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Israel's Military Culture And How It Affects The Economy
According to one definition of military culture, it is a distinct closed system of behavior according to which the members of the military are supposed to act. It consists of written as well as unwritten rules and regulations along with discrete beliefs and symbols (Cosmo, 2009).
When we talk about military culture in Israel, we refer to the whole military situation in Israel and how it affects the society and the economy. The determinant of the military culture of Israel is the Israel Defense Forces. IDF are the military forces of the State of Israel and they are formed by the ground forces, navy and the air forces. eing the only military wing of the state, it does not have any civil jurisdiction within the country.
IDF is not similar to most of armed forces of other countries. There are many…… [Read More]
Explanation of the Issue: Introduction
The most recent escalation of conflict in Israel and Gaza show that the current situation is untenable. This paper examines the history of the creation of the state of Israel and the aftermath of the Balfour Declaration and its subsequent United Nations resolutions in 1947. After providing background information on the situation in Israel, the author will examine the security risks that both the Israelis and the Palestinians have taken to achieve their respective goals.
It is hypothesized that the policies of the Israeli government have allowed Israel to cement itself literally and figuratively onto Palestinian land. The Israeli approach toward national security has had tremendous economic, social, and political impact on Palestine as well as Israel. As Yiftachel (1999) points out, the situation can be described as an "ethnocracy," as Israel has systematically imeded the organic evolution of Palestinian citizenship in the state…… [Read More]
Funding its own defense projects on the strength of international arms sales has become an increasingly important strategic way of ensuring it the economic capacity to support military needs which are considerable for a nation of its decidedly modest geographical size.
But this also points to another important part of Israel's geopolitical outlook. As a nation often viewed with hostility and contempt by its neighbors and the orbit of natural gas buyers that have allied themselves with these neighbors for economic reasons, Israel's newfound status as an important international arms supplier is softening its relationship with many powerful nations. Altering the course of interests and sympathies of such nations may go a long way to help support Israeli diplomatic goals as well as to solidify its status and alliances in the world community. This is amply demonstrated by its importance to the Russian market in terms of weapons supply. Historically,…… [Read More]
hat are the recognized threats
Recognized threats on a national and international level include, expansion of international terrorism, as a result of universal fundamentalist Arab calls for violence against those who oppress Arabs. Israel is at the center of this conflict as the most regionally active, non-Arab state and as a result of historical actions taken by it to maintain itself and its territories, both recognized and occupied.
Short contemporary history of the threats
Description of known terrorist activity (both groups and incidents)
As has been said before terrorist activity has ebbed and flowed over the years, the most frequent current increase in threats has come from non-PLO affiliated sources, sometimes national sometimes international. The Hamas are currently particularly active in bombings, as can be seen from the statistics below while other groups such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Popular Resistance Committees, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and others frequently take responsibility…… [Read More]
Israel has accomplished much in its 48 years to be proud of. It has created a country from scratch, finding ways to farm efficiently in a climate not completely hospitable to farming. It has established a strong educational system. It has fought six wars and managed to defend its country successfully even when it was surrounded by hostile neighbors. It has brought the region to the point where the other countries accept, if grudgingly, that Israel is a bona fide country that is there to stay. Most importantly, Israel has created a homeland where any Jew who wants to can emigrate. The Jews of Israel know that they can practice their faith without interference and live safe from governmental persecution. While Israel has not yet worked out a solution to the problem of dislocated Palestinians, through its military victories Israel has demonstrated that warfare cannot solve this problem…… [Read More]
Jews desperately sought entrance into the City of Spring, but the British stood firm on their proclamation, fearing Arab backlash. "The Nazis kill us," the Jews cried, "and the British won't let us live."
In 1945, the world discovered that its greatest fear had come true: the Nazi death camps all over Europe, ripe with the massacre of the Jewish people, cemented the Zionist call in those who lived. "Israelis developed a mind-set to never again trust their fate to others - no one gave a damn during the Holocaust - and to this day the Israelis don't like outsiders proposing 'peace plans' that threaten their security." While the Jews would never be able to forget the fear caused by intrusting their fate to others, the modern world would never forget the guilt of what amounted to letting the Jews be brutally murdered and giving them no place to go;…… [Read More]
Israel: A modern Hobbesian state?
According to the British philosopher Thomas Hobbes, in a state of nature, human life is 'nasty, brutish and short.' Hobbes takes a dark view of humanity, and while he concedes that very often the governments of nations are less-than-ideal, this is preferable to a state of anarchy. "In Hobbes' state of nature, men find themselves in a state of anarchy, understood as the absence of authority and order. The violent nature of this state of anarchy, the war of all against all, is the determinant aspect of Hobbes' political philosophy which it is a theory of survival. The aim of the social contract, of accepting hierarchy and the power of the sovereign, is to escape the inescapable and universal danger presented by anarchy" (Long 2008:91). Hobbes takes a 'dog-eat-dog' view of the world, and stresses the need for a strong sovereign power to govern. This…… [Read More]
Israel Military Policy Post-
Israeli Military Policy Post-1973
It was in 1973 that the nation of Israel's existence was no longer threatened by its Arab neighbors, but in establishing its statehood the infant nation still faced many difficulties. Although no longer directly threatened by the armies of the mighty Arab nations, Israel faced a "proxy war" with terrorist groups armed and supported by those very same Arab enemies who had officially accepted the existence of the state of Israel. In exchange for open combat, its Arab enemies chose to support the Palestinians in their struggle against Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory. In response the Israelis adopted a policy of confrontation with the Palestinians, especially the PLO located in Lebanon. This conflict with the Palestinians in Lebanon would lead to a major split it in Israeli public opinion and a dramatic change in the public's view of the Israeli military.
The…… [Read More]
Many critics are of the option that the present mistrust of Palestinian intentions from the Israeli point-of-view would also not be automatically remedied by a two - state implementation.
However, as commentators like Ziad Asali of Cornell University suggests, the two - state solution has to be implemented in conjunction with certain other factors and changes, in order to remotely have a chance of changing the course of this seemingly endless conflict. Some of his suggestions include the following:
shared, open Jerusalem, with the Arab part serving as a capital for Palestine and the Jewish part serving as the capital of Israel.
End of occupation and settlements.
A fair and equitable solution of the refugee problem, based on international legality, with resettlements, compensation and redress of moral and psychological grievances.
In the final analysis however, the two - state solution will not necessarily function automatically to reduce the…… [Read More]
Israel and esolution 242
You say it's "funny" that people you disagree with are, according to your own view, hypocritical and wrong. I don't find it especially amusing, nor do I think the rather disingenuous way you go about making claims of fact that can easily be disproven -- as though you are used to debating people who don't actually read documents, and thus like to make generalizations about an entire viewpoint/those who hold it based on the pool of ignorance you self-select -- is itself "funny." I think it is sad, in fact, that instead of being able to approach this rationally and acknowledge that there are decades of disagreement precisely because the language of esolution 242 is not entirely clear, you try to insist that your interpretation is the "obvious" correct one. Leaving aside for a moment the concrete details of this resolution and the records…… [Read More]
Mini Country Report on Israel
his is a mini country report on Israel that gives an overview of the economy of the country. It includes data on economic indicators such as GDP, Imports and exports, exchange rate, balance of payments, government budget, and trends in the stock market. It also describes the business outlook and an assessment of potential for doing business in the country.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Israel per capita GDP ($18,000) is the highest among all the countries in the Middle East and it is about 88% of the Average GDP of the OECD countries. Its total GDP for 2002 is U.S. $115,040 million. he GDP showed a rapid rise in the 1990s but has dropped slightly after 2000 ("Real GDP"- Country Watch; Klein)
otal Exports and Imports
he total exports and imports for 2002 were U.S. $37,887 million and U.S. $47,486 respectively (Estimated), showing a…… [Read More]
With an Israeli army behind it, Jewish nationalism manifested itself into settler-colonial nationalism (am, 1998). It was the power of the Israeli military that prompted Israeli Prime Minister Gold Meir to declare to historian and journalist Oriana Fallaci that Israel would never relinquish the West Bank or Gaza settlements to Arab control (1977).
The Jewish settlements represent in principle that which Zachary Lockman (1976) says is the socialism by virtue of the establishment of the Zionist settlements revolution, and then colonization with class struggle. Lockman contends that because the settlements were born out of revolution, communal in nature and therefore not in competition with regional Arab society, that an anti-Arab sentiment was facilitated. The basis upon which the settlements were established called for "but rarely practiced joint organization of Jewish and Arab labor (Lockman)."
In 2005, the Israeli Parliament voted to begin dismantling certain settlements in the West Bank, and…… [Read More]
In doing this the powers that be across the world are attempting to dictate or change what has already been spoken by God. They are attempting to alter the prophecy. They are disguising their intentions by presenting such divisions as a way to restore peace to the Middle East. They want people to believe that dividing the land and giving some of the land to Palestine will resolve the problem and result in peace. Overall, it can be said that politics is attempting to replace prophecy, but it will not succeed because it is not possible to replace prophecy.
The purpose of this discussion is to examine the final stages of prophecy in Israel, concerns of the final prophets and the events or situations replacing prophecy. The research found that there are four stages of prophecy involving Israel. These four stages include political restoration (Israel becoming a nation), the…… [Read More]
Israel Debate Continue
Once again, you are splitting the argument into two parts. On the one hand, there is the factual debate, for which you provide very little evidence despite making very strong claims of fact that could be readily cited properly evidenced, though I will of course the points you do mange to make. On the other hand lies the bulk of your argument, which is full of personal assumption and thinly (if at all) veiled invective and accusation, making claims for which you could have no evidence (and certainly do not have any evidence) and which ultimately have no bearing on this debate whatsoever. Since you continue to devote such a great deal of your time and verbiage to the matter of how this debate is being carried out and the character of those carrying out the debate (or rather, me, though your statements are a more accurate…… [Read More]
The Sadducees were composed of the upper class of Jews in Palestine, who were willing to turn away from Jewish traditions and extend cooperation to ome. The conflict between the Pharisees and the Sadducees played a pivotal role in some of the social and cultural disputes that occurred during Christ's lifetime.
The political system of ome had an economic impact on Jews, which impacted their cultural and religious practices. The differences between the Sadducees and the Pharisees is described above. The Jewish middle class was composed of traders, merchants, and artisans. The lower class was composed primarily of manual laborers and those who were unemployable. Jesus, as a carpenter son and as a teacher, would have been a member of the middle class, but he spent a considerable amount of time among the lower class. However, all members of the population were subject to heavy taxation by ome, a burden…… [Read More]
Israel and Iran to the extent that the level of cooperation often varies relying on political changes region wide. This distinctive relationship is based on religious and cultural status attributed to both nations in the neighborhoods of Arab. To this point, there are different recognized dynamic factors. Firstly, Israel and Iran are consistently depicted as affirmed enemies engaged in endless conflict as much a product of intertwined histories and shared cultural flight as it is one of tactical concerns and discrepancies resulting from politics. Additionally, Anti-Iran irrational fear in the Israeli communal sphere is portrayed as protrusion of professed domestic threats to the existing Israeli ethnocraticre structuring. Israel anti-Iran phobias are derived on the same level from home-based nervousness about the Jewish's ethnic and religious identities. Secondly, it is obvious that Israel and Iran have traded on enmity and exaggerated rhetoric on both sides encouraging the potential for further acceleration…… [Read More]
There were several sections of agreements between Egypt and Israel as a result of Camp David, but the gist of the meetings became the lettters of understanding and framework for what would become the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. hat is not as well-known is that the agreement also concluded that the United States would committ to several billion dollars in annual Foreign Aid toboth countries, which continues today as grants, aid packages, etc. that help Egypt continue to modernize and shore up Israeli defenses and economic development (See: Background Note: Egypt 2010; Benhorin 2007). - Several public consquenes, coupled with several private realities characterized the accords. It took until 1980 for the actual normalization of relations between Egypt and Israel, with the exchange of ambassadors beginning in February, 1980. That same month, trade began to develop, air travel resumed, and the boycott laws were repleaded by the Egyptian equivalent of…… [Read More]
Decision Making Strategies
ithin any organization or process, there is the cognitive and purposeful role of decision making that is the result of taking in stimuli, choosing from alternatives, and making a final choice of an action, in action, or choice of action. This is true in the small business world, multinational corporations, individual life, and even with governments. It impacts Foreign Policy, trade, economics, and most certainly the idea of globalism -- behavior in a world in which countries are tied economically so much that political or social conflict diminishes.
One other way of looking at decision making is that it is ingrained within the human psychological perspective; one can get quite complex about this, but essentially, from a cognitive perspective, any decision making process needs to be continuous and evolving as the individual or organization reacts to the environment, and the stimuli received. Thus, from a normative perspective,…… [Read More]
feud between Israel's Ariel Sharon and Palestine's Yasser Arafat, and the role of Hamas in the feud. Specifically, it will discuss subjectively some possible resolutions or helpful ideas to facilitate peace. Palestine and Israel are both carved out of ancient land in the Middle East, and their religious differences have spawned war ever since Israel was first created after World War II. Today, peace still seems far away in the Middle East, for a variety of reasons, including a longstanding feud between Ariel Sharon and Yasser Arafat.
The feud between Israel's Ariel Sharon and Palestine's Yasser Arafat goes back many years, and it is difficult to predict how it will end, or if it will ever end. There seems to be so much bad blood between Palestine and Israel that their differences may never end in peace. Yasser Arafat has been a leader in Palestine for... years, and he and…… [Read More]
Wall on Palestinian economy and the Future of the Middle East
In April 2002, the Israeli government began building a complex series of walls, barriers, and trenches within the western border of the West ank. The Wall is a separation barrier constructed in part by massive concrete walls, including watch towers that strike the observer (Kearney, 2003).
The Wall surrounds the Palestinian city of Qalqilya, imprisoning a population of 400,000 with eight-meter-high walls, with the single remaining access road controlled by an Israeli military base and checkpoint. At other points, the Wall consists of layers of razor wire, military patrol roads, sand paths to trace footprints, ditches, surveillance cameras and a three-meter-high electric fence in the middle. A "buffer zone" exists 30-100 meters on each side of the Wall. Palestinians are not allowed to enter this zone which consists of electric fences, trenches, cameras, sensors, and is patrolled by the…… [Read More]
Israeli Conflicts Post-1973
In his book Israel's Wars, 1947-93, Ahron Bregman claimed that during the 1972 Yom Kippur War Israel was surprised and not prepared for an Arab attack. While this view is widely prevalent, Bregman argued that it was Golda Meir's refusal to accept an Egyptian offer to re-open the Suez Canal if Israel withdrew from the eastern bank which was the first unseen sign of the upcoming war. Israeli Prime Minister Meir was unable to comprehend that Egypt would go to war in a limited manner in order to recapture the canal, instead she believed that Egypt would only attack if they held overwhelming force. Secondly, Bregman argued Israel was caught off guard because of their false belief that Egypt wouldn't attack without the aid of advanced Soviet planes and missiles; something the Soviets refused to supply. Bregman then claimed that this belief came from their misplaced faith…… [Read More]
This assignment is for my Case Management and Problem Solving class. I need you to watch both of the you tube videos below about a man name Israel Keyes and answer each section below.
Answer each section about the video:
Apparent serial killer. Spoke about them at length during his interviews. At least a dozen different victims. He loved the attention and media coverage that his crimes created. Specifically enjoyed the act of killing people.
Drug History and Current Pattern Use
No proof that he used drugs. It would seem that the “high” he got from killing people and the media coverage he got from the same was what drove him. It was his drug, so to speak. Further, he became more and more “addicted” to killing and thus the intervals between criminal acts would become shorter due to his continued loss of control. However, he did not…… [Read More]
1. Thinking as a historian, how would you answer the question, “are the Jews a religious group, a nation, or an ethnic minority?”
When thinking as an historian, one can easily say that the Jews are a religious group, a nation, and an ethnic minority—though the terms and conditions under which all of these categorical associations are valid or legitimate is subject to some debate. First of all, Judaism today is different from what it was in pre-Christian times. Of the three largest sects of Judaism today—Reform, Conservative and Orthodox—there is a great deal of dispute about what kind of group the Jews are. There are atheist Jews and agnostic Jews, but they still identify as Jews. Jewish nationalists are typically referred to as Zionists, but not every Jew wants to live in Israel. Even for much of their own history the Jews have been without a nation of their…… [Read More]
Many times Israel's leader has agreed to specific peace negotiations with the United States and with Palestine, only to turn right around and do the exact opposite of what he said he would do. There has been no peace made, because Israel will not compromise. It will not back down to any degree and let Palestine have anything, and it intends to make the country into a wasteland if it does not submit. The numbers that it provides regarding killing and such are also not found to be accurate.
The article addressed here looked at the numbers, and there have been many, many more Palestinians killed by Israelis than the other way around. The bombings and the rocket attacks have not ceased. Israel insists that it is doing this because of Palestinian rocket attacks, but none of these started at all until Israel started bombings and border closings and other…… [Read More]
Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip and Jordan took control of Israel's West Bank. In 1949 the Green Line was the name of the boundary between Israel and its Arab neighbors. However, the end of the war did not bring peace. he 1950s were marked by a series of skirmishes between Israel and various Arab countries, but none of these skirmishes resulted in significant boundary differences.
he next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. his was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However,…… [Read More]
Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War
On June 5, 1967, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt which quickly spread to involve other neighboring states with both ground and air troops becoming involved in the conflict. Israel claimed that the attack was provoked by a massive Egyptian build-up of military forces along the Israeli border. On May 27 of that year the President of Egypt, Abdel Nasser, had stated that Egypt's basic objective was the destruction of Israel (BBC, 1967). Although Israel had consistently attempted to negotiate with its neighbors, their overtures were repeatedly rejected (Bard, 2008). Intelligence indicated the Arab states were preparing to go to war against Israel with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria being aided by Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Algeria. On May 16 President Nasser ordered the withdrawal of United Nations Emergency Forces from the Egyptian-Israeli border. Later that month Egypt had signed a…… [Read More]
In decidedly threatening language, Braverman would inadvertently help to goad Sherman toward some key decisions. Ultimately, the recommendations here emerge there from. Specifically, in his threatening language, Braverman reveals that Promedico is decidedly weakened by Glaxo's threat at a hostile takeover. The discomfort between Wellcome and Promedico has reached a fever pitch and it is incumbent upon Sherman to take all necessary steps to help facilitate a handover to Glaxo.
Indeed, the move from Promedico to greener pastures had seemed an inevitability for some time given the degree to which Wellcome both routinely outperformed its counterparts in the company and seemed culturally to be a poor fit with other segments of Promedico. With Glaxo now in the picture, Sherman should seize the opportunity to exercise some degree of control in the change process. This will mean establishing direct contact with her likely future superiors at Glaxo and becoming an active…… [Read More]
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…… [Read More]
Racism in Israel: Israeli Jews to Ethiopian Jews
What is considered to be the main cause of the selected political issue (i.e., history, culture, etc.)?
With the high rise of racism throughout the world, Israel has contributed to the racism towards the influx of Ethiopian Jews migrating to their alleged homeland. Ethiopians had little to no exposure to Jews outside of Ethiopia; hence, were not educated of the other Jews in the world. This caused differences with the basic practices of both Israeli and Ethiopian Judaism. During the immigration period, the Ethiopians were named ‘Beta-Israel’ and were considered outsiders for centuries in their homeland of Ethiopia, because they were Jews. The religious discrimination is what caused the immigration to Israel in the 1980s. Majority of Ethiopian immigrants appeared in two groups to Israel. The first was called ‘Operation Moses’ in 1985-6, while the second was ‘Operation Solomon’ which was in…… [Read More]
Israel is among the youngest countries in Asia, having been created in 1948. The country came when the Jews who had migrated to other parts of the world returned to where they lived before to start their country. The history of Israel is one very intriguing one. Historical records show in the ancient times, Israel existed. During this time, the people of the country contacted the religious personalities currently being celebrated worldwide. Today's Christians trace their beliefs to the times in the ancient Israel. The times when Jesus Christ, the most notable personality in the Christian life lived can be traced to the times when Israel was still an established nation in the Asian continent. Israel is known to be the most favored nation in the world. The Israelites have been seen to be growing their influence in the world after their second regrouping after the World War 2.
The…… [Read More]
This is significant, because it would give the U.S. A way of being able to maintain this kind of balance of power in the region. As the trade embargos / economic sanctions against Iran and Iraq would serve as an example of inappropriate behavior. This is because they were being punished, for different activities that were in violation of international law such as: the support of terrorism or the ability of either government to seek out weapons of mass destruction. The Oslo Accords were a way of being able to maintain this balance, by helping to support a strong ally and addressing the issues being faced by their adversaries. Where, this would undermine the position of hostile regimes; while strengthening the support for the U.S., by providing a frame work for dealing with the Israeli / Palestinian issue. (Massoulile 152 -- 155)
When you put these different elements together, this…… [Read More]
Playwright Israel Zangwill
Is United States of America in the second decade of 21st century a melting pot -- the kind of melting pot that was envisaged by Israel Zangwill close to 104 years ago? The answer is an overwhelming no. Today more than ever there is no one idea of Americanness or American culture that is acceptable across the board. Most of this is attributable to the differences in the immigration patterns as they existed in 1908 and today. In 1908 most of the immigrants were of European background with a European heritage. Over a generation or two, these immigrants groups assimilated and integrated fully into American society as Americans. One notable exception was of course the African-American experience.
Latter half of the 20th century however saw migration from areas that were as diverse as China, Vietnam, the Indian subcontinent and the Arab world. These migrants have brought their…… [Read More]
208). Begin could tell the Israeli community that the Egyptian made extreme demands and the Americans didn't handle the negotiations very well. Begin's more "militant supporters" in Israel would back him up no matter the outcome, Quandt explains (p. 208).
A for Sadat, he believed that he and Carter already had a preliminary agreement that would "force the Israelis to make significant concessions"; hence, Sadat would put "all his cards face up on the table before the president," helping Carter to "manage the inevitable confrontation with Begin" (Quandt, p. 208). Sadat told the American delegation "repeatedly" that an agreement between the U.S. And Egypt "was more important to him than an Egyptian-Israeli agreement."
The only worry that Begin had, Quandt asserts on page 208, is that if the talks failed, Carter "might blame him for the failure, go public with that judgment, and try to mobilize American public opinion against…… [Read More]
This time Israel captured the Sinai peninsula and occupied some territories it had captured for some time (Jonah, 2002), including the Gaza Strip and the West Bank (anania, 2005). While Israel saw this as the rights of the victor, Arabs saw it as another land grab. Jewish settlements in these areas therefore became quite controversial. The Arabsl allied themselves once again in 1973, and once again, Israel defeated them. This made it clear that Palestinians would not regain what they viewed as their lands by force, even with the support of other Arab nations, and made negotiation a more important option for them (Ismael, 1999).
ATTEMPTS TO BRING PEACE
Meanwhile, Ahmad al-Shugayri became first chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, or PLO. his language was described as vitriolic (Jonah, 2002). Chairman Yasir Arafat, who followed, was seen as wearing Al-Shugayri's mantle, and it was decades before the PLO was recognized…… [Read More]
Psalms in the Life of Israel: Psalm 45 and 51
Instructions: Complete the matrices by answering the questions regarding Psalm 45 and Psalm 51. Be sure to answer in complete sentences. Cite your sources. Incorporate the information of the Superscription of the Psalm in your responses.
What role did this psalm play in the life of the author and the recipient? (5)
Psalm 45 opens with the Superscription, 'To the chief musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil; a Song of Love,' which is a clear indication that it is a song written for the Israelites in celebration of love. The term Shoshannim is Hebrew for 'lily', the beautiful flower that brings delight and happiness; in the same way, love was supposed to bring delight and happiness to God's children (Dunn & Rogerson, 2012). To the author and recipient, therefore, both of whom belonged to the…… [Read More]
" (This statement appears to fly in the face of his detailed emphasis on trying to be terribly thorough at other times throughout the book; and his seeming editorial neurosis creates doubts in the minds of the reader as to precisely how consistent and valid his values are vis-a-vis what he believes to be true.)
Those biblical students probably read his book and had a sense that he was in a classroom, behind a podium, lecturing to them, when, on pages 18-20, he discusses pre-history (Stone Age) and Neolithic Jericho. His bias towards places and people who are in some way connected to Scripture comes across numerous times in obviously favored passages.
To wit: one can almost hear his voice as he describes the relative distance in time to make his point about the advent of the Israel we know today. "Difficult as it is for us to realize, it…… [Read More]
ar in Egypt, Israel, and Greece
How have wars impacted societies in Israel, Egypt, and Greece? This paper delves into those topics.
Not long after the United Nations approved allowing the State of Israel to come into fruition in 1948, Arab neighbors attacked Israel and tried to destroy the newly established Jewish nation. Egypt, Syria and other forces from nearby squeezed the borders of Israel in an apparent attempt to wipe Israel out. But the Israeli army pushed back on several fronts and by January, 1949, Israel had reclaimed all the lands from the attackers, and had regained the lands that the United Nations had originally agreed to grant to Israel (Swift Maps).
Meanwhile, in 1967, the Jewish state was just 19 years old but it was facing a serious military challenge from Egypt. According to the BBC, the "Voice of the Arabs," Egyptian strong man Gamal Abdul Nasser's…… [Read More]
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…… [Read More]
Target Israel SOT
Global Fighter Jets, as a producer of military equipment, benefits from the SOT analysis of the countries it wishes to sell its product. Global's F35 is planned to be sold and manufactured within the nation of Israel. The unique factors regarding this particular selection need to be explored to truly gauge and understand the scope and magnitude of such a business venture. The purpose of this essay is to conduct a SOT analysis on Israel regarding the F35 Global Fighter Jet product. This analysis will examine internal strengths and weakness of Global Fighter Jets by analyzing its business mode and how best it might serve the company's objectives. The external opportunities and threats that lie within this specific Israeli market will then be discussed. The paper will conclude with comments on how to best manage the risks of this expenditure and introduce a successful strategy to make…… [Read More]
It is emphasized that military service has become an intimate part of the culture and that the demise of this rite of passage must be considered in terms of its societal impact. On the other hand there are also signs that new immigrants to the county are less enthusiastic or concerned about compulsory military service; therefore there may be change within the society with regard to the perceived social importance of this rite of passage -- which in turn would augur well for a move to a more professional and independent defense force.
Another related and important factor is that the structural relationship between the society and the military is changing. In the modern international, political and military environment there is less need for semi-skilled and skilled input from the civilian sections of the society. As the military becomes more specialized in response to new and more sophisticated defense threats,…… [Read More]
tense right now in Israel. The Jewish New Year (it's 5773 for those who count) has coincided with a recent wave of anti-American and anti-Jewish sentiment related in part to a recent "incendiary" film that depicts the Muslim prophet Muhammad (Estrin, 2012). It's not as if Israel and Iran were not already archenemies, but tensions are higher now than perhaps ever before. The film in question also threatens to unify anti-Israeli sentiment among both Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims: a phenomenon that understandably frightens not just Israelis but most peace-loving human beings around the world.
Yet another film that can be accurately called incendiary injects much-needed humor into the centuries-old tradition of Jew-hating. That film was issued by legendary director Quentin Tarantino in 2009. Or, we should say, 5770. Called Inglourious Basterds, and spelled deliberately wrong, the film depicts a fictional troop of American assassins on a mission to kill Nazis…… [Read More]
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…… [Read More]
Amos is one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Tanakh, and was active in the 8th century before Christ -- he is roughly contemporary in that century with the other Hebrew prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah. Although in the opening chapters, Amos prophesies divine vengeance for a number of foreign nations -- including Damascus, Tyre, Edom, and Moab -- perhaps the biggest single shock for the reader comes at Chapter 2 verses 6 through 8, when Amos prophesies divine vengeance upon Israel itself. The text of this passage reads:
Thus says the Lord:
For three transgressions of Israel,
and for four, I will not revoke the punishment;
because they sell the righteous for silver, and the needy for a pair of sandals
they who trample the head of the poor into the dust of the earth, and push the afflicted out of the way;
father and son go in…… [Read More]
Israel vs. Palestine Conflict
The author of this report has been asked to write an essay about the conflict between the Israeli people and the Palestinians as it has existed over time. Much of the conflict has actually extended over millennia when it comes to the stretch of land that is involved. However, this report will focus on the last century or so. The first question to be answered is simply a summary of the conflict that has existed between the two groups over the last century. The second question talks about sovereignty and nationalism in the context of the conflict that is being discussed. The conflict is then to be analyzed in terms of power and statecraft. Finally, there will be the prisoner's dilemma discussion from a realist and from a neo-liberal understanding.
Basically, the gist of the Palestinian gripe is that they have gone from controlling…… [Read More]
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…… [Read More]
Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…… [Read More]
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…… [Read More]
During these times, politeness and sensitivity become necessary as this subject may be extremely emotional or explosive as many Israelis have lost family or friends in wars or bomb attacks. As Israelis are notably brusque, however, an Israeli might construe something an American deems cautious politesse as evasiveness or uncertainty. Since directness is prized, it is best to get straight answers when an Israeli questions, and/or ask straight questions. Before "getting down to business," an American business man/woman may be surprised that little small talk or "chit-chat" is exchanged. if/when an individual meets Palestinian Israelis, it is good to remember they value courtesy, dress and good form more. (Business Etiquette) the following reflect a number of points a businessperson needs to keep in mind when conducting business in Israel.
There may not be a correlation between a contacts' politics and his/her religious or ethnic background.
Initially, an individual should keep…… [Read More]
At present, the conflict continues. In September 2011, Palestinian officials petitioned the United Nations in a unilateral bid for statehood. However, their efforts failed as they were summarily unsuccessfully in securing the nine votes needed in the 15 member Security Council to garner approval (Haaretz, 2011). Moreover, the United States has already indicated a veto of the proposal once it is made. In addition, Britain made it known that they would abstain from the decision according to UK Foreign Secretary William Hague. The dissent posited by President Obama and the UK's Foreign Secretary is reportedly reflected of the sentimentality of many world leaders who maintain sensibilities regarding Netanyahu and the fluctuating position of the Israeli government on the international stage.
However, although unsuccessful in September, the Palestinian Authority was granted full membership at the cultural agency of the United Nations', and are seeking membership of the World Health…… [Read More]
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…… [Read More]
Poverty rose after the Islamic evolution, and so did unemployment, leaving Iran largely uncompetitive in the global marketplace. Their largest export is the sale of oil and gas, and Iran holds what is estimated to be 10% of the world's oil reserves, so their economy is growing again, and they are successfully paying off old debt that was restructured in the 1980s (Editors).
While Iran was sinking into a depression, Israel, on the other hand, was gaining ground in many areas of their economy. While they still have to import oil, and that continued during the 1975-1985 time period, their economy has modernized and gained much more ground and diversity than Iran's, at least today. However, from 1975 to 1985, the economy was a very different story. While Iran was undergoing a boom because of oil prices, Israel enjoyed no such luxury. In fact, their resources were depleted after the…… [Read More]
Most Israelis do not desire assimilation into a common whole, given that they hold the other components of their identity equally dear as their Jewish heritage and their Israeli citizenship. A Russian Jew may have more in common with fellow Russians than an Ethiopian Jew and an Israeli may be an atheist yet a member of a religious state.
Does an Israel national identity still exist, asks Yehoshua? He does not ask this question of the Palestinian nationals, who clearly see themselves as apart from Israeli society, both legally and in terms of how they profess their own citizenship and nationhood. However, even for Jews, Israel proposes an interesting question of what constitutes a nation. Israel gives refuge and citizenship to every Jew, no matter where he or she may hail from, but the state of Israel also has civic institutions that are limited to professed nationals, some of whom…… [Read More]
Since after May 1948 the Arab-Israeli has dominated the Middle East because both sides feel that Israel/Palestine belongs to them, it influenced the Israel's government to use military force against them.. With that, four major Arab-Israeli wars and numerous sporadic battles have occurred since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Unfortunately, in today modern, these issues still have fueled many armed conflicts and suicide bombs between the two developing nations. However, at the time of the Six Day War, the issues with the Middle East countries influenced the Israel's government decision to fight with military force.
The breakup of the U.A.. And the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan iver to…… [Read More]
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…… [Read More]
The est may even become addicted to you and your PLO (Pacepa 1987, 25)
The above conversation occurred in the early Carter administration, although the Romanian dictator first began advising and consorting with Arafat in 1972 (ibid, 37). Ceau-escu was not a prophet. Rather, he was just a shrewd dictatorial leader who knew how to use image, propaganda and the repetition of the same information over and over again until his viewpoint became the accepted one.
In Pacepa's narrative, Ceau-escu and Arafat were very close. Arafat saw Ceau-escu as a model and this model set the tone for the next more than two decades of Arafat's leadership of the PLO after their secret March, 1978 meeting in Bucharest. This meeting is so very important to understanding the development and history of the PLO and the Palestinian Authority from Oslo to the leader's death in 2004.
hile agreeing with Ceau-escu on…… [Read More]
Rather, it was more a question of magical thinking: Ben-Gurion wanted a place for ews and his desire was sufficiently strong that it blinded him to the nature of Palestinian self-definition and identity.
Another point that I will examine in greater detail later that would change Ben-Gurion's views towards Arab nationalism was that he could not, in the 1930s predict the extent of the Holocaust. The death of so many ews so quickly would rewrite the equation -- for Ben-Gurion as well as others -- of the relationship between ews and Arabs.
At the same time that Ben-Gurion was pushing to create an increasingly powerful economic base of ewish workers and employers, Lockman writes, he was at the same time denying the legitimacy of Palestinians claims to Arab nationalistic authority and strongly arguing that ews had a far stronger claim to the land. This is perhaps the best-known understanding of…… [Read More]
Israel has a long standing history of conflicts of a religious nature with the Palestinians, but also with Lebanon and other Middle Eastern states; despite the numerous attempts at peace, armed conflicts still occur; this brings instability and fear not only in the political and civilian life, but also to business operations
Similar to any other global region, Israel is characterized by both opportunities, as well as threats. The decision of whether or not to expand one's business operations into this land is a complex one and depends on a series of forces. For this situation however, the advice is that of launching operations within Israel. The rationale behind this recommendation is a dual one and refers primarily to the multitude of benefits revealed by the western Asian country. The second reason is pegged to the historically proved ability of Israel to succeed in adverse circumstances.
Israel,…… [Read More]
Much like the announced plans by President-elect Barack Obama to launch the most massive public works program since orld ar II by investing in the nation's highways and bridges, the same approach was used by the newly installed Israeli government to stimulate the economy. This approach, though, was considered a comprise approach since there were vastly differing views on what issues should be made priorities following the Oslo Peace Accords (Alterman 141). According to this author, "The shift of priorities was visible on the ground within a year or two: major highways and interchanges, long-neglected by the Likud governments, were upgraded. Environmental projects received public funds. Even the long-neglected rail system received a boost, which though modest was nevertheless its largest since pre-State British Mandate times" (Alterman 141). Despite this shift in priorities over the years, Israeli expansion and Palestinian statehood remain at the forefront of the ongoing and convoluted…… [Read More]
Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.
Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…… [Read More]
This resulted in various destroyed relations for Israel as it offered sympathy for the Palestinian people and their fight not necessarily for independence, but most of all for a fair treatment from Israel. Even if it signed the Camp David Agreements in 1978 and committed to creating the framework for withdrawing from the occupied territories, Israel did not follow through and continues to do so today as well.
Looking at the entire situation from the Israeli perspective, its strategy of eliminating its enemies and putting them under control seems like a good approach. As it did in 1982 when it invaded Lebanon to destroy the South Lebanese Palestinian attackers or in its numerous misfired or intentionally fired missiles in refugee camps, Israel succeeded in becoming the strongest military force in the region.
Having in view the latest developments in the Arab world, it is hard to predict what will be…… [Read More]