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Jewish values neither ban the rights of abortion, nor do they allow undiscerning abortion capabilities (Yadgar, 2006). Women who are the solitary carriers of their babies have the right to do whatever they want with their bodies; however in Judaism, abortion is only allowed if there is some deathly threat to mother. After testifying, men are obliged to have education as similar to the God who strived for improvement of this realm during his stay on this earth (Kaplan, 1983). One of the primary responsibilities of Jewish parents is to provide quality education and instructions to their children
After studying Islam, its beliefs, differences with other religions and the way it is interpreted one can question about interaction of Muslims with people belonging to other religions. According to Baianonie (2002), Islam's primary objective is to spread its teaching with freedom without forcing anyone to convert to Islam. Also, it aims…
Ali, S.R., Liu, W.M., & Humedian, M. (2004). Islam 101: Understanding the Religion and Therapy Implications. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 35(6), 635.
Pew Research Religion & Public Life Project. (2012). The World's Muslims: Unity and Diversity. Washington, D.C.: Pew Research Center
Arnold, T.W. (2008). The Spread of Islam in the World: A History of Peaceful Preaching. India: Goodword Books.
Baianonie, I.M. (2002). The Relationship Between Muslims and Non-Muslims. Retrieved from http://islam1.org/iar/imam/archives/2002/03/29/the_relationship_between_muslims_and_nonmuslims.php
Islam, as a religion, has been adopted and is practiced by a variety of different ethnic groups and cultures around the world; and each ethnic group has had an influence on Islamic culture. As Islam spread out from its home in Arabia, the followers of Mohammed were joined by a number of different ethnic groups who adopted Islam. From Spain to Persia, India to Indonesia, Islamic Civilization is a patchwork of different peoples, languages, cultures, and traditions which make Islamic culture a form of "multiculturalism." And over the many centuries of Islamic culture, these different cultures have influenced and helped Islamic culture evolved into what it is today.
Because the prophet Mohammed was an Arab, Islam has its origins in Arabian culture, and thus all other cultures that have adopted Islam have technically influenced Islamic culture's development. For instance, before the 7th century and for more than 100…
Dallal. Ahmad. Islam, Science, and the Challenge of History. New Haven: Yale UP,
Fatimid Art, Precursor or Culmination." The Institute of Ismaili Studies. Web. 17 Dec.
Islamic Teachings and Their Practice in Different Cultures
Islam a highly controversial sensitive issue today's world, misconceptions beliefs, values, goals. For, Americans Muslims live Middle East, reality Indonesia people Islamic faith. What means Islam,
Islamic teachings and their practice in different cultures
Islam developed in the 7th century, in the Middle East. It is a monotheistic religious tradition. Islam which means submit or surrender literally, is founded upon the teachings of Prophet Muhammad, and it is an expression of submitting to the Allah's will. Muslims believe that Allah is the sustainer and creator of the world. The sacred text of Islam is called the Quran. The Quran has teachings that were revealed to the Prophet Muhammad from Allah. Muslims believe that Allah is the only one true God and He has no partner or equal. The five pillars of Islam are its unifying characteristics. The five pillars are its fundamental…
Achrati, A. (2006). Deconstruction, Ethics and Islam. Arabica, 53(4), 472-510.
Haniffa, R., & Hudaib, M. (2007). Exploring the Ethical Identity of Islamic Banks via Communication in Annual Reports. Journal of Business Ethics, 76(1), 97-116.
Katsh, A.I. (1963). Judaism and Islam. Journal of Educational Sociology, 36(8), 400-406.
Mortimer, E. (1991). Christianity and Islam. International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-), 67(1), 7-13.
The new and ancient technology that was being imported from Middle East together with the turn to rebirth Europe was a representation of one of the greatest transfer in the field of technology to have been recorded in history (allace, 56).
The Muslims specialized a lot in the sciences that existed and civilizations reliable with Islam and established them. All this was accomplished thanks to the Islamic conditioning and conscious that is intensely developed based on the well-established system of education of the Islam. There existed flexible persons in vertical and horizontal mobility as hedonistic evils and nationalistic evils that were held in check. Science and civilization prerequisites existed: innovation and invention based on original thought, individual efforts being utilized and social mindedness same case with educational other programs of the state and its organization; political stability, constitutionalism and the rule of law. For the genesis, establishment and implementation…
Wallace-Murphy, Tim. What Islam Did for Us. London: Watkins, 2006. Print.
Harrison, Christopher. France and Islam in West Africa, 1860-1960. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print.
Ali?, Wig-da-n. The Arab Contribution to Islamic Art: From the Seventh to the Fifteenth Centuries. Cairo: American Univ. In Cairo Press, 2009. Print.
Bat, Ye-or, Miriam Kochan, and David Littman. Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 2010. Print.
Al Andalus, ha-Sefarad, Andalucia: "a remarkable medieval culture rooted in pluralism and shaped by religious tolerance," (Menocal, 2000, p. 2). Al-Andalus was a region of cultural convergence and confluence. There, Jew, Muslim, and Christian culture coincided with remarkable intensity and mutual respect. For hundreds of year, as many as eight hundred, Andalucian culture represented the pinnacle of peace among the all the People of Abraham. Such a time of peace seems like an outlandish dream in the 21st century but it was real until the 13th century.
The relationship between the different communities of Al-Andalus was collaborative, with each stimulating and inspiring the other. However, clearly it was the Umayyad culture brought originally from Abd al-ahman that spawned the Golden Ages of Sephardic Judaism and Andalucian Islam. Abd al-ahman was half Syrian, half Berber: an already bi-cultural being. His example set the tone for the multiculturalism that characterized Al-Andalus…
Blair, S.S. & Bloom, J.M. (1999) Art and architecture.
Blair, S.S. & Bloom, J.M. (n.d.). The art and architecture of Islam 1250-1800.
Menocal, M.R. (2000). Culture in the time of tolerance.
Turner, H.R. (n.d.). Science in medieval Islam.
The flying carpet myths also contribute to the mystique and specialness that these relics represent. The time period of 622-1800 has seen much development of this art form. A rug or carpet that predates this era is very rare and almost impossible to find. This signifies the importance and longevity of this multi-dimensional tradition. Most art forms come and go, but when such efforts are combined with practical everyday usage, their usefulness contributes to the appeal of the work.
In today's world, Islamic carpets are still highly sought after items for both the collector and the everyday person who can appreciate fine weaving skills. The art is still practiced today throughout the middle east and both authentic Turkish and Persian rugs are still very valuable pieces of artwork. The continuing practice of Islam and that religion's relationship to rugs and carpets is still very prevalent throughout the Muslim world making…
Marika, S. (2011). Carpets from the Islamic World. Islamic Arts and Architecture, 26 Aug 2011. Retrieved from http://islamic-arts.org/2011/carpets-from-the-islamic-world/
MuslimHeritage.com." The Muslim Carpet and the Origin of Carpeting." Viewed on 29 Mar 2013. Retrieved from http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=401
Sometimes there is lack of sufficient money available to fund important projects and the price of loanable funds is normally high, showing the paucity of savings. In low-income economies, it is hardly a surprise that savings rates are small, as most disposable income is needed to be used for making purchases of necessities of daily living, and a lot of families just cannot bear to make financial provisioning for the future, although this makes them insecure and helpless. In this backdrop, the Middle East is unlike other developing regions. Even though individual countries experience shortages, however for the region as a whole the revenue generated from oil exports gave a great deal of surplus during the 1970s and also major portion of the 1980s. Even though the circumstances transformed with the fall in oil prices, the infusion of finance of course benefited not just the leading oil-exporting nations, but also…
Alam, Niaz. (2004, Oct 26) "Islamic Finance- Issues and Opportunities." Ethical Investment
Research Service. Retrieved 12 August, 2007 at http://www.eiris.org/files/research%20publications/islamicfinance04.pdf
Aziz, Zeti Akhtar. (2006, Feb 7) "Building a robust Islamic Financial System" 2nd
International Conference on Islamic Banking, Kuala Lumpur. Retrieved 12 August, 2007 at http://www.bis.org/review/r060208e.pdf
They contend that all the violent activities implicating Muslims are distortions and departures from the true and noble teachings of Islam.
Virtually all Muslims admit that Islam is not a pacifist tradition, while it allows and legitimizes the use of violence under certain conditions. This condoning of the use of violence is not exclusive to Islam All religions have their respective concept and justification of what is meant or what constitutes a "just war." The author argues that the religious legitimization of violence does not occur in what he describes as a socio-historical vacuum. He borrows the interpretation of Graham Fuller of the National Intelligence Council at the CIA. Fuller said that if a society and its politics are violent and unhappy, its mode of religious expression will tend to be the same.
The Koran teaches that the just war is always evil but that it is sometimes necessary to…
Burhan, Faysal. The Prophet of Islam and the Jews: Basis of Conduct, Acceptance,
Respect and Cooperation. Institute of Arabic and Islamic Studies, 2007. Retrieved on November 21, 2007 at http://www.islamic-studyorg//Islam%20%Denounces%20Violence.htm
Jacoby, Jeff. Muslim Violence. The Boston Globe: The New York Times Company, 2006. Retrieved on November 21, 2007 at http://www.boston.com/news/editorial_opinion/oped/articles/2006/09/20/muslim_violence
Khan, Maulana Wahiduddin. Non-Violence and Islam. Symposium on Islam and Peace,
hat the Jews call the Torah, the Muslims call Tawrat: the first five books of the Old Testament. The Old Testament book of Psalms is also held dear to Muslims and is called Zabur, and the New Testament writing of Jesus are called Injil (Robinson). Muslims also believe in lost writings of Abraham, referred to as the Suhuf-i-Ibrahim (Robinson).
Other beliefs that are central to the Muslim faith include belief in a Day of Judgment, which is a similar concept to the Christian and Jewish one. However, unlike Christians, Muslims do not ascribe to the idea of a personal savior who offers forgiveness via mercy and atonement (Robinson). Muslims, Christians, and Jews share in common a dualistic worldview that pits good against evil; Christianity and Islam are especially outspoken in references to Satan. Some Muslim social laws such as the dietary regulations against pork consumption were derived from the Jewish…
BBC. "Introduction: The Prophet Muhammad." Religion and Ethics: Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/muhammad_1.shtml
Hakim, Salman. "History of Islam." 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/history.html
PBS. Islam: Empire of Faith. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/faithbelief.html
Robinson, B.A. "Islam." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr.htm
In 2006 the government of Great ritain is stated to have: "...toughened anti-terrorism laws, making it a crime to 'glorify' terrorism and easing procedures for deporting clerics and others who advocate violence. There are presently approximately 2 million plus Muslims residing in ritain's Muslim community. In August 2006 a plot to bomb jumbo jets from the skies of Great ritain, jets that were headed to major U.S. cities was foiled. The 19 suspects, who are all Muslims, and 14 of which who are from London range in age from 17 to 35 years of age. Low employment rates among young Muslims ages 16 to 24, or a rate of 28% is said to "provide a fertile environment for extremist groups recruiting new members." (Sullivan and Partlow, 2006) According to the Washington Post report the root of the trouble is "...foreign policy." (Sullivan and Partlow, 2006) During the latter part of…
Wakefield, Dexter B. (2006) an Islamic Europe? Tomorrow's World Vol. 8 Issue 3. May-June 2006. Online available at http://www.tomorrowsworld.org/cgi-bin/tw/tw-mag.cgi?category=Magazine42&item=1149293702
Browne, Anthony (2005) Threat of Islamic Extremism that Stretches Across Europe. Timesonline. 26 July 2005. Online available at http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/article548063.ece
Rice, S. (2006) Sun Tzu: Ancient Theories for a Strategy Against Islamic Extremism. March 2006. USAWC Strategy Research Project. Online available at http://www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pdffiles/ksil477.pdf.
Sullivan, Kevin and Partlow, Joshua (2006) Young Muslim Rage Takes Root in Britain. Unemployment, Foreign Policy Fuel Extremism. Washington Post Foreign Service. 13 August 2006. Online available at http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/12/AR2006081201036.html
Likewise, it is unfair to view the Koran as a book of evil.
The Koran, the Islamic "Holy Scripture," is frequently criticized by those that do not understand its text as some sort of blueprint for terrorism and the basis upon which terrorist activities and genocide are justified. In reality, the Koran relies heavily on Christian traditions. It was Muhammad's contention that Christianity had departed from belief in God's message as revealed in their Scriptures. God had sent many prophets, among them Abraham, who is considered the founder of the faith for Islam, as he is also for and Christianity. The Koran, using sources in the older Scriptures and later traditions, relates the stories of Abraham, Joseph, Moses and Aaron, David, Solomon, Jesus, and others, all of whom are declared to have been true prophets whose messages were largely ignored: "We sent forth Noah and Abraham, and bestowed on their…
Atkins, S.E. (2002). Encyclopedia of Modern American Extremists and Extremist Groups / . Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
1992). Faith and Practice of Islam: Three Thirteenth Century Sufi Texts / (Chittick, W.C., Trans.). Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
Haddad, Y.Y. (Ed.). (1993). The Muslims of America. New York: Oxford University Press.
Kamali, M.H. (2003). Islam, Rationality and Science. Islam & Science, 1(1), 115.
Islam and the West
How do you see Islam offering an alternative to modernity as defined by the West? Is this alternative oppositional to or complementary with the West or both? Why or why not? Focus on specific examples.
Globalization is a phenomenon that has touched all spheres of human life. Made pervasive with the aid of technology, globalization has come to define the manner in which we lead our lives. Be it social, physical or emotional aspects, all of these are now considered in a broad perspective. But in this realm of the world being rendered a global village, the fact remains that globalization is seen as a Western phenomenon where the entire world, specially the East is seen as a passive object that was awaiting for the Western led tide of modernism take over its primitive traditions and ways of life. (Hobson)[footnoteef:1] [1: Hobson, John M. "Eastern Agents…
Abbas, Rana Zamin, Dr. Muhammad Amin and Dr. Zulfqar Ahmad. "Muslim Response to Modernity and a new strategy of peace in the world." Interdisciplinary Journal Of Contemporary Research In Business 2.9 (2011).
Acharya, Amitav. "Dialogue and Discovery: In Search of International Relations Theories Beyond the West ." Millennium: Journal of International Studies 39.3 (2011): 619-637.
Amineh, Mehdi Parvizi. "The Challenges of Modernity: The Case of Political Islam." Perspectives on Global Development & Technology 6.1-3 (2007): 215-228.
Amir Arjomand, Said. "Axial civilizations, multiple modernities, and Islam ." Journal of Classical Sociology 11.3 (2011): 327-335.
Islam Religion in the Arab orld
Description of the Islamic Religion
Three Muslim Divisions
Black Muslims in the United States a. Influence of Louis Farrakhan b. Influence of Malcolm X
Islam is the name given to the religion preached by the Prophet Muhammad in the 600's AD. This Arabic word means surrender or submission. God is known as Allah, which means The God. A person who submits to Allah and follows the teachings of Islam is called a Muslim. This paper discusses the beliefs and practices of Islam in Iraq verses the practice of Islam in the United States specifically by African-Americans and how they were influenced by Malcolm X
The word 'Islam' has the dual meaning of 'peace' and 'submission to the will of God'. Those that follow this religion believe in only one God. It traces its lineage right hack to Prophets Abraham and Adam and describes…
Big Chalk. "Malcom X Quotes." 29, March 2003. http://www.cmgww.com/historic/malcolm/index.html.
Brown, Kevin. Malcolm X: His Life and Legacy. Millbrook, 1995.
CMG Worldwide. "Biography of Malcom X." 29, March, 2003. http://www.cmgww.com/historic/malcolm/index.html.
New Internationalis. (May 2002). "Islam: The Basics." (14) v2.
How did contemporary circumstances contribute to the success of the early Muslims?
Medieval in the Close and Middle East is characterized by the collapse of former Hellenistic influence. Islam was the main reason of uniting all Eastern tribes and ethnos in one strong and powerful nation. Muslims spread their influence on many countries of this region and created Islamic world, which was united by new powerful religion which was the main aim of their life. Eastern civilization had very strong political power connected with Islam. Power was considered to be sacral gift given by Allah. Poor and rich people were convinced to cooperate, so there was no strong misunderstanding in Arabic society as it took place in medieval Europe.
Islam is the second most spread world religion now and scientists say that there are about 900.000.000 Muslims. Islam is a very popular religion and many people of other religions…
2, Ira M. Lapidus History of Islamic Societies Cambridge University Press; 2 edition (August 22, 2002)
3 Wilferd Madelung The Succession to Muhammad: A Study of the Early Caliphate Cambridge University Press; New Ed edition (October 15, 1998)
4. Robert G. Hoyland Arabia and the Arabs: From the Bronze Age to the Coming of Islam (Ancient Peoples) Routledge (October 1, 2001)
His knowledge was not limited to the time or space during which Quran was revealed; it was far more encompassing and this is revealed in the Quran for those who wish to reflect and connect the dots.
In Dr. Maurice Bucaille's writings on the subject, there are countless examples of the way Quran and modern science compare. The author offers valuable analysis and explanation of the terms used by the Quran and then compares them with what is found in modern scientific discoveries. Some of the explanations found in his writings are discussed below. They give us a clear idea of how Quran compares to modern science.
Creation of man is an important subject and mentioned on several occasions. And so is the creation of the Universe. Man did not know much about the creation of the Universe until modern science made it possible to understand movement of sun and…
Ali Ashraf, New Horizons in Muslim Education, Cambridge: Islamic Academy, 1985, p.27
Ahmad Afzaal, "Qur -- an and Human Evolution" http://www.fortunecity.com/brozers/cheshire/170/survival%20 (1)html p.2.
Murad Wilfred Hofmann "Has Islam Missed its Enlightenment?" The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 19 (2002)
Dr. Maurice Bucaille, the QUR'an and MODERN SCIENCE, Edited by Dr. a.A.B. Philips, 1995
Islam and the West
The author of Islam and the West, ernard Lewis, has an extensive background in the study of Islam. He has both a .A. And Ph.D. In history from the University of London. His .A. emphasizes the Near and Middle East, and his Ph.D. focused on the history of Islam. He did additional graduate work at the University of Paris. He taught for many years at the University of London, and since 1986 has taught at Princeton University in Princeton, New Jersey. His long list of other published books include The Arabs in History (1950), The Political Language of Islam (1988), and his most recent work, A Middle East Mosaic: Fragments of life, letters and history (2000).
The entire book looks at the relations between Islamic culture and European/Western culture. The first section, with two essays, involves history encounters between the two cultures and what they believe…
Lewis, Bernard. Islam and the West. Oxford University Press, New York and Oxford, 1993.
Princeton University. "Bernard Lewis." Accessed via the Internet 12/3/04. < http://www.princeton.edu/~nes/profiles/Lewis.htm>
Islam and Christianity
Historically, the roots of Islam and Christianity grow from similar philosophical, theological, cultural, and geographical underpinnings. hatever their differences, these two major world religions can and do see eye-to-eye on a number of different subjects. However, Islam and Christianity are terms used to describe very diverse groups of people. There are many different sects within each religion, sect that often disagree on fundamental issues. The debates within Christianity and Islam can be heated, often hostile. By extension, the debates between the two religions often erupt into full-blown bloody battles. The Ottoman crusades are an example of this, showing also that both Christianity and Islam have had a history of marrying the religious with the political. As I delve into my own religious background and hope to better understand a religion other than my own, I observed much in common between Christianity and Islam. My research points to…
'Connecting with the Divine." (1998). World Religions Index. .
Coppit, David. (2000). "Liberal Christianity: A Possible Resolution to Many Thorny Issues." Thoughts on Christianity and God. .
"Islam." Islam Facts and Information. .
'Religion and Ethics: Islam." (2003). BBC. .
Namely, as acts of 'terrorism' are waged against the supposed enemy of Islam under the term "Jihad," Lippman considers this to be "the most overused and ill-understood word in contemporary Islam." (113)
In a large respect, this is because geopolitical circumstances have created many defensive and militant segments of the global Muslim population. The exploitation of the term Jihad is one of the primary practices of those armed extremist groups postured in opposition to the west. Lippman's text provides some excellent insight in this regard, noting that Jihad is taken generally as a call to "holy war" but that this is a pointedly selective interpretation of its meaning. In actuality, the term means "utmost effort." (113) hile Lippman does not preclude therefore the possibility of violence as being encompassed by the utmost effort in defense of Islam, the conflictive relationship between Islam and the colonizing forces of Europe in centuries…
Lippman, T.W. (1995). Understanding Islam: An Introduction to the Muslim World. Plume.
In contrast, the other part is willing to accept new views regarding the religion, as they are only willing to interpret Mohammed's teachings and not interpretations that came after him.
To a large degree the author is right in wanting the general public to be unbiased in dealing with Islam. It is only natural for people to have a wrong perception of this religion when considering the intense anti-Muslim propaganda that has dominated the media during the recent years.
It is difficult to determine whether Islam is or is not presently similar to Christianity during the sixteenth century Reformation, with people trying to break from conventional views of the religion in favor of dedicating themselves to it as they consider it to be fit. When going across this text people are likely to feel that there is a fight going on, between their own opinions on Islam, the opinions of…
Surely, the book is not meant to serve as a text book, given the author himself at times proves to display a subjective character. This is most probably done because he is irritated with the way Islam is seen because of the media and because of fanatic terrorists fighting for an imagined cause. Even with the little subjectivity found in the book, readers are likely to enjoy it for the historical account it provides them with and for the fact that it presents them with an innovative perception of Islam, one that is not propaganda and that simply promotes the theory relating to how the masses should not be biased.
Aslan, Reza. (2005). "No god but God: The Origins, Evolution, and Future of Islam." Random House.
Equally important in the Islamic faith is the belief in Hell, which every Muslim is also obligated to believe. Hell is called Jahannam and it is a place that Allah has prepared for those who have not followed his laws and those who do not believe in him. Hell is said to be a place where there is the worst kind of humiliation and loss. Hell's fire is described by HilalPlaza.com to be "70 times hotter than the hottest fires of Earth." It is also said that the food in Hell will not nourish those who are in Hell nor will it give relief from hunger. However, Muslims believe that Hell is not forever. It is believed that because Allah is full of mercy and compassion, he can rescue Muslims who are in Hell. According to religionfacts.com, Hell can be considered "as a place of progress where souls are instructed…
"Islamic Beliefs about the Afterlife." Religion Facts, n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2009.
"The Belief of 'Heaven' in Islam." HilalPlaza.com, n.d. Web. 3 Oct. 2009.
Pennington, Rosemary. "The Different Levels of Heaven in Islam." Muslim Voices. March 2009. Web. 3 Oct. 2009.
Sampley, Ted. "No Virgins for Women in Muslim Paradise." The U.S. Veteran Dispatch. January 2007. Web. 3 Oct. 2009.
Jihad is an important concept, which is not holy war as many non-Muslims might think. Jihad means struggling in the way of Allah. That struggle can be in form of fighting physically, fighting with money or fighting against temptations. Fighting physically is allowed only when provoked or when war is clearly declared. Suicide bombing and other forms of violence where hundreds of innocents are killed in the name of God are strictly forbidden in Islam.
Islam is natural religion that doesn't force people to do something that is beyond their means. Hajj and payment of charity are meant only for those who have the resources to carry out these duties. Mecca and Medina are two cities where Hajj takes place but these places are strictly meant for Muslims and non-Muslims cannot enter. There is a very important reason behind it. The cities were earlier open to everyone but after a…
Christianity and Islam: A Clash of Civilizations
Ever since the beginning of the 7th century CE, the relationship between Christianity and Islam has been characterized by wariness and suspicions, feelings that became especially pronounced following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 in the United States. Today, the billions of Christian and Muslim adherents have squared off in their respective ideological corners and scarcely a day goes by without the headlines trumpeting yet another religiously inspired terrorist attack somewhere in the world. The purpose of this paper is to provide an explanation concerning the relationship between Christianity and Islam to identify their geographical and historical timelines as represented in their sacred texts followed by an analysis of the similarities and differences between the two religions with a specific focus on pilgrimage narratives. Finally, a summary of the research and key findings concerning Christianity and Islam are presented in the conclusion.…
Boase, R. (2013, October 1). We are all Moors: Ending centuries of crusades against Muslims and other minorities. Bulletin of Hispanic Studies, 90(7), 869-871.
Erickson, L. (2017). Six top Christian pilgrimages: Rediscovering an ancient practice. Light Workers. Retrieved from https://www.lightworkers.com/6-top-christian-pilgrimages/.
Fischbach, M. R. (1998, Winter). Pre-20th century- Pilgrims and sultans: The Haji under the Ottomans, 1517-1683. The Middle East Journal, 52(1), 136-140.
Johnson, D. (2007, January). Islam, western civilization & the nation state. New Criterion, 25(5), 7-11.
Smith, J. (2015, April). Muslim-Christian relation: Historical and contemporary realities. Oxford Divinity School Retrieved from http://religion.oxfordre.com/view/10.1093/acrefore/ 9780199340378.001.0001/acrefore-9780199340378-e-11.
Sudworth, R. J. (2018, Spring). Competing fundamentalisms: Violent extremism in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism. Anglican Theological Review, 100(2), 407-411.
Islam is one of the fastest growing religions in the modern world given that it provides a radically divergent view of God and mankind. The rapid growth of this religion has contributed to increased study of Islam by the West in attempts to understand the life of the Muslim. Additionally, Muslims themselves have expressed great interest in studying the reality of their religion in relation to the modern world. The increased focus on studying Islam is fueled by the need to understand how to practice Islam in the modern world without losing the tenets of the religion. Throughout its history, Islam has faced considerable challenges from time to time and responded differently depending on the challenge itself. In the modern 21st Century, Islam has also experienced tremendous challenges and responded to these challenges using various ways in order to enhance the reality of the religion among its followers.
Antunez, E. (2015, March 1). The Rise of Islamic Extremism. International Policy Digest. Retrieved September 11, 2017, from https://intpolicydigest.org/2015/03/01/the-rise-of-islamic-extremism/
Dodd, V. (2016, October 19). Muslim Council of Britain to Set Up Alternative Counter-terror Scheme. The Guardian. Retrieved September 11, 2017, from https://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/oct/19/muslim-council-britain-set-up-alternative-counter-terror-scheme
Scharbrodt, O. (2016, February 29). Islam’s Principles Can Help Tackle Challenges Facing Modern World. International Quran News Agency. Retrieved September 11, 2017, from http://iqna.ir/en/news/3459146/islam%E2%80%99s-principles-can-help-tackle-challenges-facing-modern-world
Islam and Christianity have a lot of history to share dating back to some years before the birth of Jesus. Although the members did not interact freely, the current 'animosity' characterizing the two religions was unheard of. In fact, they appeared to be focused much in solving their individual problems which unique but almost similar. This study shows that the two religions were affected by problems related to political succession leading to the cooperation instead of conflict.
How did the problem of political succession affect Islamic and Christian societies in the Middle Ages?
The problems of political succession affected Islamic and Christian societies in a number of ways. First, political succession affected Islamic societies by causing an expansion of Islam from the Middle East in other parts of the world. In this regard, a series of events that took place in the Middle East affected the spread of Islam. This…
Islam in the Age of Globalization
The three major religions in the 21st century are all Abrahamic in historical basis. These religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity remain at the edge of political, social, and cultural issues, particularly now in that globalism has become so predominant. These religions are noted as Abrahamic because each uses the basic teachings of the Prophet Abraham in their general world view. All three faiths are monotheistic and together account for over half the world's population, or combined in excess of 4 billion people. Within these three religions, despite much public disagreement, there are many areas of commonality (The Top 10 Organized eligions in the World, 1998). From a non-religious perspective, however, globalism has brought about some change in the perception of these religions based not necessarily on religion, but on marketing and consumerism.
One of the consequences of globalism in the world is the availability…
The Top 10 Organized Religions in the World. (1998, August 4). The Christian Science Monitor, p. B2.
Islamic Consumer Protest Hits West Where it Hurts. (2002, November 7). Retrieved from The Guardian UK: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2002/nov/07/internationalnews
Food, Fashion and Faith. (2007, August 2). Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/9587818
How to Live According to the 5 Pillars of Islam: The Foundation of Islam Cannot be Laid in a Day. (2008). New York: Quick and Easy Guides.
There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.
The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.
The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…
Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?
Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.
Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.
Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).
Ibn Khaldun conceptualized history in terms of transformations of social and political power, leading to cultural changes. This was especially true for the expanding Muslim world, of which Ibn Khaldun was a part. During the Middle Islamic periods, scholarship and learning became entrenched throughout the Muslim world and would have a tremendous impact on the evolution of human consciousness and society. Art, architecture, science, medicine, math, and engineering all flourished during the Middle Islamic period. Although these were the primary external features of the Middle Islamic period, also referred to as a golden age, there were underlying political, socio-religious, and economic developments that caused and characterized changes taking place throughout the Mamluk, Mongol, and Timurid periods.
Abbasid rule had a major impact on political, socio-religious, and economic developments. The Abbasid caliphates stressed schools of learning and formal modes of education that were rooted in Islam but which also transcended…
Egger, V.O. (2007). A History of the Muslim World. Pearson.
Islam and Terrorism
Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?
Background of Islam
Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam
Public Opinion Polls
Islam in the Media
There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."
Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…
AFP. (2008, February 27). Major survey challenges Western perceptions of Islam. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i5ajtNJ0qTTRMBSFpYngMOjrmDbQ
Imam, M. (N.d.). The Perception of Islam and Muslims in the Media and the Responsibility of European Muslims Towards the Media . Retrieved from Cuturelink: http://www.culturelink.org/conf/dialogue/mesic.pdf
Kidd, T. (2009). American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism. Princeton University Press.
Lostopedia. (N.d.). Syid Jarrah. Retrieved from Wikia: http://lostpedia.wikia.com/wiki/Sayid_Jarrah
He pioneered sweeping reforms in the Egyptian education specifically focusing on the schooling of women. (p.90) Ali Abdal aziq discusses he authority of the caliphs and argued that Islam can never constitute the legitimate basis of a nation state. He was criticized for reducing Islam to a purely spiritual system. aziq stressed that an individual Muslim community were entitled to choose their own caliph if they wanted one. That meant that a decision by any authentic Islamic society was itself by definition Islamic. (p.91) Ayatollah Khomeini revealed that it was the duty of religious leaders to bring about an Islamic state and to assume legislative, executive and judicial positions within it. This particular form of government was to be referred to as "ule of the Jurisprudent." The highest authority was to be a religious scholar who held absolute executive power and who was qualified to hold office on the basis…
Rippin, a. (2005) Muslims: Their Beliefs and Practices. New York: Routledge
Mernissi, F. (1992) Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World. Cambridge: Perseus Books Publishing.
Elias, J. (1999) Islam: Religions of the World. London: Routledge.
Lee, R. (1997) Overcoming Tradition and Modernity: The Search for Islamic Authenticity. Boulder: Westview.
More recently, reports have begun coming from the Middle East that women will no longer be "expected" to participate in the pilgrimage to Mecca, thereby eliminating women from the holiest rite associated with Islam. Having once done that, it would then be easy to keep women physically, mentally, emotionally isolated within any Muslim society.
Of equal concern is the way in which the Koran is interpreted to facilitate and carry acts of terrorism. The Koran does call for the defense of Islam, that should Islam be threatened, it is the responsibility of every Muslim - presumably, women too - to rise to the defense of Islam."Islamic rulings of warfare are complex, appear to be contradictory and require careful analysis. The simplistic visions of paradise for suicide preached by militant jihadist clerics defy over 1,400 years of Islamic history and wisdom. Yet those like Osama bin Laden, yman al Zawahiri, or…
Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 18.
Answers.com, Zahra Kazemi, found online at http://www.answers.com/topic/zahra-kazemi , retrieved 10 January 2007
Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 19.
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
Approximately twenty million of the world's one billion Muslims live in Russia, even more in Eastern Europe. The media and academics alike are scurrying to react to this seemingly new wave of Islam in Russia, however attention is mainly focused on extremist activity. "Fundamentalism," "Wahhabism," "Islamism," and other such banner concepts are tainting our perception of Islam in Russia. The place of Islam in Russia is being assessed primarily as a factor of danger that threatens its national security and the interests of its citizens.
This current wave of Islamic activity in Eastern Europe is largely an extension of thousands of years of history. In Russia, Islam was the unfortunate foe of Communist politicians who challenged the very notion of religious freedom. Indeed, Islam has endured centuries of antagonistic regimes and related controversy. The following analysis will consider in what ways the demise…
Islam According to Three Books
Though Islam is certainly suffering from an image problem in the West, there is no denying the fact that it is the one of the major religions and boasts of millions of followers in almost every part of the world. Our assessment of Islam and its various teachings may not exactly be perfect because of the negative perceptions and interpretations currently doing rounds in the West. But these misconceptions have often been reinforced by those we mistakenly call authorities on the sensitive subject of Islam. One such author is Bernard Lewis who with his two books, Crisis of Islam and What went wrong, has done more harm to the image of Islam than he probably meant to. In these days of extreme fear and repulsion when Americans are simply scared of Islam and most of us are suffering from Islam phobia,
Bernard Lewis has only…
Islam: A Short History, by Karen Armstrong. Modern Library, 2000.
What Went Wrong? Western Impact and Middle Eastern Response, by Bernard
Lewis. Oxford University Press, 2002
The Crisis of Islam, Holy War and Unholy Terror By Bernard Lewis, 2003
SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION
The religion of Islam is very misunderstood and pervasively skewed within its true meaning and original intent by extremists in the Islamic society. Never did the prophet intend that the abuses and oppression which today's Muslim women suffer should occur. It is the conclusion of this writer that extremists exist in all religions and these are those who garner the most attention and receive the most press however, those who are moderate and who adhere to the true beliefs and meaning of the Islamic religions receive little attention and little press and even littler in the way of chances to convey the truth of this religion to the world. The abuses and oppression will continue however, it is hopeful that the ignorance surrounding the Muslim religion will eventually lose out to better dissemination of information and to more intelligent reporting backed by diligent investigation of the facts.…
Soares, Claire (2009) Delara Darabi: 'Oh Mother, I Can See The Noose'. The Independent UK. 4 May 2009. Online available at: http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/delara-darabi-oh-mother-i-can-see-the-noose-1678543.html
Zahra, Sadaf (2005) Women in Pakistan -- Victims of the Social and Economic Desecration" In Defense of Marxism. 10 Oct 2005. online available at: http://www.marxist.com/women-pakistan-victims-of-desecration.htm
Ahmed, L. (1993) Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate
Yale University Press, 1993
She is warm and straightforward, considerate and humble. She is not a hypocrite or a cheat, does not speak falsely and offers good advice in a prudent way and for the general welfare. She has a word and keeps it. She is modest in appearance and in manners. She respects others as she respects herself and keeps out of matters where she is not part of. She does not sow dissension or seek out hidden faults. No matter how achieved or excellent she may feel, she does not show off. She is not oppressive, but is, instead, fair and generous. She does not delight in the misfortune of another person but endeavors to help overcome it.
The bigots who put her down have ironically benefited the ideal Muslimah. They believe that the Muslim woman or any woman should keep her mouth shut as a result of her "original sin" in…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam. Yale University Press, August 19, 1993
Al-Hashimi, Muhammad Ali. The Ideal Muslimah. International Islamic Publishing House, 1998. http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/humanrelations/womeninislam/idealmuslimah
Al-Qaradawi, Yusuf. The Voice of a Woman in Islam. Sister's Page, Islamic World Net. http://www.islamic-world.net/sister/the_voice.htm
Godlas, a. Women in Islam: Muslim Women. Islamic Studies, 2004. http://www.arches.uga.edu/~godlas/Islamwomen.html
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…
Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004
Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89
Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi
Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd: His Work and Philosophy
Abul-Waleed Muhammad Ibn Rushd (1126-1198 C.E), also known as Averroes, is regarded by many as one of the foremost Islamic philosophers and a pivotal figure in the history of Andalusian philosophy. He is also deemed an important figure in the history of Western philosophy. An important contribution to Islamic culture and philosophy was his defense of Greek philosophy in the Islamic world as well as his emphasis on the philosophy of Aristotle. Ibn Rushd is credited with the introduction of "rationalism" into Islamic philosophy.
A as Etienne Gilson has written in his Reason and Revelation in the Middle Ages, Rationalism was born in Spain in the mind of an Arabian philosopher, as a conscious reaction against the theologism of the Arabian divines, by whom he means the Ash'arite Mutakallimun. (Fakhry)
In global terms it has been asserted that not only…
Allahhakbar. Net. Groundwork on Islamic Philosophy in the context of Modern Western Philosophy. 3 March 2004. www.salaf.indiaaccess.com/atheist/groundwork_on_islamic_philosophy.htm
Fakhry M. Averroes: (Ibn Rushd) His Life, Works and Influence. 4 March, 2004. www.oneworld-publications.com/books/texts/averroes-his-life-woks-and-influence-intro.htm
Hillier C. The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 4 March, 2004. http://www.iep.utm.edu/i/ibnrushd.htm
IIDL. Abul Walid Muhammed Ibn Ahmed Ibn Rush. 4 March, 2004. http://iidl.net/index.php?ch=15&pg=64&ac=111
The presence of a parliament does not a democracy make.
Mernissi's assertion that the Third orld has enabled much of Arab and Muslim societies to be cut off from the philosophical underpinnings of democracy can easily explain why Islam seems incompatible with secular humanism. Arabs, "like the rest of the citizens of the third orld, have never had systematic access to the modern advances rooted in" the Enlighenment (Mernissi 46-47). Mistrust of colonial overlords has fueled an anti-estern sentiment. This also prevents democracy as a worldview from taking root, let alone democracy as a reality. The result is that people in the Muslim world are experiencing "modernity without understanding its foundations, its basic concepts," (Mernissi 47).
In the Arab world "the state and its public schools...remain the only means of creating and propagating democratic culture and educating tolerant citizens," (Mernissi 47). The goal is to interject democratic principles into teachings…
Berman, Paul. "The Philosopher of Islamic Terror." The New York Times. March 23, 2003.
Eickelman, Dale F. Bin Laden, the Arab "Street," and the Middle East's Democracy Deficit."
Klausen, Jytte. Faith and politics. Chapter 3 in the Islamic Challenge. Oxford, 2005.
Mernissi, Fatema. "Fear of Democracy" Chapter 3 in Islam and Democracy: Fear of the Modern World. 2002.
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…
W. Montgomery Watt, a History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965)
Charles Reginald Haines. Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1889
The coming of Islam
After the penetration of Islam, the sub-Saharan African culture was impressed by it. Islam linked the people of Africa to the Eurasian system of business and gave them some new concepts regarding commerce, political organization and religion.
Northern Africa, before the advent of Islam was based on the principles of Christianity. But, after the arrival of Islam in Northern Africa, a large part of the Berber population converted from Christianity to Islam and made Sijilimasa and Fez as their regional states. The Islamic principles of equality and brotherhood put all the Berbers, Arabs and Africans on equality (John P. McKay, Ebrey, Beck, & Crowston., 2009).
.After blending of Islam with the culture of Africa, many states of Africa was created in the grasslands south of the Sahara. The influence of Islam came in Africa through the Indian Ocean, the savanna and the Atlantic. Main African…
Insoll, T. (2003). The Archaeology of Islam in Sub-Saharan Africa. New York: Cambridge University Press.
John P. McKay, B.D., Ebrey, P.B., Beck, R.B., & Crowston., C.H. (2009). A History of World Societies, Volume A: From Antiquity to 1500, Volume 1. Boston, Mass.: [Basingstoke: Bedford; Palgrave Macmillan].
In many ways, the iconography left behind at the Dome of the Rock for our evaluation provides only partial insight into the events that inspired it. e are left to interpret this based on the historical knowledge and immediate evidence available to us. According to Rabbat, "Muslims around the world believe it was built to commemorate a decisive event in the Prophet Muhammad's mission, namely his Night Journey from Mecca to Jerusalem, and his subsequent Ascension from the Rock to Heaven, where he received from God the doctrinal principles of the new religion."
It is this interpretation which is largely accepted by the world, marking the rock itself as the most important element of iconography in the structure. The Khirbat al-Mafjar, by contrast, offers a highly provocative mosaic in the main bath hall reserved from the prince-son of the caliph. This is considered the most important artifact left behind…
Behrens-Abouseif, Doris. "The Lion-Gazele Mosaic at Khirbat Al-Mafjar." (20
Khoury, Nuha N.N. "The Mihrab: From Text to Form." International Journal of Middle East Studies, 30(1998): 1-27.
Rabbat, Nasser. "The Meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock." (20
Ruggles, D. Fairchild. "The Mirador in Abbasid and Hisapno-Umayyad Garden Typology." (20
The ultimate implication of the events of 9/11 is that Islam has become, as a result of American foreign policy, economic patterns and military endeavors, a hostile and radicalized culture. This is largely based on perceptions in the Islamic orld that the estern orld acts with favoritism toward Israel in diplomacy, demonstrates a tendency to exploit Arab states with military acts and pursues opportunistic relationships based on its dependence on Mid-East oil. One of the reasons that is most noted for anger with the estern orld by Muslim leaders of state and by the average Islamist residing in the Middle East, is the fact that the United States has so strongly supported Israeli statehood.
The Mamdani (2004) text captures this geopolitical disposition particularly well, indicating that the United States, the U.S.S.R. And other global powers helped to create the current Islamic cultural tendencies toward violence and armed resistance. Mamdani notes…
Gottschalk, P. & Greenberg, G. (?). Islamophobia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Husain, E. (2007). The Islamist: Why I Joined Radical Islam in Britain, What I Saw Inside and Why I Left. Penguin.
Leiken, R.S. (2005). Europe's Angry Muslims. Foreign Affairs, 84(4).
Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, Bad Muslim. Random House.
In the city of Medina, Muhammad united the warring tribes. Following eight years of fighting Mecca tribes the Muslims conquered Mecca. In the year 632, after returning to Medina from a farewell pilgrimage to Mecca, Muhammad became ill and died. At the time of his death, almost all of the Arabian Peninsula had converted to the Islamic faith. He had united the Arabian tribes into a single Muslim religious polity hegemon (ibid, 34-40).
The revelations Muhammad reported receiving until his death in 632 form the body of the Qur'an, regarded by Muslims as the "ord of God" and around which the Muslim religion is built upon. In addition to the Qur'an, Muhammad's life and traditions are observed by Muslims. These stories discuss Muhammad and the other prophets with reverence, adding the phrase peace be upon him whenever his name is mentioned. His life and deeds have been debated and criticized…
Braswell, G. (2000). What you need to know about islam and muslims. New York, NY: B&H Book.
Goldschmidt, A., & Davidson, L. (2005). A concise history of the middle east. (9th
ed.). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
Islam and Human Rights
a Critique of Contemporary Muslim Approaches
The basic objective of this research is note the errors that are committed by Muslims in their argument of human rights in Islam or in other words to explore possible means of formulation of a more coherent alternative expression of values to point out the errors committed by Muslims in their attempt to argue the case of human rights in Islam in the hope that efforts and resources expended in that direction can be derived to a more agreeable end; which is the exploration of possible means of formulating a more coherent alternative expression of values to the so-called "Islamic human rights."
A considerable amount of literature has been produced on these issues by competent Muslim thinkers and scholars but because they either
purposefully or 2) inadvertently chose to follow almost the same style as explored in the Western tradition…
Hassan, Riffat, Ph.D. ( ) Are Human Rights Compatible with Islam? The Issue of the Rights of Women in Muslim Communities, University of Louisville, KY [Online available at: http://www.religiousconsultation .org/hassan2.htm
Islam 101 "Human Rights in Islam" 2005 [Online available at: http://www.islam 101. com/rights/index.Htm 'Allamah Abu Al'A'la Mawdudi at Tawid Journal 'Vol.. IV No. 3 Rajah-Ramadan 1407 ajab-Ramadahan 1407 Human Rights in Islam.]
Islam is a religion of war and hatred.
One cannot highlight too much the difference amid Islam, which is plain and Islam, with a fundamentalist version. Islam is the religion of approximately one billion people, as well as is a quickly increasing faith, predominantly in Africa but also elsewhere in the globe. The United States, for instance, boasts, approximately, a million converts to Islam (in addition, an even superior number of Muslim settlers).
Islam's believers find their faith hugely appealing, for the religion possesses an internal power that is quite astonishing. As a primary figure in the Islamic Republic of Iran maintains that any Westerner who really understands Islam will desire the lives of Muslims. Far from feeling embarrassed in relation to it's being temporally the last of the three major Middle Eastern monotheisms, Muslims considered that their faith progresses on the earlier ones. In their interpretation, Judaism, as…
Annemarie Schimmel. Islam An Introduction. State University of New York Press, 1992.
Islam is a religion of war and hatred
Islam and Christianity share many beliefs yet possess distinct differences.
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are three closely related religions and because they all revere Abraham and certain other patriarchs mentioned in the Bible as their spiritual ancestors, all three are referred to as Abramic religions (Comparing pp). Christianity is believed to have been founded in 32 C.E. And Islam in 662 C.E. (Comparing pp). According to one 2001 estimation, 76% of the United States population is Christian, while 0.5% are Muslims, however, it is estimated that sometime within the next several decades Islam will become the most popular religion in the world (Comparing pp). This is due to the fact that Islam has the world's lowest rate of being converted and one of the world's highest rates of converting (Kreeft pp).
Christians believe that God, the deity is found in the Trinity; basically three persons in one Godhead, the Father,…
Kreeft, Peter. "Comparing Christianity & Islam."
Comparing Christianity and Islam
Islam and the Clash of Civilizations
orld civilization has known in the last decades some of the most important political, economic, and in particular cultural developments of the 20th century. The era after the end of the Cold ar determined a series of events that triggered numerous conflicts around the world, from the war in Kuwait in the early 1990s, to the genocide in Rwanda, human rights abuses and apartheid in South Africa, to the escalation of the terrorist phenomenon to dimensions never attained before.
The peak of the terrorist threat was reached on September 11, 2001 when the attacks on the orld Trade Center in New York fully demonstrated the power, influence, and capacity terrorist groups can master. Along with the terrorist phenomenon, the other regional conflicts still ongoing in parts of the Middle East and Africa, point out the increased differences that exist throughout the world between different…
Baxter, Kylie; Akbarzadeh, Shahram. 2008. "U.S. Foreign Policy in the Middle East." Routledge.
Huntington. S. 1993."The Clash of Civilizations?" Foreign Affairs, Summer.
Inglehart, Ronald, and Norris, Pippa. "The True Clash of Civilizations." Foreign Policy, Mar/Apr2003, Issue 135
Krishna, S. 2008. Globalization and post colonialism. Hegemony and resistance in the twenty first century. Rowman, Littlefield Publishers, New York.
" (Ahmad, 2000, p. 1).
With the main advantage of being democracy's "place of birth," the Western position is extremely firm. John L. Esposito, John O. Voll (1996) state that: "In the current global context, most who advocate democratization still do not recognize it […]as a result, they view people with different interpretations of democracy as "perverse and lunatic," and thus are open to the perils of underestimating the strength of the alternatives. This is especially true of advocates of the styles of democracy found in Western Europe and the United States, who believe themselves to be the true heirs to the only legitimate democratic tradition and thus view any other efforts to create democracies as false and undemocratic." (p. 14)
The answer to the question "Is Islam incompatible with democracy?" is hard to find. The personal opinion is that the major criteria by which one defines his/her position is…
1. Ahmad, Khurshid (2002). Islam and Democracy: Some Conceptual and Contemporary Dimensions. The Muslim World. Vol. 90.
2. Esposito, John L.; Voll, John, O. (1996). Islam and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press.
3. Shadid, Anthony (2001). Legacy of the Prophet: Despots, Democrats, and the New Politics of Islam. Boulder: Westview Press.
S. abruptly pulled funding from the area, leaving many former allies feeling abandoned and as if they had been misled. Many of these disenchanted warriors formed the backbone of the Taliban.
These initial members were able to prey upon the poverty that plagued Afghanistan and Pakistan and recruit numbers of young males for Islamic extremism. This was due to the fact that both countries suffered from extreme poverty and were not able to fund schools for young males. Both the Taliban and Al Qaeda built radical madrasahs offering boys an education. Since families saw the education of their children, especially their sons, as the primary way to escape from crippling poverty, they would send their sons to the madrasahs for an education. In the madrasahs, the children were steeped in Islamic fundamentalism. Part of the education focused on the resource disparity between people in the U.S. And other western countries…
Islamic Cultural Center
The building of an Islamic Cultural centre (ICC) has been a subject of controversy since it was conceived. The Islamic centre is intended to host several Islamic infrastructures like the rooms for Islamic teachings and Madras as well as a worship centre for the Muslims and a section that would be dedicated to the Islamic culture display.
The controversy that ahs surrounded the commencement of the building of the centre has been not so much on the legality of such an entity in the U.S.A. But on the proximity to the ground zero, that is known fro the 9/11 bombings by Islamic extremists. It is considered by many of those who oppose the idea as being too close to the 9/11 site that it would prohibit or injure their ability to commemorate, as one Mr. Brown, a complainant in the supreme court once noted (ABC News, 2011).…
ABC News, (2011). Ground Zero Mosque' Clears Legal Hurdle to Build. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://abcnews.go.com/U.S./ground-mosque-wins-legal-battle-build/story?id=14062701#.Tr_8QFKQvKQ
Allvoices Inc., (2011). Islamic Mosque And Cultural Center Blocks From Ground Zero. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://www.allvoices.com/contributed-news/6499574-islamic-cultural-center-blocks-from-ground-zero
SBA, (2011). Basic Zoning Laws. Retrieved November 14, 2011 from http://www.sba.gov/content/basic-zoning-laws
The two objects that I found on the website required to write this article are entitled Folio from the Tashkent Qu'ran" and "The Feast of Sada," Folio from the Shanama (Book of Kings) of Shah Tahmasp. There are a number of reasons as to why the former of these objects is perceived as part of Islamic art. The most salient of these relates to the title. This work of art is actually a page of written (calligraphic) text from what is regarded as the holy scriptures of Islam, the Koran. This book provides various details about the life and travails of Muhammad, as well as a number of the fundamental precepts of this religion.
In addition to the content of the writing on this particular page, there are a number of faces regarding the actual writing itself that denote that it is Islamic art. Firstly, the page is…
Islam and Christianity have a lot in common because they originate from a single source. Abraham is believed to be the source from which Islam, Christianity and Judaism took roots and this is one of the reasons why these religions are also known as Abrahamic religions. Due to their common origins, the scriptures of birth Islam and Christianity have a lot in common and at the same time, they also differ in a few aspects.
Christianity and Islam have been divided into many smaller sects and sub-sects that believe and follow differing thoughts and ideas. For example, Christianity is divided into Roman Catholics, Protestants, Lutherans, Seventh Day Adventists, Orthodox and other groups and each of these groups have a different way of practicing the religion and the underlying beliefs. Similarly, Islam is also divided into Shi'ite, Sunni and to a smaller extent Sufi that have their differences as well. Moreover,…
Islam / Arab Success
hy did Islam and the Arabs succeed in spreading throughout the Greater Middle-East / Gulf against the Byzantines and Persians?
Religion has been a major influence on the course of human history. In the Middle East, religion has been the impetus for discord since before recorded times. This area of the world has had central religious attention because of the location of the Holy Land in both Jewish and Christian theologies. At one point, the Byzantines and Persians controlled the landscape of this part of the world, but lost leadership in the face of Islam and Arab cultures. In the present moment, one of the primary religions in the Middle-East and Gulf regions is Islam. People who are a part of the Islam religion or people who are Arab have been able to spread their culture throughout the area until this has become the majority way…
Carson, Keith (2003). "Islamic History and Literature." Heritage of the Western World. Atlantic Goldschmidt, Arthur and Lawrence Davidson (2006). A Concise History of the Middle East.
Cambridge, MA: Westview Press.
Marin-Guzman, Roberto (2010). "Arab Tribes, the Umayyad Dynasty, and the Abbasid
Revolution." The American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences. 21:4.
The doom tree is presented as a mythical eagle, an ancient idol, the river -- "a sacred snake, one of the ancient Gods of the Egyptians"(Salih).
People in this remote and stuck in time village have dreams about the past, some prophetic dreams and some other dreams that are yet to be interpreted. The efforts to reconcile modern life, represented by the city and tradition, represented by the village are seen through the lenses of religion. The villagers did not need the teachings of another preacher, and it seemed that every time when the government sent someone to bring something new in there, it was doomed to fail. On the other hand, the villagers thought they new and had everything already and this appears to be a mistake as well.
The water pump, the stopping place for the steamer, the new agricultural scheme and other symbols of the evolution of…
When this is taking place, a person may not understand the event, due to the fact that they do not have the same intellect or knowledge as God. Over the course of time, these individuals will begin to see and understand how God's plan is working. The Mutaizllis believe that the individual is responsible for their own actions. As a result, the underlying amounts of morality will determine how God will judge the deeds that we take. Where, everyone is given free will and the opportunity to choose how they will react to various events. Those who behave in the most morally correct fashion will be rewarded for their actions with eternity in paradise. While those people who are engaging in actions that are immoral will be held accountable, by going to hell. This is important, because it shows how both sects will differ based on the underlying levels of…
"Historical Development of Muslim Mutaizllis." Deens Research Center, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2010
Delbert Burket. "Islamic Perspectives." The Blackwell Companion. Malden: Wiley, 2010. 232 -- 250. Print.
Naseem, Hamid. "Intellectual Discussions." Muslim Philosophy. New Delhi: Sarup, 2001. 1 -- 40. Print.
Robinson, Neill. "Asharis and Mutaizllis." Muslim Philosophy, 1998. Web. 1 Dec. 2010
Muhammad appointed no successors and had no sons, only his son-in-law Ali. In fact, under Islam there could never be another prophet after Muhammad since his revelation was considered to be the true and final word of God. Instead, the Arab tribal leaders elected Abu-Bakr as kalifa (caliph) on the grounds that he was one of the first converts to Islam outside of the Prophet's family. His policy was to unite the Arabs in a jihad against the Byzantine omans and Persian Sasanids, and in a very short time, "the mightiest empires in the Middle East…were humbled by the Arab warriors for Islam" (Glouldschmidt and Davidson, 2009, p. 53).
Within 100 years, the Arab-Islamic Empire had conquered a truly vast territory, from Spain to the borders of China, and come close to taking over all of Europe. For the Arabs, this was the Golden Age of science,…
Catherwood, C. (2011). A Brief History of the Middle East. Constable and Robinson, Ltd.
Goldschmidt, A. And L. Davidson (2009). A Concise History of the Middle East, 9th Edition. Westeview Press.
It was their right and duty as loyal followers, a way they could prove their faith and their commitment to God. This mindset is one reason the Muslims under Mohammed's leadership during his conquests were so successful, as described below.
Reasons for Success
Mohammed and his followers defeated migrants and other raiding parties in part because they decided to attack and defend their holy place during the holy month of Ramadan, something that was unexpected. Among those the Muslims following Mohammed opposed included a group named the Quraysh. During the infamous battle at adr Walls, Mohammed said to his followers about to engage in battle, that "no man will be slain this day fighting against them with steadfast courage, advancing and not retreating, but God will cause him to enter Paradise." Many Muslims following the messenger Mohammed believed that God sent to them 3,000 angels the day of the conquest…
Akbar, M.J. The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity.
London: Routledge, 2002.
Ali, Ameer. The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam with a Life of the Prophet. London: Christophers. 1922.
Bainbridge, William Sims and Stark, Rodney. "The Rise of a New World Religion."
Apparently, Islamic terrorists are the media marketing executives.
Once more, the tendency is to project American viewpoints and values on to supposed Islamist enemies. The same individuals and groups that are utterly alien to America's most cherished beliefs are also masters of manipulating Americans' views of themselves and of using the media to their own advantage. The idea that Islamist groups might possess some sort of legitimate grievance, or might be railing against actual conditions is dismissed in favor of complex marketing ploys. Terrorism is a product, just like everything else that is promoted on American television and in American newspapers and magazines. The only difference is that the Islamist product is a bad product. Other estern media too have taken up the general theme of Islamic terrorism as but the ultimate expression of Islamic failure to grasp the potentialities of the modern world. As presented in the French Canadian…
Albritton, James S. "The Technique of Terrorism." Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table (2006).
Belkhodja, Chedly, and Chantal Richard. "The Events of September 11 in the French-Canadian Press." Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 38.3 (2006): 119+.
Dunsky, Marda. "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.3 (2001): 1.
Vaisman-Tzachor, Reuben. "Psychological Profiles of Terrorists." The Forensic Examiner 15.2 (2006): 6+.
In fact there are signs of turmoil among religious as well as ethnic groups. An internal war between the Hausa and another tribe called the Yoruba resulted in 300 deaths. More recently tribes called the Tiv and the Jukun have executed tribal raids. In fact, between the successful election of a civilian President in May of 1999 and the end of 2001, over 10,000 Nigerians died in regional conflicts based on religious/and/or tribal differences. The Islamic belief in Shari'a, including the idea that religion and state government should be one, contributes to these problems.
In fact the animosity between Christians and Muslims is quite strong in Nigeria. The province adopting Shari'a, Zamfara, uses Islamic courts to try criminals. The Christians who live in the south do not agree that Zamfara should use a religiously-based legal system. This disagreement demonstrates that the country is divided on multiple levels. It is the…
Clark, Andrew F. "Imperialism, Independence, and Islam in Senegal and Mali." Africa Today, June 1999.
Gausset, Quentin. " Islam or Christianity? The Choices of the Wawa and the Kwanja of Cameroon." Africa, Vol. 69, 1999.
Miles, William F.S. "Shari'a as de-Africanization: evidence from Hausaland." Africa Today, March 2003.
Roach, Ronald. "Translating the African past: the Islamic heritage of sub-Saharan Africa - Special report: international education." Black Issues in Higher Education. May 9, 2002.
Initially, there was no separation between religious and civil law within Islamic countries, however Turkey became a secular state during the twentieth century (Introduction).
Both Christians and Muslims believe that Jesus' birth was miraculous, that he was the Messiah, that he performed miraculous healings, and resurrected the dead (Introduction). However Muslims do not believe in original sin, that Jesus was killed during a crucifixion (but rather escaped and reappeared to his disciples without having first died), that Jesus was resurrected; or that salvation is dependent upon belief in the resurrection of Jesus (Introduction). The majority of Christians believe in the Trinity (three persons in one Godhead), the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, however Muslims believe that God (Allah) is one and indivisible (Comparing). Christians believe in the identity of a comforter in the Holy Spirit, while Muslims believe in Muhammad as the comforter (Comparing).
Christians believe that Adam disobeyed God…
Comparing Christianity and Islam." Religious Tolerance. Retrieved November 30, 2006 at http://www.religioustolerance.org/comp_isl_chr.htm
Gartenstein-Ross, Daveed. "No other Gods before me: spheres of influence in the relationship between Christianity and Islam." Denver Journal of International Law and Policy. March 22, 2005. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Grillo, Ralph. "Islam and transnationalism." Journal of Ethnic and Migration
Studies. September 1, 2004. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
The first five books were separated from the whole about 400 B.C. As the Pentateuch. Jean Astruc in the eighteenth century noted that the Pentateuch is based on even earlier sources. The two chief sources have since been identified in Genesis on the basis of their respective uses of Yahweh or Elohim in referring to the deity. They are called J. For the Jehovistic or Yahwistic source and E. For the Elohistic source, and P. For the Priestly source was later separated from the E. source (Miller and Miller 698-699).
Consider just the complexities involved in the construction of the first book of the bible, Genesis, in its present form. It is believed that at an early time in human history, perhaps as early as the eleventh or tenth century B.C., someone put together the stories of God's dealing with the fathers from oral forms then in circulation. Such a…
Blair, Edward P. Abingdon Bible Handbook. New York: Abingdon Press, 1975.
BrJhier, Louis. "Crusades." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
Dimont, Max I. Jews, God and History. New York: Mentor, 1994.
Jomier, Jacques. How to Understand Islam. New York: Crossroad, 1991.