What the Jews call the Torah, the Muslims call Tawrat: the first five books of the Old Testament. The Old Testament book of Psalms is also held dear to Muslims and is called Zabur, and the New Testament writing of Jesus are called Injil (Robinson). Muslims also believe in lost writings of Abraham, referred to as the Suhuf-i-Ibrahim (Robinson).
Other beliefs that are central to the Muslim faith include belief in a Day of Judgment, which is a similar concept to the Christian and Jewish one. However, unlike Christians, Muslims do not ascribe to the idea of a personal savior who offers forgiveness via mercy and atonement (Robinson). Muslims, Christians, and Jews share in common a dualistic worldview that pits good against evil; Christianity and Islam are especially outspoken in references to Satan. Some Muslim social laws such as the dietary regulations against pork consumption were derived from the Jewish law. Like Christians, Muslims also believe in angels. The shared heritage among the "peoples of the Book" makes ongoing warfare between the groups perplexing if not deplorable.
The term jihad has been distorted as a term that only denotes a religiously motivated war. However, jihad has a spiritual component that refers just as much to the personal struggle between temptation and righteousness or the interpersonal struggles of maintaining a Muslim community (BBC). As the BBC points out, "there are so many references to Jihad as a military struggle in Islamic writings that it is incorrect to claim that the interpretation of Jihad as holy war is wrong." The history of Islam illustrates the relevance of war to the preservation of the religion; preserving Islam at all costs is viewed as a religious duty for many adherents of the faith.
As with many religions, the personal spiritual practice differs sharply from the social and political elements of Islam. To the personal adherent, belief in God, belief in the Qur'an, praying, observing Ramadan, charitable work and other tenets of the faith are what comprise Islam. The Muslim community is united in part by shared religious, theological, cosmological, and moral beliefs. The religious leaders of Muslim spiritual groups are called Imams.
Islam experienced a period of enlightenment not unlike the one that spread throughout Europe during the...
In fact, the Muslim golden era took place when Christian Europe underwent its Dark Ages: when learning and education was suppressed under an oppressive and corrupt Catholic regime and the monarchs that supported it. Islam became a major hub of academic development, and the Arabic culture contributed so significantly to mathematics that the numerical system still used in most parts of the world today is an Arabic one. Arabic language has also become infused with English and other European languages. During Muslim rule in Spain, Jews were offered far greater freedoms than they were in Christian Europe. Therefore, the history of Islam is not only about war.
The Ottoman Empire represented the culmination of Muslim global domination. The empire stretched from Europe throughout the Middle East and only fell after World War One. For centuries the Ottomans successfully presided over disparate regions of the world such as in Eurasia, the Middle East and Central Asia. However unified the empire was under Ottoman rule, Islam could not obliterate the diverse ethnic identities that had characterized the regions. Current fiascos in the Middle East and Central Asia can at least in part be traced to colonialism: first by the Muslims and then by the modern nation-states.
BBC. "Introduction: The Prophet Muhammad." Religion and Ethics: Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/muhammad_1.shtml
Hakim, Salman. "History of Islam." 2009. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/history.html
PBS. Islam: Empire of Faith. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.pbs.org/empires/islam/faithbelief.html
Robinson, B.A. "Islam." Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. 2007. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.religioustolerance.org/isl_intr.htm
Siddiqui, Mona. "Abraham in Islam." Religion and Ethics: Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/ibrahim.shtml
Voll, John O. "Islam." In Encyclopedia of Politics and Religion, ed. Robert Wuthnow. Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly, Inc., 1998, pp. 383-393. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.cqpress.com/context/articles/epr_islam.html
"What Is Islam?" TruthNet. Retrieved April 29, 2009 from http://www.truthnet.org/islam/whatisislam.html
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Islam in the Age of Globalization The three major religions in the 21st century are all Abrahamic in historical basis. These religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity remain at the edge of political, social, and cultural issues, particularly now in that globalism has become so predominant. These religions are noted as Abrahamic because each uses the basic teachings of the Prophet Abraham in their general world view. All three faiths are monotheistic
S. abruptly pulled funding from the area, leaving many former allies feeling abandoned and as if they had been misled. Many of these disenchanted warriors formed the backbone of the Taliban. These initial members were able to prey upon the poverty that plagued Afghanistan and Pakistan and recruit numbers of young males for Islamic extremism. This was due to the fact that both countries suffered from extreme poverty and were not
Islam is a religion of war and hatred. Islam One cannot highlight too much the difference amid Islam, which is plain and Islam, with a fundamentalist version. Islam is the religion of approximately one billion people, as well as is a quickly increasing faith, predominantly in Africa but also elsewhere in the globe. The United States, for instance, boasts, approximately, a million converts to Islam (in addition, an even superior number of
In contrast, the other part is willing to accept new views regarding the religion, as they are only willing to interpret Mohammed's teachings and not interpretations that came after him. To a large degree the author is right in wanting the general public to be unbiased in dealing with Islam. It is only natural for people to have a wrong perception of this religion when considering the intense anti-Muslim propaganda
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Islam and the West The author of Islam and the West, Bernard Lewis, has an extensive background in the study of Islam. He has both a B.A. And Ph.D. In history from the University of London. His B.A. emphasizes the Near and Middle East, and his Ph.D. focused on the history of Islam. He did additional graduate work at the University of Paris. He taught for many years at the University