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According to Biblical accounts, the Israelites left Egyptian captivity and took over the land from the Canaanite and other tribes living there.
Over time, the land has fallen under the rule of multiple invading countries. he Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Alexander the Great all conquered the land between 722 and 167 BC during which many of the Jewish people were exiled or fled do to persecution. Around 61 BC the area fell under Roman control until about 600 AD. he Romans named the region Palestine.
he Arabs invaded the Middle East and claimed Jerusalem as a holy city for the Muslims even though it had been a Jewish holy city for decades. During this time Arabs occupied land with the Jewish people and some inhabitants of the tribes in the region converted to Muslim. Other countries took possession of the land up until World War 1 when after the defeat…
The land in question was inhabited through the years by many different nationalities and each was conquered by another country. Evidence from fossil bones found in the region show that the area has been inhabited for tens of thousands of years. Around 2000 BC they land was occupied by the Canaanite, Amorites, and other Semitic people. Israelites are thought to be a combination of the people of the region and especially the Canaanites and a Semitic people called Hebrews who inhabited the land around the period of 1800 and 1500 BC. According to Biblical accounts, the Israelites left Egyptian captivity and took over the land from the Canaanite and other tribes living there.
Over time, the land has fallen under the rule of multiple invading countries. The Assyrians, Babylonians, Persians, and Alexander the Great all conquered the land between 722 and 167 BC during which many of the Jewish people were exiled or fled do to persecution. Around 61 BC the area fell under Roman control until about 600 AD. The Romans named the region Palestine.
The Arabs invaded the Middle East and claimed Jerusalem as a holy city for the Muslims even though it had been a Jewish holy city for decades. During this time Arabs occupied land with the Jewish people and some inhabitants of the tribes in the region converted to Muslim. Other countries took possession of the land up until World War 1 when after the defeat of the Ottoman Empire fell under the guidance of the English. The English had made promises to the Arab leaders give the region to them. Palestinian people have resented the Immigration of Jews back into the region for years. Zionism on the part of the Jews took effect in 1800's and after many wars; Israel was recognized as a nation in 1948 by most of the world. The Palestinian movement started in 1957 and has engaged or caused skirmishes since. The problem seemed to be resolved when Israel relinquishes the Gaza Strip and West Bank to the Palestinians but Muslim sentiment is destruction of all Jewish people and until one side is wiped out completely the conflict will not end. Palestinians have claims to the lands the same as Israel and the inhabitants of the region has changed depending on the ruling country. The Palestinian side goes deeper though because they are supported by the Muslim Arabs and they all want more than the land; they want annihilation of the people.
These fundamentalist thinkers then teach these disparities to followers, who can and often do attempt to elicit change through acts of terrorism. Terrorism grows out of misinformation and exaggeration but the fundamental ideas of it are correct, the democratization and capitalization of other nations often leads to a transitional breakdown of systems that have been in place and respected for centuries, regardless of their effectiveness. Immorality, as these transitions are often reflective of, by fundamental and even moderate Islamic standards is often seen as a symptom of Western proliferation and the deliberate destruction of Islam, by Western foreign nations. It would seem from an outside point-of-view that Western foreign policy tends to ignore indigenous traditions that are not a part of the democratic and capitalist agenda, further feeding the problem or ideological difference. (Preble, 2004, p. 7)
3. Terrorist organizations are quickly adapting to advances in mass media and Web…
Lewis, James a. (April 1, 2005) "The Internet and Terrorism" in the Proceedings of the 99th Annual Meeting of the American Society for International Law at http://www.csis.org/component/option,com_csis_pubs/task , view/id,523/
Preble, C. (2004). Exiting Iraq: Why the U.S. Must End the Military Occupation and Renew the War against Al Qaeda: Report of a Special Task Force. Washington, DC: Cato Institute.
Media Coverage of Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
The Media's Coverage of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict:
Is it an Objective Representation?
Bias in the General Media
Rules of Unbiased Coverage (According to the BBC)
How Rules are Broken by Domestic Media (why is the NY Times pro-Israel?)
How Rules are Broken by the International Media
-example of biased coverage by the BBC (http://www.guardian.co.uk/media/2006/may/03/israel.broadcasting)
Bias in the Media Covering the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Brief Background of the Conflict
Is Media Biased?
-example of biased coverage
End Introduction with Thesis Statement to Prove Biased Coverage
The way that the United States media, and sometimes the international media, portray the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is biased, depending on whom the specific newspaper is addressing.
(Here you may also want to address the fact that the conflict is so complex, that it is really hard to be objective without having proof or a specific issue which can be researched on the…
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…
At present, the conflict continues. In September 2011, Palestinian officials petitioned the United Nations in a unilateral bid for statehood. However, their efforts failed as they were summarily unsuccessfully in securing the nine votes needed in the 15 member Security Council to garner approval (Haaretz, 2011). Moreover, the United States has already indicated a veto of the proposal once it is made. In addition, Britain made it known that they would abstain from the decision according to UK Foreign Secretary William Hague. The dissent posited by President Obama and the UK's Foreign Secretary is reportedly reflected of the sentimentality of many world leaders who maintain sensibilities regarding Netanyahu and the fluctuating position of the Israeli government on the international stage.
However, although unsuccessful in September, the Palestinian Authority was granted full membership at the cultural agency of the United Nations', and are seeking membership of the World Health…
Dershowitz, Alan. The case for peace: How the Arab-Israeli conflict can be resolved. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2005.
Gudrun, Kramer. A history of Palestine: from the Ottoman conquest to the founding of the State of Israel. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2008.
"Haaretz." Haaretz. September 15, 2011. (accessed November 1, 2011).
During these times, politeness and sensitivity become necessary as this subject may be extremely emotional or explosive as many Israelis have lost family or friends in wars or bomb attacks. As Israelis are notably brusque, however, an Israeli might construe something an American deems cautious politesse as evasiveness or uncertainty. Since directness is prized, it is best to get straight answers when an Israeli questions, and/or ask straight questions. Before "getting down to business," an American business man/woman may be surprised that little small talk or "chit-chat" is exchanged. if/when an individual meets Palestinian Israelis, it is good to remember they value courtesy, dress and good form more. (Business Etiquette) the following reflect a number of points a businessperson needs to keep in mind when conducting business in Israel.
There may not be a correlation between a contacts' politics and his/her religious or ethnic background.
Initially, an individual should keep…
Business Etiquette. (2007). The Economist Newspaper Limited. 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.economist.com/cities/displayobject.cfm?obj_id=4422636&city_id=TLV.The Columbia World of Quotations. New York: Columbia University Press, 1996. 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.bartleby.com/66/23/38723.html .
Embassy of Israel. (2006). 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.israelemb.org/U.S.-IsraelRelations/landl.html .
Gu, Paul. (2007). Executive Planet. 6 Dec. 2007 http://www.executiveplanet.com/index.php?title=Main_Page .
Israel. (2007). World Atlas. http://www.graphicmaps.com/webimage/countrys/asia/il.htm .
Not simply risky in that he is trying to create an integrated Middle Eastern policy when the issues involved are so complicated and so volatile (and the grievances so intractable). But also because by applying specifically religious language to the situation he runs the risk of exacerbating the tensions in the region that run so deeply along religious lines. (On the other hand, by emphasizing the important of connections among all Muslims, Obama may have some success in reducing the conflicts along national, ethnic, cultural, and linguistic lines.)
The importance of studying U.S. foreign policy in the Middle East is that all carefully considered information and theories about this subject, by adding to the marketplace of ideas, help even if only incidentally to move the world towards a more rational (and equitable) set of policies in the region (Dworkin, 1996, pp. 46; Hanania, 2009).
The thesis that I will be…
Bender, Thomas, 2006. A nation among nations: America's place in world history. London: Hill & Wang.
Benoit, Sammy, 2009, November 10. Obama's Middle East Policy Falls Apart . [Online]. http://docstalk.blogspot.com/2009/11/obamas-middle-east-policy-falls-apart.html . [Accessed 5 December 2009].
Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. & Smith, D., 2003. Focus: 'Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online. [Online]. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/printFriendly/0,,11-1506-669.html . [Accessed 3 December 2009].
Corsi, Jerome, 2009. Why Israel Can't Wait: The Coming War Between Israel and Iran. Los Angeles: Threshold.
Israeli "Settler" Housing in the West Bank of Israel/Palestine
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has often been a major problem in the Middle East. Particularly, at the heart of the conflict lies the controversial question regarding territories, as well as who owns them. In the aftermath of the holocaust, and the collision of Palestinian nationalism and Jewish nationalist colonization, the Israelis and the Palestinians started laying claim to the same territories, which marked the beginning of the long conflict that goes on to date (Global Policy Forum, 2013). In 1947, the United Nations (UN) attempted to resolve the conflict by partitioning land - although this failed to provide a lasting solution. By 1967, Israel had confiscated land in boundaries that had been set by the UN, and it was focused on occupying remaining territories namely the West bank, east Jerusalem, and Gaza strip. Since then, Israel went on with the policy of…
American Friends Service Committee (2012). Israel's settlement policy in the occupied Palestinian territory. AFSC. Retrieved 21 May 2015 from https://www.afsc.org/resource/israel%E2%80%99s-settlement-policy-occupied-palestinian-territory
Dowty, A. (2012). Israel / Palestine. Malden, MA: Polity Press
Global Policy Forum (2009). Land and Settlement Issues. GPF. Retrieved 21 April 2015 from https://www.globalpolicy.org/security-council/index-of-countries-on-the-security-council-agenda/israel-palestine-and-the-occupied-territories/land-and-settlement-issues.html
International Labour Office (2009). The Situation of Workers of the Occupied Arab Territories. Geneva: International Labour Office
Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and the Middle East
The land where Israel is currently established has been characterized by fierce fighting and change in control over this region for centuries. These battles have been in existence since the period before World War II as Palestinians and Israelis continue to fight for control of this region. The historical war between Israel and Palestine and the situation in the Middle East has escalated to become a major security issue across international borders, particularly to the United States. Actually, Israeli-Palestinian conflict and the Middle East have relatively been regarded as the source of terrorism in the United States and other parts of the world. This implies that the most significant source of terrorism facing the United States is the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East. This conflict has been characterized by fights between Israel and Palestine in attempts to gain control over this region. Therefore,…
Abo-Sak, C.M. (1999). U.S. Involvement in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Solution or Complication? Retrieved September 28, 2015, from http://www.alhewar.com/LtCol.htm
Gordon, P.H. (2007, November 1). Can the War on Terror be Won? Retrieved September 28, 2015, from https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2007-11-01/can-war-terror-be-won
"Middle East." (2015). The Heritage Foundation -- 2015 Index of U.S. Military Strength. Retrieved September 28, 2015, from http://index.heritage.org/militarystrength/chapter/threats/assessing-threats-to-us-vital-interests/
Mitchell, G. (2014, September 8). Israeli-Palestinian Peace is Needed Now. Boston Globe. Retrieved September 28, 2015, from https://www.bostonglobe.com/opinion/2014/09/07/israeli-palestinian-peace-needed-now/xhBUr7GXi3EVSdFR6TVD9M/story.html
The 11-member Special Committee on Palestine (UNSCOP) was formed. In the end, the majority of the members recommended that Palestine be divided into an Arab State and a Jewish State. Jerusalem would be awarded special international status.
On November 29th, 1947, the General Assembly adopted resolution 181 (III) the Plan of Partition with Economic Union, per the UNSCOP. This resolution included an attached four-part documented, which included the termination of the Mandate for Palestine, progressive withdrawal of ritish forces, and border creation between the Arab state, Jewish state and Jerusalem. The creation of Arab and Jewish states were to be done by October 1st, 1948. Palestine would be divided into eight parts. Three parts would be allocated to the Arab state; three would be allocated to the Jewish state. The seventh part would be the town of Jaffa, which would be an Arab enclave, within the Jewish state. The eight…
"The Balfour Declaration." Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs . http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Peace+Process/Guide+to+the+Peace+Process/the+Balfour+Declaration.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
BBC News (London), "Israel Confirms Settlement Growth," March 21, 2005. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4367787.stm (accessed November 22, 2010).
Berger, Robert. "Opposition Mounts to U.S. Plan for Israeli Settlement Freeze." Voice of America (Washington ), November 21, 2010. http://www.voanews.com/english/news/Opposition-Mounts-to-U.S.-Plan-for-Israeli-Settlement-Freeze-109692414.html (accessed November 22, 2010).
"Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." Mideast Web. www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm (accessed November 23, 2010).
Conflict is endemic to any organization. From the highest governmental function to the lowest privatized function, there is always some conflict or another, and it is often up to the manager to solve this. However, a born leader will also step in. I have often found myself in the midst of arguments that did not concern me, but that I wanted solved for the benefit of others. For this reason I find myself relating most to a collaborative conflict solver. This short paper will address my conflict handling style, as well as how it could help me in a potential leadership role.
As aforementioned, my conflict handling style is collaborative. This essentially means that I am ambitious and creative, and always find an opportunity to motivate myself and others. For this reason, collaborators are known to prefer peer relationships, but also cherish independence. For example, such people can be teachers.…
"The Art of Accommodation." (2011). Applied Strategies. Retrieved September 28, 2011, < http://www.applied-strategies.com/FOLDERS-HumanFactor/Accommodation.asp>.
De Gibaja, M. (2001). An Exploratory Study of Administrative Practice in Collaboratives. Administration in Social Work; 2001, Vol. 25 Issue 2, p39-59, 21p, 1 Chart
My conflict-handling styles are competing and avoiding. I try to implement new strategic changes to address situational problems. In addition, I am always trying to find new directions for conflict-handling and creating new ideas. As a matter of fact, it is important to gain new wisdom for the
States like Bangladesh, Egypt, and Indonesia have severe challenges due to the risks of flooding, drought, and deforestation. Recently Bangladesh was hit by a powerful Typhoon (same as a hurricane), which caused thousands of deaths and was so severe it was beyond the capability of its weak government to deal with the disaster.
The U.S. Department of State (DOS) has been working for many years to try and help with a solution for the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. The violence between these two states has been going on for many years, and numerous previous attempts to find a lasting peaceful solution have failed. In a document called "A Performance-Based roadmap to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict," the DOS plan includes three phases. The first is the most crucial and pivotal - an end to the "terror and violence" and an attempt to normalize Palestinian life - in conjunction with…
Textbook Chapter 8 "Post-War Reconstruction."
Dixon, Robyn. (2007, Dec. 15). Zimbabwe may shatter, but Mugabe holds firm. The Los
Angeles Times, p. a-1 - a-5.
Foreign Policy. (2007). Failed States Index 2007. The Fund for Peace and Carnegie
**These sections must be completed by the student / author:
**Expected outcomes of the project
**Budget and schedule
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, outledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
Cravatts, 2010, Blaming the victim for Palestinian anti-Semitism. 09-16, 2010.
http://www.canadafreepress.com/index.php/article/27746 (accessed 12-10, 2010).
-- . BLAMING the VICTIM: THE TUTH ABOUT PALESTINIAN ANTI-SEMITISM. 09-28, 2010. http://www.jewishpress.com/pageroute.do/45397 (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Dershowitz, a 2003, the Case for Israel, Wiley, Hoboken, NJ.
ADL, staff 2010, the United Nations General Assembly: Key Issues for 2010 Israeli-Palestinian Negotiations . 09-20, 2010. http://www.adl.org/main_International_Affairs/UNGA_2010.htm (accessed 12 5, 2010).
Best, a, Jussi H, Maioloand, J & Schulze, K 2004, International History of the Twentieth Century, Routledge, London.
Chesler, P 2003, the New Anti-Semitism: The Current Crisis and What We Must Do About it, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco.
Cohen, J 2009, 'The accusation of Anti-semitism as moral blackmail: conservative Jews in France and the Israel-palestinian conflict.' Human Architecture, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 23+.
These settlements make sure that the state of fragmentation and insecurity of the Palestinians continues and thereby hinders the economic, social and political development of the Palestinians. The total number of such settlements in the West bank, Jerusalem and the Gaza strip are 205, with the vast majority of them in West bank and Jerusalem. "These settlements have led to the more than 403,249 settlers in the West bank and Jerusalem itself." (Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories) Israel continues to expand the number of these settlements from time to time as well as the bypass roads connecting them. These new bypass roads as well as the expansions to the existing bypass roads add to the disruption of the Palestine economy, autonomy and society.
The Israeli settlements also have a negative impact on the access of the Palestinians to natural resources like water and arable land. This problem is likely…
Definition of Zionism." Jewish Virtual Library. Retrieved at http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Zionism/zionism.html . Accessed on February 16, 2005
Boling, J. Gail. (January 2001) "Palestinian Refugees and the Right of Return: An International Law Analysis" Retrieved at http://www.badil.org/Publications/Briefs/Brief-No-08.htm Accessed on February 17, 2005
Israeli Settlements on Occupied Palestinian Territories." The Palestine Monitor.
Retrieved at http://www.palestinemonitor.org/factsheet/settlement.html . Accessed on Isseroff, Ami. "Israel and Palestine: A Brief History." MidEastWeb. Retrieved at http://www.mideastweb.org/briefhistory.htm . Accessed on February 16, 2005
The Palestinians have never the Jewish version of history and desire to have all the land returned to them. This conflict is intractable and there is little hope of a resolution in the immediate future.
In applying Reinhold Niebuhr's Christian realism to the conflict summarized above it should be noted that Niebuhr was a Zionist who strongly supported the right of Israel to occupy the land and defend itself. His Christian realism combines there elements of realism, political realism, moral realism and theological realism (Moseley 23). Thus, the conflict must be understood firstly as a problem on sin in the lives of the inhabitants of the area. The groups involved will firstly need to understand their action as a product of a sinful experience (Inboden). They should be prepared to act in moral and right way toward their fellow men. The Jews should be prepared to live peacefully with the…
Hodges, Sam. "Niebuhr's 'Christian realism'." The Dallas Morning News Feb. 10, 2006. Web
Inboden, Will "Putting the 'Christian' back in 'Realism': A response to Steve Walt" Foreign
Policy December 21, 2009. Web
Moseley, Carys "Reinhold Niebuhr's Approach to the State of Israel: The Ethical Promise and Theological Limits of Christian Realism" Studies in Christian-Jewish Relations
Immediately after Israel declared its independence, a coalition of Arab states invaded Israel, starting the first Arab-Israeli War. Israel prevailed, and conquered territories beyond those claimed in the original UNSCOP partition. Israel gained control of 77% of Palestinian territories and the remainder was divided between Jordan and Egypt (Beinin & Hajjar).
Thus, the UNSCOP proposal for a two-state solution to the Arab-Israeli conflict was dismissed and a Palestinian state was never created: leading to the subsequent decades of resentment and violence throughout the entire Middle East. Jewish residents of Arab countries throughout the region were persecuted violently and most fled to Israel. Palestinians were forced into refugee camps. Palestinians living in Israel are Israeli citizens but experience systematic discrimination (Beinin & Hajjar).
The conflict in the Middle East escalated further as Egyptian leader Gamal Abder Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal and restricted Israeli movement through it. By also joining military…
Arab-Israeli Conflict." Retrieved dEc 15, 2008 at http://www.historyteacher.net/Arab-Israeli_Conflict.htm
The Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Brief History." Guardian. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.guardian.co.uk/flash/0,720353,00.html
Beinin, J. & Hajjar, L. "Palestine, Israel and the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Primer." Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://www.merip.org/palestine-israel_primer/intro-pal-isr-primer.html
Country profile: Israel and Palestinian territories." BBC. 28 October 2008. Retrieved Dec 15, 2008 at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/country_profiles/803257.stm
This resulted in various destroyed relations for Israel as it offered sympathy for the Palestinian people and their fight not necessarily for independence, but most of all for a fair treatment from Israel. Even if it signed the Camp David Agreements in 1978 and committed to creating the framework for withdrawing from the occupied territories, Israel did not follow through and continues to do so today as well.
Looking at the entire situation from the Israeli perspective, its strategy of eliminating its enemies and putting them under control seems like a good approach. As it did in 1982 when it invaded Lebanon to destroy the South Lebanese Palestinian attackers or in its numerous misfired or intentionally fired missiles in refugee camps, Israel succeeded in becoming the strongest military force in the region.
Having in view the latest developments in the Arab world, it is hard to predict what will be…
Alteras, A. (1993) Eisenhower and Israel: U.S.-Israeli Relations 1953-1960 Florida: University Press of Florida
Calvocoressi, P. (2009) World Politics since 1945 Essex: Pearson Education Limited
Nye, J. (2002) Understanding International Conflicts: An Introduction to Theory and History Longman Classics Series
Oren, M. (2002) Six Days of War: June 1967 and the making of the modern Middle East New York: Oxford University Press
Third Party Intervention in the Middle East
The headlines everyday report more violence in the Middle East than ever before. Television broadcasts offer viewers a barrage of suicide bombers, massacres, garden-variety atrocities of all types, and a group who hails themselves as "Freedom Fighters." With so many women, children, and others who do not support their position as victims, one must wonder for whose freedom do they fight? This conflict has been going on for many generations and with no real resolution, only a temporary lull in the fighting now and then.
The two sides of the conflict have been unable to resolve their differences to this point and the fighting and violence continues to escalate and involve more and more innocent victims. Due to their inability to resolve this conflict on their own, it is now necessary for third parties to intervene with solutions to end this senseless conflict,…
ABC News. Arafat-Sharon Timeline. http://abcnews.go.com/sections/world/popoff/dailynews/arafat_sharon_timeline_020418.popoff/index.html . Accessed May 5, 2002.
Guardian Unllimited. World trade Organization. 2002. http://www.guardian.co.uk/wto/flash/0.6189.380127.00.html . Accessed May 5, 2002
Jerusalem Post Internet Edition. May 5, 2002. http://www.jpost.com/NASAApp/cs/ContentServer?pagename=Jpost/A/JPArticle/Fu;;&cid=1020337077104 Accessed May 5, 2002.
Ramzy Baroud, So, How Do You Define A Massacre? Thursday, May 02, 2002. Palestine
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab-Israeli conflict
The current Arab-Israeli conflict has a long standing history which goes back to the 1910s when the Ottoman Empire was still in place. During the WWI, the Germans sided with the Ottoman and the British sided with the Arabs in revolting against the Ottoman Empire. The British promised the Arabs self rule and to the Jews they promised them a homeland in Palestine (Kattan, et.al., 2009:Pp59). The Arabs took over the control of Syria and immediately after the war, the League of Nations gave the French the control over Syria and to the British they gave what are today Israel, Gaza Strip, West Bank and Jordan. In 1921 the British divided their large mandate into two; the East of Jordan became the emirates of Transjordan under Abdullah and the West of Jordan became the mandate of the Palestine (the Promised Land to the Jews)…
Bassiouni & Ben Ami, (2009). International and Comparative Criminal Law Series, Volume 29: A Guide to Documents on the Arab-Palestinian/Israeli Conflict: 1897-2008. Martinus Nijhof: The Netherlands.
Harms G. & Todd M.F., (2008). Palestine-Israel Conflict: A Basic Introduction (2nd Edition). Pluto Press: London.
Kattan, et.al., (2009). From Coexistence to Conquest: International Law and the Origins of the Arab-Israeli Conflict, 1891-1949. Pluto Press.
Khatchadourian, (2000). Quest for Peace Between Israel and the Palestinians. Peter Lang Publishing: New York.
cinematic image of the Sabra beginning with the early Zionist films, through the national-heroic mode, and ending with the critical attitude of the late 1970s and 1980s
The 1955 film Hill 24 Doesn't Answer is one of the first products of Israeli cinema. It is meant to be a stirring portrait of the new Jewish state. It dramatizes the then-recent war of independence. The film shows the war bringing together Jews of disparate backgrounds, all united by the need to defend Israel. "In Israeli culture, the figure of the Sabra" during the time period when Hill was made was considered a kind of ideal national type, exemplifying the new Jewish attitude that was free from fear and persecution (Avisar 132). The national ideal of a state that could triumph against all odds and was strong, both spiritually and militarily, is conveyed by the film through the physical strength and determination…
Avisar, Ilan. "The national and the popular in Israeli cinema." 2005. 24.1 (2005): 125.
Charlie Ve'hetzi. Directed by Boaz Davidson. 1974
Hill 24 Doesn't Answer. Directed by T. Dickenson. 1955.
Smith, Anthony. "The formation of national identity." Identity. Oxford, 1995.
The ole of eligion in the Middle East Conflict
The Middle East is the cradle of the main religions of the world (Molloy, 1942). Despite this fact, the region has experience hatred and violence for many years. The two main religions involved in the conflict are Jewish and Islam. Many Arab nations portray the ongoing conflict between them and Israel as a war against their religion. In this regard, they wage war as a basis of incitement of other Arab and non-Arab nations against Israel. According to Hama (1994), the endless conflict between Arabs and Israel may not be exactly a land issue or a war between nations but a mindless pursuit to defend Arab nationalism from the israeli threat. The founder of Islam, Mohhamad cultivated the idea of jihad as a way of influencing the spread of Islam by using forceful strategies. Arab Muslim countries have perfected this…
Hama, K. (1994, July 26). A Window-opening view of the dark, mindet so prevalent in the Arab world. Syrian Daily .
Israel Science and Technology Directory. (2012). Is improving economic conditions for Palestinian Arabs conducive to peace? Retrieved March 1, 2012, from www.science.co.il: http://www.science.co.il/
Molloy, M. (1942). Experiencing the world's religions: tradition, challenge, and change. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Prager, D., & Telushkin, J. (2003). Why the Jews?: The Reason for Antisemitism. New York:
alking on ater: Film Interpretation
The protagonist Eyal of the film alking on ater (2004) is a member of Israel's secret service organization, the Mossad. This is communicated in the first scene of the film, which depicts an apparently ordinary family in a boat. Suddenly, Eyal kills the father of the family with a lethal injection. The audience is immediately predisposed not to like Eyal, until they discover that he is actually fighting for the forces of 'good.' Or, at least the forces deemed to be 'good' in Israeli society, given the profound ambiguity with which Eyal regards his role.
In the next scene, the viewer learns that Eyal is considering leaving the secret service. This is revealed when he is seen getting his next assignment: to kill an aged Nazi war criminal who is still on the loose. Eyal knows that many of his ancestors died in the Holocaust.…
Walking on Water. Directed by Eytan Fox. 2004.
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has remained one of the most difficult international issues in modern times. Although of extremely small relative size, geographically, Israel and the occupied territories of Palestine are closely related to, as well as ultimately responsible for, much of the simmering hatred present in the current "war on terrorism." Within the area, however, specifically within the collective consciousness of both Palestinians as well as Israeli's, the methods of engagement used by the IDF, or Israeli Defense Forces against the Palestinian population is often a reflection, or a symbolic representation of the overall Israeli political/ideological climate. Rubber Bullets: Power and Conscience in Modern Israel (1997) by Israeli political scientist Yaron Ezrahi, discusses this reality, and reaches some interesting conclusions.
Rubber Bullets was written in a very different time from today. Indeed, although the events in Israel and Palestine during that time were far from peaceful, there remained…
esolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
This is a proposal argument for resolution of the Israel-Palestine problem. It uses 5 sources in MLA format.
As violence escalates in the Palestine, the intractable problem becomes even more intractable. Intense fighting between Israelis and Palestinians, the most intense inside the borders of the former Palestine since Israel's creation in 1948 are claiming a daily toll in double digits. Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon's increasingly tough tactics are exacerbating the conflict. A war of attrition is going on that has the potential to escalate into an all out region al war.
Apart from the human tragedy, serious danger to peace and stability in the region is developing from this continued conflict. Any escalation would seriously jeopardize the American 'war against terrorism' both by focusing world attention on the Middle East and giving the anti-American forces and the 'terrorists' fresh justification for targeting American interest…
Author Not Available: "Watching the War." The Washington Post. March 7, 2002; Page A20.
Ratnesar, Romesh: "Season of revenge: Inside story of how Israel imprisoned Arafat and why the rage keeps burning." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 16-27.
Luttwak, Edward: "Worst Case Scenario." Time. April 8, 2002. pp. 28-29.
The Economist: "Too Bloody to Ignore." March 16th, 2002.
criminal justice and terrorism. Specifically it will discuss what the United States can, and should, do to resolve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict has been going on ever since the United Nations created Israel out of a section of Palestine in 1947. The new country was supposed to recreate ancient Jewish lands in the area, but Arab leaders opposed it from the beginning. In fact, the first war fought over the new country occurred the day after Israel declared independence in 1948, and there has been unrest, fighting, and clashes in the area almost ever since. Because of this, it is difficult for the United States to interfere or intervene, because the conflict has been going on for so long, and it is clear that the two sides do not want to call an end to their violence and hatred for each other.
It does not seem that anything…
Since after May 1948 the Arab-Israeli has dominated the Middle East because both sides feel that Israel/Palestine belongs to them, it influenced the Israel's government to use military force against them.. With that, four major Arab-Israeli wars and numerous sporadic battles have occurred since the United Nations partition of Palestine in 1947 and the establishment of the modern state of Israel in 1948. Unfortunately, in today modern, these issues still have fueled many armed conflicts and suicide bombs between the two developing nations. However, at the time of the Six Day War, the issues with the Middle East countries influenced the Israel's government decision to fight with military force.
The breakup of the U.A.. And the resulting political instability only made Syria more hostile toward Israel. Another major cause of conflict was Syria's resistance to Israel's creation of a National Water Carrier to take water from the Jordan iver to…
The 1967 Six-Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/History/67_War.html
Six Day War. 30 March 2008. http://www.israeli-weapons.com/history/six_day_war/SixDayWar.html
Jewish, Muslim, and Christian Conflict in the Middle East small piece of land, at points only 2-3 miles wide in a barely habitable part of the world has been theater on which the pivotal events of all world history have been played. The nation of Israel clutches it's historical rights to desert real estate in opposition to the overwhelming arabs and Muslims which surround them. While there is periodic talk of peace, the culturally is that Israel has no intention of giving up what it sees as its divine inheritance, and the Muslim and Palestinian peoples have no intention of allowing Israel to become a prosperous nation. Each countries' perspective is shaped by what it sees as it's divine heritage. Each country has descended from a single ancestor, and therefore perceives it's inherited rights to the land as legal, social, familial, and a matter of divine right.
Entering into this…
Marty, Martin E. Spreading Conflict: Fissures between Christians over Israel and Palestine are Growing. 2002. The New Republic Online. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.tnr.com
American Jewish, Christian and Muslim Leaders Unite.
American Arab Institute. Accessed May 31, 2003. http://www.aaiusa.org/news/must_read12_18_02.htm.
But the opportunity for a broader, regional conflict was still decades away in the Yom Kippur War and Six Day War.
Today, the threat posed by weapons of mass destruction makes the region in a more significant condition for war. With Syria and Iran attempting to build nuclear facilities capable of enriching uranium, and receiving support from North Korea in this endeavor, the opportunity for devastating warfare is made all too clear. Not only nuclear, but chemical and biological agents, perhaps carried by Iranian Shahab missiles, pose a grave security threat to not only Israel, but also to the Lebanese government, and moderate rab states such as Turkey. lso, the possibility of Pakistani nuclear weapons being controlled by Islamic hardliners, or falling into (intentionally or not) the hands of terrorist entities makes the possibility of war in this period more compelling. While stability in Iraq and Lebanon is in question,…
Also, although the Israeli-Palestinian conflict is worthy of considerable attention, it is important to remember that most other Arab nations in the Middle East actively discriminate against Palestinians. Although the Arab politicians often cite Palestinian mistreatment as a key reason for resentment against Israel, the real motivation underlying Arab militancy is concealed. It is simply a window-dressing for militant propaganda. The reality of the matter is that Palestinians in Israel are guaranteed the broadest freedoms, both religiously and politically, when compared to every other nation in the region. And although Palestinians' economic status is often lower than average Israelis, the same is true of Arab nations, which specifically target Palestinians for discrimination because of their status as a separate ethnic group. When it joined several other Arab states in expelling 400,000 Palestinian refugees since 1991, because of PLO support for the Iraq invasion, Kuwait became a good example of this discrimination. Egypt has also curtailed Palestinian settlement to the Gaza strip, where Palestinian militants continue to launch attacks on Israel,
Most revealing of all, however, is the Arab League's policy of refusing to grant Palestinians citizenship in any of its member states. Instead, Palestinians become international refugees in the region, living in camps by the thousands and growing more resentful all the time -- which is probably League's goal, as the displaced Palestinians then serve as proxy warriors against Israel.
The most effective appraoch is to pursue more aggressive action in preventing the Iranian state from acquiring WMDs, and in isolating Iran from its influential position as terrorist and militant financier and supporter. President Ahmedinejad has expressed very harshly and openly the intentions of the Iranian government to eliminate Israel and to pursue radical Islamic hegemony. This provides the international community with a dramatic glimpse of Iranian goals. In assessing the threat posed by Iran, the international community must realize that Iran will not easily be deterred by threats of sanction or isolation. Instead, it must be made absolutely clear to the Iranian regime that its current course will result in consequences. Also, the Iranian dissident movement must be supported and encouraged in order to undermine the support of the hard-line Iranian regime.
Apparently, Islamic terrorists are the media marketing executives.
Once more, the tendency is to project American viewpoints and values on to supposed Islamist enemies. The same individuals and groups that are utterly alien to America's most cherished beliefs are also masters of manipulating Americans' views of themselves and of using the media to their own advantage. The idea that Islamist groups might possess some sort of legitimate grievance, or might be railing against actual conditions is dismissed in favor of complex marketing ploys. Terrorism is a product, just like everything else that is promoted on American television and in American newspapers and magazines. The only difference is that the Islamist product is a bad product. Other estern media too have taken up the general theme of Islamic terrorism as but the ultimate expression of Islamic failure to grasp the potentialities of the modern world. As presented in the French Canadian…
Albritton, James S. "The Technique of Terrorism." Forum on Public Policy: A Journal of the Oxford Round Table (2006).
Belkhodja, Chedly, and Chantal Richard. "The Events of September 11 in the French-Canadian Press." Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal 38.3 (2006): 119+.
Dunsky, Marda. "Missing: The Bias Implicit in the Absent." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 23.3 (2001): 1.
Vaisman-Tzachor, Reuben. "Psychological Profiles of Terrorists." The Forensic Examiner 15.2 (2006): 6+.
" On a positive note, the Federal Commission Against Racism in Switzerland recently stated that "the climate against members of religious minorities and their institutions has deteriorated" and that most anti-Semitic and anti-Muslim actions "were largely fueled by extensive media reports" concerning the on-going Israeli-Palestinian conflict in the Middle East, issues related to the assets of Holocaust victims and terrorist acts by Muslim extremists. Regarding anti-Semitic activities, it is surprising that any negatives actions against the Jews in Switzerland have occurred, due to the fact that Jews make up less than a quarter of a percent of the country's entire population ("Country Reports on Human Rights Practices," 37).
In conclusion, it is clear from these facts that the country of Switzerland is unique in all of Europe, due to its toleration and openness to voices that at times go against the status quo. Incidentally, Switzerland has not been involved in…
Benini, Aldo a. Modern Switzerland: A Volume in the Comparative Societies Series. New York:
Codding, G.A. The Federal Government of Switzerland. UK: Allen & Unwin, 1975.
Country Reports on Human Rights Practices." Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor.
There is a definite chance that both parties could resolve the prolonged conflict successfully if they find and act on ways to be in command of their shared lack of trust. On the other hand, if the conflict is seen in terms of a neoliberal point-of-view, Israel's military efficiency and powerfulness is a great threat for Israelis. To cut a long story short, the main goal on which all the main five parties agree is the achievement of peace between Israelis and Palestinians but it is only possible if they give up their most preferred results; Israel giving up its favorite result of unrestricted occupation of Palestinian land and Palestine holding back its preferred outcome of unconditional withdrawal. The conflict could be resolved if both parties could also find some common solutions for complex and convoluted detachable issues including "the degree of sovereignty of a Palestinian state, the distribution of…
Adler, E, ed. Israel in the World: Legitimacy and Exceptionalism. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, 2013.
Aronoff, M.J. Cross-Currents in Israeli Culture and Politics. New Jersey: Transaction, Inc., 1984.
Asa-El, a. "Israel's Electoral Complex." Azure - Ideas for the Jewish Nation. http://www.azure.org.il/article.php?id=419 (accessed June 9, 2013).
Bard, M.G. & Schwartz, M. One Thousand and One Facts Everyone Should Know About Israel. Maryland: Rowman and Littlefield Publishers, Inc., 2005.
This is significant, because it would give the U.S. A way of being able to maintain this kind of balance of power in the region. As the trade embargos / economic sanctions against Iran and Iraq would serve as an example of inappropriate behavior. This is because they were being punished, for different activities that were in violation of international law such as: the support of terrorism or the ability of either government to seek out weapons of mass destruction. The Oslo Accords were a way of being able to maintain this balance, by helping to support a strong ally and addressing the issues being faced by their adversaries. Where, this would undermine the position of hostile regimes; while strengthening the support for the U.S., by providing a frame work for dealing with the Israeli / Palestinian issue. (Massoulile 152 -- 155)
When you put these different elements together, this…
Deeb, Dennis. "Brief Overview of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict." The Collapse of Middle East Peace. Lincoln, NE: I Universe, 2003. 1 -- 7. Print.
Freedman, Robert. "The Arab Israeli Conflict." The Middle East and the Peace Process. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press, 1998. 348 -- 352. Print.
Lochery, Neill. "Security Arrangement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip." The Difficult Road to Peace. Reading, UK: Ithaca Press, 1999. 41 -- 60. Print.
Massoulile, Francois. "What is the Future of the Middle East." Middle East Conflicts. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink Publishing, 2003, 152-155. Print.
This unity generally took the form of diplomatic and military opposition to the state of Israel. Egypt's leading role in the acceleration of Arab political unification would have a long-term effect of philosophically influencing such movements as the liberation front of Yasser Arafat in the Palestinean territory, and the host of other terror organizations which have waged guerilla campaigns in search of political recognition.
These examples will be relevant in discussion hereafter on the long-term effects of the conflict. In the immediate aftermath of the attack, it would become clear that these political implications were not accidental. Quite to the contrary, the Arabs understood quite well that they could not anticipate a military victory. Still, "in October 1973, Arab nations led by Egypt and Syria chose war as their instrument of policy -- their primary policy objective in waging war: to recover Arab lands occupied by Israel since the 1967…
Anti-Defamation League (ADL). (2005). The 1973 Yom Kippur War. ADL.org.
Ehrenfeld, R. (2002). IRA + PLO = Terror. National Review Online. Online at http://www.nationalreview.com/comment/commentehrenfeld082102.asp
Horovitz, D. (2005). The Iran-Hezbollah Nexus. Chicago Jewish Community Online. Online at http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:6aPKBoRz9Q0J:www.juf.org/pdf/horovitz.pdf+iran+hezbollah&hl=en
Israel 1967-1991. (2004). Israel-Egypt Peace. Palestine Facts.
Middle East countries, and also former colonies around the world, struggled to find their freedom and independence from any imperial forces. Therefore, being once again in charge of their own natural resources became "paramount to the extent that dictators and human rights abusers were supported"(Shah, 2000). People were sensitive to radical messages and a violent, anti-foreigners speech. Dictators and terrorist groups speculated that "weak spot" and provided the right set of words. Concentrating their message on the fight for liberation and independence from the "invasive" West, cleverly giving it a religious and profound spiritual meaning, fundamentalist rulers became popular and managed to take control over countries like Iraq, Iran or Syria, sponsoring the planning and performing of terrorist acts against symbols of Western civilization. Terrorism cannot do without the help of dictatorial regimes in the region, or without the tacit approval of the people, explained by the common religious beliefs…
Global Connections -- the Middle East. (2002). Retrieved February 12, 2007, from PBS Web site: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/globalconnections/mideast/questions/resource/index.html
Levitt, M., a. (2002). The Political Economy of Middle East Terrorism. MERIA Journal, 6(4). Retrieved February 11, 2007, from MERIA Web site: http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2002/issue4/jv6n4a3.html
Middle East. (1993-2006). Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Microsoft Encarta Encyclopedia Web site: http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761579298/Middle_East.html
Shah, a. (2000). The Middle East. Retrieved February 10, 2007, from Global Issues Web site: http://www.globalissues.org/Geopolitics/MiddleEast.asp
There will always be terrorist organizations such as Hamas, it seems, but with the Palestinians and Israelis getting along diplomatically, it could lead to better relationships with other countries, as well, and it could lead to a much stronger unity between the countries in the Middle East. This should be a long-term goal of the peace process, to bring an end to tension throughout the entire region, so they can concentrate on other elements of society and government.
In conclusion, the oad Map for Peace in the Middle East still seems to be a long way from conclusion. Israel has stopped all construction in East Jerusalem, another are under contention in the peace process, and talks are still going on bi-weekly between the two parties (as of the end of February, at least). A lasting peace would bring a new decade of hope to the region, and a new peace…
Bush, George W. "Joint Understanding Read by President Bush at Annapolis Conference." WhiteHouse.gov. 2007. 9 June 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2007/11/print/20071127.html
Editors. "A Performance-Based Road Map to a Permanent Two-State Solution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict." 2002. UN.org. 9 June 2008. http://www.un.org/media/main/RoadMap122002.html
Migdalovitz, Carol. "Israeli-Palestinian Peace Process: The Annapolis Conference." 2007. U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://fpc.state.gov/documents/organization/98093.pdf
Rice, Condoleezza. "Press Conference." U.S. Department of State. 2008. 9 June 2008. http://www.state.gov/secretary/rm/2007/12/97945.htm
United States in the United Nations
hen the United Nations was first formed, it was done with noble ideas and motives. Indeed, many of the actions and deeds executed or supported by the United Nations over the years have mostly been positive and productive. However, there has been a consistent and startling degradation. It has gotten to the point where the United Nations and its member states aside from the United States have gotten into the game of talking down to the United States for something of things it has done with the United Nations itself is implicitly or explicitly condoning some depraved actions and/or there are member states that are engaging in some questionable if not unconscionable behavior. hile the United Nations has and still serves a good purpose, there are some patterns and behaviors going on from the body itself and/or its member states that need to change…
Bayefsky, Anne. "You Can't Make It Up. UN Names Democratic Israel As World'S Top Human Rights Violator -- Fox News." Fox News. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Booker, Christopher. "Climate Change: This Is the Worst Scientific Scandal of Our Generation." Telegraph.co.uk. N.p., 2009. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Matthews, Christopher. "United Nations Diplomat Corruption Case Presents Challenges." WSJ. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
OHCHR. "UN Human Rights Council Recommends Suspension Of Libya." Ohchr.org. N.p., 2016. Web. 22 Apr. 2016.
Victims Become the Aggressors
The process of dehumanization is one that is repeated quite often in literature. Unfortunately, if we look at the history of mankind, we find that it is part of human behavior that regularly appears -- typically as some type of process in which one group asserts their superiority, whether moral, racial, physical, or all -- over another group. This paradigm of dehumanization occurs in covert and over ways, may be focused on a group of people (religious or ethnic minority) or against behaviors that are considered anti-societal (the disabled, homeless, etc.). Looking at history, one can find numerous examples of this sort of behavior -- the "other" taken to the extreme so that individuals are identified as being inferior, incapable of actualization, or barbaric. Sometimes this is an excuse for colonialism, sometimes for war, sometimes simply to subjugate people for organizational or state interests (Keen).
Biale, D. Power & Powerlessness in Jewish History. New York: Schocken Books, 1986.
Chomsky, N. Middle East Illusions. New York: Rowman and Littlefeld, 2003.
Covarrubias, J. And T. Lannsford, Strategic Interests in the Middle East. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company, 2007.
Halwani, R. And T. Kapitan. The Israeli-Palestinian Conflict: Essays on Self-Determination, Terrorism and the One-State Solution. New York: Palgrave MacMaillan, 2008.
Culture of Martyrdom," David Brooks calls suicide bombing " the crack cocaine of warfare," (1). As a drug-like substance, suicide bombing is addictive and therefore "transforms the culture of those who employ it," just as drug addiction changes one's personality (Brooks 1). To prove the point, Brooks traces the use of suicide bombing historically, starting with Hizbollah. Although the Quran expressly forbids suicide, suicide bombing became associated with jihadist movements. Suicide bombing became the ultimate symbol of martyrdom, which is why it is now an ends as well as a means, according to Brooks. Brooks's argument is disturbing but valid and credible, as the author relies on a multitude of sources and logical, rather than emotionally wrought, discourse.
Suicide bombing reached its hundredth monkey moment, so to speak, after Arafat walked out of the Camp David peace talks. The "psychology shifted" at this moment, because the prevailing ideology was no…
Brooks, David. "The Culture of Martyrdom." The Atlantic. Retrieved online: http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/print/2002/06/the-culture-of-martyrdom/302506/
This piece changed the face of contemporary classical music and allowed other composers much more freedom in composing, since the era of "classical" music had been questioned and all of its preconceived notions had been shattered by Beethoven's 9th Symphony.
Beethoven's 9th is the work of a composer committed to undying self-expression (Swafford, 2003). He turned the classical music world upside down, which was frowned upon at the time, but now seen as a major catalyst for musical evolution in its time. Both Hitler and Mussolini were admirers of Beethoven and Beethoven's 9th Symphony (Buch, 2003). Ironically, The piece initially represented the musical freedom and unbridled expression that Beethoven was known for, but sadly, both Hitler and Mussolini used this piece in their propaganda films, and are now closely associated with much of Beethoven's work. This association has continued through the latter part of the 20th century and into the…
Buch, Esteban. Beethoven's Ninth, A Political History. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 2003.
Swafford, Jan. "The Beethoven Mystery:Why haven't we figured out his Ninth Symphony yet?" Slate July, 2003.
Thomas, Jeffrey. "Revisiting the Ninth." American Bach Soloists. 2007.
Personal Response to Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Likewise, the Institute of Agriculture required a quorum of two-thirds of its members for voting purposes and for the balancing of votes according to the size of the budgetary contributions (owett, 1970). While this analysis of these early forms of public international unions is not complete, it does suggest that they were beginning to identify the wide range of interests involved in modern international commerce and what was required to mediate disputes rather than war over them. According to owett (1970), despite the growing body of research into the history and purpose of international public unions, the authorities have not reached a consensus on their classification; however, the constitutional developments and innovations made by the public unions are important considerations for policymakers today because they presaged those made by contemporary inter-governmental organizations (owett, 1970).
In the first instance, the trend towards permanence of association was distinct, no matter whether…
Armstrong, D., L. Lloyd and J. Redmond. 2005. International Organization in World Politics, 3rd ed. New York: Palgrave-Macmillan.
Avruch, Kevin, Peter W. Black and Joseph A. Scimecca. Conflict Resolution: Cross-Cultural Perspectives. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Bar-Siman-Tov, Yaacov. 2004. From Conflict Resolution to Reconciliation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Bell, Lynda S., Andrew J. Nathan and Ilan Peleg. 2001. Negotiating Culture and Human Rights. New York: Columbia University Press.
Narrative From the Life of an International Student
If my life were a fairy tale, it would not begin with the words "once upon a time, in a land far, far away." To many Americans, Lebanon seems like a land very far away from what they know. Most Americans have heard of Lebanon in terms of its existence as a war-torn nation. They read about it in the newspapers in phrases, along the lines of "because of Israeli-Palestinian conflicts, the nation of Lebanon became drawn into the contentious issues at stake between these two warring peoples." Or, they hear about Lebanon in terms of phrases, such as "in the war-torn nation of Lebanon, the inhabitants were horrified by the destruction that the civil war caused, in political and societal terms."
To me, Lebanon is not a land far, far away, and the civil war is a part of my history,…
The administration's disregard for international norms led to the excesses at Abu Ghraib Prison in Iraq, and attempts to circumvent congressional oversight over the activities of the Administration backfired. Faced with increasing criticism at home and the inability to stabilize Iraq, the Bush Administration began to temper its approach with realism. The Administration agreed to a bipartisan Iraq Study Group, led by former Secretary of State James Baker and Democratic Congressman Lee Hamilton (Baker & Hamilton, 2006). The report prepared by the group was quite critical of the Bush Administration's policies in Iraq, and though many of those criticisms were rejected, the Administrated still took the criticism seriously, and a year later began to pursue a new approach, which eventually helped to decrease the level of violence in Iraq.
The Obama Administration's approach to Iraq War reflects the liberal views of Obama who warned in 2002 that "a U.S. occupation…
Ahmad, I. (2010). The U.S. Af-Pak Strategy: Challenges and Opportunities for Pakistan. Asian Affairs: An American Review, 37(4), 191-209.
Bacevich, a. (2010) Washington Rules: America's Path to Permanent War. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Bacevich, a., (November 6, 2005) the Realist Persuasion. The Boston Globe, retrieved on March 13, 2011, from http://rempost.blogspot.com/2006/04/realist-persuasion.html
Baker, J.A., & Hamilton, L.H. (2006) the Iraq Study Group Report: The Way Forward -- a New Approach. New York: Vintage Books.
Secretary of State, Madeleine Albright, towards the end of her fourth year in office stressed the significant need to improve the relations between the United States and the diverse communities that make up the Islamic world. She went on to add that the United States harbored no interest to maintain hostile relations and rather it was more important for reasons ranging from stability to development, to support for the rule of law that was common between most of the Muslim-majority states that these relations be improved. She herself admits that the attempts of cooperation have been hindered by the view of most Muslims that the U.S. is hostile or indifferent to the Muslim world. She goes on to add how this can be done. "As representatives of America, we must explain our policies to Muslim audiences overseas in ways that engage their attention, respect their beliefs, and demonstrate understanding,…
American National Interest after September 11?
What is the 'national interest' of the United States in the post-September 11th world community? It is not simply difficult to determine the correct, concrete policy to achieve this goal in an international community filled with the fear of terrorism and political uncertainty. It is also difficult to simply define what constitutes 'a national interest,' where there are so many competing theories regarding how to define a nation's national interest in theories of international politics. For example, a realist perspective of international politics would suggest that after the attacks on the World Trade Center, the United States as a nation should rationally determine that its enemy, Al Qaeda must be eliminated, and go about seeking out the organization in Afghanistan in a highly systematized fashion, given that the terrorist cell possessed less armament capacity than the United States. If only the United States' intelligence-gather…
U.S. Approach to Terrorism
U.S Approach to Terrorism Post 2001
The incidence of September 11, 2001 led to an anti-terrorism campaign by the government of U.S. And was called the war or terror. Since 2001, U.S. government has taken several steps to maintain security and counter terrorism by implementing certain strategies at national and international level. These approaches and steps, whether useful or not have been discussed in this paper.
President Bush's Justifications For Invading Iraq Post 9/11
After the September 11, attack in 2001, the Bush government declared "war on terror" which was intended to counter terrorism. Bush also declared in his address on 20th September 2001 that, the "war on terror" will begin from dealing with al Qaeda but it will stop only when terrorism is dealt with properly. According to Bush doctrine, whichever country contained weapon of mass destruction (MD) is a threat for U.S. And therefore…
Chandler, David War without End(s): Grounding the Discourse of 'Global War', 40 Security Dialogue, (2009): 243-244.
Hixson, W.L. The War in Iraq and American Freedom. Arab World Geographer 2003. 6 (1): 27-29.
Huntington, S.P. Who Are We? The Challenges to America's National Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster. (2004): 121-129.
Hastings, Michael. The Drone Wars. Rolling Stone, 0035791X, Issue 1155, (2012): 113-118.
Islamic movements come to dominate the political landscape of Iran and Saudi rabia in the last thirty years?
Why have democratic advances been so limited in these two countries? Is there any relationship between these two trends or are they independent of each other?
In both modern Iran and modern Saudi rabia, over the past thirty years, two fundamental forces have dominated the discourse of these nations -- that of Islamic Fundamentalism and a hatred of Western, specifically merican intrusions of 'modernity,' in cultural and political forms. In the absence of the ability to compete, technologically with the West, or culturally on a global level, these nations have turned inward, and some historians might say 'to their pasts' and attempted to create Islamic rather than secular renditions of modernity. However, because of the corresponding lack of democratic structures within these referenced traditional Islamic political modalities, and the association of the…
After the Islamic revolution in Iran the new political structures that were instated ensured that fundamentalist Islamic point-of-view became synonymous with the new Iran. For instance, in 1982 Khomeini insisted that Iran's courts discard all secular legal codes and base their decisions solely on Islamic regulations. (Cleveland 423) To oppose Islamic fundamentalism in Iran was not only to stand against the new regime, it was to engage in an act of heresy. Democracy was decadent, and Western, and to adopt the Western political mindset was to disastrously weaken the nation.
In this text, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam Gilles Kepel in Chapter 5 states that Iran, in the wake of the death of Khomeni, has since attempted to reform some of its strictures, instating democratic but still Islamic elections, for instance, that has created some semblance of what one might call 'democracy' in the nation. Even more recently, the arts have begun to be resurrected in Iran. There has even been a return to pre-Iranian cultural institutions, such as the presence of Western music and movies within the republic.
Likewise, nascent Saudi Arabian feminism has manifested itself as women have protested their inability to drive, or made use of mandatory 'all female' enclaves such as banks, to discuss and create sites of discussion and debate. The private/public dichotomy of female dress and both male and female behavior in both countries may hold the seeds of a kind of revolution or renegotiation of Islamic identity. But it will be a revolution on Islamic and Middle Eastern cultural terms, a negotiation rather than a revolution in the Western sense of uprooting the old entirely -- for what is Islamic in these nations is not really 'old' at all, as William Cleveland suggests. Rather, Islamic fundamentalism is more of a delicate negotiation, socially, politically, and economically, in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, in an effort for these nations to remain distinct in a world and even a region they see as increasingly dominated by American needs and influence.
Slavery in Africa
Throughout history, slavery in Africa has taken a variety of forms—from slavery stemming from the outcome of war, where enemies taken captive are sold into slavery, to debt slavery, plantation slavery and criminal slavery. For many African states, slavery offered an opportunity to boost their economies: Africans viewed slaves as commodities to buy and sell as well as free labor to work in the commerce industry (Austin, 2017). Today slavery still exists in parts of Africa, though the practice was officially abolished in the 19th and early 20th centuries as a result of the anti-slavery movement in Europe (Klein, 1978), with Niger and Mauritania being the last holdouts to criminalize slavery in 2003 and 2007 respectively. Nonetheless, it is widely reported that slavery as a practice is still alive in well, with an estimated 8% of Niger’s population being held in slavery (Andersson, 2005) and people…
Krauss and Morsella say that under the dialogic paradigm individual speakers act with respect to the individuals they are addressing, but they are acting as individual entities (p. 152). This is because we can only attempt to understand the mind of others, to decode their words, even their body language, and try to put that into a perspective of meaning to us as individuals. Krauss and Morsella provide points on how to improve our skills as communicators. Listening is tangential to being a good communicator. Listening trains us to hear more than words, but concepts too, and the concepts that others are trying to convey to us are essential to our understanding of their position in a conflict. Before we can resolve conflict, we must understand the nature of the conflict, and the nature of conflict can seldom be expressed in a few words or sentences. They are expressed in…
Deutch, M. And Coleman, P. (2000). The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice, Josey-Bass Publishers.
' Indians across the political spectrum, especially the country's powerful nuclear weapons establishment, are critical of the NPT, arguing that it unfairly warps international hierarchies to the disadvantage of the non-nuclear-weapon states" (1998:15). In its efforts to balance the pressures from the international community with its own self-interests in formulating foreign policies, the position adopted by India has been starkly different than other countries. In this regard, Karp concludes that, "Most states party to the NPT accept the unfairness of the treaty as a tradeoff that serves their own and global interests. India's leaders insist that fair and genuine nuclear disarmament must start with the nuclear-weapon states themselves, a demand formalized by former Prime Minister ajiv Gandhi in his 1990 global nuclear disarmament initiative" (Karp 1998:14).
As a result of these events, the 20th century witnessed the formation of various positions in Indian foreign policy that would endure throughout the…
Berlin, D.L. 2006 "India in the Indian Ocean." Naval War College Review 59(2): 58-59.
Chollett, D. & Lindberg, T. 2007 "A Moral Core for U.S. Foreign Policy." Policy Review 146: 3-
Davis, C.B. & Rill, L.A. 2008 "Testing the Second Level of Agenda Setting: Effects of News
This time Israel captured the Sinai peninsula and occupied some territories it had captured for some time (Jonah, 2002), including the Gaza Strip and the West Bank (anania, 2005). While Israel saw this as the rights of the victor, Arabs saw it as another land grab. Jewish settlements in these areas therefore became quite controversial. The Arabsl allied themselves once again in 1973, and once again, Israel defeated them. This made it clear that Palestinians would not regain what they viewed as their lands by force, even with the support of other Arab nations, and made negotiation a more important option for them (Ismael, 1999).
ATTEMPTS TO BRING PEACE
Meanwhile, Ahmad al-Shugayri became first chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization, or PLO. his language was described as vitriolic (Jonah, 2002). Chairman Yasir Arafat, who followed, was seen as wearing Al-Shugayri's mantle, and it was decades before the PLO was recognized…
Hanania, Ray. 2005. "Peace plans work only if Palestinians get their land back." Daily Herald, Feb. 7.
Ismael, Tareq Y. 1999. "Globalization and the Arab World in Middle Est Politics: Regional Dynamics in Historical Perspective. Arab Studies Quarterly, June.
Jonah, James O.C. 2002. "The Middle East Conflict: The Palestinian Dimension. Global Governance, Vol. 8.
On the other hand, Israel, Jordan, and the United States were allied in their support of the Israeli state and Israel's land acquisitions during the Six-Day War. Eventually, the Sudan dropped out of the proposal, but, "By the end of 1971 the two leaders had taken soundings in Moscow, had appointed Egypt's war minister, General Muhammad Sadiq, supreme commander of both armies, and had reached agreement on broad strategy" (abil 22). They continued to gain support from the Soviet Union, knowing they needed support of a superpower to offset the military might Israel wielded in the area.
After the war, "Six Arab states, including Egypt, broke off diplomatic relations with Washington, and were subsequently drawn closer to the Soviet Union.28 Additionally, the 1967 war created another 200,000 Palestinian Arab refugees, and more than one million Arabs from this point on lived within Israeli borders" (Mork 21). This really changed the…
Ben-Ami, Shlomo. Scars of War, Wounds of Peace: The Israeli-Arab Tragedy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2005.
Cossali, Paul. "Arab-Israeli Relations 1967-2001." A Survey of Arab-Israeli Relations 1947-2001. Ed. David Lea. London: Europa, 2002. 39-283.
Mork, Hulda Kjeang. "The Jarring Mission: A Study of the UN Peace Effort in the Middle East, 1967-1971." University of Oslo. 2007. 2 June 2008. http://www.duo.uio.no/publ/IAKH/2007/58588/HuldaxMxrkxxMasteroppgavexixhistorie.pdf
Rabil, Robert G. Embattled Neighbors: Syria, Israel, and Lebanon. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2003.
Arab Israeli Conflict
The Arab and Israeli conflict
The Arab and Israeli conflict is in news since long. There is a continued political stress between the Arabs and the Jews since in the mid of 19th century the Zionist government was established in the former Arab land of Palestine. The Palestinian land is claimed as a religious heritage by Muslims, Jews and Christians. The actual tension is however between the Muslims particularly Arabs and the Jews. When in 1948, the Israeli state was formed; the tension took a formal shape as well. The Ottoman Empire collapsed and the Arabs and Jews started fighting over the land. The conflict presently lives in the aspects of politics, economy, religion, society and culture. The conflict often takes the shape of ferocity where by Israel being a technological advanced country, attacks Syria and adopts an aggressive position. However, the state and non-state Syrian forces…
Carson, C., (1988), "The Politics of Relations between African-American and Jews," Retrieved
Joffe, A., and Romirowsky, A., (2013), "Is The Arab-Israeli Conflict Really About Economics?,"
Arab-Israeli region is one in which water is a critical problem, and being able to get access to clean, safe water on a regular basis is one element of the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict. While there may be serious, conflicting views on political and religious issues, along with many other aspects of the way people in the various areas live their lives, it is no secret that they all have to work together if everyone is going to have enough water to enjoy. A report in 2010 indicated that there were a number of challenges with ensuring that everyone in the region received enough clean water for drinking, irrigation, and other needs (Schneider, 2012). In order to attempt to combat that, Israel, Jordan, and Palestine all have water departments who are looking into working with one another. Without that level of cooperation, there will be numerous people in those areas without…
Schneider, V. (2012). Regional water data banks -- Overview of Middle East water resources. USGS International Programs. Retrieved from http://international.usgs.gov/projects/pawc-overview.htm
Conflicts are not regarded as the right way of solving disputes between nations or communities. As such, boundary conflicts have not been governing any chance to exist within the society. These conflicts reiterate the need for the United Nations to explore on the natural boundary existence between various nations (Tucker and Priscilla 152). Though boundary politics results in wars and conflicts, they are potent towards the existence and preservation of sovereignty between nations. Because of the recurrence of political boundary conflicts, many nations have resorted to signing treaties indicating a separation and boundaries relating to political movements.
There are a number of steps, which can be used to end political boundary wars in the world. Politics, being the higher agent of political boundary wars, should be subjected to scrutiny and study. This will help recover rightful ways of separating between politics and boundaries between nations and communities. Nations…
Fleishman, Rachel, Catherine Gerard, and Rosemary O'Leary. Pushing the Boundaries: New
Frontiers in Conflict Resolution and Collaboration. Bingley: JAI Press, 2008. Print.
Harvey, Brian P. An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues.
Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2000. Print.
It was after one of them bombed Cairo in July 1948, that the Israelis were able to establish air supremacy. Succeeding victories came in rapid succession on all three fronts. The Arab states all negotiated separate armistice agreements. Egypt was the first to sign in February 1949, followed by Lebanon, Transjordan and finally Syria. Iraq chose to withdraw its forces without signing an agreement. Israel significantly expanded its territory beyond the United Nations (UN) partition plan for Palestine at the expense of its Arab neighbors. The cost of victory was in more than 6,000 Israeli lives which represented approximately 1% of the population. After the peace agreement wartime recruits were rapidly dismissed. This made it difficult for the basic manpower problem of a small population faced with the need to mobilize a sizable army during a wartime emergency. After a study of the Swiss reservist system, Israel introduced a three-tiered…
"1948 Arab-Israeli War." 2007. 10 November 2009 <
Frum, David. 2009. "1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War." 10 November 2009
Negotiations here went on for thirteen days non-stop which "apparently would have failed without the mediation of Carter and his advisers." 15
On eptember 17, 1979, adat and Begin came to an agreement which is now known as the Camp David Accords in which the two adversaries agreed to a number of conditions, such as "establishing an elected, self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza," the withdrawal of Israeli forces from the West Bank and Gaza "except for specified security locations," and having all negotiations based upon the U.N. ecurity Council Resolution 242. 16 This agreement between Egypt and Israel effectively put an end to the hostilities between the two nations and brought about a lasting peace, one which has held to this day. However, after the peace treaty at Camp David, the focus of the Arab-Israeli conflict shifted to Israel's northern borders with Lebanon.
In April of 1981,…
Sources in the History of the Modern Middle East. New York:
Houghton-Mifflin Company, 2004.
Silberstein, Laurence J., ed. New Perspectives on Israeli History: The Early Years of the State. NY: New York University Press, 1991.
These happened while the state of Israel has experienced remarkably economic and military growth during the 1990's. The protection of the people in particular would have to be instated as terrorism, although not an important factor in the war, has claimed its victims with the passing of time. Terrorism was dealt with harshly in Israel, people believed to have connections to terrorists being abused and deported and human rights being neglected.
If peace were to be agreed of, Palestine would be admitted as a state by Israel and subsequent to that by most of the countries, the state finally reaching its objective after years of running as a fictional state.
An alliance between Palestine and Israel would help the first to attain a state of sovereignty by protecting Israel from other Arab countries and it would help its ally to combat the deficiency of forces from the West Bank.
Bard, Mitchell. "The Complete Idiot's Guide to the Middle East Conflict," Ph.D. (Alpha Books -- Macmillan USA) Once again, Syria and Egypt attack. And yet again, only a miracle stops them. http://www.aish.com/jewishissues/middleeast/Arab-Israeli_Conflict_5_-_Yom_Kippur_War.asp
Bjorn, Moller. "Three Futures for Israel and Palestine"- January 1999
The coelation between coopeative initiation and eceptive tendencies, howeve, is much weake" (p. 32).
The oveiding theme that emeges fom all of the foegoing analytical models is the fact that although intenational conflicts and be effectively modeled and deconstucted in ode to gain a bette undestanding of the pecipitating factos and how they play out in eal-wold settings, they do not necessaily povide the insights needed to develop esolutions to these conflicts no do they povide peemptive altenatives that could stop the conflict fom stating in the fist place. Indeed, epidemiologists use compaable techniques to undestanding how disease pocesses evolve and spead thoughout a human population, but diffeent techniques ae equied to develop coesponding cues and teatments fo thei diseases. Similaly, the analysis of intenational conflicts that is needed to help decision-makes identify viable solutions will equie an additional and supplemental type of analytical methodology.
Given the potential fo death…
references. New York: United Nations University Press.
Bercovitch, J. (1999). Resolving international conflicts: The theory and practice of mediation.
Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
Kenneth B. (1962). Conflict and defense. New York: Harper and Row.
Goertz, G. & Diehl, P.F. (1992). Territorial changes and international conflict. New York:
However, prior to the creation of Israel the numbers were much higher (currently approximately 300,000 Palestinian Christians live in the U.S. alone (2004). Interestingly, the Israeli Army does not differentiate between Arab Christians and Arab Muslims in their occupation activities. In fact, in many areas Palestinian Christians are particularly hit by civilian casualty occurrences (Halter, 2001). In fact, Palestinian Christians identify so strongly with the Palestinian cause that statements like, "The Arab Palestinian Christians are part and parcel of the Arab Palestinian nation. e have the same history, the same culture, the same habits and the same hopes..." coming from the Anglican Bishop of Jerusalem, the Reverend Riad Abu al-Assal, is typical of the community as a whole.
It is for this reason that Palestinian Christians are particularly baffled by the pro-Israeli stance taken by many estern, non-Arab Christians (including, most notably, Jerry Fallwell, Ralph Reed, and Pat Robertson to…
Armstrong, Karen. (1997). "Jerusalem: One City, Three Faiths." Ballentine: New York.
Avalon. Yale Law School (Staff). (2003). "The Balfour Declaration." Web site. Retrieved on April 19, 2005, from, http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/balfour.htm
Halter, Kristel. (2004). "Arab-Christian Suffering in the Holy Land. (Waging Peace)." Washington Report on Middle East Affairs. 1 December.
Nasr, Seyyed Hossein. (2003). "Islam: Religion, History, and Civilization." Harper, San Francisco.
While on one hand, the Nile gets the highest discharge from rainfall on the highlands of Ethiopia and upland plateau of East Africa, located well outside the Middle East region; on the other hand, discharge points of the other two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, are positioned well within the Middle East region, prevailing mostly in Turkey, Syria along with Iraq. In other areas, recurrent river systems are restricted to the more northern upland areas of Iran and Turkey, in common with the coastline of Levant (Peter eaumont, Gerald H. lake, J. And Malcolm Wagstaff, 1988).
The conflict in the Future
It is widely believed by many experts that those who control the waters in the Middle East; control the Middle East; and those who control the Middle East; control the oil supply of the world (David M. Hummel, 1995). From the above mentioned facts it is clear that the water…
Anthony H. Cordesman. Peace is Not Enough: The Arab-Israeli Economic and Demographic Crises. Part Two. Population Growth, Fertility and Population Doubling Rates, Regional Trends, National Trends, and the "Youth Explosion" Center for Strategic and International Studies, 1998.
Adel Darwish. Troubled waters in rivers of blood. Water Issues. 3 December 1992. http://www.mideastnews.com/water004.html
Adel Darwish. Inadequacy of international law. Taken at http://www.mideastnews.com/WaterWars.htm
Ashok Swain. A new challenge: water scarcity in the Arab world. Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ). January, 1998.