activities in organizations. Basically, relationships grow out of communication, and the functioning and survival of organizations is based on effectual relationships amid individuals and groups. Additionally organizational capabilities are developed and carried out through intensely social and communicative processes. Communication helps people and groups manage activities to attain goals, and…
Aul, P. & Siira, K. (2010). Organizational Communication and Conflict Management
Systems. Nordicom Review, 31(1), p. 125-141.
Berger, B.K. (2008). Employee/Organizational Communications. Retrieved from http://www.instituteforpr.org/topics/employee-organizational-communications/
Boesky, J. (2011). Active Listening. Retreived from http://www.johnboesky.com/activelistening.php
This second violent incident forced Stoops to take a harder stand against one of his most popular players and suspend him."
Sooners used a crisis management plan to deal with the university's decision, in an effort to prevent bad publicity for the school and the team (Forde, 2004). The following describes how the university handled the crisis the day before it hit the newsstands. In the early afternoon, OU issued a release saying that it had suspended Dvoracek indefinitely and replaced him as captain. The action had been implemented by coach Bob Stoops a few days earlier, but it wasn't made public until the day before the weekend Oregon game.
The school was prepared for the news to create a major rise across the state, starting with the evening newscasts (Forde, 2004). However, the situation did not end there, with the university's release and a canned statement from Stoops. In…
Fink, S. (1986) Crisis Management: Planning for the Inevitable, American Management Association, New York.
Forde, Pat. (September 22, 2004). Teamwork the key during a crisis. ESPN.com. Retreived from the Internet at http://sports.espn.go.com/ncf/columns/story?columnist=forde_pat&page=program/crisis .
Hessert, Kathleen. (1997). How to Prepare PR Professionals for the Dennis Rodman's and Michael Irvin's of Sports. International Sports Summit. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.bernsteincrisismanagement.com/nl/crisismgr000701.html .
Hoffman, Judith. (1999). Keeping Cool on the Hot Seat. Four C's Publishing Co.
In essence, cultural values across Argentina demand for observation, tolerance, and understanding. The tingo dance for example is one of the nonverbal communications. Argentines also like engaging in activities that give them a sense of belonging (Foster, et al., 18).
Part 3: Africa, Tanzania
Cultural norms are patterns of behavior that specifically are typical to a given group. They are shared, sanctioned, and integrated systems of beliefs and practices. These behaviors are passed from one generation to the next. In other words, cultural norms are the expectations and rules that are agreed upon through which a society guides the behavior of its members with regard to a given situation (Qingxue, 13). Cultural norms widely vary across cultural groups. In most cases cultural norms are not considered to be formal laws, however, they are helpful and vital in instilling social control within the society. Cultural norms are mainly enforced through non-verbal…
Cunningham, Lawrence, and Reich, John. Culture and Values: A Survey of the Humanities. London: Oxford University Press, 2009.
Foster, William, Lockhart, Melissa, and Lockhart Darrell. Culture and Customs of Argentina. New York: Prentice Hall, 1998.
Qingxue, Liu "Understanding Different Cultural Patterns or Orientations Between East and West," 2003. Web.10/06/2012, < http://www.staff.amu.edu.pl/~inveling/pdf/liu_quingxue_inve9.pdf
Shivji, Issa, & Kapinga, Wilbert. Maasai rights in Ngorongoro, Tanzania. Nairobi; Longhorn Publishers. 1998.
Interpersonal Conflict in Film
American Beauty (Spacey, Bening and Birch) is a 1999 Film with many interpersonal conflicts that are never resolved. Basically a comedy and drama about Lester Burnham's mid-life crisis but also showing the personal crisis of every other major character, the movie shows a father-daughter conflict between Lester and Jane Burnham that could have been resolved. Communication, time and their common characteristics are three factors that could have resolved Lester's and Jane's interpersonal conflict, if Lester had lived longer.
Everybody in Lester Burnham's life, including Lester and his daughter, Jane, think that he is a "loser." The conflict between them is shown early in the movie, at dinner. Lester, Carolyn and Jane Burnham are having their family dinner at home, Lester asks about Jane's school day and she eventually says sarcastically, "It was spectacular." Then, when Lester discusses his job problem and Jane does not seem interested,…
American Beauty. Dir. Sam Mendes. Perf. Kevin Spacey, et al. 1999. DVD.
Because they ignored those concerns and chose to save a very small amount of money, they ended up costing their organization much more money for placing an entirely new advertisement that reflected the additional wording that the two team members had originally tried to propose.
On a much smaller scale, this is precisely the same thing that happened on the Deepwater Horizon oil drilling platform: namely, junior-level team members expressed specific concerns to management; those concerns were ignored and further contribution of those team members discouraged by management. Ultimately, the organization suffered exactly the type of harm those team members had envisioned and it cost the organization much more than the relatively inexpensive fixes that would have been recommended by the dissenting team members if their opinions had been take more seriously by management.
Barsa, M. And Dana, D.A. "Learning from Disaster: Lessons for the Future from the Gulf…
Barsa, M. And Dana, D.A. "Learning from Disaster: Lessons for the Future from the Gulf
of Mexico." Boston College Environmental Affairs Law Review, 38(2) 2011: 219-
Charvatova, D. And van der Veer, C.G. "Communication and Human Resource
Management and its Compliance with Culture." International Journal of Human
Collaboration and Communication among different personality types can also be optimized by knowledge. The three personality types identified include the Thinker, the Organizer, and the Giver. Thinkers tend to reflect independently upon new information. They are good at analysis and abstract thinking, and devising new approaches to complex issues. The organizer in turn prefers clear, concrete task definitions in a structured, stable environment. They tend to carefully organize both their work and their schedules, and require feedback to ensure that they are on the right path. They are responsible and reliable and work well within social settings. The Giver enjoys studying with others, as well as teaching them. Their main aim is to be helpful to others, while also being honest and clear in expressing their feelings. They are also good at negotiation and aim to communicate openly.
In a group setting, these three personality types can work well together…
Often, in fact, there can be an overabundance of communication without any effective organization or leveraging of the information thus obtained, which can lead to serious detriments to any organization or endeavor (Lager 2006). It is bad enough when one arm of an organization doesn't seem to know what the other is doing, but the problem seems somehow conceptually worse when the various arms have information regarding the rest of the organization, but don't utilize it. This is, unfortunately, partly occurring in my organization, and is also an issue I need to deal with personally as I incorporate the organization's goals and actions into my own thinking and methods.
This concept of the correct processing and utilization of information goes further than simply making the organization run more efficiently on an internal level. Especially as new regions of the world are becoming increasingly important for business, the use of communication…
Fitzgerald, Neil. (2006). "Mind the gap." Information week 28 August, pp. 8.
Friedrich, N. (2008). "Disparate solutions work to fill communications gap." Microwaves & RF 47(6), pp. 44.
Lager, M. (2006). "Overcoming a bear of a communications gap." Customer relations management 10(7), pp. 51.
Communication Management and Organizational Change
Communication management in the organization and most specifically in the organizational change environment is critically important. The work of Heathfield entitled "Communication in Change Management" state that it is impossible to "over-communicate when you are asking your organization to change." (2011, p.1) According to Heathfield, there are four critical components of effective communication as follows:
(1) The person sending the message must ensure that the message is presented clearly with great detail and that the message be perceived as containing integrity and that the message be authentic;
(2) The individual reading the message must make the decision to listen and to ask questions to ensure clarity and finally must trust the message's sender;
(3) The method of delivery must be chosen as appropriate for the context and for the needs of the sender and receiver of the message;
(4) The message content must resonate and…
Albrecht, Karl G. The Northbound Train. N.Y.: AMACON, 1994.
Blake, R. And Mouton J. Corporate Excellence Through Grid Organizational Development. Houston, 1968 Gulf Publishing Co.
Cohen, Eli and Tichy, Noel. "How Leaders Develop Leaders" in Training in Development. May 1997 pp. 58-73
DiFonzo, N., & Bordia, P. (1998). A tale of two corporations: managing uncertainty during organizational change. Human Resources Management, 37, 295-303. Retrieved May 10, 2006, from the LIRN, ProQuest database.
This is thought to be negative reinforcement. Oftentimes various manipulative strategies may be used. One of these is impression management. This is where one tries to make one's side look good. Authority involves stating one's right to make a decision. Emotion involves making an emotional display to get one's way (Families and Family Decision Making, 2008).
I think that negotiation is the best method. This allows everyone to have their opinions heard and then the best decision can be made. This gives everyone the opportunity to participate in the decision making process and feel as if they are contributing the well being of the family as a whole. If everyone is allowed to feel as if their ideas and thoughts count for something then they are more likely to listen to others. The best decisions are usually made when all of the information and choices are laid out for everyone…
Centralization vs. Decentralization.(2007). Retrieved May 9, 2010, from Web site:
Cherry, Kendra. (2010). Attachment Styles. Retrieved from About Web site:
How has the media age influenced personal selling? Please provide examples to illustrate your discussion. Have electronic media made it more difficult for salespersons to persuade audience members?
The media age has transformed the nature of personal selling. Consumers have access to a wealth of information about the products and services available to them: from broad Google searches to browsing through customer reviews on specific vendor websites or on Consumer eports (Chapter 14). Social media also enhances the ability of the consumer to acquire information about products, as friends share information about their experiences with a product, service, or brand. A more educated consumer challenges the personal sales representatives to be able to answer questions and be completely honest with the answers.
New media has also altered the actual practice of personal selling. Sales representatives have at their disposal a wealth of possibilities for reaching consumers: from emails…
Although interpersonal and group level communications reside at a lower level than organizational communication, they are major forms of communication in organizations and are prominently addressed in the organizational communication literature. Recently, as organizations became more communication-based, greater attention was directed at improving the interpersonal communication skills of all organizational members. Historically, informal communication was primarily seen as a potential block to effective organizational performance. This is no longer the case is modern times, as on-going, dynamic, and informal communication has become more important to ensuring the effective conduct of work
It is also widely accepted that top managers should communicate directly with immediate supervisors and that immediate supervisors should communicate with their direct reports. In regard to issues of importance, top managers should then follow-up by communicating with employees directly. The Communication Accommodation Theory supports this rationale. In terms of supervisor-employee communication, one researcher argues the difficulty of trusting…
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Davis, T. & Landa, M. (1999). The trust deficit. Management Accounting, 71(10), 12-
Components of Business Communication and Their Relevance: A Conceptual Framework
Communication is one of the essential components to the professionals and organizations in the context of business management. This is because of the critical role of the communication skills in enhancing success and growth of the organization. In the execution of this research, the focus will be on the business communication components.
Organizational Business Communication
Most business educators think that they know readiness of their students in the context of employment opportunity, but in reality, there is little information on how the students would perform with reference to the expectations and requirements (Shrivastava p. 56). One of the essential components that hinder proper grooming of the student for the purposes of full-time employment is lack of direct feedback from the industry. Business faculty can only hope that the carrier-oriented education they offer to the student can translate to success in…
Hitch and Interpersonal Conflict
Hitch is a 1995 film by Andy Tennant in which the development of interpersonal communication is developed and utilized to establish and cultivate romantic relationships between people that would otherwise not interact. In the film, Alex "Hitch" Hitchens, portrayed by Will Smith, helps men to overcome interpersonal communication barriers. While Hitch is successful in helping others, he finds that a lack of communication, and the obfuscation of his profession, cause interpersonal conflicts to arise between himself and Sara Melas, played by Eva Mendes, a gossip columnist with whom Hitch begins to have a relationship with.
In the film, Hitch makes a living helping men like Albert Brennaman, a mild-mannered accountant, establish communication channels with women like Allegra Cole, a celebrity and client of the accounting firm Brennaman works for. Hitch contends that 60% of communication is body language, 30% is tone, and 10% is what one…
Those conversations also invariably include expressions of success or confidence as well. However, they discuss their feelings and those of others relatively rarely. In many cases, even the closest of male friends maintain a relationship that is sustained largely by common interests such as in sports or recreational interests. They may know one another for many years without ever really discussing their feelings or their intimate thoughts about personal matters. Women, tend to do the exact opposite, focussing on discussions about people instead of inanimate objects or impersonal interests. Close female friends typically know everything there is to know about one another and they invariably know one another better and more fully than their respective husbands or boyfriends know them.
As Tanner explains, these tendencies are likely functions of both biology and social learning. From the evolutionary biological perspective, males would have had to worry more about projecting their strength…