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Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems IPDS
Words: 1120 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 58465824
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Protecting Vital Resources

Intrusion Detection and Prevention Systems

IDPS and Components

Intrusion from the outside world, for good or bad, is serious concern in the networked global arena (Ierace et al., 2005). The loss of data and important and confidential business information can be utterly disastrous. Network systems that will detect and prevent such intrusions, therefore, are a necessity of the first order among enterprises. Intrusion attacks can come from hackers, malware or other old or new malicious creations from other sources. Intrusion detection is performed by monitoring computer systems and networks to sense indications of potential threats or violations on an organization's security policies. Another added feature is thwarting these threats before they can occur. Together, these are the components of an intrusion detection and prevention system or IDPS (Ierace et al.).

There are four classes of IDPS according to their functions and the methods they use (Ierace et…


Ierace, N., et al. (2005). Intrusion prevention systems. Ubiquity Information Everywhere:

Association of Computing Machinery. Retrieved on February 12, 2014 from

Kanika (2013). Intrusion detection system and intrusion prevention system -- a review study. Vol. 4 Issue 8, International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research;

International Scientific and Engineering Research. Retrieved on February 12, 2014

Accounting and Intrusion Detection in a Report
Words: 6872 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 17210308
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Accounting and Intrusion Detection

In a report issued by Paladin Technologies, Inc., entitled: "Security Metrics: Providing Cost Justification for Security Projects," 273 organizations were surveyed on the topic of security. The report illustrates in quantifiable terms the depth and reach of intrusion detection on the financial viability of the organization. The combined reported losses from the firms surveyed totaled $265.6 million in 1999. The highest loss categories were reported as follows:

Type of Loss

Estimated Dollar Value

Number of espondents

Theft of intellectual capital


Financial Fraud




The average annual financial loss of firms surveyed was estimated at $40 million. Forty three percent of respondents were able to quantify financial losses, and seventy four percent were able to acknowledge financial loss. Ninety percent detected cyber attacks within the most recent twelve-month period and seventy percent reported serious breaches other than viruses, laptop theft, and employee abuse of…


Risk Assessment risk assessment involves estimating the likelihood and severity of an occurrence, the relative impact of risk on the facility, information handler, processing, support, and the mission of the organization. Assessing the likelihood means determining the probability that existing controls will be skirted. Pfleeger has identified a series of steps for examining the likelihood of adverse occurrences:

Calculate the probability that the risk may happen, found in the observed data for the specific system.

Estimate the likely number occurrences in a given time period. The analyst gives a rating based on several different risk analysis methodologies, and then creates a table to hold and compare the ratings.

The Delphi approach: several raters individually estimate the probable likelihood of an event, combine their estimates, and choose the best one.

System Security Every Organization Which
Words: 2884 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 71773228
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Attacks on the system security include password theft, back doors and bugs, social engineering, protocol failures, authentication failures, Denial of Service attacks, active attacks, botnets, exponential attacks including worms and viruses, and information leakage. (Fortify Software Inc., 2008); (Fortify Software, n. d.)

Servers are targets of security attacks due to the fact that servers contain valuable data and services. For instance, if a server contains personal information about employees, it can become a target for stealing identities. All types of servers, which include file, database, web, email and infrastructure management servers are vulnerable to security attacks with the threat coming from both external as well as internal sources.

Some of the server problems that can jeopardize its security include: (i) Weakly encrypted or unencrypted information, especially of a sensitive nature, can be intercepted for malicious use while being transmitted from server to client. (ii) Software bugs present in the server…


Bace, Rebecca Gurley; Bace, Rebecca. (2000) "Intrusion Detection"

Sams Publishing.

Fortify Software Inc. (2008) "Fortify Taxonomy: Software Security Errors" Retrieved 17 November, 2008 at 

Fortify Software. (n. d.) "Seven Pernicious Kingdoms: A Taxonomy of Software Security

Systems Administration v Network Administration
Words: 1495 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72869548
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The subject matter of systems administration includes computer systems and the ways people use them in an organization. This entails knowledge of operating systems and applications, as well as hardware and software troubleshooting, but also knowledge of the purposes for which people in the organization use the computers.

The most important skill for a system administrator is problem solving. The systems administrator is on call when a computer system goes down or malfunctions, and must be able to quickly and correctly diagnose what is wrong and how best to fix it. In some organizations, computer security administration is a separate role responsible for overall security and the upkeep of firewalls and intrusion detection systems, but all systems administrators are generally responsible for the security of the systems in their keep. (, 2011)

Network Administrator

What is a computer network? According to McGraw Hill Online Learning Center, "a network is two…


Armstrong, L. (1995), Let's Call the Whole Thing Off

Dignan, Ars Technica, Jan 28, 2001, post 305, - Information Technology- accessed 2011/1/14

Hegel, G.W.F., the Phenomenology of Mind, (1807), translated by J.B. Baillie, New York, Harper & Row, 1967

System Security As a Manager How Would
Words: 842 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90139576
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System Security

"As a manager, how would you plan on securing organizational data? How does security effectiveness and relative cost figure into those plans?"

The more critical aspect of any enterprise-wide security management strategy is to align system resources to the strategic initiatives and goals of an organization. Increasingly this is being accomplished through the use of role-based access and authentication privileges and process workflows that audit and evaluate use of sensitive information (Shih, Wen, 2005). The role of enterprise security management drastically changes however when ubiquitous Web Services are used for capturing, aggregating, analyzing and effectively using confidential data to make financial decisions (Phifer, 2011). The intent of this analysis is to evaluate how intrusion and intrusion detection systems can be used in the 21st century, state-of-the-art IT systems that are to a large extent Cloud-based and often have remote access points that make them particularly vulnerable (Phifer, 2011).…


Microsoft TechNet. (2011). Enterprise security best practices. Microsoft. Retrieved from

Thibodeau, P. (2011, July 18). U.S. government CIO warns of IT vendor cartel. Computerworld. Retrieved from 

Phifer, L. (2011, July 11). 5 best practices for securing remote access. E-security Planet. Retrieved from 

Shih, S.C., & Wen, H.J. (2005). E-enterprise security management life cycle. Information Management & Computer Security, 13(2), 121-134.

Importance of Securing Point of Sale Systems
Words: 1714 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 14742044
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Intrusion Detection Systems: etail-Based Cybercrime and the Importance of Security Point of Sales Endpoints Systems

etail-based cybercrime and the importance of security Point of Sales Endpoints Systems

The recent technological advances have resulted in increased dependability of network-based technology for everyday usage. Points of sales systems have also evolved, and they are now linked to the company's network, which makes them vulnerable to attacks. The number of attacks leveled against POS endpoints has increased steadily in recent times [1]. This is because they are mostly stand-alone and they are used to capture credit card information. The attackers are mostly interested in customer information for fraud or identity theft purposes. In order for POS systems to verify customer information and process credit cards, they need network connection. The network connection provided is dependent on the store. Large stores connect their POS systems to the internal network in order to simplify administration…


[1] B. Qawami, B.Z. Talaich, and M.J. Farrell, "Enabling a Merchant's Storefront POS (Point of Sale) System to Accept a Payment Transaction Verified by SMS Messaging with Buyer's Mobile Phone," ed: Google Patents, 2012.

[2] P. Kabiri and A.A. Ghorbani, "Research on Intrusion Detection and Response: A Survey," IJ Network Security, vol. 1, pp. 84-102, 2005.

[3] S.R. Snapp, J. Brentano, G.V. Dias, T.L. Goan, T. Grance, L.T. Heberlein, C.-L. Ho, K.N. Levitt, B. Mukherjee, and D.L. Mansur, "A system for distributed intrusion detection," COMPCOM Spring, vol. 91, pp. 170-176, 1991.

[4] N.B.W. Mlitwa and D. Birch, "The role of intrusion detection systems in electronic information security: From the activity theory perspective," Journal of Engineering, Design and Technology, vol. 9, pp. 296-312, 2011.

Auditing Intrusion Prevention Detection and Penetration Testing
Words: 3042 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 29987577
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Auditing, Monitoring, Intrusion Prevention, Detection, and Penetration Testing

The network vulnerability is a major security weakness that allows an attacker reducing computer information assurance. Vulnerability intersects three elements: a system flaw, the attacker is having access to the flaw, and ability to exploit the flaw. Thus, a security risk is classified as a vulnerability that is tied to a great significant loss. The vulnerability can erode data confidential, system integrity and availability of data.

The objective of this study is to carry out analysis of two research articles that discusses the network vulnerabilities in the IT environment. (Jackson, et al.2008, Sommer, et al. 2003). Both articles believe that attackers exploit the network vulnerabilities to inflict damages in the information systems. Moreover, the two articles agree that the traditional securities such as network IDS (intrusion detection system) (Sommer, et al. 2003) and DNS pinning (Jackson, et al.2008) are no more effective…


Debar, H. & Morin, B.(2002). Evaluation of the Diagnostic Capabilities of Commercial Intrusion Detection Systems. RAID'02 Proceedings of the 5th international conference on Recent advances in intrusion detection:177-198.

Jackson, C., Barth, A., Bortz, A., Shao, W., and Boneh, D. (2008). Protecting browsers from DNS rebinding Attacks. ACM Trans. ACM Transactions on the Web (TWEB). 3(1).

Karlof, C. Shankar, U. Tygar, J.D. et al. (2007). Dynamic pharming attacks and the locked same-origin policies for web browsers. Proceedings of the 14th ACM conference on Computer and communications security: 58-71.

Lam, V.T, Antonatos, S. Akritidis, P. et al. (2007). Puppetnets: Misusing web browsers as a distributed attack infrastructure. ACM Transactions on Information and System Security 12(2).

Monitoring Auditing Intrusion Prevention Detection and Penetration Testing
Words: 3908 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 41669413
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Auditing, Monitoring, Intrusion Prevention, Intrusion Detection, and Penetration Testing

"Unlike IP fragmentation (which can be done by intermediate devices), IP reassembly can be done only at the final destination. What problems do you see if IP reassembly is attempted in intermediate devices like routers?" [ ]

IP fragmentation is defined as the IP (Internet Protocol) that breaks datagrams into smaller fragment to assist packets passing through links and forming a smaller MTU (maximum transmission unit) than its original size. However, the fragments reassemble themselves when reaching the receiving hosts. After the receiving hosts have received the fragmented IP packet, they have to reassemble the datagram before passing it to the higher layer. In practices, the reassembly happens in the receiving hosts, however, a reassembly may be carried out by the intermediate router. For example, the NAT (network address translation) is designed to reassemble the fragments to the translate data streams.…

Reference. San Francisco.No Starch Press Series.

Kukoleca, M., Zdravkovic, M., & Ivanovic, I. (2014). Securing Linux Servers: Best Practice Document. AMRES/RCUB.

Rehman, R.U. (2003). Intrusion Detection with SNORT: Advanced IDS Techniques Using SNORT, Apache, Mysql, PHP, and ACID. Indianapolis, Prentice Hall.

Security Site (2016). Snort Analyzer. Retrieved 23 November 2016 from 

Tews, E., & Beck, M. (2009). Practical attacks against WEP and WPA. In Proceedings of the second ACM conference on Wireless network security, 79-86.

Human Resources Information Systems Riordan Manufacturing
Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Business Plan Paper #: 18996758
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iordan Manufacturing Human esources Information Systems

The iordan Manufacturing is an organization that produces the plastic injection molding, and the management decides to take an advantage of the state of art technology to combine a variety of tools into a single application to develop the HIS (human resources information systems). However, the organization needs to develop application architecture, process design, and system security for an effective implementation of the system. This document discusses the system design and system security for the iordan HIS.

iordan Process Design and Application Architecture

The paper will use the web-based application for the application development based on the benefits that H department will derive from the system. Availability is one of the benefits of the web application because it can be accessed through the internet by multiple users at the same time. The three-tier architecture will be used to design the web-based application, which includes…


Stalling, S. (2011). Cryptographic and Network Security Principle and Practice (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc.

Dennis, A., Wixom, B. H., & Ruth, R. M. (2012). Systems Analysis and Design. (5th Ed.). UK. Wiley.

Hacker Mitigation and Culture in the International Systems
Words: 2409 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 87369052
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Hacker Culture and Mitigation in the International Systems

The explosion of the internet technology in the contemporary business and IT environments has assisted more than 300 million computer users to be connected through a maze of internet networks. Moreover, the network connectivity has facilitated the speed of communication among businesses and individuals. (Hampton, 2012). Despite the benefits associated with the internet and network technologies, the new technologies have opened the chance for hackers to attack the information systems of business organizations and collect sensitive information worth millions of dollars. Each year, businesses have been a victim of cyber-attacks in the United States. As an increasing number of people and businesses own internet-enabled devices, more businesses have become a victim of cyber-attacks, which has become a critical concern in the business and governmental environments. (Hacker news, n.d.).

The objective of this paper is to analyze the cyber incidents of the Sony…


Atkinson, S (2015). Psychology and the hacker - Psychological Incident Handling. Sans Institute.

Christopher, A. & Vasili, M. (2006). The KGB and the World: The Mitrokhin Archive II. Penguin. 41: 120-1.

FBI (2014). Update on Sony Investigation. Federal Bureau of Investigation. USA.

Fotinger, C.S. & Ziegler, W.(2004). Understanding a hacker's mind -- A psychological insight into the hijacking of identities. Donau-Universitat Krems. Commissioned by RSA Security.

Information Security Evaluation for OSI Systems a Case Study
Words: 4698 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 79647966
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An analysis of IT policy transformation

The aim of this project is to evaluate the effectiveness of information security policy in the context of an organization, OSI Systems, Inc. With presence in Africa, Australia, Canada, England, Malaysia and the United States, OSI Systems, Inc. is a worldwide company based in California that develops and markets security and inspection systems such as airport security X-ray machines and metal detectors, medical monitoring anesthesia systems, and optoelectronic devices. The company is also represented by three subsidiary divisions in offices and plants dedicated to the brands, apiscan Systems, OSI Optoelectronics and SpaceLabs Healthcare.

In 2010, OSI, Inc. had sales of $595 million with net income of over $25 million. As of June 2010, the company was comprised of 2,460 personnel globally. The parent company provides oversight and fiscal control to the different divisions, and is connected through its virtual network world-wide intranet system;…


Allen, J. (2005). Governing for Security: Project Stakeholders Interests. News at SEI. Retrieved on 5SEPT10 from 

Computer Misuse Law, 2006. Parliament UK. Retrieved from: 

Diver, S. (2006). Information Security Policy -- A Development Guide for Large and Small Companies. SANS Institute InfoSec Reading Room. Retrieved on 30 Sept 10 from 

Global IT Policy (2009) OSI, Inc.

Protection of Information Systems and Data
Words: 2006 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Other Paper #: 42333005
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In order to maintain information secrecy one would use cryptography. This is intentionally making information unintelligible. This method is mainly employed during the transmission of information. Cryptography ensures that only the intended person would be able to decipher the information (Whitman & Mattord, 2011, p. 339). The process of deciphering encrypted text is referred to as cryptanalysis. Cryptology is the mathematics branch covering cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptology has been in use since 1900 B.C. In Egyptian hieroglyphs. A Mesopotamian cryptography was discovered in 1500 B.C. that surpassed that of the Egyptians. The book of Jeremiah was written using alphabet substitution called ATBASH. Cryptography was employed during the First World War to decipher radio communication. Prisoners have also used cryptography to decipher their messages in order to protect their privacy. A key in cryptography is a parameter or piece of information that would determine the functional output for a…


Whitman, M., & Mattord, H. (2011). Principles of Information Security (4th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Security the Implementation of System-Level
Words: 568 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98232916
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There is a trade-off with regard to this first layer to ensure a high level of physical security that does not compromise the system-level flexibility and support. This first level of support can be as simple as locks, fireproofing and safes to biometrically based access as well. The components of physical security are surveillance and notification systems. These are systems that react to smoke, intrusion or a threat in the form of a break-in for example. Using motion sensors, intrusion detection equipment and closed-circuit televisions are all part of this step, as are continual centralized monitoring of the entire site as well. Organizations have successfully been able to integrate emergency self-start shutdown procedures for systems when intruders are discovered, disabling all system access to protect the data. A third class or component of security is the reliance on combining physical monitoring systems with the actual enterprise systems to ensure all…


Phil Aronson. (2005). An integrated approach to workplace security.

Employment Relations Today, 32(1), 41-46.

C Thomas Johnson. (2008). Protecting Your Walls. Risk Management,

55(5), 55,8.

Critical Updates for IT Systems
Words: 4083 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 90847460
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Compliance Patch Level

The author of this report has been tasked with discussing the overall subject of patch compliance level. Indeed, the pros and cons of using the patch compliance level framework will be assessed. There will also be an assessment of several critical things such as the patch compliance level of a given patch, what level of patch compliance is safe and what needs to be considered when evaluating the current patch compliance level. Patching is very much a security-related matter and helps both system and network administrators to keep their systems completely up-to-date and as safe as possible from vulnerabilities and hacking attacks. Not applying and installing needed patches to software such as operating systems, firmware, device drivers, databases and so forth can leave an enterprise information technology environment susceptible to attack. While the deployment of patches should be planned and deployed carefully, it is very important to…


Blue, V. (2015). New report: DHS is a mess of cybersecurity incompetence -- ZDNet. ZDNet.

Retrieved 21 October 2015, from 

Chan, J. (2015). Retrieved 16 October 2015, from

Codenomicon. (2015). Heartbleed Bug. Retrieved 21 October 2015, from

System and Security Having Secure
Words: 1131 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96272366
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If they need to access a site for business purposes, they may not be able to do so, and that can lead to frustration and even lost contracts and opportunities (Miller, 2005). With that being the case, it would seem as though there should be a way to get around these restrictions. If people start avoiding restrictions, though, where does that end? At what point does it become unacceptable and dangerous, and at what point does it jeopardize the privacy, safety, and security of other people who have their information online?

The people who own the information (i.e. The people whose information is being collected) should be the ones to control how secure that information is in the sense of who can see it and access it. Because their names, dates of birth, addresses, phone numbers, and other information belongs only to them, they should be able to determine whether…


DiBattiste, C. (2009) Privacy and Information Security 101: Have a plan Information Security Best Practices 2009 conference archive The Wharton School, University of Pennsylvania. Zicklin Center for Business Ethics Research. Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from 

Cranor, L. (2008) A Framework for Reasoning About the Human in the Loop. Retrieved on June 10, 2011 from 

Miller, M. (2005). Computer Security: Fact Forum Framework Retrieved on July 26, 2010 from

Detection and Intervention in Childhood Mental Health
Words: 10566 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 97642961
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detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?

Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…


AAMR. "Mental retardation: Definition, classification, and systems of supports," 9th edition (1992).

Caplan G. "Principles of Preventive Psychiatry," Basic Books, New York, 1964

Children's Mental Health: Current Challenges and a Future Direction Traditional Mental Health Services for Children: Current Arrangements and Challenges." Retrieved at . Accessed on 12/08/2003

Children, Youth and Mental Disorders." The Primer May, 2003

Principles of Incident Response and Disaster Recovery
Words: 2060 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52903638
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Disaster ecovery

Intrusion detection is the method of keeping track of the events taking place inside a computer or perhaps a network and then examining them to get indications of potential situations, that are transgressions or impending dangers of breach of IT security procedures, appropriate usage guidelines, or standardized security strategies. Intrusion prevention is the method of carrying out intrusion detection as well as trying to stop recognized potential situations. Intrusion detection as well as prevention systems (IDPS) happen to be mainly centered on determining potential situations, writing down details about them, trying to end all of them, as well as reporting these to security managers. Additionally, businesses make use of IDPSs for various other objectives, like identifying issues with security guidelines, documenting current risks, as well as stopping people from breaking safety guidelines. IDPSs have grown to be an essential accessory for the security system involving just about any…


Allen, J., Christie, A., Fithen, W., McHugh, J. And Pickel, J. (2000). State of the Practice of Intrusion Detection Technologies. Pittsburg, PA: Carnegie Mellon Software Engineering Institute, January.

Base, R. And Mell, P. (2001). SP 800-31, Intrusion Detection Systems. Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kent, K. And Mell, P. (2006). SP 800-94, Guide to Intrusion Detection and Prevention (IDP) Systems (DRAFT). Washington, DC: National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Kent, K. And Warnock, M. (2004). Intrusion Detection Tools Report, 4th Edition. Herndon, VA: Information Assurance Technology Analysis Center (IATAC).

Honeypot Help Security Professionals to
Words: 2642 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 16758922
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Groups -- People sometimes act as a group to steal information for any number of reasons. They may be a company's customer or vendor, or they may be a fierce competitor trying to steal sensitive trade secrets (Elifoglu, 2002).

Some common threat attack groups include the following:

Saboteurs/Terrorists/Paramilitary Groups;

Domestic or Foreign Criminals;



Competitors; and,

Former Employees (Elifoglu, 2002).

In reality, the concept of intrusion detection systems is a straightforward matter of designing a system that can provide alerts when it is attacked. According to Andress (2003), the process of intrusion detection typically requires the identification of unauthorized access into computer systems. For example, this author notes, "obust intrusion-detection systems are placed at strategic locations on the network to look for suspicious usage patterns so that attacks can be detected before an intruder has gained access to the network, application, or operating system" (Andress, p. 66). This author…


Andress, a. (2003). Surviving security: How to integrate people, process, and technology. Boca Raton, FL: Auerbach Publications.

Elifoglu, I.H. (2002). Navigating the 'information super highway': How accountants can help clients assess and control the risks of Internet-based e-commerce. Review of Business, 23(1), 67-69.

Grimes, R.A. (2008). Honeypots, honeynets. [Online]. Available: .

Hinojosa, P. (2005). Information security: Where we've been and where we need to go the Journal, 32(7), 36.

Honeypot Continuation How Can a
Words: 2231 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 57477348
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g., if thee is a pobing attempt o geneal scanning on the pots). Data will also be collected fom the log file of the monitoing tool and fom the log of the opeating system as well. Accoding to Thomae and Bakos, honeypots also have some distinct advantages fo data collection puposes, including the following:

Honeypots have no poduction use, most activity diected at honeypots epesents genuine attacks, leading to few, if any, false positives.

Honeypots can captue all activity diected at them, allowing the detection of peviously unknown attacks.

Honeypots can captue moe attack data than most othe intusion-detection solutions, including (fo some kinds of honeypots) shell commands, installed attack softwae, and even attacke-to-attacke inteaction though chat seves o othe communication mechanisms (Thomae & Bakos, pp. 1-2).

Honeypots facilitate this type of data analysis if popely administeed. Fo instance, afte collecting data fom log files, secuity pofessionals should analyze it…

references and deter computer crime. Yale Law Journal, 112(6), 1577.

Enterprise Technical Infrastructure Security Plan
Words: 2249 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11169948
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Essentially, the most successful it security systems will rely on a fragmented structure; they may look to third-party or other external local hosting service providers for data that is not as crucial to keep secret. Thus, enterprises must plan for space for "machine rooms that afford high availability and reliability to departmental server resources as well as appropriate network security for these resources" (Clotfelter, 2013, p 7).Then, for more restricted data, in-house servers can provide an extra layer of security to help ensure that such sensitive data remains in proper hands. To protect such restricted data, proper identity management strategies should include "a cross functional client and technical team abstracted requirements for updates" (Clotfelter, 2013, p 5). Thus, enterprise organizations must rely on a tiered network infrastructure that provides a number of different levels of security for various elements of the enterprise organization.

Security Plan

Security plans are a necessary…


Arconati, Nicholas. (2002). One approach to enterprise security architecture. InfoSec Reading Room. SANS Institute. Web. 

Clotfelter, James. (2013). ITS technology infrastructure plan. Information Technology Services. University of North Carolina Greensboro. Web. 

Glynn, Fergal. (2013). What is penetrating testing? VeraCode. Web. 

SANS Institute. (2011). Understanding intrusion detection systems. InfoSec Reading Room. Web.

Malware Since the Earliest Days
Words: 1957 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 9444607
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However, nothing can be done until the malware actually occurs. With all the different viruses, worms and Trojans, how can security managers possibly predict what malware will occur next? In contrast, a behavioral rule defines legitimate activity in a system. Any activity not matching the profile will cause the security product to be triggered. As rules are not specific to a particular type of attack, they can block malicious behavior without having to recognize the precise attack used. Thus, there is additional protection against new attacks as they emerge. It is to effectively prevent any unauthorized applications, including malicious code and Trojans. or, it could protect a webserver by making it impossible for anyone to access the webserver to change the files and limiting the risk of a hack (Franklin, 2002).

However, the dilemma comes how many rules should the system have? The security manager must decide between an effective…

References Cited

Bowyer, K.W. (2003). "Living responsibly in a computerized world." Ethics and Computing. New York: IEEE press.

Control Guard.

Franklin, I. (November 26, 2002) "Entercept Security Technologies: Rules or signatures?

The best method of prevention." Toolbox. Retrieved from website September 16,

Why Do You Think it
Words: 396 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 83722436
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There are also
those nations so hungry for economic growth that they embrace any type of
commerce activity, and this has been the case in China for example, which
does not police against spamming. The U.S. government on the other hand
has been aggressive about prosecuting spammers and sending them to prison.
You are a fairly small company:
a) Should you use a firewall?
Yes, most definitely, as any hacker could get to your company's record,
even spoof your e-mail addresses and send SPAM or other e-mails using your
company's identity.
b) Should you use antivirus systems?
Yes, as any small business will have spent a large percentage of their
total budgets on PCs and laptops, and a virus could make these assets
inoperable fast. Anti-virus will save e-mail systems, the company network,
and ultimately hundreds of hours of lost time.
c) Should you use and intrusion-detection system?
Yes and…

Information Warfare
Words: 2405 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61022595
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Warfare: An Overview

In today's age, traditional warfare, though a major player as we see in the Iraq war, has in some arenas taken a back seat to information warfare.

y definition, information warfare is the offensive and even defensive utilization of information and information systems to deny, exploit, corrupt or destroy an adversary's information, information-based processes, information systems and computer-based networks while protecting one's own. Parties use information warfare to gain military, public relations or economic advantage. (

Users of information technology are most often nation-states and corporations. For instance, by gaining access to a rival company's databases, a business can get a valuable advantage on price-points and supply chains. Countries can decide how much to spend on military equipment by discovering how much in military stocks adversary nations have.

One major focus recently on information warfare has been hackers. For instance, the most recent generation of mobile phones…

Bibliography The information warfare site. Glossary of information warfare terms. Web source of information warfare sites.

Chief Security Officer As the Chief Security
Words: 2148 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99079372
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Chief Security Officer:

As the Chief Security Officer for a local University, my main role is establishing and maintaining an enterprise wide information security program that helps to ensure all data and information assets are not compromised. This process involves developing a plan to conduct a security program that prevent computer crimes, establishes a procedure for investigation, and outlines laws that are applicable for potential offenders. To develop an effective plan, the process would involve identifying recent computer attacks or other offenses that have been carried out against higher educational institutions and processes established by these institutions to prevent the recurrence of the crimes. In addition, procedures, methodologies, and technologies that could be bought to lessen computer crime threats and effective laws for convicting offenders will also be examined. The other parts of the process include identifying computer crime fighting government programs and the types and costs of computer forensics…


"Data Security Breach at Ferris State University." (2013, August 16). Local. CBS Local Media.

Retrieved December 16, 2013, from 

Easttom, C. & Taylor, J. (2011). Computer crime, investigation, and the law (1st ed.). Stamford,

CT: Cengage Learning.

Arby Fields Computing Networking and Information Technology
Words: 4378 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92617559
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Arby Fields: Computing, Networking, And Information Technology Hardware and Software ecommendations

Fields Comprehensive Youth Services Inc. (FCYS) is a small nonprofit company based in southern California that serves adolescent male who are dependent and delinquent minors. FCYS has thirty employees. This study addresses the computing needs of the organization including hardware and software requirements as well as requirements for information technology security in the organization.

The purpose of this study is to identify computing hardware and software requirements for Fields Comprehensive Youth Services, Inc. In addition to the requirements of the organization for information technology security to protect the system chosen for implementation. This organization is presently utilizing four desktop computers purchased in 2005. The organization needs to purchase a solution that will accommodate future needs of cloud computing and to enable internal file sharing among multiple client sites. Another problem the organization faces is the manner in which documents…


"File organization tips: 9 ideas for managing files and folders," (n.d.). Microsoft At Work. Retrieved online:

"Software Requirements for Office 365," (2013). Retrieved online:

Belding-Royer, Elizabeth M; Al Agha, Khaldoun; Pujolle, G. (2005) "Mobile and wireless

Bright, P. (2013). Windows XP, Internet Explorer 6, Office 2003 enter their final support year. Arstechnica. Retrieved online:

Smart Homes Inc Case Study
Words: 1177 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 2018048
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Database Distribution Strategy

Smart Homes, Inc. required a database distribution strategy for its exciting new home thermostat product. As part of initiatives to develop and establish this database, the firm has created its own Web-based system for registering, evaluation, and controlling a user's thermostat through a mobile computing device. The database design must support a smart thermostat registration system that would support some customer service processes. For instance, when a customer installs and powers on the smart thermostat, the device links to his/her home network and sends distinctive device and environment information to the Smart Home, Inc. system. Moreover, the database must support the collection of smart thermostat data like current temperature, energy usage, humidity, thermostat location, and user-programmed temperature schedule.

Distributed Database Infrastructure

This project is geared toward the development and implementation of a thermostat system that will facilitate many functions provided by Smart Homes, Inc. As part of…


Bhargava, B. (n.d.). Building Distributed Database Systems. Retrieved from Purdue University


Coy, S.P. (1996). Security Implications of the Choice of Distributed Database Management

System Model: Relational vs. Object-Oriented. Retrieved from National Institute of Standards and Technology website:

How the Chicago Airports Were Hacked
Words: 986 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31614371
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Aircraft Flight Disturbance

Internal Memo:

Lessons Learned From September 26th O'Hare International Airport Incident

Senior Management

ecommendations to Avert Widespread Flight Disturbances

On September 26th, 2014, both O'Hare and Midway airports experienced a day-long disruption of operations that led to over 2,000 flights being cancelled and the entire nation affected by the disruption of operations. An employee with psychological problems intent on killing himself started a fire in the basement telecommunications room of the Aurora, Illinois control center, then attempted to slit his throat. After posting his suicide note on Facebook, relatives called 911 and both his life and the control center were saved. The fire damaged the most critical areas of the IT infrastructure for air traffic control for both the O'Hare and Midway airports, forcing air traffic control locations in adjacent states to take on one of the busiest areas of the country for air travel. The lack…


Cavusoglu, H., Mishra, B., & Raghunathan, S. (2005). The value of intrusion detection systems in information technology security architecture. Information Systems Research, 16(1), 28-46.

Crockett, B. (1988). People, not systems, key to network security. Network World, 5(12), 17.

Deane, F., Barrelle, K., Henderson, R., & Mahar, D. (1995). Perceived acceptability of biometric security systems. Computers & Security, 14(3), 225.

Lynch, D.M. (2006). Securing Against Insider Attacks. EDPACS, 34(1), 10-20.

Snort Author's Note With Contact Information and
Words: 2114 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26723676
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Author's note with contact information and more details on collegiate affiliation, etc.

This report is my own work. Any assistance I received in its preparation is acknowledged within, in accordance with academic practice. For any material, from whatever source, quoted or not, I have cited sources fully and completely and provided footnotes and bibliographical entries. The report was prepared by me for this class, has not been submitted in whole or significant part to any other class at UMUC or elsewhere, and is not to be used for any other purpose except that I may submit this material to a professional publication, journal, or professional conference. In adding my name to the following word "Signature," I intend that this certification will have the same authority and authenticity as a document executed with my hand-written signature.


Snort was created by Martin oesch in 1998. Sourcefire, Inc. is the company…


Cox, K.J., & Gerg, C. (2004) Managing Security with Snort and IDS Tools. O'Reilly Media, Inc., Sebastopol, CA.

Murauer, C. (2011) Building Snort for Mac OS X Lion 10.7. Available from assets/188/Building_Snort_for_Mac_OS_X.pdf' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>

Security Auditing Strategy for FX Hospital EHR EMR Website
Words: 2990 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 97278498
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Security Audit for FX Hospital EH/EM Systems

The study carries out the security audits for the FX Hospital EH/EM information systems to identify the vulnerabilities in the systems. The study uses the BackTrack as an auditing tool to penetrate the website, and outcomes of the auditing reveal that the website is not secure and can be subject to different vulnerabilities. After carrying out the auditing, the study is able to collect as much patients' data as possible revealing the website can be subject to vulnerable attacks. One of the vulnerabilities identified is that the website UL starts from HTTP showing that an attacker can easily break into the website and collect sensitive information. Moreover, all the data in the website are not encrypted making them easy for an attacker to collect patients' data.

By consequence, the FX Hospital can face lawsuits for failing to protect patients' data because if patients'…


Abdel-Aziz, A. (2009). Intrusion Detection & Response - Leveraging Next Generation Firewall Technology. SANS Institute.

Burr, W. Ferraiolo, H. & Waltermire, D. (2014). IEEE Computer Society. NIST and Computer Security.

Chadwick, D. (2012). Network Firewall Technologies. IS Institute, University of Salford.

Mell, P.Bergeron, T. & Henning, D.(2005).Creating a Patch and Vulnerability Management Program. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Network Design Proposal
Words: 4024 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 86117569
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Network Design Proposal

Network equirements

ABC School Stats/User Counts

Having a current strength of approximately 845 students, ABC School provides education from Pre-Kindergarten to the 12th Grade. According to the requirements of The New York School District, 250 Curriculum computers along with 75 Administration computers are to be installed. The requirements for the wiring per room of layer 1 are that it should adjust a total of 25 computers, 24 of which will be used for the curriculum, whereas one will be used for administrative purposes.

WAN Design

The model for the WAN is 2 layers of hierarchy having a total of 3 hubs, one connecting the District Office or the Data Center, one the Service Center, and the remaining one connecting the Black Hawk School. A Frame elay WAN will be responsible for providing the required internet services.

IP Addressing

For all the hosts, interconnection devices, and servers an…


ArrowMail. (2011). "Advice on Choosing the best Range of IP Addresses to use on your LAN." Taken from: 

Begin Linux. (2010). Network Design for Small Business. Taken from: 

Botsford, C. (2011). Learn To v. 3.2." Taken from: 

Crockett, R. (2003). Network design project Sunnyslope elementary school. WESD Network Design Project Proposal.

Physical Security Models
Words: 822 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50413471
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These can be layered by razor spiral at the top all around the perimeter wall. There could also be a second perimeter wall after the main one as well as security personnel patrolling the perimeter wall to handle any intrusions once detected. This type of perimeter wall works effectively in the layered security model since it gives the detection systems an inhibition backing to prevent intruders from accessing the business.

The intrusion can also come in the form of attempted access through the legitimate means like through the gate where the intruder will come in as any expected traffic. The layered physical security mode will have several choke points at the entry areas. There is the first heavy steel gate where vehicles stop for thorough and systematic checks. Electronic devices are used to check the vehicles and the visitors on foot are expected to go through metal detectors.

The security…


Pagoria B., (2004). Implementing Robust Physical Security. SANS Institute. Retrieved May 3, 2014 from 

Taylor B., (2002). Physical Security Vs. Information Security: Redefining the Layered Information Security Models. Retrieved May 3, 2014 from

It Infrastructure Project Description the
Words: 7426 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 5845260
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Secured real time protocol (STP) is also being identified to enhance the security parameter of WAN and LAN network elements. "STP provides protection with encryption keys for wired and wireless networks including bandwidth limited channels." (Guillen and Chacon 2009 P. 690). There is also a growing use of IP secure to protect organization from the interception of data over the LAN and WAN environment.

To enhance network security, Chen, Horng, & Yang (2008) postulate the use of public key cryptography. While there is a growing use of public key cryptography, there is still a shortcoming identified with the use of public key cryptography in the LAN and WAN environment. Since the public key is being kept in a public file, it is possible for an active intruder to forge the contents of the public key and use it to get access onto the data kept within the network system. To…


Chen, T. Horng, G. & Yang, C. (2008).Public Key Authentication Schemes for Local Area. Informaticia.19 (1):3-16.

Fetterolf, P.C. & Anandalinga, G. (1992). Optimal design of LAN-WAN internetworks:

an approach using simulated annealing. Annals of Operations Research. 36: 275-298.

Guillen, P.E. & Chacon, D. A (2009). VoIP Networks Performance Analysis with Encryption Systems. World Academy of Science, Engineering & Technology. 58: 688-695.

Application Technological Solutions
Words: 638 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46824680
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Technological Solutions

Improvements in technology for a public organization: The IS

The IS is a public agency that affects virtually every American's life. Even Americans who do not owe taxes must submit forms to the IS, detailing their economic status. The IS contains a wealth of information that would be of interest to someone attempting to impinge upon the security of the organization, including Social Security and financial data. To ensure people's identities are not compromised and that all financial data is stored in an accurate fashion, the IS's Computer Security Incident esponse Center (CSIC) has the responsibility of "preventing, detecting, reporting, and responding to computer security incidents targeting IS computers and data" (Nevius 2012).

However, there are serious problems with the CSIC. Firstly, a recent audit of the CSIC's found that its "host-based intrusion detection system is not monitoring 34% of IS servers, which puts the IS network…


Lockheed Martin wins two contracts to help modernize IRS technology. (2007). Red Orbit.


Nevius, Alistair. (2012).TIGTA recommends improvements to IRS cybersecurity system.

Journal of Accountancy. Retrieved:

Security Metrics the Intent of
Words: 718 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 50416125
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(%) Cross Site Scripting (XSS) errors -- by far the most common strategy hackers use to gain access to the source code of websites and the databases supporting them is to use a technique called cross-site scripting (Brodkin, 2007). Actively monitoring the percentage of XSS errors over time can determine patterns of when hackers attempt to gain access to a website's source code, database links, pricing and e-commerce systems. This is one of the most often used metrics in security dashboards used for monitoring Web-based applications and multisite installations.

(%) Incidence and Trending of Buffer Overflow Injection Flaws -- This is most commonly associated with attempts to gain access to SQL databases supporting a website by forcing a buffer overflow condition (Brodkin, 2007). This is one of the most effective hacking strategies there are as it forces a system to fail and allow access.

(%) Authentication Soft and Hard Errors…


Brodkin, J.. (2007, October). The top 10 reasons Web sites get hacked. Network World, 24(39), 1,16-17,20.

Su, M., Yu, G., & Lin, C.. (2009). A real-time network intrusion detection system for large-scale attacks based on an incremental mining approach. Computers & Security, 28(5), 301.

Xiong, K., & Perros, H. (2008). Trustworthy Web services provisioning for differentiated customer services. Telecommunication Systems, 39(3-4), 171-185.

Consultancy Inc Is a Small Business Organization
Words: 2323 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36257246
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Consultancy Inc. is a small business organization specializing in the management consultancy for various businesses in the United States. ecent growth experienced by the Best Consultancy has made the company to integrate network technology to facilitate the business agility. Thus, my neighbor, who is the owner of the business, has contacted me to assist him in designing a network system that could serve his business purpose. Meanwhile, Best Consultancy requires the following network devices in the company network technology:

laptops, 2 workstations, and 1 server supporting 3 users

Wireless networking

quality networked printer

File and folder sharing

Internet access

Multiple email addresses

Basic security environment which similar to home environment

Initial investment of $5,000 or less

ecurring costs to be less than $200 per month

To design the network system for Best Consultancy, it is essential to integrate the following network devices for the company network technology:

Project Objective



Cisco (2010). Cisco 3900 Series, 2900 Series, and 1900 Series Integrated Services Routers Generation 2 Software Configuration Guide. Cisco Systems, Inc.

Clark, D.D. Pogran, K.T. & Reed, P.R. (2008). An Introduction to Local Area Networks. Proceddings of the IEEE Xplore 66(11): 1497-1517.

Jenkins, S. (2003). Secure Network Architecture: Best Practices for Small Business and Government Entities. SANS Institute.


Risk Assessment for Cybertrans Ltd
Words: 2782 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35153313
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The diffused infrared configuration however, uses a transmitter that fills a given office space with signals. The signal receiver can then be located anywhere in the office area in order to successfully receive the I signal.

The Spread spectrum LANs

This form of arrangement utilizes the multiple-cell configuration. Each of the cells are appropriately assigned a unique center frequency that lies within a specific band in order to avoid signal interference. This transmission technique makes use of two methods; frequency hopping as well as direct sequence modulation

The Frequency hopping method uses signals that jumps from a given frequency to the other within a specific bandwidth. The transmission unit then "listens" to a give channel and if successfully detects any idle time (a time when no signal is transmitted),then transmits the packet via the full channel bandwidth .In case a channel is deemed "full," the transmitter then "hops" to the…


Bruce, WR (2002).Wireless LANs End to End, Ron Gilster (ed.), John Wiley & Sons.

Burell, J (2002) 'Wireless Local Area Networking: Security Assessment and Countermeasures: IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks', Dec. 2002, retrieved 22 March

2011, <>

Cisco (n.d)"Cisco HWIC-AP WLAN Module for Cisco 1800 (Modular), 2800 and 3800."

Network Design Scenario Straight Sales
Words: 1313 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95130534
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The company should use the Cisco hedge router to make the company to achieve a reliable communication over the internet. The edge router will also make the company to achieve higher capacity, scalability, and improve routing protocol convergence at lower costs. As traffic volume increases, the solution will allow the company to implement incremental bandwidth upgrades without necessarily changing the router interface. The edge firewall will be used to protect the network from the unwanted traffic. The firewall will also be responsible to enforce the internet access policy. As an added security policy, the company should also use the Intrusion Detection System (IDS) and Intrusion Prevention System (IPS) to detect and prevent unwanted traffic into the network.

Explanation of how hosting servers will affect the above choices

The router needs to link LAN communications on a WAN. However, the leased line is expensive, the paper recommends that the company use…


AL_Taiey,T. (2011).The Complete One-Week Preparation for the Cisco Ccent/CCNA Icnd1 Exam 640-822 with Three Cisco Simulated Exams a Certification Guide with Over 2160 Sample Questions and Answers with Comprehensive Explanations (First Edition ).

Cisco (2012).Cisco Wide Area Application Services: Secure Scalable, and Simple Central Management. Cisco USA.

Columbia University. (2010). Information Technology. Columbia University. USA.

Cisco (2012).Cisco's Virtual Wide Area (WAN) Application Services: Cloud-Ready WAN Optimization Solution. Cisco USA.

Pursuit of an MBA in
Words: 5684 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69405337
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First, there are some characteristics that differentiate leaders from nonleaders, although experts disagree on whether these traits are inherent or can be learned. However, there is little disagreement that certain types of leadership are better suited to certain working situations. Furthermore, successful organizations are those who manage to find a way to match up leaders to their most appropriate working situation. In addition, different approaches to management need varying levels of leadership. Also, some organizations rely on a group leadership approach, which de-emphasizes the role of any single leader.

One of the most interesting aspects of OB is that a proper understanding of it can help one determine who will make a successful leader. In fact, the five components of EI, self-awareness, self-management, self-motivation, empathy, and social skills, help determine who will become a leader. According to obbins, "the higher the rank of a person considered to be a star…


Bates, R.J., & Gregory, D.W. (2001). Voice & data communications handbook (4th ed.).

New York: McGraw-Hill.

Chan, J. & Chowdhury, S. (2005, March). Decision support systems - An IT and industrial perspective [Electronic edition]. Journal of American Academy of Business, Cambridge:

Hollywood, 6, 172-177.

Idses Best Practices the Dependence
Words: 1163 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14332945
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HIDS are not deployed in the network but rather within the machine or system needed protection. Thus, configuration of HIDS is dependent on the device they are installed on and different devices require different configurations and rulesets. Hybrid IDSes are a combination of two or more IDS components and provides one of the highest levels of protection ion information systems assets and resources. However, this kind of deployment mean more resources need to be allocated to ensure optimum functioning of hybrid IDSes.

From the various IDS components available, IDSes can also be differentiated by their detection types. These detection types can be signature-based, anomaly-based and stateful protocol inspection. The following are the differences in the detection types of IDSes (Scarfone & Mell, 2007):

A signature is a pattern that corresponds to a known threat. Signature-based detection is the process of comparing signatures against observed events to identify possible incidents.



Information Assurance Technology Analysis Center (IATAC). (2009). Information assurance tools report -- Intrusion detection systems, 6th ed. Retrieved June 6, 2011 from

Scarfone, K. & Mell, P. (2007, February). Special publication 800-94: Guide to intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS): Recommendations of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved June 6, 2011 from

Capture Data Sources Using the Digital Forensics Tool
Words: 3217 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 98473105
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Digital Forensics to Capture Data ources

Network Intrusion

Prioritizing Data ources

Account Auditing

Live ystem Data

Intrusion Detection ystem

Event Log Analysis

Malware Installation

Prioritizing data sources

Activity Monitoring

Integrity Checking

Data Mining

Insider File Deletion

Prioritizing data sources

Use of Uneraser program Recovers the Deleted Data

Network torage

A recent advance in information technology has brought about both benefits and threats to business organizations. While businesses have been able to achieve competitive market advantages through the internet technology, the hackers are also using the opportunities to penetrate the organizational network systems to steal sensitive data worth billions of dollars. A recent wave of cybercrimes leads to the growth of forensic investigation dealing with a collection of evidence to track cyber offenders. The study investigates different data sources that can assist in enhancing digital forensic investigation. The study identifies event log analysis, port scanning, account auditing, and intrusion detection system…

Stallings, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall.

Vigina, G. Johnson, E. Kruegel, C. (2003). Recent Advances in Intrusion Detection: 6th International 6th International Symposium, RAID 2003, Pittsburgh, PA, USA, September 8-10, 2003, Proceedings, Volume 6. Springer Science & Business Media.

Xu, M., Yang, X. Wu, B. et al. (2013).A metadata-based method for recovering files and file traces from YAFFS2. Digital Investigation. 10 (1); 62-72.

Information Technology Hilcorp Energy Company
Words: 3743 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 97129244
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emote access controls.

Network security management.

Password policies.

Compliance with the policies and procedures of the company is very vital to the organization, and the policies and procedures should be clearly communicated to the appropriate business teams.

Intruder: The suggested treatment for the attack by the external intruder such as hacker is to ensure that all communication within the organization is encrypted to deter the unauthorized access to the company data. Moreover, the organization should use antivirus to protect the company data from the attack such as Trojan horse, worm, virus etc. Compliance to policies and procedure is so vital to assure an organizational IT security.

Disgruntled Employee: Company needs to evaluate each personnel before being allowed to handle sensitive information. There is a need to conduct background check on each employee. The background check could verify potential employee criminal background, and social background. Employee should be asked to sign…


Graham, I. (1996). Graham Information Security and Management Services. Information Security Summit on 29-31.

Harn, L. Lin, H. & Xu.Y. (1994). Cryptography for PC/workstation security. ACM SIGICE Bulletin Homepage archive. 20 (1).

Hilcorp Energy, (2011). Vision, Mission, Values. Hilcorp Energy Company.USA.

Kumar, R. Jindal, R. Gupta, A. et al. (2011). A Secure Authentication System- Using Enhanced One Time Pad Technique, IJCSNS International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, 11(.2): 11-17.

Network Vulnerabilities That Avionics Are
Words: 2859 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 26903300
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In this manner, it makes network management and filtering a lot easier. Even though SPF can protect the network infrastructure against certain attacks that are known to exploit the weaknesses that are inherent in the various network level protocols, it can never provide protection at application level. The application defense needs more awareness of the content of the payload.

Circuit Proxy Firewall (CPF)

This type of firewall operates by relying as an relaying agent that exists between the external and internal hosts (Stephen, 2004). The whole idea is to protect the network's internal hosts from direct exposure to the outside environments.

The CPF firewall operates by accepting various requests from the internal hosts for the sake of establishing the connection to the external world. It then destroys the device's initial IP address as well as the header of the network layer.

Disadvantages of CPF

The payload is then encapsulated in…


[1] N. Thanthry, M.S. Ali, and R. Pendse, "Security,

Internet Connectivity and Aircraft Data Networks,"

IEEE Aerospace and Electronic System

Magazine, November 2006

Human Aspects in Cyber and IT Security
Words: 2582 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 25492392
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Human Aspects in IT and Cybersecurity Outline

Government Justification of Informing Private industry to improve or Set up Cyber-security

Methods of the Government Interventions

Impacts of Government egulation on National Security

Failure to comply to related cyber regulations

Meeting the minimum requirements.

Exceeding the Minimum equirements

The economic and national security of the United States rely on the effective functioning of the country critical infrastructures. ecently, the U.S. government has issued an executive order to manage the cybersecurity and protect the country critical infrastructure since a destruction of the critical infrastructures whether virtual or physical can have a negative impact on the national economic security, safety or national public health. The computer and information systems are part of the country critical infrastructures that facilitate effective data communication between organizations. Presently, the U.S. information systems have enhanced interconnectivity that enhances business advantages, which has never happened before. Despite the benefits of…


Coyne, C.J. (2012). Who's to Protect Cyberspace? Department of Economics Hampden-Sydney College

Liu, E.C. Stevens, G. Ruane, K. A. et al. (2013). Cybersecurity: Selected Legal Issues. Congress Research Service

Rosenzweig, P. (2012). An emerging threats: Cybersecurity and Public Goods. The Public/Private "Partnership." Hoover Institution, Stanford University

Stalling, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security Principles and Practice. (Fifth Edition). Pearson Education, Inc. Prentice Hall

ABC Healthcare S Technical Security Recommendations
Words: 3096 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 95283387
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Technical Security Recommendations for ABC Healthcare IT Infrastructures

ABC Healthcare has been facing a multitude of challenges ranging from the security of the IT infrastructures to the compliance of regulatory policies. In the United States, the lawmakers are increasing putting more restrictive in the regulatory environment because there have been more attacks in the healthcare environment, damaging the organizational information systems and using worms and virus to gain access to non-authorized sensitive data. The issues are making the stakeholders of ABC Healthcare demand for more flexible access to their information systems. Moreover, increasing regulatory pressures within the healthcare environment with regards to the management of the information systems has made ABC Healthcare to decide to implement more prudent information systems security. The goal of ABC Healthcare is to implement good information systems to abide by regulatory policies of HIPPA and SOX (Sarbanes-Oxley). Typically, both SOX and HIPAA mandate healthcare organizations…

Kizza, J.M. (2015). Guide to Computer Network Security. Springer.

Krogh, P. (2009). The DAM Book: Digital Asset Management for Photographers, 2nd Edition, p. 207. O'Reilly Media.

Mell, P. & Grance, T. (2011). The NIST Definition of Cloud Computing (NIST SP 800-145). National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).

Cyber Terrorism
Words: 4455 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 88428814
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Cyber Terrorism

The Internet that we know today and use in our everyday lives was founded in the early 1970s. But all through the Cold War, the apprehension of data theft led to the Internet becoming a decentralized system. But it was not until the late 1980s when the Internet, after years and years of research was made available to public. This was a big change because now anyone in the public could gain access of huge amount of data from anywhere in the world. The following list tells us how Internet can be used to spread evil, and assist terrorist organizations to apply more danger and fear to the world. According to Weimann (2004), the Internet has:

- easily approachable

- no single controller or regulator to control or censor information

- the makings for widespread spectators all round the globe

- the power for the user to remain…


Army, U. (2005). Cyber Operations and Cyber Terrorism. In U. Army, U.S. Army Training Doctrine Command, Handbook No. 1.02

Bridis, T. (2005, May 26). USA Today. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from "Silent Horizon" war games wrap up for The CIA: 

Coleman, K. (2003, October 10 ). Cyber Terrorism. Retrieved September 14, 2011, from Cyber Terrorism Article:

Aviation Flight School Start Up
Words: 3585 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Business Proposal Paper #: 45948221
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Business Proposal

Mission Statement

Vision Statement

Proposed Products and Services

Competitive Advantage

Organizational Structure

Expected revenues

Market Industry Position

elevant Competitors

ole of Information Systems

Information Systems Structure

People resources

Hardware esources

Software esources

Data resources

Network esource


Eagle Flight School and Shop will be a flight school for future pilots and a store where pilots and students can purchase everything from clothing (apparel) to flight bags to headsets. The Flight School will provide classes that will allow students to acquire a pilot's license in accordance with government rules associated with the minimum number of flight hours and the government approved curriculum. The mission of Eagle flight school is to provide pilots with the proper instruction as it pertains to all aspects of air travel and to provide both students and professionals with the equipment needed to carry out their duties as pilots. The flight school will provide a…


Balasubramanian, S., Konana P.and Menon N. M, (2003)"Customer Satisfaction in Virtual Environments: A Study of Online Investing," Management Science, 49, 7,, 871-889.

Bhatnagar R., A.K. Srivastava+,A. (2010) An Implementation Approach for Intrusion

Detection System in Wireless sensor Network. International Journal on Computer Science and Engineering, 2(7), 2453-2456

"Data Resources." Retrieved from

Importance of Security
Words: 1535 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 2726723
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Network Security and Why Use It

Security And Why Use It

The security of any network should be taken seriously. A network allows someone to share resources and information with others on the network. Networks allow for distribution of computer viruses, Trojans, human intruders, and employees can damage more than just one computer. To better understand the importance of network security, one needs to think of what might happen if all the data for a company that is stored in their servers vanishes. This scenario would cause losses that the company might never recover. Networks are divided into three main categories Internetwork (internet), Wide Area Networks (WAN) and Local Area Networks (LAN). These three categories of network require security to ensure that no malicious humans gain access, and no viruses attack the network.

To better understand network security, one needs to know what a network is. A network is defined…


Hu, H., Myers, S., Colizza, V., Vespignani, A., & Parisi, G. (2009). WiFi Networks and Malware Epidemiology. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106(5), 1318-1323.

Krishna, V.A., & Victoire, T.A.A. (2011). A Descriptive Study on Firewall. [Article]. European Journal of Scientific Research, 63(3), 339-346.

Papaj, J., Dobos, L. u., & izmar, A. (2012). Opportunistic Networks and Security. [Article]. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering, 5(1), 163-166.

Rao, B., & Parikh, M.A. (2003). Wireless Broadband Networks: The U.S. Experience. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 8(1), 37-53.

Comcast Hackers the Internet Has
Words: 1174 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 49446697
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This seems to be a case of some mischievous young men getting in way over their heads and not realizing how serious the consequences of their actions would be. Early on in the investigation, they were apparently laughing about the incident and enjoying their stint in the media spotlight (Poulsen, 2008). Now that they have been sentenced to serious jail time and are forced to pay major restitution, the seriousness of their crime has undoubtedly begun to sink in.

While there was no new legislation specifically attached to the Comcast incident, crimes such as this demonstrate that computer security is an enormously difficult problem for which no simple solution exists. Obviously there are differences between detecting an intrusion attack and preventing one from occurring in the first place. Preventative measures are obviously more helpful and less complicated, however with new intrusion techniques cropping up all the time, it is…


Comcast Hackers sentenced to prison (2010, September 24) U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved from

Poulsen, K. (2008, May 29) Comcast hijacker say they warned the company first, Wired, Retrieved from 

Poulsen, K. (2009, November 20) Three charged as Comcast hackers, CNN Tech/Wired. Retrieved from

Security Implementation of
Words: 3464 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 4428986
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Information System Security Plan

The information security system is required to ensure the security of the business process and make the confidential data of the organization secure. The organization's management is required to analyze the appropriate system to be implemented and evaluate the service provided on the basis of their required needs. The implementation of the system requires the compliance of organizational policies with the service provider to ensure the maximum efficiency of the system. The continuous update and maintenance of the system is required to ensure the invulnerability of the system towards the potential internal and external threats.

Data Security Manager and Coordinator

Develop Plan

Implement Plan

Employees Training

Test Safeguards

Evaluate Service Providers

Internal isks

Change Passwords Periodically

estricted access to personal information

Safeguard paper records

eport unauthorized use of customer information

Terminated Employees 1

3. External isks 1

3.1 Firewall Protection 1

3.2 Data Encryption 1



Baskerville, R., & Siponen, M. (2002).An information security meta-policy for emergent organizations.Logistics Information Management, 15(5/6), 337-346.

Dlamini, M.T., Eloff, J.H., & Eloff, M.M. (2009). Information security: The moving target. Computers & Security, 28(3), 189-198.

Dhillon, G., & Backhouse, J. (2000). Technical opinion: Information system security management in the new millennium. Communications of the ACM, 43(7), 125-128.

Jain, A.K., Ross, A., & Pankanti, S. (2006). Biometrics: a tool for information security. Information Forensics and Security, IEEE Transactions on, 1(2), 125-143.

Hacker Hacker Techniques the Hackers in
Words: 3074 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46013389
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Such people may not geneally take shelte unde the canopy of hackes but as a esult of the moe seious attibutes of thei motivation. (Hacke Motivation) Most of the people ae anxious about the pobability of being an objective fo exploitation by a hacke. It is quite nomal that if a compute has been installed fo home use and only connected to the Intenet fo two hous once a week, then it is not vulneable to be a victim of a hacke. Application of such judgment makes it possible to indicate the vulneability of being hacked, basing on the level of Intenet exposue, as high-isk and low isk and the Intenet Secuity fims ae most common victims fo the hackes.

The High pofile media-fiendly victims ae inclusive of the lage copoation's sites, political paty sites; celebity sites, etc. which ae vulneable to the assaults. Any body having thei own website,…

references and Deter Computer Crime" Yale Law Journal. Vol: 112; No: 1; pp: 47-51

Risk Management the Video Game Industry Forms
Words: 1408 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74808003
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isk Management

The video game industry forms a significant part of the leading companies worldwide currently. The huge diffusion of the internet and associated information technologies over the recent years has raised the need of increased security. Advancement in technology consequently leads to the advancement of video games as well as associated security risks. Some of the common threats and vulnerabilities involving this industry include: misuse by human, hacking, fraud, virus attacks, among others. Such factors can facilitate adversities such as information loss and alteration, and unauthorized access. This paper identifies and assesses potential threats, malicious attacks, and vulnerabilities expected by the organization. It also gives the control procedures to mitigate the mentioned risks and vulnerabilities.

The Threats and Vulnerabilities

There are a number of dominant security threats involving technology and information that affect the organization. Such threats poise a serious disruption to the business continuity planning (BCP) cycle of…


Syed, R and Morh, S. (2011). IT Security Issues within the Video Game Industry. The International Journal of Computer Science and Information Technology. Vol. 3, No. 5.

Drafting a Security Plan a
Words: 2220 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 36045234
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Interlocked doors which should be monitored at the courthouse's controlled center should be used to monitor and secure all points of entry and exit through this perimeter.

4. In order to meet the current design standards for short-term detention areas, all ceiling systems, floors, walls, and so on should be designed to reflect this standard.

Interface Zone Security

The meeting place for the attorneys, judges, court staff, jurors, the public and those in custody, is the courtroom, otherwise known as the interface zone. Thorough staff training, sound operational procedures, and proper designs are some of the strategies for securing the courtroom. Other measures for securing the interface zone (that is, the courtroom) include:

1. Provision of appropriate separation and unobstructed view between the public, witnesses, parties, and the judge;

2. The distance between the defendants and other courtroom participants should be appropriate;

3. Provision of bullet-resistant liners within the witness…

Work Cited

Hardenbergh, Gabriel et al., The Courthouse: Planning and Design Guidelines, (Williamsburg, VA: National Center for State Courts, 2001).

2 Neighborhood Information, "Towson Neighborhood Profile"(Yahoo Real Estate, 2011),  (accessed May 20, 2011).

Discover Baltimore, "Baltimore Neighborhoods," (Discover Baltimore,2011),  (accessed May 20, 2011).

Homefacts, "Local Crimes and Statistics," (Homefacts, 2011),

IT Services of Buildingdna® I Am an
Words: 4760 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95215438
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IT ervices of BuildingDNA®

I am an IT consultant with the objectives of providing recommendations for BuildingDNA Inc. To assist the company increasing its output and the productivity in the competitive business environment. I am also to provide recommendations for the BuildingDNA on the strategy to employ in implementing IT infrastructure design to achieve a leading ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning). The design packages are to assist the company to achieve a leading position in IT infrastructures that include: oftware Engineering, ystems Engineering, IT Management and Information Assurance.

More importantly, the goal of the project is to use the IT infrastructures to assist the BuildingDNA, Inc. To fuel very rapid growth by delivering 10-20 maps monthly and reach between 3,000 and 7,000 per month within 3 years. The project also identifies scalable, systematic process and procedure that BuildingDNA will employ in organizing, planning, tracking as well as evaluating the production of…


Butcher, D. And Rowley, J. (1998). The 7 R's of information management. Managing Information.5(3): 34 -- 36.

Crnkovic, I. Peter, M. & Larsson, H.(2002). Building Reliable Component-Based Software Systems. Texas. Artech House computing library.

Hawaii Government (2014). Information Assurance and Cyber Security Strategic Plan. USA.

McLaughlin, B., Pollice, G., and West, D. (2007). Head First: Object-oriented analysis & Design. Beijing, Cambridge, Koln, Sebastopol, Tokyo: O'Reilly.

Effects of Cyberattacks on International Peace
Words: 1233 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 74667853
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Cyberattacks to Achieve International Threats

Cyberattacks have become a global phenomenon leading to international conflicts among individuals, organizations and in conjunction to military operations. Target of cyberattacks include banking services, critical organizational infrastructures, government networks, and media outlets. Implication of such attacks may be an attempt to achieve both financial and political objectives. Typically, some attackers have defaced websites of different organizations, damage corporate infrastructures, and shut down network systems. Many cyberattacks are political motivated, and sources of these attacks are difficult to trace because most of the attacks are often state sponsored. Cyberspace attackers employ different tactics to achieve their objectives, which include both financial and military gains.

Objective of this paper is to explore the cyber operations and some of the tools that cyber attackers use to achieve their operations.

Objectives of Cyberattacks and Tools used to achieve the Objectives

Cyberattacks are broadly described as the type of…


Stallings, W. (2011). Cryptography and Network Security: Principles and Practice (5th Edition). Pearson Education, Inc.

Maude, F. (2011). The UK Cyber Security Strategy Protecting and promoting the UK in a digital world.UK.

UNODC (2012). The use of the Internet for Terrorist Purposes. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime.

Presence of Social Media at Linkedin
Words: 1513 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Creative Writing Paper #: 87075768
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Social Media Presence at LinkedIn

Professional Picture Here

Ibrahim Swaray

Cyber Security Graduate/Cyber Security Officer at University of Maryland

idgewood Area, Baltimore, Maryland -- Information and Cyber Security

Current: University of Maryland University of College

Previous: Northrop Tech, CPCI,

Education: University of Maryland

Send Ibrahim InMail

Connect Contact Info

Innovative cyber security graduate seeking position as an IT and Cyber Security Analyst to provide cyber, technical and information security advice for your organizations to protect your information assets.

A broad knowledge of cyber and information security with a good understanding of practical application of various security technologies and their theoretical frameworks.

My Values and Experience

I am a graduate from University of Maryland University College with Bachelor of Science and Master Degree in Cyber Security. My university education and practical knowledge during my industrial experience have assisted me to gain practical knowledge in cyber security that enhanced my greater…


Ford, B. & Risler, J. (2010). Entry-level Cyber Cyber Security Analyst Skill

Development. Cisco.

Hughe, J. & Cybenko, G. (2013). Quantitative Metrics and Risk Assessment: The Three Tenets Model of Cybersecurity. USA.

Infosec Institute (2015). Cyber Threat Analysis. USA.

Benefits and Shortcomings of Dynamic and Fixed Patch Compliance Level
Words: 2593 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 90213645
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Dynamic and Fixed Patch Compliance Level

The goal to achieve competitive market advantages in a business environment has made increased number of business organizations to indulge in online businesses to enhance time-to-market, increase profitability and deliver innovative products. To achieve these objectives, organizations are increasingly investing in the IT (information technology) to enhance effective communication, and transfer data across businesses through LAN (Local Area Network) and WAN (Wide Area Network). Moreover, large number of businesses are switching from wired to wireless network systems to reduce operational costs, capital costs and management costs. (Nicastro, 2005). Despite the benefits that businesses enjoy from IT investments, nevertheless, organizations face inherent risks of IT vulnerabilities, and vulnerabilities can originate from network access points, poorly configured firewalls, wireless access points, and unsecured SQL databases. Vulnerabilities can also arise from weaknesses in the configuration, technology, or security policy. (Nicastro, 2005).

Objective of this paper is to…


Brumley, D. Newsome, J. Song, D. et al. (2006). Towards Automatic Generation of Vulnerability-based Signatures. Security and Privacy. IEEE Symposium. 15-16.

Cavusoglu H, Mishra B and S Raghunathan (2004). The Effect of Internet Security Breach Announcements on Market Value: Capital Market Reactions for Breached Firms and Internet Security Developers. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 9(1), 69.

Cloud Security Alliance, (2013). Cloud Computing Vulnerability Incidents: A Statistical Overview. Cloud Vulnerabilities Working Group.

HKSAR (2008). Patch Management. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

Cloud Computing Risks and Security
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97019720
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Security Flaws and Risks in loud omputing


Significance of the Problem to Leadership

Primary research

Secondary research

Review of the Literature

Title searches, Articles, Research Documents, and Journals

History of loud omputing

Enhance cloud-computing security

Data is entrusted to a stranger

Inside attacks

Government & Marketing Intrusion

No standardization of safety

No customer service

yber attacks

Vodafone phishing scam

Eric Snowden NSA Breach phishing attack.

Target Breach

ontrasting Views: Safety of loud computing

Historical Summary of loud computing

Evolution of loud computing

Evolution of loud omputing as outsourcing agent

urrent Security Tools in loud computing

Intrusion Detection Systems

Anti-virus/Anti Malware

Risk management in loud computing

Manage Inside Attacks: Ensure safe hiring practices

2.24 Make a proper contract with your cloud provider 64

2.25 Know the protocol for Data Loss and Recovery 65

2.26 Outsourcing: A Risk Management Strategy 65

2.27 Summary 66

3 hapter 3: Methodology 68


Chapter 1: Introduction

Foster et. al (2011) defined that cloud computing is a large-scale computing paradigm that is moved by economies of scale. In this pool, there is abstracted, dynamically scalable, virtualized, storage and platforms delivered to external customers over the internet (Foster et. al, 2011). This known as cloud computing basically encompassed activities such as interpersonal computing and use of social network sites. Beginning from 2008, a variety of services came into being that enable computing resources to be accessed over the Internet. Nonetheless, cloud computing basically is concerned with data storage, accessing online software applications and processing power. In simpler terms, cloud computing is referred to a way on adding capabilities or increasing capacity without having to invest in more infrastructure, personnel or software (Popovic & Hocenski, 2010). In the old days, people used to save everything on the computer; either data was stored on the computer or on a personal storage device.

Cloud computing has enabled the coming generation to be exposed to internet based and distributed computing system. The cloud system is quite elastic and multi-tenant. This means that within the cloud computing system, more than one tenant can make use of a single service. Elasticity means that resources can either be added or reduced from a service depending on the demand the service has (AlMorsy, 2010) The end result is that the resource can be utilized in a much easier and cost effective way. The cloud model that was introduced has encouraged various different industries and academia to adopt this method of computing to host various applications. This model is preferred by various businesses because it allows for the business to make use of technology without putting in a lot of investment in infrastructure and other costs. A survey carried out by Gartner revealed that cloud computing has been increasing in profit and has been expanding ever since it was introduced (Gartner, 2011). In 2009, the cloud market

Cyber Crime Investigation and Digital Forensics
Words: 862 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 69241099
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Digital Forensics and Cyber Crime Investigation

HCC Partner is the top healthcare company in the United States, and the management has noticed an intrusion in the systems based on the alerts from their IDS (Intrusion Detection System) logs that causes the management to question the reliability of the system. Analysis of their systems reveals that HCC uses the Snort IDS that is running in Linux system. Moreover, the HCC database administrator has received and downloaded the strange email from the Human Resources Department, which makes the system behaving strangely after they open the attachment.

he objective of this project is to analyze the HCC database server, the network system and other workstations suspected leading to data leakage. he project will investigate whether there is a possibility of evidence of data breach.

A: Plan for Processing the Incident Scene and Potential Crime

he study uses the staircase model for the investigation…

The next step is to develop a documentation of the evidence. The study suggests using the digital camera take the photos of all the evidence. The photo must ensure 360-degree coverage of the scene. The photo must reveal the location of all the seized computer systems. The front, back, and, side by all photos must photograph. However, there is a need for a videotaping of the active screen monitor. The photographs should reveal the position of mice, computer components, cables and other evidence.


Casey, E. (2011). Digital evidence and computer crime: forensic science, computers and the Internet. Waltham: Academic Press.

Progress Due Week 9 Worth 200 Points
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Progress Due Week 9 worth 200 points Note: The assignments a series papers-based case, located Student Center shell. The assignments dependent . During project life cycle, project risk reviews reports required previously identified risk

Impact of events on the project

The top two threats that had been identified as destruction of company reputation and loss of customers have occurred. These threats had been established as having a high impact on the company and their occurrence has greatly affected the company. The company relied heavily on its reputation and having this destroyed has resulted in loss of business. The company is suffering as its good name has been affected and customers are not trusting of the company. Overall sales have been affected as customers are not visiting the stores and the little that are have reservations on their purchases. Customers are wary of losing their personal data Jane E.J. Ebert, Daniel…


Hillson, D., & Simon, P. (2012). Practical Project Risk Management: The ATOM Methodology, Second Edition. Vienna, VA: Management Concepts Incorporated.

Iversen, J.H., Mathiassen, L., & Nielsen, P.A. (2004). Managing Risk in Software Process Improvement: An Action Research Approach. MIS Quarterly, 28(3), 395-433. doi: 10.2307/25148645

Jane E.J. Ebert, Daniel T. Gilbert, & Timothy D. Wilson. (2009). Forecasting and Backcasting: Predicting the Impact of Events on the Future. Journal of consumer research, 36(3), 353-366. doi: 10.1086/598793

Lee, J.S., Keil, M., & Kasi, V. (2012). The Effect of an Initial Budget and Schedule Goal on Software Project Escalation. Journal of Management Information Systems, 29(1), 53-77. doi: 10.2307/41713870