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Italian-Americans -- 1930s
The American experience for Italian immigrants (with particular emphasis on the 1930s) is the salient topic for this paper. The materials presented from scholarly sources in this paper show the positive and negative impacts experienced by Italian-American immigrants; those sources will also be critiqued and analyzed in the context of the experiences, including impacts such as discrimination that Italian-Americans went through during the 1930s.
Italians Arrive in the United States
Author Dale Anderson writes in his book Italian-Americans that between 1901 and 1910, there were more than 2 million Italians that came into the U.S. As immigrants. And from 1911 to 1920, another 1.1 million immigrants arrived (Anderson, 2006, p. 33). Those huge numbers of immigrants tailed off dramatically between 1921 and 1930, when about 455,315 Italians arrived. One main reason for the drop-off in immigration from Italy was the 1924 National Origins Act, which limited immigration,…
Anderson, Dale. 2006. Italian-Americans. New York: Gareth Stevens.
Cavallero, Jonathan J. 2004. "Gangsters, Fessos, Tricksters, and Sopranos: The Historical Roots
Of Italian-American Stereotype Anxiety." Journal of Popular Film and Television.32: 50-63.
Lee, Sandra S. 2008. Italian-Americans of Newark, Belleville, And Nutley. Mount Pleasant,
[footnoteRef:5] Although Cavour could not pursue Napoleon III to continue war with Austria due to Napoleon III facing pressure domestically and abroad, there were long-term gains made by him. Kingdom of Piedmont was recognized by many world powers. Pope's power along with hat of Austrians was significantly reduced after wars in 1950s and 60s. Nonetheless, it was due to the valor of Giuseppe Garibaldi that enabled the unification to be complete after succeeding Sicily from ourbon rulers.[footnoteRef:6] Naples was also conquered by Giuseppe Garibaldi after succeeding in capturing Sicily. The former Kingdoms of Sicily along with the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia got united in 1861 and Cavour enabled the ascension of Victor Emmanuel II as the King of Italy. [5: Kellogg, William O. arron's AP United States History. (arrons Educational Series Incorporated, 2010).] [6: Davis, John Anthony, ed. Italy in the nineteenth century: 1796-1900. (Oxford University Press, 2000). ]
Acemoglu, Daron, Simon Johnson, and James a. Robinson. The colonial origins of comparative development: An empirical investigation. No. w7771. National Bureau of Economic Research, 2000.
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined communities: Reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. Verso Books, 2006.
Campanella, Anthony P. Giuseppe Garibaldi: Garibaldi and tradition. Committee of the International Studies Garibaldi, 1971.
Carter, Nick. "Nation, nationality, nationalism and internationalism in Italy, from Cavour to Mussolini." The Historical Journal 39, no. 02 (1996): 545-551.
The biggest reason for this was financial. Farming takes time to sow, grow and harvest, and there was simply not time for that; the Italian immigrant needed to make as much money as he could in the least time possible; farming simply would not work (2008). Farming also implied a certain amount of permanence, which was not the plan for many Italian immigrants (Mintz 2007).
Land in America was also quite expensive. There had been free land in the west that was given out under the Homestead Act, but that was no longer available (2008). The Italians with their agricultural backgrounds became mostly urban people (Oracle 2010). apczynski (2008) posits that another reason could have been because farming simply reminded them of the poor conditions that had left behind in Italy and they wanted to do something different. Because of the vastness of the land in America, many Italians considered…
Cavaioli, Frank J. (2008). Patterns of Italian immigration to the United States. The Catholic social science review,13, 213-229.
Di Benedetto, Alessandra. (2000). Italian immigration to the United States.
Retrieved on September 20, 2010, from http://www.uta.fi/FAST/US2/PAPS/db-italy.html
Diner, Hasia R. (1983). Erin's daughters in America: Irish immigrant women in the nineteenth century. Baltimore: John Hopkins University.
The standard history of the Italian-American experience, La Storia by Jerre Mangione and Ben Morreale, speaks of the "five hundred year" span of that experience.
This is a somewhat whimsical reference to the Italian (specifically Genoese) explorer Christopher Columbus: although Columbus' 1492 voyage of discovery did indeed bring an Italian into North American waters, one can hardly call Columbus an "Italian-American." However the annual federal holiday of Columbus Day was initially proposed by a first-generation Italian immigrant, Angelo Noce, and promoted by Italian-American fraternal groups (including the Roman Catholic fraternity, headquartered in New Haven, Connecticut, whose predominantly Italian-American members are called "Knights of Columbus"); the holiday stands as an annual reminder of the size and vitality of the community of Americans who claim descent from Italian immigrants (primarily during the great wave of Italian immigration in the later nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was recognized in the period…
De Marco-Torgovnick, Marianna. Crossing Ocean Parkway. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997.
Dougherty, Molly and Tripp-Reimer, Toni. "The Interface of Nursing and Anthropology" Annual Review of Anthropology, 14 (1985): 219-241.
Gladwell, Malcolm. Outliers. New York: Little Brown, 2008.
Mangione, Jerre and Morreale, Ben. La Storia: Five Centuries of the Italian-American Experience. New York: Harper Perennial, 1993.
Even the better aspects of the Corleone family are shown in a light that makes them seem contrary to the personalities and wills of other, more "typical" Italian-Americans. That is, their positive qualities are shown in the film to be aberrations; departures from the Italian-American norm. Don Corleone's initial reluctance -- refusal, in fact -- to become involved in any way with the drug trade makes him appear noble, yet it is at the expense of the broader Italian-American image. The other Five Families, who are also of course Italian-Americans, are either in favor or at least not against this new money-making effort, and eventually Don Corleone is forced to conform with this more sinister version of the Italian immigrant. Not only does this film contain the self-reinforcement of Italian-American stereotypes, it actually implies tat resisting emulation of these stereotypes is impossible.
Though it takes a lighter and far less…
People were traveling to lands like Jerusalem or Egypt, the Greek Islands and to cities like Barcelona, Lisbon or Bruges. Merchandise and aliens were bringing along traditions and civilizations different from their own. Another factor that influenced a cultural unity in Italy during the Renaissance was according to elch the claim of being the inheritor of Rome every major Italian city had.
The culture of the antiquity, Latin or Greek had a major contribution not only in shifting theological and education views of the middle Ages from scholasticism to the humanistic views brought from philosophers like Cicero, Quintilian, Augustine, Plato and Aristotle.
Two major scholar figures in the "humanization" of the educational field were Guarino Veronese and Vittorino da Feltre.
They created a new model of teaching to students, based on the learning of Latin and Greek and the study of Aristotle, Cicero and Plato and their model became the…
Abbagnano, N. Dictionary of the History of ideas. Renaissance Humanism. 2003. Retrieved: Jul 26, 2008 at http://etext.virginia.edu/cgi-local/DHI/dhi.cgi?id=dv4-19
Burckhardt, J. The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy. Retrieved: Jul 26, 2008 at http://www.boisestate.edu/courses/hy309/docs/burckhardt/3-4.html
Harris, J. Byzantium. Byzantines in Renaissance Italy. 2002. Retrieved: Jul 26, 2008 at http://www.the-orb.net/encyclop/late/laterbyz/harris-ren.html
Welch, E. Art in Renaissance Italy, 1350-1500: 1350-1500. Oxford University Press, 2000
Think of it as such -- our Confucian, or long-term strategy for life, as termed by Hofstede is both far reaching in its scope into the past, yet alas, often quite limited in its gaze into the future. This has proved of great benefit to Italian business in such traditional industry as the leather trade of shoes, the garment industry, the wine industry, and yes, of course food -- just look on your shelves at home and I'm sure you'll see some Barilla pasta, just as I'm sure those fine loafers you wear have a label from my country -- but in terms of economically innovative industries such as technology, we lag behind. Also, we lag behind the British and German in the financial industries, because of our approach to time and family, as well as our governmental instability and our fragmentation as a nation in terms of our loyalty…
Hofstede, Geert H. Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions, and Organizations Across Nations. Sage Publications, 2001.
Renaissance ("Rebirth") refers to the period after the Middle Ages when a series of dynamic intellectual, cultural and artistic movements from the 14th to 16th century catapulted Europe towards rapid development leading to the Age of Enlightenment, the industrial revolution and the modern time. During this rich period of exciting developments in arts, sciences and politics, Italy was the major catalyst and became the cultural leader of Europe. It also produced several outstanding artists such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michaelangelo and Raphael who changed the face of European art forever and are worthy representatives of the Renaissance era. This paper is about the Italian Renaissance and the impact of the three great artists on European culture.
The period following the eclipse of the Roman Empire around 500 AD until the start of the "Renaissance" at the start of the 14th century is known in history as the…
Barnes, Bernadine. "Michelangelo." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
Hooker, Richard. "Backgrounds to the Italian Renaissance." World Civilizations Web-site. (1996). Updated 6-6-99.. Retrieved on April 9, 2004 from: http://www.wsu.edu:8080/~dee/REN/BACK.htm
Jeffery, David. "A Renaissance for Michelangelo." National Geographic, December 1989
Magurn, R. Saunders. "Leonardo da Vinci." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, 2003
However, there was also an embrace of past, existing forms of Mediterranean literary ideals, such as the Italian sonnet form that became the Elizabethan sonnet form. The latter modified the original Italian sonnet's rhythmical constraints for the English language.
The focus upon Italy was not simply intellectual but was also aesthetic. The ideal of the beauty of Italy, and the passionate atmosphere of the land is evidenced in such plays as Shakespeare's "Romeo and Juliet," and the construction of Italy as an exotic and romantic place, both far and near from England. Also, the Renaissance's fascination with Classical Rome is reflected in England's near0obsession with such texts and plays revolving around classical allusions and themes, and the predominance of Italian motifs in British education, such as the need to study ancient Roman authors as Julius and Augustus Caesar, both of whom figure in plays such as "Julius Caesar" and "Anthony…
I had a lot to learn from Giorgione. Having been taught in the fresco technique by Ghirlandaio, I was not acquainted much with oil painting and did not truly know the mastery of this type of painting. How to mix the oil and the paints so that one was in enough quantity? More so, how to use enough oil so as to obtain the right amount of darkness or pale shade of a color? It was Giorgione who taught me the technique of oil painting on canvas and it was during this time that I started this type of painting.
A liked to take my subjects from popular Venice, from the streets, from common people and Venice had plenty of these to provide. Of course, this was the time of religious painting, not only in Venice, but throughout Italian Renaissance, yet I was taken by the mystery that common subject…
http://www.artcyclopedia.com/feature-2000-06.html (for Giorgione's the Tempest)
4. Vasari, Giorgio. The Life of Painters, Sculptors and Architects. Bucharest 1968. I used this extensively for accounts on Ghirlandaio, Giorgione and the Bellini brothers. Even if somewhat subjective, it gives a good knowledge of the times.
It was inspired by a passage from the Book of evelation (6:1-8) in the Bible. The piece depicts the scene as was described in the evelation passage, of the four horsemen that would appear from the heavens at the time of the Apocalypse. Durer did not have the advantage of colors as Botticelli did in his paintings, but the shades and the lines created on the engraving gave off the desired effect: one of dark menace and foreboding of what it might be like should the horsemen come down in the future. The piece, while German in origin, is now located at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
Botticelli's purpose for the Birth of Venus is more whimsical, as opposed to Durer's more violent depiction of a Biblical passage. Both works intend to convey different emotions. Botticelli shows the fantasy and pleasing figures of Venus and her…
"The Birth of Venus." Botticelli | Birth of Venus. 2008. Web. 19 Feb. 2011. http://www.botticellibirthofvenus.com/ .
"Albrecht Durer: Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse (19.73.209)." In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000 -- . http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/19.73.209 (October 2006)
Italian immigrates tended to cluster into groups related to their place of origin. For instance, the Neapolitans and Sicilians settled in different parts of New York, however, what seldom occurred were Italians enclaves, or all-Italians neighborhoods. he Italians would disperse themselves in other immigrant groups, such as, the Irish, the Jews, the Germans, and the Poles, while remaining in their clusters. Furthermore, Italian immigrants had a tendency to settle in different regions of country based on where they came from in Italy. he Sicilians resided in New Orleans, the Neapolitans and Calabrians in Minnesota, and the northern Italians in California. Most of the Italians were concentrated in the mid Atlantic states in 1910 with 472,000 in New York and nearly 200,000 in Pennsylvania.
hese immigrants supplied low-cost labor and had an enormous impact on production. hey took work where available and by their sheer numbers they drove down wages, incurring…
The influx of immigrants impacted the character of the cities in which they settled creating neighborhoods known as Little Italy, Germantown, Chinatown or Little Poland. Italian immigrates tended to cluster into groups related to their place of origin. For instance, the Neapolitans and Sicilians settled in different parts of New York, however, what seldom occurred were Italians enclaves, or all-Italians neighborhoods. The Italians would disperse themselves in other immigrant groups, such as, the Irish, the Jews, the Germans, and the Poles, while remaining in their clusters. Furthermore, Italian immigrants had a tendency to settle in different regions of country based on where they came from in Italy. The Sicilians resided in New Orleans, the Neapolitans and Calabrians in Minnesota, and the northern Italians in California. Most of the Italians were concentrated in the mid Atlantic states in 1910 with 472,000 in New York and nearly 200,000 in Pennsylvania.
These immigrants supplied low-cost labor and had an enormous impact on production. They took work where available and by their sheer numbers they drove down wages, incurring resentment from those already established in their adopted country. Most immigrants settled in the North where jobs were available. The use of standard, interchangeable parts, especially important in the manufacture of guns, clocks, and sewing machines, allowed the nation to advance technologically by using unskilled workers.
Immigrants from all corners of the world provided much needed labor to operate newly developed factories. There contribution to the improvement of the infrastructure of this country was a significant stimulant to the burgeoning American economy. Much of the country was built on their backs, and this country is very different today because of their labor.
When Mayes was writing Bella Tuscany, she was likely learning just as much about Italy and herself, and the nature of travel, as when she was actually experiencing the events. In Italy, Francine Mayes was seeking a different kind of life, and also a different kind of identity. earning how to write about Italy offers the opportunity to understand both the country and the writer's own soul better, and to re-live the experience of travel with a more critical eye.
earning something new can change your life and identity just as much as traveling -- to take an extreme example, someone who learns how to be a doctor is forever changed, not simply in terms of his or her new professionalism, but also in the way he or she sees the human body. earning how to do a new sport or yoga move can give people added confidence in the…
Learning something new can change your life and identity just as much as traveling -- to take an extreme example, someone who learns how to be a doctor is forever changed, not simply in terms of his or her new professionalism, but also in the way he or she sees the human body. Learning how to do a new sport or yoga move can give people added confidence in the way that they move, and view their competency. And even not learning something, like Mayes' difficulty in learning Italian can teach humility. "Those of us who try to learn later must locate the new language in an entirely different territory" -- she mourns bemoaning her old brain. All learning experiences take us to new countries, not just on land, but also in our minds.
Frances Mayes, Bella Tuscany, (New York: Broadway, 2000), pp.177-178
rote one later historian: "Historians who wax eloquent and indignant -- with considerable reason -- about the sack of Constantinople... rarely if ever mention the massacre of the esterners in Constantinople in 1182 ... A nightmarish massacre of thousands…the slaughterers spared neither women nor children, neither old nor sick, neither priest nor monk. Cardinal John, the Pope's representative, was beheaded and his head was dragged through the streets at the tail of a dog; children were cut out of their mother's wombs; bodies of dead esterners were exhumed and abused; some 4,000 who escaped death were sold into slavery to the Turks" (Carroll 1992, p. 131).
The policies that gave rise to such hatred were the result of Imperial policies and the imprudent regulation of duties, not simply religious prejudice: "Almost equally disastrous was the fact that the powerful Italian maritime republics were able to coerce the Emperor into granting…
Carroll, Warren. The Glory of Christendom. Front Royal, VA: Christendom Press, 1993.
Davis, William Stearns. A short history of the Near East: from the founding of Constantinople
(330 A.D. To 1922). Macmillan Co., 1922 (Original). Cambridge: Harvard University, 2007
Mansel, Phillip. Constantinople: City of the World's Desire 1453-1924. John Murray Publishers
Culturally, the development of northern European art was not unlike that of Italy, particularly when powerful princes created individual states based on wealth and leisure which encouraged the growth of the arts based on commerce and on the patronage of the rich merchants who controlled these states.
This new and versatile artistic medium was exactly right for the formal intentions of the northern painters who wished to create sharp-focused, hard-edged and sparkling clarity of detail in the representation of objects and figures. While the Italian artists were interested primarily in the structure behind the appearances, being perspective, composition, anatomy, the mechanics of bodily motion and proportion, the northern painters were intent on creating appearances themselves, being the bright, colored surfaces of objects and figures touched by natural light.
For example, in Renaissance Italy, Leonardo da Vinci's The Virgin of the Rocks (ca. 1485) reflects all of the artistic integrity and…
de la Croix, Horst and Richard D. Tansey. (1990). Gardner's Art Through the Ages. 6th ed.
New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich, Inc.
Black Studies- Social Issues
Italian Immigrants in America
There was modest Italian emigration to the United States prior to 1870. Nevertheless, Italy was one of the most overfull nations in Europe and a lot started to think about the option of leaving Italy to flee small wages and elevated taxes. The majority of these immigrants were from rural neighborhoods with very little schooling (Italian Immigration, n.d.). Throughout the mass emigration from Italy from 1876 to 1976, the U.S. was the biggest sole recipient of Italian immigrants around the world. In 1850, less than four thousand Italians were reported to be in the U.S. Nevertheless in 1880, only four years after the arrival of Italian immigrants, the population escalated to forty-four thousand, and by 1900, to over four hundred thousand. From 1880 to 1900, southern Italian immigrants became the main Italian immigrant and remained that way all through the mass migration.…
Colella, Nicola. (n.d.). Southern Italian Immigration. Retrieved from http://www.italiamerica.org/id49.htm
Italian Immigration. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAEitaly.htm
The Italians. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://library.thinkquest.org/20619/Italian.html
The Story of Italian Immigration. (2008). Retrieved from http://www.ailf.org/awards/benefit2004/ahp04essay.asp
Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism: Q. Hotel
A Critical Analysis of Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism:
Italy is a country in a stage of transition. It is no longer a predominantly agrarian society nor yet a fully industrialized economy. It is also a land of striking contrasts, with no unified social or economic patterns. As a society, Italy is centuries old; as a modern sovereign state it was born but yesterday. The very nature of the political unification process probably accounts for some of the disunity. It was not a broad-based movement but occurred predominantly under the auspices of one family, the Savoys, who succeeded in expanding their influence and political rule throughout the country (Rosenzweig & Nohria, 1994). The masses participated only vicariously through national figures and agitators, such as Garibaldi, Mazzini, and Cattaneo, whose dreams of a republican…
Adams, E. 1991. "Quality Circle Performance." Journal of Management, 17 25-39.
Adler, N. 2006. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cincinnati, OH: SouthWestern.
Adler, N., and Jelinek, M. 1986. "Is Organisational Culture 'Culture Bound'?" Human Resource Management, 25, 1, 73-90.
Aran, J.D., and Walochik, K. 2007. "Improvisation and the Italian Manager." International Studies of Management and Organization. 26, 1 73-89.
Italy is a cultural hub of gender identity where issues of feminism and masculinism have been deeply entrenched for many years. For centuries Italy has been considered a more masculine country, though the majority of work documented related to masculinism actually is sparse. Issues of feminism and masculinity has surfaced in the workplace, where naturally access to issues such as equal employment and technology have surfaced. Gender inequality issues in Italy have in fact created a basis for the continuance of a feminism-masculinism dichotomy.
Masculinism has been defined as "the property by which humans of the male sex are defined as manly" (Noumenal, 2004). Alternatively, Simone de Beauvoir described femininity as "neither a natural nor an innate entity, but rather a condition brought about by society." This statement is more true than any other, as evidenced by gender inequality differences largely the result of the paternalistic nature of the culture…
Angier, N. 2000. "Women: An Intimate Geography." Anchor.
Barker, P. 1998. "Michel Foucault -- An Introduction." Edinburgh University Press.
Beccalli, B. 1994. The Modern Women's Movement in Italy, in New Left Review. Volume a, Issue 204: 86-112.
Boccia, M.L. 1991. "The Gender Representation." In Bono and Kemp, "Italian Feminism." Blackwell.
ossellini's 1946 Paisan:
The emerging aesthetic of Neorealism in Italian postwar film
According to Andre Bazin's essay "An aesthetic of reality: Neorealism," Paisan as directed by oberto ossellini brought forth a new aesthetic in the discourse of film, that of neorealism. The 1946 film was created not long after the end of World War II and fascist Italy's defeat at the hands of the Allies. The film is told in a series of overlapping narratives in a style that recalls that of a novel with interwoven stories rather than a singular, linear storyline. The storylines would have been relatively recent for the contemporary audience, taking place from 1943-1944 during the first Allied invasion. It has been called the first Italian film to "unquestionably" resemble a "collection of short stories" (Bazin 34). Through this juxtaposition of realistic tales in a narrative technique, "Bazin suggests that we are given sense data which…
Andrew, Dudley. "Andre Bazin." Film Comment 9.2 (1973): 64-8. ABI/INFORM Complete.
Web. 4 Nov. 2012.
Bazin, Andre. "An aesthetic of reality: Neorealism."
Brunette, Peter. "Rossellini and Cinematic Realism." Cinema Journal 25.1 (1985): 34.
Agriculture represents the lifeblood of any civilization -- we settled into communities for the purpose of growing crops and thereby making our lives easier. For most of the history of civilization, agriculture was the dominant form of economy. Wealth was measured in growing land, or in the number of animals owned. Even after the invention of money, agriculture remained a critical source of wealth. In pre-Italy, the city states often gained wealth through trade, but in the countryside wealth remained related to agriculture, as food was the most important thing to most people. In the 20th century, food scarcity became rare, and agriculture diminished in importance -- nobody was truly worried where their next meal would come from, so other goods took on more value. Today in Italy, agriculture is worth 2% of the economy, or $3.6 billion, and it employs 3.9% of the labor force of the country,…
Bartolini, F., Gallerani, V., Raggi, M. & Viaggi, D. (2010). Water management and irrigated agriculture in Italy: Multicriteria analysis of alternative policy scenarios. Water Policy Vol. 12 (2010) 135-147.
CIA World Factbook: Italy (2014). Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/it.html
EU (2014). Review of the concentration processes in the agricultural sector and inside the downstream sectors of the agrofood chain. European Union. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/studies/pdf/chap41_en.pdf
No author (2014). Italy -- agriculture. Nations Encyclopedia. Retrieved November 4, 2014 from http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Europe/Italy-AGRICULTURE.html
People by Edoardo Nesi
"the Story of My People" by Eduardo Nesi
"the Story of My People" by Eduardo Nesi
"THE STORY OF MY PEOPLE" BY EDOARDO NESI
Learning One: Business Trade
Learning Two: Financial Analysis
Learning Three: Denouncement of Big Business
Learning Four: Corrupt Politicians
Lesson Five: Haughtiness of Economists
How does the book apply to International Business?
"The Story of My People" by Eduardo Nesi
In the Italian city of Prato, Eduardo Nesi's family owned a textile factory that was really small and it was located in Tuscany. However, some time I September 2004 Nesi had to sell it for the reason that there was no way to keep it in tip top condition so that it could compete against its rivals. Apparently, it was just too much trouble. In a world of international and free trade the house was not making any kind of profit and in…
organized crime to operate on the local or national level.
Use at least two references.
Organized crime is part of our society, like it or not. ts average income outranks some of the most successful major industries in the U.S. And traditionally, the mob has been untouchable because of strong political ties and the clout that money buys.
Organized crime has been part of U.S. history since the early 1900s when a group called the Black Hand showed up on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. A national syndicate of over 25 crime families was established and throughout the 20s, 0s and 40s, they built a business that included assault, bribery, extortion, narcotics and infiltrating big business and unions.
According to the law, organized crime is illegal. t centers on activities and organizations that will create a profit from illegitimate businesses. So how do we justify drugs, gambling,…
Organized Crime. http://faculty.ncwc.edu.
What is Organized Crime?. http://organizedcrime.about.com
In the mid-nineteenth century, Italy had faced a great number of obstacles that would have impeded a united Italy, but for the movement of the leaders and the fighters who banded together under the same ideal. Prior to the beginning of the nineteenth century, Italy itself was split into many states and kingdoms, in accordance to the different ethnic peoples of the country. Through the political activism engaged by such celebrated names as Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour, Pallavicino and Victor Emmanuel II, and the people's enthusiasm to see their kingdoms united, Italian nationalism was not just a dream shared by many. In all respects, Italian nationalism also became a reality.
The Leaders of Italian Unification
Of the proponents regarding Italian unification, perhaps one of the most vocal of the group would be revolutionary activist Giuseppe Mazzini. As many nationalists believed, the strength of a nation came not from the…
Indeed the Germans, the French, and the rest looked back to an antiquity in which their ancestors had been subjugated by the legions. Nothing is more remarkable therefore than the rapid and irrevocable penetration of Italian ideas and practices among the "barbarians," as the Italian writers referred to them, some of whom were currently invading the peninsula." (Wiener, 124) it's also important to note that influence of antique classicism typical for Italian architecture of the 14-16th centuries is not observed in the north. Classical style of Italian cathedrals and churches, typical for Ancient Greek and oman pagan temples is usually not observed in buildings of enaissance epoch in Germany, Britain or France, where architecture was influenced by Gothic style, which got earlier spread in Europe.
eformation and Counter eformation
The spread of Protestantism over Europe, which is considered to be one of the most historically significant achievements of enaissance and…
Hileman, Tony Living on the Creative Edge of Our Culture available at www.americanhumanist.org/about/messageED1.php
Wiener, Philip P. The Dictionary of the History of Ideas: Studies of Selected Pivotal Ideas available at http://etext.virginia.edu/DicHist/dict.html
Kohl, Benjamin G., and Witt, Ronald G., eds., the Earthly Republic: Italian Humanists on Government and Society (1978)
A Comparison between the Italian and Northern European enaissance
World history is a fascinating subject, especially when one takes into account the multi-dimensional, often heavy impact changes that are constantly taking place, and that often change the course of history in a way in which it could have never been imagined. After the Dark Ages, for instance, the enaissance or "rebirth," a period of artistic-related growth across Europe, was one such change that literally pulled Europe out of the deterioration in which it found itself after the fall of the oman Empire, and put it on a path of regrowth that was so replete with creativity that many scholars are still talking about it today. In order to better understand these historical changes, this paper will examine the enaissance, for it was a very complex movement, in order to understand it better, and will do so by comparing the…
Referenced from: Esaak, S. (2011). The Renaissance in Northern Europe. About.com. Retrieved October 28, 20110, .
Famous Artists of Italy (n.a.). (2011). Oracle.com. Retrieved October 28, 2011, from < http://library.thinkquest.org/2838/artgal.htm>.
Italian Renaissance Art (n.a.). (2011). Retrieved October 28, 2011, from < http://vlib.iue.it/carrie/texts/carrie_books/gilbert/07.html >.
Antonio Canova was an Italian sculptor from Venice who lived from 1757 to 1822. He primarily worked in marble and believed that he could use that medium to render an artistic view of human flesh. He is most famous as someone who rejected the excesses and filigree of the Baroque to return to classical style, making him one of the foremost artists of the neoclassical style. For a number of years, Canova's work was considered to be the greatest example of European sculpture -- to the point that in 1802, Canova was invited to Paris to carve marble portraits of the emperor Napoleon and family. Most art critics find that the combination of returning to mythology and discreet eroticism that flowed out of the enaissance and into the modern era, without all the unnecessary frills of the Baroque, to be his greatest contribution to art.
Canova was born in…
All-Art.org, "Introduction to Neoclassicism." Last modified April 2000. Accessed December 27, 2013. http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/english/melani/cs6/neocl.html .
Bindman, David. Warm Flesh, Cold Marble. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2013.
Durant, Will & Aiel. The Age of Napoleon: The Story of Civilization. New York: Simon and Schuster, 2011.
Friedel, E. A Cultural History of the Modern Age. Westport, CT: Bergin and Garvey, 1999.
Mafia and Their elation to the Italian Identity
The primary popular culture expression of the Italian-American identity is The Mafia whose fame is much to the dismay of many Italian-Americans. The Mafia is the basic popular culture expression of the Italian-American identity largely because of the influence of Francis Ford Coppola's hit film, "The Godfather" that won an Oscar award in 1972 ("The Mafia in Popular Culture," n.d.). This popular expression of the Italian-American identity is also attributable to the reinvention of the gangster movie genre by Coppola's hit film in 1972. The popularity of the Mafia as an expression of the Italian-American identity has been fueled by the group's extortion, establishment as a deeply rooted criminal organization, and political corruption and murder. The Mafia is essentially characterized by popular American derivations and strong relations to the Italian identity.
Historical Context of the Mafia
Sicily is a region in Italy…
Battilana, S.C. (2003, November). Why Did the Mafia Emerge in Italy? An Institutional Answer. Retrieved from Stanford University website: http://web.stanford.edu/~silviacb/PEPR/Why%20did%20the%20Mafia%20Emerge%20in%20Italy.pdf
Lindo, S.B. (2008, May). Identity in Flux: The Mafia, Antimafia, and Sicily's Discovery of New Italian Unity. Retrieved from Connecticut College website: http://digitalcommons.conncoll.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=italhp
"The Mafia in Popular Culture." (n.d.). History. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/the-mafia-in-popular-culture
"Origins of the Mafia." (n.d.). History. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/origins-of-the-mafia
Renaissance was beginning to influence Italian painters in adapting their style in order for it to fit the needs of a more advanced world. Fra Angelico is recognized as one of the great early Italian painters from the Renaissance. In his work of decorating the Dominican Monastery of San Marco, he mastered a painting style that was reported to have been partly inspired from Masaccio, with his paintings expressing motion and being filled with linear perspective meant to suggest depth of space.
It had been a common thing for the wealthy and most important families of Florence to hire talented painters to paint for them. Sandro Botticelli had been just one of the many Renaissance painters to paint for the Medici family. Even if Botticelli had spent a large part of his time working for great families, he still found time to perform additional paintings such as the one in…
1. Cole, Bruce. (1987). "Italian Art, 1250-1550: The Relation of Renaissance Art to Life and Society." Harper & Row.
2. Sohm, Philip. "Gendered Style in Italian Art Criticism from Michelangelo to Malvasia." Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 48, 1995.
Sohm, Philip. "Gendered Style in Italian Art Criticism from Michelangelo to Malvasia." Renaissance Quarterly, Vol. 48, 1995.
On the contrary, Giotto di Bondone had been a revolutionary, as he seemed to be determined to desert long-standing concepts in favor of newer, and more evolved ones.
Byzantine paintings have a general tendency to represent scenes from a two-dimensional perspective, and, most probably, in order to compensate with the lack of spatial depth, they use a greater number of details. In Giotto's Christ Entering Jerusalem, viewers feel as if they are part of the painting, with the painter's desire to involve three-dimensionality into his painting being obvious. Also, the painter simplified the painting by abandoning complexity and focusing on the essential. Duccio, on the other hand, has involved much more details in his portrayal of Christ Entering Jerusalem. Regardless of the attention paid by Duccio to details, his painting lacks realism, viewers being able to observe that the figures in it appear to be floating.
There is some possibility that mandates for maintaining and/or establishing operations in certain regions might be implemented to ensure adequate food distribution to all of Italy as a means of addressing current trends and concerns, such a move is considered highly unlikely (Datamonitor 2010; Aruvian 2010). It is also unclear whether such a move by the Italian governement would be damaging or even necessarily applicable to Kudler Fine Foods unless it expanded its product offerings to wider and less expensive grocery offerings. Little else in the legal environment of this market has changes (Alvin 2010).
There are also legal entities and agencies in the European Union that influence and affect the Italian retail grocery market, and general European economic cooperation policies and tendencies also present something of a barrier to entry from an American competitor such as Kudler Fine Foods (Alvin 2010; Aruvian 2010). Organizational decision-making must account for the…
Alvin, E. (2010). Italy may run out of grocery stores. Accessed 5 December 2010. http://ffog.net/italy-may-run-out-of-grocery-stores-in-2016-20105742.html
Aruvian, R. (2010). Food retail industry in Italy. Accessed 5 December 2010. http://www.reportlinker.com/p0199296/Food-Retail-Industry-in-Italy-PEST-Framework-Analysis.html
Datamonitor. (2010). Food and Grocery Sales via Key Retail Formats in Italy to 2013. http://www.just-drinks.com/market-research/food-and-grocery-sales-via-key-retail-formats-in-italy-to-2013_id91649.aspx
Kwik, H. (2009). Channel strategy. http://responsiblemarketing.com/blog/2009/10/27/channel-strategy-new-product-marketin
Employing Linguistic Anthropology Theories
There are myriad facets of the cultural ramifications for linguistics and its convergence with anthropology. As such, these cultural consequences pertain to people in various nation states and the verbal expression that reflects how people communicate in those countries. The early 2000's film The Italian Job offers an accurate portrayal of certain linguistic tendencies evinced within American culture. Specifically, it delineates certain facets of power within social constructs as it applies to the way people speak to one another. A close analysis of these proclivities reveals that three linguistic anthropology theories -- remaining polite and clear when speaking to others to demonstrate competency as a speaker, turn-taking among various participants, and deploying bald directives as a means of demonstrating power -- abound more than others do. All of these theories are manifest in this film to prove that the leader of the group attempting to steal…
The Powers. (2001). The Italian Job screenplay. www.dailyscript.com Retrieved from http://www.dailyscript.com/scripts/italianjob.pdf
Italian Futurism debuted in 1909 with the emergence of the "Founding and Manifesto of Futurism which was published in the newspaper Le Figaro, written by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. Not only was Marinetti the individual who pushed for futurism and the father of the movement, but he was the one who essentially shepherded it from start to finish, until he died in 1944. One of the most refreshing aspects about Futurism was the fact that it was young and fresh mode of art, and started via the written word, and then crossed over into other art forms and media. "To be a Futurist in the Italy of the early 20th century was to be modern, young, and insurgent. Inspired by the markers of modernity -- the industrial city, machines, speed, and flight -- Futurism's adherents exalted the new and the disruptive. They sought to revitalize what they determined to be a…
Guggenheim.org (2014). "Words in Freedom." Retrieved from: Guggenheim.org. http://exhibitions.guggenheim.org/futurism/words_in_freedom/
Guggenheim.org (2014). "Heroic Futurism." Retrieved from: Guggenheim.org. http://exhibitions.guggenheim.org/futurism/heroic_futurism/
Change, however, rather than pure survival propels newly female created and depicted Italian women -- in Barolini, women are not forces of the home front and reaction and religion, as they are in male urban narratives. Rather, beginning even in Barolini's Italian Calabria, women propel a family destiny of fundamental change. After the first years of struggle, the woman and her husband relocate the family to upstate New York where it is Umbertina's determination and innate intelligence that propels her family to unexpected and unanticipated middle class success and security. Thus, because of the determination of a successive generation of women the family can live out the destiny of the American dream that their forbearers set in motion so many years ago in Italy and resolving the tensions between the Italian-American women's conflicts between their socially constructed dual identities and their yearnings for both success and security, family life and…
Barolini, Helen. "Pietro Di Donato (1911-1992)." 2005. http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/bassr/heath/syllabuild/iguide/didonato.html
Barolini, Helen. Umbertina. Feminist Press, 1999.
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Diomede, Matthew. Pietro Di Donato, the Master Builder. Lewisburg: Bucknell University Press, 1995.
This theory contends that properly managed contact between groups can occur if four fundamental factors are present: social status, common goals, acquaintance potential, and the support of authorities, law or customs (Pettigrew 66). Social status helps to reduce prejudice and discrimination when groups work to equalize social status among themselves; in the case of Corleone and the Five Families, it is understood that each "family" has an equal controlling share of the community. Common goals help to reduce competition and allows groups to work together to attain them. Acquaintance potential helps to reduce discrimination and prejudice when groups work together to know each other on a personal basis; this helps to identify the common goals that each group, or group member are working towards. Finally, prejudice and discrimination are reduced if a group supports and defines the social norms that create equality among them; in the film, conflict is created…
The Godfather. Dir Francis Ford Coppolla. United States: Paramount Pictures, 1972. Film.
The Godfather Part II. Dir Francis Ford Coppolla. United States: Paramount Pictures, 1974.
Marger, Martin. "Chapter 10: Italian-Americans and Other White Ethnics." Race and Ethnic
Roberto Rossellini's movie Paisan and its significance and importance, combining and analysis of its visual/literary/conceptual dimensions with post-war Italian culture and history (1946)
Roberto Rossellini's movie Paisan and its significance
Following the Second orld ar, extremely harsh period encompassed the economic and social development of many nations. Italy in this period was no exception as leading forces continued to challenge the development of the country. The post war period saw varied challenges mitigating their way into the society, expected to introduce a new era of fascism, which was already on paper as Mussolini had already put it in place. It is within the ensuing decade that Roberto Rossellini continued to foster his career in the film industry, establishing the production of the movie Paisan. Paisan is uniquely different from its predecessors, such as Open City by Roberto in all its aspects, except the fact that it retains the evident attractiveness…
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The conflict evolved and his works burnt in ome, following the Pope's orders gave him the opportunity to extend his efforts of reformation over the entire Northern Europe. His excommunication in 1521 led to the birth of a new church and the separation finally took place.
Calvin, unlike Luther the monk, was a lawyer who came to Geneva to help in the reformation process. At first, his attempts failed, but after being forced to leave the city, he returned and his new philosophical views about the reformed church were accepted by Geneva that became the center of Protestantism in Europe.
Question 3: Was the religiously-framed warfare of the 16th and early 17th centuries avoidable, given the realities of that place and time?
After the first period of the separation between the Catholic and the Protestant Churches that took place peacefully, there came a period of ruthless fights between the two.…
Mantin, P. (1992)the Italian Renaissance: Student Book. The Italian Renaissance. Heinemann Humanism. Retrieved: Oct 28, 2008. Available at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/REN/HUMANISM.htm
Discovery and Reformation. Retrieved: Oct 28, 2008. Available at http://www.wsu.edu/~dee/REFORM/REFORM.HTM
articles seem to be saying same thing or do they contradict each other? Is the tone similar in each article, meaning can you tell what the researchers feel about the subject? Do they support the same idea, did they hypothesize similar ideas?
The following are two research essays on the burden of caregivers. The similarities of both essays are that both demonstrate the huge responsibility and unmitigated onus that caregivers carry that consequent in causing them stress and hardship. Differences include the fact that one was carried out on a population in Italy, whilst the other was carried out on a sample in America.
It is striking, too, to note, that although both concluded that caregivers needed more support, the American study recommended ways that individuals could create this for themselves, whilst the Italians-based study placed the responsibility on the community and social work profession. The tone of the articles,…
Sansoni, J et al. (2004) Anxiety and depression in community-dwelling, Italian Alzheimer's disease caregivers, retrieved from International Journal of Nursing Practice: 10: 93-100.
Hayslip, B et al. (2008) Predictors of Alzheimer's disease caregiver depression and burden: what noncaregiving adults can learn from active caregivers. Educational Gerontology, 34: 945-969, 2008
He is one of the few artists that were recognized for his work while he was still living.
One of Michelangelo's most exquisite pieces is Pieta. In this sculpture, we can see how Michelangelo was moving away from the traditional form of sculpting. Creighton Gilbert notes that how Mary and Jesus are depicted in the statue is not typical of Michelangelo's day. Mary is seated with the dead Jesus in her lap and this image "first emerged as an abbreviation of the scene of Christ mourned" (160). Harold Keller maintains that the piece is filled with contrasts, horizontally and vertically. e also have the opposites of the clothed and the naked. The position of Jesus' body is different from most pietas of the day in that it is horizontal, producing a "step-like composition based on the sharp right able between the corpse and the upper body of the Madonna towering…
Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence. New York: Harper Collins Publications. 2000.
Gilbert, Creighton. History of Renaissance Art. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1973.
Keller, Harold. The High Renaissance in Italy. NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. Publishers. 1969.
Lace, William. Michelangelo. San Diego: Lucent Books. 1993.
As Amun, he also wears a flat-topped crown, which was his signature. The figure is carrying and ankh in one hand and a scimitar in the other which is laid across his chest.
The gold represents the sun in ancient Egyptian culture, and so it is the only fitting
The Hellenistic period began in 323 BC, after the death of one of ancient Greece's great heroes, Alexander the Great. Alexander had conquered vast expanses of the ancient world, which opened up great cultural influences on the people of Greece (National Museum of Athens 2010). During this era, the people speak a multitude of different languages, and there are cultural influences from around the ancient world parading through the streets, which might I add, have all been recently paved. The city itself looks strikingly similar to more modern day cities. The culture is ripe with artistic expression and acceptance.…
American Institute of Pyramidology. "Part One: The Ancient Mystery Unraveled." The Great Pyramid. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://greatpyramid.org/aip/gr-pyr1.htm
Inter-City Oz. "About Ancient Egypt." Tour Egypt. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://touregypt.net/egyptantiquities/
Metropolotan Museum of Art. "Statuette of Amun." Works of Art: Egyptian Art. 2010. Retrieved 19 Feb 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/egyptian_art/statuette_of_amun/objectview.aspx?page=2&sort=5&sortdir=asc&keyword=&fp=1&dd1=10&dd2=31&vw=1&collID=31&OID=100001249&vT=1
Metropolitan Museum of Art. "Statue of Eros Sleeping." Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. 2010. Retrieved 19 Fed 2010 from http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/04/eusb/ho_43.11.4.htm
Of course, my relationship with my various ethnicities goes deeper than simple jokes about stereotypes -- I feel some vague tug of a connection to the disparate elements of my ethnic make-up. This reflects one of the downsides of multi-culturalism or post-culturalism; a strong sense of identity and history is no longer a part of many young American's self-identity.
In general, I leave my identity unexamined on a day-to-day basis. I feel fairly well established in who I am, and this does not hinge on any particular geographical location or ethnic heritage. The feeling of being unanchored is bittersweet; there is the obvious element of freedom and an increased ability to repeatedly redefine oneself which is strengthened by internet culture, but these themselves reflect the very impermanence of such an identity, and seem to reveal that all identity -- be it ethnically-based or otherwise -- is nothing more than a…
Discussion of the Results
Mr. Spyridos can count on French and Italians to spend more money than the Germans, and all three to spend more money than the Brits. There is a great deal of difference between German groups, which suggests that there may be some high-Euro spenders who should be appealed to in a separate marketing campaign.
The French appear to have the least variability in spending as a group, while the Italians and the Brits seem to have the highest variability. This may suggest that the French are more amenable to package tours with 'all-inclusive' or more easily-predicted pricing, a la Club Med. At the same time, the Brits and Italians may be willing to spend more once they arrive. The Brits may be lured in by promises of low initial pricing, with a propensity to spend more once they arrive. Italians are willing to spend more, and…
I've always been proud of my family heritage. Growing up Catholic isn't always easy, and growing up Italian has its own set of difficulties on top of that. However, the love and camaraderie that I experienced as a child will always remain with me as I get older. For an Italian, family takes priority over all other things, and there is a strong sense of respect for our parents and elders. However, this also entails frankness, openness, and honesty, which can lead to lost tempers or heated arguments at the dinner table. After all, Italians are known for their emotional natures. Furthermore, I realized growing up that our family's parties always centered on a lot of food; food served an ultimately social function in our family. Food is also almost always fresh and delicious. Another pleasant side-effect from being Roman Catholic and Italian is that I befriended many people…
With this in mind communications strategy has to be developed and implemented. The central debate remains that of degree of uniformity. The pros and cons are obvious, i.e. economies of scale, consistent message across markets, centralized control, different market characteristics, media availability and costs and government regulations (alabanis & Diamantopoulos, 2011). The stronger argument appears to be that different strategy appears to work in different situations, rather than a totally standardized campaign. Once these geographical issues are decided upon then the scope of the campaign, objectives and elements of strategy can be worked on. If the organization develops a message for one market and then transposes this intact into others or if it develops a message with a number of markets in mind from the start, it may be centrally conceived in both cases (Han, 2009; Wills & Ryans, 1977).
This is popular because of co-ordination and control providing the…
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The director was Rainer erner Fassbinder and took place in Nazi era Germany. "Shot primarily in English and then presented on American screens dubbed into German with English subtitles, it is an exercise in displacement: the Nazis are either benign, ineffectual, or secretly good guys; the Jews are wealthy and comparatively safe. (Insdorf 121) Giannini plays the role of Robert Mendelsson and although does a good job in his role, is a far cry from the characters in his earlier films. He plays a Jew who has to listen to "Lilli Marleen" as a form of torture.
Giannini performed several films in English. A Night Full of Rain another film directed by ertmuller stars Giannini opposite actress Candice Bergen. Here he also has a love-hate relationship with the female protagonist much like in Swept Away. hat makes this film different from the other however is the reaction ertmuller got from…
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Both World War I and II were world events that left territories, countries, nations, and individuals exhausted from the effort and from loss. These wars proved ultimately ironic when the term "the war to end all wars" proved tragically inaccurate with the outbreak of World War II. In addition to the devastation, however, were significant changes, developments and effects on the world and its paradigms. Decolonization, for example proved to be one of the most important effects. Whereas colonization was a mainly European paradigm as means of transport and new discoveries enabled increasing voyages across the world, the World Wars created the ability of territories to become autonomous, searching for their own identity rather than identities that were associated with those of their colonizers. For Italy, World War II also held its own specific events and paradigm shifts as the country became a territory affected by war and…
Somalia Civil war
SOMALIA- CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WA
Columbia Encyclopedia describes the geographical position of Somalia in these words:
Somalia is directly south of the Arabian Peninsula across the Gulf of Aden. It comprises almost the entire African coast of the Gulf of Aden and a longer stretch on the Indian Ocean. It is bounded on the NW by Djibouti, on the W. By Ethiopia, on the SW by Kenya, and on the S. And E. By the Indian Ocean. Mogadishu is the capital. There are 18 regions. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2000)
Somalia has been ruled by various imperial empires. Some of its earlier rulers were the nations of Oman, Turks and Zanzibar. Most of these nations lost control in Somalia. Britain, France and Italy came to this part of the world in the 19th century. Each country has had a say during its rule. It was…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, Page 43895, 2000
I.M. Lewis: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, I.M. Lewis, Westview Press, 1988
Simons, Anna: Networks of Dissolution: Somalia Undone, Westview Press, 1995
Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Walter M. Clarke, Jeffrey M. Herbst, Westview Press, 1997
176) it is also interesting that the legitimate first response to the dissolution of prohibition was to officially tax it and therefore gain legitimate revenue from a vice. It would not surprise any historian if the idea to tax vice's such as alcohol, which even today the government makes a great deal of money doing, was not born of the substantial success the early mafia made of making money from its illegal production, sale and distribution.
The Irish Mafia:
The Irish Mafia, though usually not thought of as the quintessential mafia "family" were no less influential in some areas that the Italian mafia, one reason for this had to do with the sheer numbers of Irish immigrants to the country following the Potato Famine 1847-1849, and the essential disenfranchisement they felt when they arrived. Having just lived through one of the most grueling of all events, likely to have lost…
Bernstein, L. (2002). The Greatest Menace: Organized Crime in Cold War America. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts Press.
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In the case of Toyota they have focused on supply chain integration, collaboration and collaborative forecasting and replenishment (CPF) workflows. What emerges from this SWOT analysis from a competitive analysis standpoint is that while Fiat was concentrating on product-driven strategies for differentiation, its competitors had embraced and were well on their way to making processes their core competitive advantage, especially those augmenting personal productivity (Porter, 2008).
Fiat's opportunities however are significant. There is growing truck market demand, increasing demand for manufacturing equipment in BIC nations and growing need fro construction vehicles in China and India. As Tata Motors has worked to dominate the passenger car market in India, there is no company focused on construction vehicle development. For Fiat, this presents a unique and highly differentiated opportunity.
The threats Fiat faces are comparable to many other global auto manufacturers, including the continued contraction of credit and therefore the entire auto…
Markus C. Becker, and Francesco Zirpoli. 2003. Knowledge integration in new product development: The FIAT Autocase. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management 3, no. 1,2, (January 1): 30-46.
Giuseppe Calabrese. 2000. Fiat Auto hands the wheel to its employees. Human Resource Management International Digest 8, no. 1, (January 1): 13-15.
Mauro Caputo and Francesco Zirpoli. 2001. A new organization for supplier involvement in vehicle design: The Italian automotive industry case. International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management 1, no. 2,3, (January 1): 301-320.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, and Kentaro Nobeoka. 2000. Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21, no. 3, (March 1): 345-367.
colors, when all you could see was black and white, when nobody could think of a featured film, it was then that the director Antonio came up with a film "story of a love affair" which challenged the traditional ideas and themes. Cronaca di un amore is an Italian black and white drama film which was released in 1950. The movie is known as 'Chronicle of a Love' in the United Kingdom, and 'Story of a Love Affair' in the United States of America. It was the first venture of the director Michelangelo Antonioni as a whole length feature film. Before this the director Michelangelo Antonioni has been famous for different short films and he was also given the opportunity to direct a documentary about the internal works of an asylum but he abandoned this opportunity. Story of a Love Affair was his first narrative feature film (Venturi, 1955).
Bondanella, P. (2007). Italian cinema: from neo-realism to the present. NY: Continuum International Publishing Group Inc.
Johnston, I. (2006). "We're not happy and we never will be." Bright Lights Film Journal, 53.
Venturi, L. (1955). Notes on Five Italian Films. Hollywood Quarterly, 5(4), 389 -- 400.
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
The Asian gangs are becoming dominant in many areas of illegal activities, including drug and human trafficking.
The Big Circle Gang
The Big Circle Gang has rapidly become one of the most notorious and successful Chinese gangs in the world. The origins of the group go back to China's ed Guard, and the group has units-based throughout the world, including the U.S. And Canada. The ed Guards carried out Mao Zedong's harassment of China's middle class during his rule in China. After his death in 1976, the ed Guard was dissolved, "many ed Guards were sent to re-education prison camps around the city of Canton -- represented on maps by a big circle, hence the name -- where they were tortured and starved. Having been through this degradation and having military training, they have a fearsome reputation" (Hall, 2005). Many escaped China and relocated to Hong Kong, and then immigrated…
1994). Handbook of organized crime in the United States (R. J. Kelly, K. Chin, & R. Schatzberg, Ed.). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Hall, N. (2005). Big Circle Boys born of Red Guards: Drugs, loansharking among Asian gang's specialties. Retrieved from the Canada.com Web site: http://www.canada.com/vancouversun/specials/websterawards/story.html?id=56ca11d5-f4e6-455a-b686-f7cc9b668c125 May 2007.
Mahlmann, N. (2007). Chinese criminal enterprises. Retrieved from the U.S. State Department Web site: http://usinfo.state.gov/eap/Archive_Index/Chinese_Criminal_Enterprises.html5 May 2007.
Paoli, L. (2003). Mafia brotherhoods: Organized crime, Italian style. New York: Oxford University Press.
Even in Catholic France, the Protestant sentiment that God's grace alone can save His fallen, human creation was evident in the humanist king, Francis I's sister, Margaret, Queen of Navarre's novel when she wrote: "We must humble ourselves, for God does not bestow his graces on men because they are noble or rich; but, according as it pleases his goodness, which regards not the appearance of persons, he chooses whom he will."
Shakespeare's Hamlet is haunted by the ghost of his father from Purgatory. Purgatory was a Catholic concept. But rather than trusting the vision of the divine on earth, Hamlet is suspicious about the ability of fallen human beings to enact justice. Rather than finding good in the face of women, Hamlet sees only evil. "In considering the cultural conditions that allow tragedy to revive, we may also want to consider that the plays occurred in Christian Northern Europe;…
When businesses go international, they have to operate in a more competitive, uncertain, and risky business environment. The forces present in the Global environment bring a number of challenges for the businesses; making it more difficult for them to maintain their market share, enhance profitability, and keep the customers satisfied (Cherunilam, 2007). To compete successfully and ensure a sustainable future in the international markets, business organizations have to analyze these forces carefully and strategize accordingly. Globalization has also impacted the way countries use to recognize themselves as internationally competitive and advanced than other countries (Tellis, Stremersch, & Yin, 2003).
This paper presents a comprehensive discussion on the positive and negative impacts of Globalization and the efforts which nations and business organizations make in order to become internationally competitive and keep up pace with the Globalization. The paper starts with a brief description of different environmental forces that are…
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Cherunilam, F. (2007). International business: text and cases. India: PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd.
Dconti, (2012). Effects of Globalization on Italy. Retrieved on May 3rd, 2012, from
As fascism grew in Italy, it became increasingly contentious among Italians in foreign countries, including the United States. Like the Japanese, even though thousands of Italian-Americans were fighting in the war, the government designated "all unnaturalized Italians as 'alien enemies.' This designation mandated certain registration requirements and imposed limitations on travel and property ownership. The stigma struck hardest at the first generation, which supplied the greatest number of aliens" (O'Brien and Parsons 66). However, the government did not ship off the Italians to detention centers "for their own safety," and they were able to keep their jobs, their homes, and their dignity. Interestingly, while the Italians had complaints about their treatment by the American government, their reaction to the war was to become more patriotic and "American." Many Italian-American organizations changed their names from Italian to English, and many removed the flags of Italy from their meeting halls, replacing them…
Honey, Maureen, ed. Bitter Fruit: African-American Women in World War II. Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1999.
O'Brien, Kenneth Paul, and Lynn Hudson Parsons, eds. The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Uchida, Yoshiko. Journey to Topaz. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971.
Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese-American Family.
The T&M Company is investigating whether it should use target costing for its towels, especially as it moves into the Italian market. Management might be halfway insane for targeting a country for international expansion that is only going to pay 20% less than our current revenue per towel, but it is my job as to crunch the numbers and figure out how we can do that. One technique is target costing. Target costing begins with the revenue per unit that is expected, then takes into account the margin that we are targeting. What is left is the amount of that is budgeted for the production of the item in question (Arrington, n.d). Target costing is useful in a situation like this because it provides a target for the company. It is easier to earn the profits that we seek if we are able to know what the total production…
Arrington, W. (n.d.). Target Costing. Retrieved from www.freequality.org/documents/Training/Target%20Costing.pptx
Feil, P., Yook, K., and Kim, I (2004, Spring). Japanese Target Costing: A Historical Perspective. International Journal of Strategic Cost Management. Retrieved from http://economiceducation.us/dotAsset/785833.pdf
Tsorakidis, N. (2009). Break-Even Analysis. Retrieved from http://bookboon.com/en/business/finance/break-even-analysis-1
Walther, l. (2012). Chapter Eighteen. Cost-Volume-Profit and Business Scalability. Retrieved (including video lecture) from http://www.principlesofaccounting.com/
Captain Corelli Mandolin
The novel and movie Captain Corelli Mandolin is a story that is talking about the Italian and German occupation of Cephallonia (a Greek island in the Mediterranean Sea). Throughout both works are a series of themes that are discussed. To fully understand these ideas requires looking at: the scenes of war, if this is an anti-war novel, the dilemma of a good Nazi, the personalities of the Italians vs. The Germans, the character that was most liked and what this taught everyone about history. Together, these different elements will highlight the various themes in the film and the book.
What scenes of war touched you the most and why did you choose these scenes?
The scene that is the most touching is when the Italian Aqui Division refused to surrender to the Germans. After running out of ammunition, they were forced to accept defeat. This is when…
Captain Corelli's Mandolin. (2001). Rotten Tomatoes. Retrieved from: http://www.rottentomatoes.com/m/captain_corellis_mandolin/
De Berniere, L. (2011). Captain Corelli's Mandolin. New York, NY: Random House.
Traditional Organized Crime Groups
The task at hand is to report upon the organized criminal activities of the Italian mafia that is partially transplanted from Italy and its islands, as well as the mafia culture that is indigenous to the United States. The mafia is somewhat of an open secret. People know and believe that it exists, yet it is not a topic that people often discuss publically, and for good reason. Secrecy and discretion is key to the existence of the traditional organized crime group of the Italian O.C., also known as La Costra Nostra. The mafia, like the media, the government, the prison system, and education, is an industry. As the world changes, the mafia diversifies its activities to keep up with the times, creating as many streams of revenue from as many directions as possible. The Italian mafia has long since been a group that…
ABC News. (2013). Latest La Costra Nostra News. ABC, Available from: http://abcnews.go.com/topics/news/la-cosa-nostra.htm . 2013 May 04. Web.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. (2013). Italian Organized Crime. The FBI, Available from: http://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/organizedcrime/italian_mafia . 2013 May 04. Web.
Perhaps, the woman did give birth to a healthy child and then died, then this portrait would be in the nature of memorializing the wife of the man in this picture and the mother of his heir preserving for the child a likeness of the child's mother since the mother was no longer living and present in the lives of the family.
This is the only double portrait of its kind painted during the Renaissance period that is known and as related in the foregoing material, women were always pictured from a profile view with their hair severely pulled back away from their face and their gaze averted from the viewer since women were believed to be seductresses of men making them weak or otherwise castrating them with rejection though only casting a gaze in their direction.
The hands of the man are displayed in this portrait and he appears…
Masters. RD (2013) the Portraiture of Women During the Italian Renaissance. The University of Southern Mississippi the Aquila Digital Community. Retrieved from: http://aquila.usm.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1170&context=honors_theses
Portrait of a Woman with a Man at a Casement, ca. 1440 -- 44 (2014) Fra Filippo Lippi (Italian, Florentine, (2014) Metropolitan Museum of Art. Retrieved from: http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/works-of-art/89.15.19
The naked man causes Ludwig to feel odd and in his desperation, pleads to the heavens to help him signifying his other rebellion, his dormant homosexuality. The wedding follows and Elisabeth steals the show with Sophie falling to the background. What happens later is a failed rendezvous with a prostitute and other failed attempts of Ludwig to behave like a heterosexual. His desires to be around Wagner vs. Sophie and the subsequent scene with the valet demonstrate more and more Ludwig increasing desire to seek the company of men. This leads then to a deteriorating condition in which a bandage is over his eyes. He is fooling around in a Bavarian inn implying he yet again gives in to his homosexual tendencies much like the SA revelry in the previous movie, The Damned. The film ends with the government planning to depose him much like what happened in reality and…
Bacon, H. (1998). Visconti: explorations of beauty and decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blunt, W. (1970). The Dream King, Ludwig II of Bavaria. New York: Viking Press.
Cardullo, B. (2009). After neorealism: Italian filmmakers and their films: essays and interviews. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
Landy, M. (2000). Italian film. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
" (Bawer, 2005) Thus, culture and a higher cost of going out both come into play. Europeans have more health care and social services than Americans, but they still also pay more in taxes. True, they have better public transportation as well -- but gasoline (in this oil-exporting nation) costs more than $6 a gallon.
Bawer's greatest complaint was his lack of ability to have an exciting nightlife at a decent cost, something he said that was easier in supposedly poorer Spain. But this highlights how European nations still differ in terms of what they value, either wine with friends, or a more frugal and 'saving' standard of living. However, Bawer was correct in the sense that culture and cost may fuse, when comparing Europe as a whole to other nations, as while the private-consumption figure for the United States was $32,900 per person, the countries of estern Europe (again…
Bawer, Bruce. (17 Apr 2005) "We're Rich -- you're not, end of story." The New York Times. Sunday Week in Review. Retrived 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.nytimes.com /2005/04/17/weekinreview/17bawer.html?
Economist. (9 Jan 2004) "Plenty of crying over spilt milk." Economist Global Agenda. Retrived 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.economist.com/agenda/displayStory.cfm?story_id=2327955
Laroche, Lionel (2004) "The Cultural Differences between the European Union and North America and their Impact on Transatlantic Business." ITAP International. Retrived 17 Apr 2005 at http://www.itapintl.com/culturaldifferenceseuna.htm