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Israel's Military Culture And How It Affects The Economy
According to one definition of military culture, it is a distinct closed system of behavior according to which the members of the military are supposed to act. It consists of written as well as unwritten rules and regulations along with discrete beliefs and symbols (Cosmo, 2009).
When we talk about military culture in Israel, we refer to the whole military situation in Israel and how it affects the society and the economy. The determinant of the military culture of Israel is the Israel Defense Forces. IDF are the military forces of the State of Israel and they are formed by the ground forces, navy and the air forces. eing the only military wing of the state, it does not have any civil jurisdiction within the country.
IDF is not similar to most of armed forces of other countries. There are many…
"Israel: Generals say defense cuts perilous." UPI, 10 October 2011.
Cosmo, Nicola di. Military Culture in Imperial China. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 2009.
Harmon, Adam. Embracing Change: The Israeli Military Culture and Training Methodology. 2006. < http://lonelysoldiermemoir.blogspot.com/2006/08/embracing-change-israeli-military.html > .
Seitz, Charmaine. "Israel's Defense Budget: The Business Side of War." The Jerusalem Fund. 2008.
Explanation of the Issue: Introduction
The most recent escalation of conflict in Israel and Gaza show that the current situation is untenable. This paper examines the history of the creation of the state of Israel and the aftermath of the Balfour Declaration and its subsequent United Nations resolutions in 1947. After providing background information on the situation in Israel, the author will examine the security risks that both the Israelis and the Palestinians have taken to achieve their respective goals.
It is hypothesized that the policies of the Israeli government have allowed Israel to cement itself literally and figuratively onto Palestinian land. The Israeli approach toward national security has had tremendous economic, social, and political impact on Palestine as well as Israel. As Yiftachel (1999) points out, the situation can be described as an "ethnocracy," as Israel has systematically imeded the organic evolution of Palestinian citizenship in the state…
Arian, A. (2003). Israeli public opinion on national security, 2003. Jaffee Center. Retrieved online: http://fc.retecivica.milano.it/rcmweb/iidp/Israele/Haganah%20e%20Tsahal/Analisi/S0479F610.0/JCSSmemo67.pdf
Bakan, et al., (2001). Israel/Palestine, South Africa and the "One-State Solution": The Case for an Apartheid Analysis. Politikon: South African Journal of Political Studies.
Coskun, B.C. (2007). Hegemonic securitizations of terrorism and the legitimacy of Palestinian government. Political Perspectives 1(1).
Coskun, B.B. (n.d.). Power of the words: Securitization of the "Other." In the Israeli Palestinian Conflict. Retrieved online: http://www.qub.ac.uk/sites/QUEST/FileStore/Issue4PerspectiviesonPowerPapers/Filetoupload,71742,en.pdf
Funding its own defense projects on the strength of international arms sales has become an increasingly important strategic way of ensuring it the economic capacity to support military needs which are considerable for a nation of its decidedly modest geographical size.
But this also points to another important part of Israel's geopolitical outlook. As a nation often viewed with hostility and contempt by its neighbors and the orbit of natural gas buyers that have allied themselves with these neighbors for economic reasons, Israel's newfound status as an important international arms supplier is softening its relationship with many powerful nations. Altering the course of interests and sympathies of such nations may go a long way to help support Israeli diplomatic goals as well as to solidify its status and alliances in the world community. This is amply demonstrated by its importance to the Russian market in terms of weapons supply. Historically,…
Abbasov, S. (2009). Azerbaijan Mum About Israeli Spy Plane, Satellite Projects. Eurasianet.org.
Associated Press (AP). (2003). U.S. Military Employs Israeli Technology in Iraq War. USA Today.
Damast, L. (2008). Israel's Fastest Growing Software Companies in 2008. Israel Innovation 2.0. Online at http://www.israelinnovation20.com/category/defense-technology/
DTN News. (2009). Riyadh 'Offers Airspace' for Israel Attack on Iran. Blog Catalog.
hat are the recognized threats
Recognized threats on a national and international level include, expansion of international terrorism, as a result of universal fundamentalist Arab calls for violence against those who oppress Arabs. Israel is at the center of this conflict as the most regionally active, non-Arab state and as a result of historical actions taken by it to maintain itself and its territories, both recognized and occupied.
Short contemporary history of the threats
Description of known terrorist activity (both groups and incidents)
As has been said before terrorist activity has ebbed and flowed over the years, the most frequent current increase in threats has come from non-PLO affiliated sources, sometimes national sometimes international. The Hamas are currently particularly active in bombings, as can be seen from the statistics below while other groups such as the Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Popular Resistance Committees, Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades and others frequently take responsibility…
Bar-Joseph, Uri. Intelligence Intervention in the Politics of Democratic States: The United States, Israel, and Britain. University Park, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995.
Ben-Rafael, Eliezer. Israel-Palestine: A Guerrilla Conflict in International Politics / . New York: Greenwood Press, 1987.
Bensahel, Nora, and Daniel L. Byman, eds. The Future Security Environment in the Middle East: Conflict, Stability, and Political Change. Santa Monica, CA: Rand, 2003.
Buzan, Barry, and Ole Waever. Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2003.
Israel has accomplished much in its 48 years to be proud of. It has created a country from scratch, finding ways to farm efficiently in a climate not completely hospitable to farming. It has established a strong educational system. It has fought six wars and managed to defend its country successfully even when it was surrounded by hostile neighbors. It has brought the region to the point where the other countries accept, if grudgingly, that Israel is a bona fide country that is there to stay. Most importantly, Israel has created a homeland where any Jew who wants to can emigrate. The Jews of Israel know that they can practice their faith without interference and live safe from governmental persecution. While Israel has not yet worked out a solution to the problem of dislocated Palestinians, through its military victories Israel has demonstrated that warfare cannot solve this problem…
Cesarani, David. "Coming to terms with the past: Israel; David Cesarani examines the effects of a long history on a new nation state." History Today, Feb. 2004.
Kjeilen, Tore, with Sidahmed Abubakr and D. Josiya Negahban. "Israel," in Encyclopdeia of the Orient. No date given. Accessed via the Internet on 3/8/05. http://i-cias.com/e.o/israel_5.htm
Jews desperately sought entrance into the City of Spring, but the British stood firm on their proclamation, fearing Arab backlash. "The Nazis kill us," the Jews cried, "and the British won't let us live."
In 1945, the world discovered that its greatest fear had come true: the Nazi death camps all over Europe, ripe with the massacre of the Jewish people, cemented the Zionist call in those who lived. "Israelis developed a mind-set to never again trust their fate to others - no one gave a damn during the Holocaust - and to this day the Israelis don't like outsiders proposing 'peace plans' that threaten their security." While the Jews would never be able to forget the fear caused by intrusting their fate to others, the modern world would never forget the guilt of what amounted to letting the Jews be brutally murdered and giving them no place to go;…
Roadmap for Peace in the Middle East." U.S. Department of State. Bureau of Public Affairs. U.S. Government Printing Office, 2003.
Israel: A modern Hobbesian state?
According to the British philosopher Thomas Hobbes, in a state of nature, human life is 'nasty, brutish and short.' Hobbes takes a dark view of humanity, and while he concedes that very often the governments of nations are less-than-ideal, this is preferable to a state of anarchy. "In Hobbes' state of nature, men find themselves in a state of anarchy, understood as the absence of authority and order. The violent nature of this state of anarchy, the war of all against all, is the determinant aspect of Hobbes' political philosophy which it is a theory of survival. The aim of the social contract, of accepting hierarchy and the power of the sovereign, is to escape the inescapable and universal danger presented by anarchy" (Long 2008:91). Hobbes takes a 'dog-eat-dog' view of the world, and stresses the need for a strong sovereign power to govern. This…
Frederking, Brian. (2000). From Enemy to rival: Constructing the Camp David Accords.
Presented at the International Studies Association-Midwest. Retrieved:
Duncan, Stewart. (2009) Thomas Hobbes. The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
Israel Military Policy Post-
Israeli Military Policy Post-1973
It was in 1973 that the nation of Israel's existence was no longer threatened by its Arab neighbors, but in establishing its statehood the infant nation still faced many difficulties. Although no longer directly threatened by the armies of the mighty Arab nations, Israel faced a "proxy war" with terrorist groups armed and supported by those very same Arab enemies who had officially accepted the existence of the state of Israel. In exchange for open combat, its Arab enemies chose to support the Palestinians in their struggle against Israeli occupation of Palestinian territory. In response the Israelis adopted a policy of confrontation with the Palestinians, especially the PLO located in Lebanon. This conflict with the Palestinians in Lebanon would lead to a major split it in Israeli public opinion and a dramatic change in the public's view of the Israeli military.
Bregman, Ahron. 2000. Israel's Wars, 1948-93. New York: Routledge.
Carver, Michael. 1990. War Since 1945. Dublin: Ashfield Press.
Schiff, Ze'ev and Ehud Ya'Ari. 1984. Israel's Lebanon War. New York: Simon
Many critics are of the option that the present mistrust of Palestinian intentions from the Israeli point-of-view would also not be automatically remedied by a two - state implementation.
However, as commentators like Ziad Asali of Cornell University suggests, the two - state solution has to be implemented in conjunction with certain other factors and changes, in order to remotely have a chance of changing the course of this seemingly endless conflict. Some of his suggestions include the following:
shared, open Jerusalem, with the Arab part serving as a capital for Palestine and the Jewish part serving as the capital of Israel.
End of occupation and settlements.
A fair and equitable solution of the refugee problem, based on international legality, with resettlements, compensation and redress of moral and psychological grievances.
In the final analysis however, the two - state solution will not necessarily function automatically to reduce the…
Asali Z. Palestine and Israel: Unkind History, Uncertain Future. 2003. August 20, http://www.americantaskforce.org/Unkind_History.htm
Parallel Sovereignty for Palestine/Israel: Beyond the Onion of Blame.
August 30, 2006. http://www.flashpoints.net/sambahour1029.html
Mini Country Report on Israel
his is a mini country report on Israel that gives an overview of the economy of the country. It includes data on economic indicators such as GDP, Imports and exports, exchange rate, balance of payments, government budget, and trends in the stock market. It also describes the business outlook and an assessment of potential for doing business in the country.
Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
Israel per capita GDP ($18,000) is the highest among all the countries in the Middle East and it is about 88% of the Average GDP of the OECD countries. Its total GDP for 2002 is U.S. $115,040 million. he GDP showed a rapid rise in the 1990s but has dropped slightly after 2000 ("Real GDP"- Country Watch; Klein)
otal Exports and Imports
he total exports and imports for 2002 were U.S. $37,887 million and U.S. $47,486 respectively (Estimated), showing a…
Trade Balance (Goods & Services)." Macroeconomic Activity Tables. Country Watch. 2003. Countrywatch.com. May 5, 2003. http://www.countrywatch.com/cw_topic.asp?TOPIC=TRADEBAL&TYPE=MTABL&VCOUNTRY=83
On May 5, 2003 [available online]
Israel and esolution 242
You say it's "funny" that people you disagree with are, according to your own view, hypocritical and wrong. I don't find it especially amusing, nor do I think the rather disingenuous way you go about making claims of fact that can easily be disproven -- as though you are used to debating people who don't actually read documents, and thus like to make generalizations about an entire viewpoint/those who hold it based on the pool of ignorance you self-select -- is itself "funny." I think it is sad, in fact, that instead of being able to approach this rationally and acknowledge that there are decades of disagreement precisely because the language of esolution 242 is not entirely clear, you try to insist that your interpretation is the "obvious" correct one. Leaving aside for a moment the concrete details of this resolution and the records…
UN Security Council. (1967). Resolution 242. Accessed 7 May 2012. http://daccess-dds-ny.un.org/doc/RESOLUTION/GEN/NR0/240/94/IMG/NR024094.pdf-OpenElement
UN Security Council. (1967). Resolution 242. Accessed 7 May 2012. 1382nd Meeting: Official Records. Accessed 9 May 2012. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/9F5F09A80BB6878B0525672300565063
With an Israeli army behind it, Jewish nationalism manifested itself into settler-colonial nationalism (am, 1998). It was the power of the Israeli military that prompted Israeli Prime Minister Gold Meir to declare to historian and journalist Oriana Fallaci that Israel would never relinquish the West Bank or Gaza settlements to Arab control (1977).
The Jewish settlements represent in principle that which Zachary Lockman (1976) says is the socialism by virtue of the establishment of the Zionist settlements revolution, and then colonization with class struggle. Lockman contends that because the settlements were born out of revolution, communal in nature and therefore not in competition with regional Arab society, that an anti-Arab sentiment was facilitated. The basis upon which the settlements were established called for "but rarely practiced joint organization of Jewish and Arab labor (Lockman)."
In 2005, the Israeli Parliament voted to begin dismantling certain settlements in the West Bank, and…
Anderson, G.A. (2005, April). How to Think about Zionism. First Things: A Monthly Journal of Religion and Public Life 30+. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5009563780 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100364278
Avineri, S. (1981). The Making of Modern Zionism: Intellectual Origins of the Jewish State. New York: Basic Books. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=100364280 http://www.questiaschool.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97523133
Edelheit, H., & Edelheit, a.J. (2000). History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. Retrieved April 16, 2008, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=97523135
In doing this the powers that be across the world are attempting to dictate or change what has already been spoken by God. They are attempting to alter the prophecy. They are disguising their intentions by presenting such divisions as a way to restore peace to the Middle East. They want people to believe that dividing the land and giving some of the land to Palestine will resolve the problem and result in peace. Overall, it can be said that politics is attempting to replace prophecy, but it will not succeed because it is not possible to replace prophecy.
The purpose of this discussion is to examine the final stages of prophecy in Israel, concerns of the final prophets and the events or situations replacing prophecy. The research found that there are four stages of prophecy involving Israel. These four stages include political restoration (Israel becoming a nation), the…
Coogan M.D. (2006) the Old Testament: A Historical and Literary Introduction to the Hebrew Scriptures. Oxford Michael D. Coogan (Author) -- Visit Amazon's Michael D. Coogan Page
Goldman, S.L. (2007). Christians and Zionism American Jewish history: 93(2) Pg: 245-260 Find all the books, read about the author, and moreSee search results for this author Are you an author? Learn about Author Central
The Bible. New King James Version
Walvoord, J.F. What's New in Prophecy? http: / / www.walvoord.com/page.php? page_id=315
Israel Debate Continue
Once again, you are splitting the argument into two parts. On the one hand, there is the factual debate, for which you provide very little evidence despite making very strong claims of fact that could be readily cited properly evidenced, though I will of course the points you do mange to make. On the other hand lies the bulk of your argument, which is full of personal assumption and thinly (if at all) veiled invective and accusation, making claims for which you could have no evidence (and certainly do not have any evidence) and which ultimately have no bearing on this debate whatsoever. Since you continue to devote such a great deal of your time and verbiage to the matter of how this debate is being carried out and the character of those carrying out the debate (or rather, me, though your statements are a more accurate…
This brings us to your hang-up with the word "State." The West Bank was always to become part of the Arab State after the end of British administration, and had been annexed by Jordan for several years prior to the 1967 conflict. Resolution 242 did not have anything to do with establishing a Palestinian state, as I said previously, nor did it need to in order to carry the same weight in the West Bank as in the Sinai Peninsula: this was another State's territory that Israel invaded and currently occupies, and though the statehood of this territory has undergone many changes in the ensuing decades it was unequivocally part of a State in 1967. To suggest otherwise is either to display extreme ignorance or to be disingenuous.
You also make an assumption regarding my "agreement" with the representative of the Soviet Union regarding which countries certain territories belong to. I cited this representative specifically in regards to the interpretation of Resolution 242 and what it called for in terms of Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories, as this was the subject at hand. My contention is that the intent of the Security Council was that Israel should withdraw from all of the territories it occupied; this is explicitly stated by the Soviet representative (and others) and this is the only issue I cited him on. Trying to conflate this with other arguments shows a poor focus and an even poorer use of logic (to borrow from your methods): "A says X, and I mentioned that A said X, therefore I must believe Y to be true when A says Y."
None of your quotes come from the actual discussion surrounding Resolution 242, or from anyone other than U.S./UK representatives. If you can find any evidence in those pesky "primary document" that back up your claims, please post those quotes next.
The Sadducees were composed of the upper class of Jews in Palestine, who were willing to turn away from Jewish traditions and extend cooperation to ome. The conflict between the Pharisees and the Sadducees played a pivotal role in some of the social and cultural disputes that occurred during Christ's lifetime.
The political system of ome had an economic impact on Jews, which impacted their cultural and religious practices. The differences between the Sadducees and the Pharisees is described above. The Jewish middle class was composed of traders, merchants, and artisans. The lower class was composed primarily of manual laborers and those who were unemployable. Jesus, as a carpenter son and as a teacher, would have been a member of the middle class, but he spent a considerable amount of time among the lower class. However, all members of the population were subject to heavy taxation by ome, a burden…
Astle, Cynthia. 2012. How the Jews lived in Jesus' Time. New York: About.com. Online.
Available from Internet, http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/biblicalhistory/a/How-the-Jews-Lived-in-Jesus-Time.htm
Grabbe, Lester. 1995. An Introduction to First Century Judaism: Jewish Religion and History
in the Second Temple Period. NewYork: Continuum International Publishing Company.
Israel and Iran to the extent that the level of cooperation often varies relying on political changes region wide. This distinctive relationship is based on religious and cultural status attributed to both nations in the neighborhoods of Arab. To this point, there are different recognized dynamic factors. Firstly, Israel and Iran are consistently depicted as affirmed enemies engaged in endless conflict as much a product of intertwined histories and shared cultural flight as it is one of tactical concerns and discrepancies resulting from politics. Additionally, Anti-Iran irrational fear in the Israeli communal sphere is portrayed as protrusion of professed domestic threats to the existing Israeli ethnocraticre structuring. Israel anti-Iran phobias are derived on the same level from home-based nervousness about the Jewish's ethnic and religious identities. Secondly, it is obvious that Israel and Iran have traded on enmity and exaggerated rhetoric on both sides encouraging the potential for further acceleration…
Benn, Aluf. "Netanyahu is preparing Israeli public opinion for a war on Iran." Haaretz 15 March 2012.
Clifton, Eli. "Polling: Israelis Wary of A Unilateral Attack on Iran." 9 March 2012. www.thinkprogress.org. 8 May 2012.
-- . "Polling: Israelis Wary Of A Unilateral Attack On Iran." 9 March 2012. www.thinkprocess.org. 8 May 2012.
Gharib, Ali. "Poll: Israelis Don't Want Iran Attack Without U.S. Support." 29 February 2012 . www.thinkprogress.org. 8 May 2012.
There were several sections of agreements between Egypt and Israel as a result of Camp David, but the gist of the meetings became the lettters of understanding and framework for what would become the 1979 Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. hat is not as well-known is that the agreement also concluded that the United States would committ to several billion dollars in annual Foreign Aid toboth countries, which continues today as grants, aid packages, etc. that help Egypt continue to modernize and shore up Israeli defenses and economic development (See: Background Note: Egypt 2010; Benhorin 2007). - Several public consquenes, coupled with several private realities characterized the accords. It took until 1980 for the actual normalization of relations between Egypt and Israel, with the exchange of ambassadors beginning in February, 1980. That same month, trade began to develop, air travel resumed, and the boycott laws were repleaded by the Egyptian equivalent of…
"Background Note: Egypt." U.S. Department of State. March 5, 2010.
Cited in: http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/5309.htm#relations .
Ben-Sasson, H. (1985). A History of the Jewish People. Boston: Harvard University Press.
Benhorin, Y. "Israel Still Top Recipient of U.S. Foreign Aid." Ynetnews.com. February 8, 2007.
Decision Making Strategies
ithin any organization or process, there is the cognitive and purposeful role of decision making that is the result of taking in stimuli, choosing from alternatives, and making a final choice of an action, in action, or choice of action. This is true in the small business world, multinational corporations, individual life, and even with governments. It impacts Foreign Policy, trade, economics, and most certainly the idea of globalism -- behavior in a world in which countries are tied economically so much that political or social conflict diminishes.
One other way of looking at decision making is that it is ingrained within the human psychological perspective; one can get quite complex about this, but essentially, from a cognitive perspective, any decision making process needs to be continuous and evolving as the individual or organization reacts to the environment, and the stimuli received. Thus, from a normative perspective,…
The United States and Israel. (2012, January). Retrieved from Aneki.com: http://www.aneki.com/comparison.php?country_1=United+States&country_2=Israel
Ambrose, S., & Brinkley, D. (2011). Rise to Globalism (9th ed.). New York: Penguin Books.
Carter, R. (2000). Perspectives on addressing cultural issues in organizations. In R. Carter (Ed.), Addressing Cultural Issues in Organizations (pp. 3-18). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Communicaid. (2009, January). Doing Business in Israel - Israeli Social and Business Culture. Retrieved from Communicaid: http://www.communicaid.com/access/pdf/library/culture/doing-business-in/Doing%20Business%20in%20Israel.pdf
feud between Israel's Ariel Sharon and Palestine's Yasser Arafat, and the role of Hamas in the feud. Specifically, it will discuss subjectively some possible resolutions or helpful ideas to facilitate peace. Palestine and Israel are both carved out of ancient land in the Middle East, and their religious differences have spawned war ever since Israel was first created after World War II. Today, peace still seems far away in the Middle East, for a variety of reasons, including a longstanding feud between Ariel Sharon and Yasser Arafat.
The feud between Israel's Ariel Sharon and Palestine's Yasser Arafat goes back many years, and it is difficult to predict how it will end, or if it will ever end. There seems to be so much bad blood between Palestine and Israel that their differences may never end in peace. Yasser Arafat has been a leader in Palestine for... years, and he and…
Wall on Palestinian economy and the Future of the Middle East
In April 2002, the Israeli government began building a complex series of walls, barriers, and trenches within the western border of the West ank. The Wall is a separation barrier constructed in part by massive concrete walls, including watch towers that strike the observer (Kearney, 2003).
The Wall surrounds the Palestinian city of Qalqilya, imprisoning a population of 400,000 with eight-meter-high walls, with the single remaining access road controlled by an Israeli military base and checkpoint. At other points, the Wall consists of layers of razor wire, military patrol roads, sand paths to trace footprints, ditches, surveillance cameras and a three-meter-high electric fence in the middle. A "buffer zone" exists 30-100 meters on each side of the Wall. Palestinians are not allowed to enter this zone which consists of electric fences, trenches, cameras, sensors, and is patrolled by the…
Chavez, L. (September 17, 2003). Keep building the wall. World Affairs, pp. 179-180.
Farsakh, L. (Autumn, 2002). Palestinian Labor Flows to the Israeli Economy," Journal of Palestine Studies.
Gordon, N. (November, 2003). The Apartheid Wall. Ben-Gurion University Research Report.
Hadid, D. (2003). Israel's Apartheid Wall: "Security through Ethnic Barrier," LAW -- The Palestinian Society for the Protection of Human Rights and the Environment, Jerusalem.
Israeli Conflicts Post-1973
In his book Israel's Wars, 1947-93, Ahron Bregman claimed that during the 1972 Yom Kippur War Israel was surprised and not prepared for an Arab attack. While this view is widely prevalent, Bregman argued that it was Golda Meir's refusal to accept an Egyptian offer to re-open the Suez Canal if Israel withdrew from the eastern bank which was the first unseen sign of the upcoming war. Israeli Prime Minister Meir was unable to comprehend that Egypt would go to war in a limited manner in order to recapture the canal, instead she believed that Egypt would only attack if they held overwhelming force. Secondly, Bregman argued Israel was caught off guard because of their false belief that Egypt wouldn't attack without the aid of advanced Soviet planes and missiles; something the Soviets refused to supply. Bregman then claimed that this belief came from their misplaced faith…
Bregman, Ahron. 2000. Israel's Wars, 1948-93. New York: Routledge.
Carmon, Yigal, and Yotam Feldner. "The Intifada of Al-Aqsa: Roots and Goals."
Jewish Post: accessed January 11, 2014, http://www.jewishpost.com/archives / news/the-intifada-of-al-aqsa-roots-and-goals.html
Catignani, Sergio. "The Israeli Defense Forces and the Al-Aqsa Intifada: When
This assignment is for my Case Management and Problem Solving class. I need you to watch both of the you tube videos below about a man name Israel Keyes and answer each section below.
Answer each section about the video:
Apparent serial killer. Spoke about them at length during his interviews. At least a dozen different victims. He loved the attention and media coverage that his crimes created. Specifically enjoyed the act of killing people.
Drug History and Current Pattern Use
No proof that he used drugs. It would seem that the “high” he got from killing people and the media coverage he got from the same was what drove him. It was his drug, so to speak. Further, he became more and more “addicted” to killing and thus the intervals between criminal acts would become shorter due to his continued loss of control. However, he did not…
Anderson, R. (2013). Israel Keyes: In Plain Sight. Seattle Weekly. Retrieved 19 November 2017, from http://archive.seattleweekly.com/news/942265-129/story.html
Deranged Alaska serial killer who murdered at least eight people before killing himself said he saw himself in Ted Bundy and other mass murderers. (2017). Mail Online. Retrieved 19 November 2017, from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2246167/Israel-Keyes-Deranged-Alaska-serial-killer-said-saw-Ted-Bundy.html
Family of confessed serial killer Israel Keyes holds funeral in Washington state. (2012). MyNorthwest.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017, from http://mynorthwest.com/31526/family-of-confessed-serial-killer-israel-keyes-holds-funeral-in-washington-state/
FBI. (2017). Israel Keyes Interview, June 7, 2012. YouTube. Retrieved 19 November 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wL6g2AvxJog
FBI. (2017). Israel Keyes Interview, May 29, 2012. YouTube. Retrieved 19 November 2017, from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E3a9exJ_GB4
1. Thinking as a historian, how would you answer the question, “are the Jews a religious group, a nation, or an ethnic minority?”
When thinking as an historian, one can easily say that the Jews are a religious group, a nation, and an ethnic minority—though the terms and conditions under which all of these categorical associations are valid or legitimate is subject to some debate. First of all, Judaism today is different from what it was in pre-Christian times. Of the three largest sects of Judaism today—Reform, Conservative and Orthodox—there is a great deal of dispute about what kind of group the Jews are. There are atheist Jews and agnostic Jews, but they still identify as Jews. Jewish nationalists are typically referred to as Zionists, but not every Jew wants to live in Israel. Even for much of their own history the Jews have been without a nation of their…
Many times Israel's leader has agreed to specific peace negotiations with the United States and with Palestine, only to turn right around and do the exact opposite of what he said he would do. There has been no peace made, because Israel will not compromise. It will not back down to any degree and let Palestine have anything, and it intends to make the country into a wasteland if it does not submit. The numbers that it provides regarding killing and such are also not found to be accurate.
The article addressed here looked at the numbers, and there have been many, many more Palestinians killed by Israelis than the other way around. The bombings and the rocket attacks have not ceased. Israel insists that it is doing this because of Palestinian rocket attacks, but none of these started at all until Israel started bombings and border closings and other…
Egypt took control of the Gaza Strip and Jordan took control of Israel's West Bank. In 1949 the Green Line was the name of the boundary between Israel and its Arab neighbors. However, the end of the war did not bring peace. he 1950s were marked by a series of skirmishes between Israel and various Arab countries, but none of these skirmishes resulted in significant boundary differences.
he next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. his was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However,…
The next significant war occurred in 1967, when Egypt, Jordan, and Syria expelled UN peacekeepers and blocked Israel's access to the Red Sea. Israel struck out against these countries, in the Six-Day War. This was had a dramatic impact on Israel's borders, because Israel captured the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, and Golan Heights from its neighboring Arab Countries. By the 1970s, Palestinians were engaging in violent anti-Israel protests, such as murdering Israeli athletes at the 1972 Summer Olympics. However, the next official act of war began on October 6, 1973, when Egypt and Syria attacked Israel. This attack exacerbated the existing religious tensions, because it was launched on the high holy day of Judaism, Yom Kippur. Israel managed to repel the Egyptian and Syrian forces, but suffered territorial losses. In the late 1970s, Israel withdrew from the Sinai Peninsula and began negotiating its withdrawal from occupied Palestine. The withdrawal never occurred, and in 1982 Israel because involved in the Lebanese Civil War so that it could destroy Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) bases, which had been used to attack Israel. Israel's involvement transformed the Lebanese Civil War into the First Lebanon War. Israel withdrew from most of Lebanon. In 1987, Palestinians again protested the Israeli occupation, with six years of violence in occupied territories that is now referred to as the First Intifada.
The 1990s brought hopes of peace to Israel. First, in 1993, Israel and the PLO signed the Oslo Accords, giving Palestinians a limited right to self-government and formal recognition of the state of Israel. Israel later withdrew from Hebron, and gave even more autonomy to the Palestinian National Authority. In the early 2000s, Israel withdrew forces from southern Lebanon, unilaterally withdrew from the Gaza Strip, and began constructing the Israeli West Bank barrier. However, peace was short-lived. When two Arab groups, Hamas and Hezbollah, kidnapped Israeli soldiers, Israeli launched the Second Lebanon War, which lasted five weeks.
Israel currently is bordered by Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Egypt. Israel continues to control the West-Bank, though its government is ostensibly Palestinian. Israel continues to occupy some Arab territories, including the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, East Jerusalem, and Golan Heights. Golan Heights and East Jerusalem are treated as a future part of Israel, while the Arab territories, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, are part of the proposed future independent state of Palestine. The United Nations is currently attempting to work with Israel and the Arab nations to negotiate an Independent Palestine.
Israeli-Egypt Conflict and Iraq War
On June 5, 1967, Israel launched a surprise attack on Egypt which quickly spread to involve other neighboring states with both ground and air troops becoming involved in the conflict. Israel claimed that the attack was provoked by a massive Egyptian build-up of military forces along the Israeli border. On May 27 of that year the President of Egypt, Abdel Nasser, had stated that Egypt's basic objective was the destruction of Israel (BBC, 1967). Although Israel had consistently attempted to negotiate with its neighbors, their overtures were repeatedly rejected (Bard, 2008). Intelligence indicated the Arab states were preparing to go to war against Israel with Egypt, Jordan, and Syria being aided by Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, and Algeria. On May 16 President Nasser ordered the withdrawal of United Nations Emergency Forces from the Egyptian-Israeli border. Later that month Egypt had signed a…
Given the criteria presented in the spectrum of justification for war this conflict may be classified as an easier-to-justify preventative war. The Arab states had indeed demonstrated acts of hostile intent, preparatory steps toward hostile action, and made inflammatory rhetoric in the face of reasonable offers of negotiation. Since there is some room for doubt that an attack was pending this war cannot be classified as justified. Whether or not Israel was morally justified in taking this action is debatable, however when placed in the context of the time a strong argument may be made that it was.
On March 19, 2003, American and British forces began "Operation Iraqi Freedom" otherwise known as the Iraq War. There are several issues that may be pointed to as the basic reasons for the second major war between a United States led coalition and Iraq. First, there were lingering tensions and hostilities, remnants left over from the first Gulf war of 1991. At the close of that war the Iraqi government agreed to surrender and/or destroy several types of weapons including SCUD missiles and various Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMDs). The United Nations was tasked with sending weapons inspectors to confirm the destruction of Iraqi weapons and to search for any prohibited weapons the believed to be in hidden by the Iraqi government. Additionally, two "No Fly Zones" were established over northern and southern Iraq for the protection of Iraqi minority groups in opposition to the Saddam Hussein government. Allied aircraft patrolled the air over these zones in order to prevent Iraqi aircraft
In decidedly threatening language, Braverman would inadvertently help to goad Sherman toward some key decisions. Ultimately, the recommendations here emerge there from. Specifically, in his threatening language, Braverman reveals that Promedico is decidedly weakened by Glaxo's threat at a hostile takeover. The discomfort between Wellcome and Promedico has reached a fever pitch and it is incumbent upon Sherman to take all necessary steps to help facilitate a handover to Glaxo.
Indeed, the move from Promedico to greener pastures had seemed an inevitability for some time given the degree to which Wellcome both routinely outperformed its counterparts in the company and seemed culturally to be a poor fit with other segments of Promedico. With Glaxo now in the picture, Sherman should seize the opportunity to exercise some degree of control in the change process. This will mean establishing direct contact with her likely future superiors at Glaxo and becoming an active…
On October 6, 1973, Israel was attacked by the combined forces of Egypt and Syria. It was Yom Kipper, the most sacred day in the Jewish calendar. Egypt began as Israel had, with an air attack. On the ground, Israel was outnumbered six to one, fielding only about 200,000 soldiers against a combined force of over 1,150,000 Arab troops. Once again, the Soviet Union was involved, sending over 1,000 tons of weapons and ammunition to Egypt and Syria during the early days of the war. The United States was forced to intervene. On October 13, President Richard Nixon ordered an airlift of military supplies, enabling Israel to sustain its forces. After initial success, the war had gone against the Arabs and eventually Egyptian President Anwar Sadat appealed to the Soviet Union to save them. Following negotiations in Moscow on October 21, U.S. Secretary of State, Henry Kissinger flew to Tel…
The Anti-Terrorist Fence - an Overview." 9 July 2005 http://securityfence.mfa.gov.il/mfm/data/48152.doc.
Bregman, Ahron. A History of Israel. New York: Palgrove MacMillan, 2003.
Chomsky, Noam. "A Wall as a Weapon." The New York Times 23 February 2004. 9 July 2005 http://www.commondreams.org/views04/0223-02.htm .
Crock, Stan. "Israel's Wall: A Step toward Peace?" Business Week Online 18 July 2002. 9 July 2005 http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jul2002/nf20020718_1722.htm .
Racism in Israel: Israeli Jews to Ethiopian Jews
What is considered to be the main cause of the selected political issue (i.e., history, culture, etc.)?
With the high rise of racism throughout the world, Israel has contributed to the racism towards the influx of Ethiopian Jews migrating to their alleged homeland. Ethiopians had little to no exposure to Jews outside of Ethiopia; hence, were not educated of the other Jews in the world. This caused differences with the basic practices of both Israeli and Ethiopian Judaism. During the immigration period, the Ethiopians were named ‘Beta-Israel’ and were considered outsiders for centuries in their homeland of Ethiopia, because they were Jews. The religious discrimination is what caused the immigration to Israel in the 1980s. Majority of Ethiopian immigrants appeared in two groups to Israel. The first was called ‘Operation Moses’ in 1985-6, while the second was ‘Operation Solomon’ which was in…
Israel is among the youngest countries in Asia, having been created in 1948. The country came when the Jews who had migrated to other parts of the world returned to where they lived before to start their country. The history of Israel is one very intriguing one. Historical records show in the ancient times, Israel existed. During this time, the people of the country contacted the religious personalities currently being celebrated worldwide. Today's Christians trace their beliefs to the times in the ancient Israel. The times when Jesus Christ, the most notable personality in the Christian life lived can be traced to the times when Israel was still an established nation in the Asian continent. Israel is known to be the most favored nation in the world. The Israelites have been seen to be growing their influence in the world after their second regrouping after the World War 2.
This is significant, because it would give the U.S. A way of being able to maintain this kind of balance of power in the region. As the trade embargos / economic sanctions against Iran and Iraq would serve as an example of inappropriate behavior. This is because they were being punished, for different activities that were in violation of international law such as: the support of terrorism or the ability of either government to seek out weapons of mass destruction. The Oslo Accords were a way of being able to maintain this balance, by helping to support a strong ally and addressing the issues being faced by their adversaries. Where, this would undermine the position of hostile regimes; while strengthening the support for the U.S., by providing a frame work for dealing with the Israeli / Palestinian issue. (Massoulile 152 -- 155)
When you put these different elements together, this…
Deeb, Dennis. "Brief Overview of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict." The Collapse of Middle East Peace. Lincoln, NE: I Universe, 2003. 1 -- 7. Print.
Freedman, Robert. "The Arab Israeli Conflict." The Middle East and the Peace Process. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1998. 348 -- 352. Print.
Lochery, Neill. "Security Arrangement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip." The Difficult Road to Peace. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1999. 41 -- 60. Print.
Massoulile, Francois. "What is the Future of the Middle East." Middle East Conflicts. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Publishing, 2003, 152-155. Print.
Playwright Israel Zangwill
Is United States of America in the second decade of 21st century a melting pot -- the kind of melting pot that was envisaged by Israel Zangwill close to 104 years ago? The answer is an overwhelming no. Today more than ever there is no one idea of Americanness or American culture that is acceptable across the board. Most of this is attributable to the differences in the immigration patterns as they existed in 1908 and today. In 1908 most of the immigrants were of European background with a European heritage. Over a generation or two, these immigrants groups assimilated and integrated fully into American society as Americans. One notable exception was of course the African-American experience.
Latter half of the 20th century however saw migration from areas that were as diverse as China, Vietnam, the Indian subcontinent and the Arab world. These migrants have brought their…
208). Begin could tell the Israeli community that the Egyptian made extreme demands and the Americans didn't handle the negotiations very well. Begin's more "militant supporters" in Israel would back him up no matter the outcome, Quandt explains (p. 208).
A for Sadat, he believed that he and Carter already had a preliminary agreement that would "force the Israelis to make significant concessions"; hence, Sadat would put "all his cards face up on the table before the president," helping Carter to "manage the inevitable confrontation with Begin" (Quandt, p. 208). Sadat told the American delegation "repeatedly" that an agreement between the U.S. And Egypt "was more important to him than an Egyptian-Israeli agreement."
The only worry that Begin had, Quandt asserts on page 208, is that if the talks failed, Carter "might blame him for the failure, go public with that judgment, and try to mobilize American public opinion against…
Bard, Mitchell G. (1990). How Fares the Camp David Trio? Orbis, 34(2), 227-241.
Carter, Jimmy. (2009). We Can Have Peace in the Holy Land: A Plan That Will Work. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs. (1978). Camp David Accords. Retrieved February 27, 2011,
From http://www.mfa.gov.il .
This time Israel captured the Sinai peninsula and occupied some territories it had captured for some time (Jonah, 2002), including the Gaza Strip and the West Bank (anania, 2005). While Israel saw this as the rights of the victor, Arabs saw it as another land grab. Jewish settlements in these areas therefore became quite controversial. The Arabsl allied themselves once again in 1973, and once again, Israel defeated them. This made it clear that Palestinians would not regain what they viewed as their lands by force, even with the support of other Arab nations, and made negotiation a more important option for them (Ismael, 1999).
ATTEMPTS TO BRING PEACE
Meanwhile, Ahmad al-Shugayri became first chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, or PLO. his language was described as vitriolic (Jonah, 2002). Chairman Yasir Arafat, who followed, was seen as wearing Al-Shugayri's mantle, and it was decades before the PLO was recognized…
Hanania, Ray. 2005. "Peace plans work only if Palestinians get their land back." Daily Herald, Feb. 7.
Ismael, Tareq Y. 1999. "Globalization and the Arab World in Middle Est Politics: Regional Dynamics in Historical Perspective. Arab Studies Quarterly, June.
Jonah, James O.C. 2002. "The Middle East Conflict: The Palestinian Dimension. Global Governance, Vol. 8.
Psalms in the Life of Israel: Psalm 45 and 51
Instructions: Complete the matrices by answering the questions regarding Psalm 45 and Psalm 51. Be sure to answer in complete sentences. Cite your sources. Incorporate the information of the Superscription of the Psalm in your responses.
What role did this psalm play in the life of the author and the recipient? (5)
Psalm 45 opens with the Superscription, 'To the chief musician upon Shoshannim, for the sons of Korah, Maschil; a Song of Love,' which is a clear indication that it is a song written for the Israelites in celebration of love. The term Shoshannim is Hebrew for 'lily', the beautiful flower that brings delight and happiness; in the same way, love was supposed to bring delight and happiness to God's children (Dunn & Rogerson, 2012). To the author and recipient, therefore, both of whom belonged to the…
" (This statement appears to fly in the face of his detailed emphasis on trying to be terribly thorough at other times throughout the book; and his seeming editorial neurosis creates doubts in the minds of the reader as to precisely how consistent and valid his values are vis-a-vis what he believes to be true.)
Those biblical students probably read his book and had a sense that he was in a classroom, behind a podium, lecturing to them, when, on pages 18-20, he discusses pre-history (Stone Age) and Neolithic Jericho. His bias towards places and people who are in some way connected to Scripture comes across numerous times in obviously favored passages.
To wit: one can almost hear his voice as he describes the relative distance in time to make his point about the advent of the Israel we know today. "Difficult as it is for us to realize, it…
Bright, John. (1959). A History of Israel. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press.
Noll, K.L. (1999). Looking on the Bright Side of Israel's History: Is There Pedagogical Value in Theological Presentation of History? Biblical Interpretation: A Journal of Contemporary
Approaches, 7, 1-27.
ar in Egypt, Israel, and Greece
How have wars impacted societies in Israel, Egypt, and Greece? This paper delves into those topics.
Not long after the United Nations approved allowing the State of Israel to come into fruition in 1948, Arab neighbors attacked Israel and tried to destroy the newly established Jewish nation. Egypt, Syria and other forces from nearby squeezed the borders of Israel in an apparent attempt to wipe Israel out. But the Israeli army pushed back on several fronts and by January, 1949, Israel had reclaimed all the lands from the attackers, and had regained the lands that the United Nations had originally agreed to grant to Israel (Swift Maps).
Meanwhile, in 1967, the Jewish state was just 19 years old but it was facing a serious military challenge from Egypt. According to the BBC, the "Voice of the Arabs," Egyptian strong man Gamal Abdul Nasser's…
BBC. "How 1967 defined the Middle East." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://news.bbc.co.uk .
Global Security. "Greek Civil War." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.globalsecurity.org . 2004.
History.com. "June 11, 1967: Six-Day War Ends." Retrieved December 15, 2015, from http://www.history.com . 2006
PBS. "General Article: Peace Talks at Camp David, September, 1978. Retrieved
Geography as a Determinant of History In Egypt, Israel and Greece
Geography is important in history. For an individual to properly examine and understand history, he/she must learn or understand geography. This implies that without geography, it is relatively difficult and nearly impossible to understand history given the role of geography in history. Actually, geography has shaped history in various diverse ways, which reflects its importance in understanding nations. The significance of geography in history is demonstrated in how it matters to Egypt, Israel, and Greece. The history of these countries is understood through geography, which played an important role in the formation of these nations. Apart from being an important aspect, there are various limits of geography as a determinant of history in Egypt, Israel, and Greece.
How Geography Matters to Egypt, Israel and Greece
As previously mentioned, the history of Egypt, Israel, and Greece was largely shaped by…
Chan, Michael J. "Egypt." Oxford Biblical Studies Online. Oxford University Press, n.d. Web. 15
Dec. 2015. .
Hicks, Derek. "Geography and the Early Greeks." Selinsgrove Area School District. Selinsgrove Area School District, 2013. Web. 15 Dec. 2015. .
Zank, Michael. "Israelite History in the Context of the Ancient Near East." Boston University.
Target Israel SOT
Global Fighter Jets, as a producer of military equipment, benefits from the SOT analysis of the countries it wishes to sell its product. Global's F35 is planned to be sold and manufactured within the nation of Israel. The unique factors regarding this particular selection need to be explored to truly gauge and understand the scope and magnitude of such a business venture. The purpose of this essay is to conduct a SOT analysis on Israel regarding the F35 Global Fighter Jet product. This analysis will examine internal strengths and weakness of Global Fighter Jets by analyzing its business mode and how best it might serve the company's objectives. The external opportunities and threats that lie within this specific Israeli market will then be discussed. The paper will conclude with comments on how to best manage the risks of this expenditure and introduce a successful strategy to make…
Israel. Wikipedia. 8 Sep 2012. Retreived from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Israel
Maital, S. (2004). Research or die a SWOT analysis for Israel. Globes.com. Retreived from http://archive.globes.co.il/searchgl/A%20SWOT%20analysis%20for%20Israel._s_hd_0L 3OuC30vN3WsCZKoDYveT6ri.html
It is emphasized that military service has become an intimate part of the culture and that the demise of this rite of passage must be considered in terms of its societal impact. On the other hand there are also signs that new immigrants to the county are less enthusiastic or concerned about compulsory military service; therefore there may be change within the society with regard to the perceived social importance of this rite of passage -- which in turn would augur well for a move to a more professional and independent defense force.
Another related and important factor is that the structural relationship between the society and the military is changing. In the modern international, political and military environment there is less need for semi-skilled and skilled input from the civilian sections of the society. As the military becomes more specialized in response to new and more sophisticated defense threats,…
tense right now in Israel. The Jewish New Year (it's 5773 for those who count) has coincided with a recent wave of anti-American and anti-Jewish sentiment related in part to a recent "incendiary" film that depicts the Muslim prophet Muhammad (Estrin, 2012). It's not as if Israel and Iran were not already archenemies, but tensions are higher now than perhaps ever before. The film in question also threatens to unify anti-Israeli sentiment among both Sunni and Shi'ite Muslims: a phenomenon that understandably frightens not just Israelis but most peace-loving human beings around the world.
Yet another film that can be accurately called incendiary injects much-needed humor into the centuries-old tradition of Jew-hating. That film was issued by legendary director Quentin Tarantino in 2009. Or, we should say, 5770. Called Inglourious Basterds, and spelled deliberately wrong, the film depicts a fictional troop of American assassins on a mission to kill Nazis…
Estrin, D. (2012). On eve of Jewish new year, Israelis dread possible Iran strike and worry about ties with U.S.. Edmonton Journal. 16 Sept 2012. Retrieved online: http://www.edmontonjournal.com/news/Jewish+year+Israelis+dread+possible+Iran+strike+worry+about+ties/7250712/story.html
Tarantino, Q. (2009). Inglorius Basterds. [Feature Film].
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…
Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.
Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm
Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
Amos is one of the Twelve Minor Prophets of the Tanakh, and was active in the 8th century before Christ -- he is roughly contemporary in that century with the other Hebrew prophets Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah. Although in the opening chapters, Amos prophesies divine vengeance for a number of foreign nations -- including Damascus, Tyre, Edom, and Moab -- perhaps the biggest single shock for the reader comes at Chapter 2 verses 6 through 8, when Amos prophesies divine vengeance upon Israel itself. The text of this passage reads:
Thus says the Lord:
For three transgressions of Israel,
and for four, I will not revoke the punishment;
because they sell the righteous for silver, and the needy for a pair of sandals
they who trample the head of the poor into the dust of the earth, and push the afflicted out of the way;
father and son go in…
Andersen, Francis and Freedman, David. Amos (The Anchor Bible Yale Commentaries). New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989. Print.
McComiskey, Thomas. The Minor Prophets: An Exegetical and Expository Commentary. Grand Rapids: Baker Academic, 2009. Print.
Paul, Shalom. Amos: A Commentary on the Book of Amos. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 1991. Print.
Stuart, Douglas. Word Biblical Commentary Volume 31: Hosea-Jonah. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1987. Print.
Israel vs. Palestine Conflict
The author of this report has been asked to write an essay about the conflict between the Israeli people and the Palestinians as it has existed over time. Much of the conflict has actually extended over millennia when it comes to the stretch of land that is involved. However, this report will focus on the last century or so. The first question to be answered is simply a summary of the conflict that has existed between the two groups over the last century. The second question talks about sovereignty and nationalism in the context of the conflict that is being discussed. The conflict is then to be analyzed in terms of power and statecraft. Finally, there will be the prisoner's dilemma discussion from a realist and from a neo-liberal understanding.
Basically, the gist of the Palestinian gripe is that they have gone from controlling…
ERS. (2015). Comparatively Assess Neo-realism and Neo-liberalism. Whose Argument
do you Find the More Convincing and Why?. E-International Relations. Retrieved 11 May 2015, from http://www.e-ir.info/2007/12/21/comparatively-assess-neo-realism-and-neo-liberalism-whose-argument-do-you-find-the-more-convincing-and -
If Americans Knew. (2015). A Synopsis of the Israel/Palestine Conflict.
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
Another tragic page of Jewish history is tragic period of Holocaust. There's no need to explain those terrible times and German crimes - these facts are well-known but I have to mention that Jewish Zionists managed organizing resistance to the Nazi regime and also they gained success cooperating with British, Soviet and American governments which agreed and let Jews create their state after the war. "Among the few European Jews who escaped the Holocaust were Zionists who emigrated to Palestine" (Shmuel; Reinharz, Jehuda Zionism and Religion Among, p.122). They were happy to leave Europe that was their real homeland but after Hitler's crimes they got sure that having own state, which would protect its citizens, is the best way out from international violence and anger directed against Jewish nation.
1948 was a turning point of Jewish history. At last Jewish nation created an own state on their historical land -…
1. Slater, Jerome Can Zionism be Reconciled with Justice for the Palestinians Article Tikkun July 2003
2. Zuncs, Stephen Defending Zionism in a Time of Occupation and Oppression Article Tikkun p.54 April 2004
3. Starobin, Paul Rethinking Zionism Article National Journal p.1240 April 24, 2004
4. Hazony, Yoram the Zionism Idea and its Enemies Article Commentary may 96, Vol. 101, Issue 5 p.30
in the newly ormed Ministry o Finance drew rom a talented pool o
economists rom the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Privileged positions
were illed rom within the bureaucracy and were obtained through
exceptional perormance instead o cronyism or nepotism. O great
importance to their autonomy, oicials were able to disconnect themselves
rom total reliance on local unding thanks to inancial assistance rom
the international community and reparations rom Germany. Two igureheads
within the government guaranteed a decisive and coherent economic policy:
Levi Eshkol o the Ministry o Finance, and Pinhas Sapir o the Ministry o
Commerce and Industry. They worked hand-in-hand to ormulate a uniying
agenda that bureaucrats rom both departments could pursue towards a single
The end-product o this labor in both nations was a inancial
structure in which banks, and by extension the government at large,
controlled the low o capital. On one hand, banks…
formulated and guided a successful investment endeavor was in the case of
textiles. Israeli officials, in particular MOCI chief Pinhas Sapir,
envisioned in the Textile Industry Development Plan that by 1966, twelve
major textile manufacturing plants would be operational and ultimately
produce 26% of Israel's
During these times, politeness and sensitivity become necessary as this subject may be extremely emotional or explosive as many Israelis have lost family or friends in wars or bomb attacks. As Israelis are notably brusque, however, an Israeli might construe something an American deems cautious politesse as evasiveness or uncertainty. Since directness is prized, it is best to get straight answers when an Israeli questions, and/or ask straight questions. Before "getting down to business," an American business man/woman may be surprised that little small talk or "chit-chat" is exchanged. if/when an individual meets Palestinian Israelis, it is good to remember they value courtesy, dress and good form more. (Business Etiquette) the following reflect a number of points a businessperson needs to keep in mind when conducting business in Israel.
There may not be a correlation between a contacts' politics and his/her religious or ethnic background.
Initially, an individual should keep…
Business Etiquette. (2007). The Economist Newspaper Limited. 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.economist.com/cities/displayobject.cfm?obj_id=4422636&city_id=TLV.The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/66/23/38723.html .
Embassy of Israel. (2006). 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.israelemb.org/U.S.-IsraelRelations/landl.html .
Gu, Paul. (2007). Executive Planet. 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Main_Page .
Israel. (2007). World Atlas. http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/countrys/asia/il.htm .
At present, the conflict continues. In September 2011, Palestinian officials petitioned the United Nations in a unilateral bid for statehood. However, their efforts failed as they were summarily unsuccessfully in securing the nine votes needed in the 15 member Security Council to garner approval (Haaretz, 2011). Moreover, the United States has already indicated a veto of the proposal once it is made. In addition, Britain made it known that they would abstain from the decision according to UK Foreign Secretary William Hague. The dissent posited by President Obama and the UK's Foreign Secretary is reportedly reflected of the sentimentality of many world leaders who maintain sensibilities regarding Netanyahu and the fluctuating position of the Israeli government on the international stage.
However, although unsuccessful in September, the Palestinian Authority was granted full membership at the cultural agency of the United Nations', and are seeking membership of the World Health…
Dershowitz, Alan. The case for peace: How the Arab-Israeli conflict can be resolved. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
Gudrun, Kramer. A history of Palestine: from the Ottoman conquest to the founding of the State of Israel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
"Haaretz." Haaretz. September 15, 2011. (accessed November 1, 2011).
"Diaspora" is a Greek term meaning "to disperse," or "to scatter," and is often applied to the Jews and their dispersion out of the land of Israel. Many scholars point to the year 588 B.C., when the kingdom of Judea was conquered by the Babylonians as the beginning of the Jewish Diaspora. ("Diaspora") The Jews were forced to relocate to Babylon where, even after the Persians conquered the Babylonians and allowed the Jews to return to Judea, many remained. It was also when the Babylonians conquered Judea that many Jews fled to Egypt, where they created a Jewish community in exile that continued for centuries. After the return of the Jews to Judea in 538 B.C., the entire area became embroiled in a series of conflicts that resulted in the creation of a Hellenic culture throughout the middle east. As a result, Jews spread out from their traditional homeland…
"Balfour Declaration." Avalon Project. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
"Diaspora." Jewish Encyclopedia. Web. 8 Dec. 2012.
Poverty rose after the Islamic evolution, and so did unemployment, leaving Iran largely uncompetitive in the global marketplace. Their largest export is the sale of oil and gas, and Iran holds what is estimated to be 10% of the world's oil reserves, so their economy is growing again, and they are successfully paying off old debt that was restructured in the 1980s (Editors).
While Iran was sinking into a depression, Israel, on the other hand, was gaining ground in many areas of their economy. While they still have to import oil, and that continued during the 1975-1985 time period, their economy has modernized and gained much more ground and diversity than Iran's, at least today. However, from 1975 to 1985, the economy was a very different story. While Iran was undergoing a boom because of oil prices, Israel enjoyed no such luxury. In fact, their resources were depleted after the…
Coutsoukis, Photius. "Israel's Economy." Photius.com. 2004. 3 July 2008. http://www.photius.com/countries/israel/economy/israel_economy_economic_growth_and_~13.html
Editors. "Iran's Economy." Iran Trade Association. 2008. 3 July 2008. http://www.iraniantrade.org/doinbiz/econ.asp
Kirshner, Sheldon. "Israel's Ties With Iran Have Been Mercurial." CanadianJewishNews.com. 21 February 2008. 3 July 2008. http://www.cjnews.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=14065&Itemid=86
Melman, Yossi. "How Israel Lost to the Iranians." Iran Press Service. 2006. 3 July 2008. http://www.iran-press-service.com/ips/articles-2006/december2006/iran_israel_oil_071206.shtml
Most Israelis do not desire assimilation into a common whole, given that they hold the other components of their identity equally dear as their Jewish heritage and their Israeli citizenship. A Russian Jew may have more in common with fellow Russians than an Ethiopian Jew and an Israeli may be an atheist yet a member of a religious state.
Does an Israel national identity still exist, asks Yehoshua? He does not ask this question of the Palestinian nationals, who clearly see themselves as apart from Israeli society, both legally and in terms of how they profess their own citizenship and nationhood. However, even for Jews, Israel proposes an interesting question of what constitutes a nation. Israel gives refuge and citizenship to every Jew, no matter where he or she may hail from, but the state of Israel also has civic institutions that are limited to professed nationals, some of whom…
Since after May 1948 the Arab-Israeli has dominated the Middle East because both sides feel that Israel/Palestine belongs to them, it influenced the Israel's government to use military force against them.. With that, four major Arab-Israeli wars and numerous sporadic battles have occurred since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Unfortunately, in today modern, these issues still have fueled many armed conflicts and suicide bombs between the two developing nations. However, at the time of the Six Day War, the issues with the Middle East countries influenced the Israel's government decision to fight with military force.
The breakup of the U.A.. And the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan iver to…
The 1967 Six-Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/67_War.html
Six Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.israeli-weapons.com/history/six_day_war/SixDayWar.html
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Much like the announced plans by President-elect Barack Obama to launch the most massive public works program since orld ar II by investing in the nation's highways and bridges, the same approach was used by the newly installed Israeli government to stimulate the economy. This approach, though, was considered a comprise approach since there were vastly differing views on what issues should be made priorities following the Oslo Peace Accords (Alterman 141). According to this author, "The shift of priorities was visible on the ground within a year or two: major highways and interchanges, long-neglected by the Likud governments, were upgraded. Environmental projects received public funds. Even the long-neglected rail system received a boost, which though modest was nevertheless its largest since pre-State British Mandate times" (Alterman 141). Despite this shift in priorities over the years, Israeli expansion and Palestinian statehood remain at the forefront of the ongoing and convoluted…
Alterman, Rachelle. Planning in the Face of Crisis: Land Use, Housing and Mass Immigration in Israel. London: Routledge, 2002.
Bird, Eugene. (1998, March). "With Oslo Accords in Shambles, a President Who Let it Happen Feels Shackled by Both Old and New Mistakes." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, Special Report 15-16.
Details of the Oslo Peace Accords. (2008). Palestine Facts. [Online]. Available: http://Palestinefacts.org/pf_1991to_now_oslo_accords.php.
Dunsky, Marda. (2001). "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly, 23(3), 1.
Fear of oil shortages in the West drove oil prices to unprecedented levels, about three times the pre-war price. Gasoline shortages in the United States resulting from the Arab embargo, combined with the rise in oil prices, began a spiral of world-wide inflation and a recession in 1974-75.
Attempts began to resume the peace process when Security Council esolution 338 was passed and a ceasefire was ordered on October 22, 1973. The resolution was meant to immediately terminate of all military activity, implementation of esolution 242 and the start of negotiations "aimed at establishing a just and durable peace in the Middle East." esolution 338 subsequently became a companion piece to 242 as the basis of future proposals for a peace settlement. In December a Middle East Peace Conference convened in Geneva under the cochairmanship of the Soviet and American foreign ministers and the U.N. secretary-general. Egypt, Jordan and Israel…
Interview with Moshe Dayan by Rami Tal on November 22, 1976, Yediot Aharanot, April 27, 1997.
Anwar Sadat, in Search of Identity: An Autobiography (New York: Harper and Row, 1977), P- 259;
Haim Herzog, the War of Atonement, October 1973: The Fateful Implications of the Arab-Israeli Conflict (Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1975), p. 51
Abba Eban, Personal Witness: Israel Through My Eyes (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1992), p. 523.
This resulted in various destroyed relations for Israel as it offered sympathy for the Palestinian people and their fight not necessarily for independence, but most of all for a fair treatment from Israel. Even if it signed the Camp David Agreements in 1978 and committed to creating the framework for withdrawing from the occupied territories, Israel did not follow through and continues to do so today as well.
Looking at the entire situation from the Israeli perspective, its strategy of eliminating its enemies and putting them under control seems like a good approach. As it did in 1982 when it invaded Lebanon to destroy the South Lebanese Palestinian attackers or in its numerous misfired or intentionally fired missiles in refugee camps, Israel succeeded in becoming the strongest military force in the region.
Having in view the latest developments in the Arab world, it is hard to predict what will be…
Alteras, A. (1993) Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations 1953-1960 Florida: University Press of Florida
Calvocoressi, P. (2009) World Politics since 1945 Essex: Pearson Education Limited
Nye, J. (2002) Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History Longman Classics Series
Oren, M. (2002) Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the modern Middle East New York: Oxford University Press
Here we have an account of the definitive formation of the twelve-tribe league incorporating people who may well have had ancient ties with Israelite tribes but who only now pledge their undivided allegiance to the God of Israel."
Thus, Shechem is, according to Hillers, one of the most important place for the Covenant renewal, since it was the first that was witnessed by the united Israelite tribes.
John Van Seters, on the other hand, offers a different explanation for the origins of the text in Joshua 24. He concludes that the resemblances in form between the Covenant at Shechem and the Deuteronomy Covenant makes it plausible that the Joshua 24 has to be just an addition to the Deuteronomy work:
There is only one solution to this dilemma and that is that Joshua 24.1-27 was composed as an addition to the Dtr. work. It is post-Dtr. And was inserted before…
Boling, Robert G., and G. Ernest Wright. Joshua. AB 6. Garden City, New York.:Doubleday, 1982.
Harris, J. Gordon, Cheryl a. Brown and Michael S. Moore. Joshua, Judges, Ruth. NIBC. Peabody, Mass.: Hendrickson, 2000.
Nelson, Richard J. Joshua: A Commentary.Louisville: Westminster John Knox, 1997.
Nicholson, Ernest God and His People: Covenant and Theology in the Old Testament. Clarendon Press. Oxford. 1986.
interventionism from the perspective of realism vs. idealism. Realism is defined in relationship to states national interests whereas idealism is defined in relation to the UNs Responsibility to Protect doctrine -- a doctrine heavily influenced by Western rhetoric over the past decade. By addressing the question of interventionism from this standpoint, by way of a case study of Libya and Syria, a picture of the realistic implications of "humanitarian intervention" becomes clear. Idealistically, humanitarian interventionism is a process that stops atrocities and establishes peace and prosperity. Realistically, interventionism allows Western businesses to reap the spoils of destabilization -- as has been seen in Libya with the Libyan oil fields being claimed by Western oil companies -- and as is being seen in Syria, with the threat of invasion bound to have detrimental effects on the construction of a new pipeline that bypasses the Turkey-Israel pipeline. Syria also presents itself as…
'Violent chaos': Libya in deep crisis 2 years since rebels took over', 2013, RT, 26 Aug.
Available from . [24 Aug 2013].
Weiner, T 2008, Legacy of Ashes, Anchor Books, NY.
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab-Israeli conflict
The current Arab-Israeli conflict has a long standing history which goes back to the 1910s when the Ottoman Empire was still in place. During the WWI, the Germans sided with the Ottoman and the British sided with the Arabs in revolting against the Ottoman Empire. The British promised the Arabs self rule and to the Jews they promised them a homeland in Palestine (Kattan, et.al., 2009:Pp59). The Arabs took over the control of Syria and immediately after the war, the League of Nations gave the French the control over Syria and to the British they gave what are today Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jordan. In 1921 the British divided their large mandate into two; the East of Jordan became the emirates of Transjordan under Abdullah and the West of Jordan became the mandate of the Palestine (the Promised Land to the Jews)…
Bassiouni & Ben Ami, (2009). International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, Volume 29: A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897-2008. Martinus Nijhof: The Netherlands.
Harms G. & Todd M.F., (2008). Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (2nd Edition). Pluto Press: London.
Kattan, et.al., (2009). From Coexistence to Conquest: International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891-1949. Pluto Press.
Khatchadourian, (2000). Quest for Peace Between Israel and the Palestinians. Peter Lang Publishing: New York.