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Christopher Hibbert's award-winning biography Garibaldi: Hero of Italian Liberation is arranged chronologically to cover each phase of the freedom fighter's career: his early life as a sailor, participant in the 1848 Revolution and in liberation struggles in South America in 1807-59; his great victories in Sicily, Naples and southern Italy in 1860; and later years in 1861-82. Hibbert's historical methodology always focused on "individual personalities," including biographies of Queen Victoria and the Duke of ellington, much less than the social and economic conditions that led to the Risogimento (Hibbert xiv). He prefers the romantic image of Garibaldi and his Red Shirts marching on Rome, even though it was also reminiscent of Benito Mussolini's seizure of power in 1922. Of course, Garibaldi's radical and social democratic views should never be confused with those of the later fascist tyrant and totalitarian, and he probably would have gone to war with the…
Hibbert, Christopher. Garibaldi: Hero of Italian Liberation. Palgrave Macmillan, 2008.
In the mid-nineteenth century, Italy had faced a great number of obstacles that would have impeded a united Italy, but for the movement of the leaders and the fighters who banded together under the same ideal. Prior to the beginning of the nineteenth century, Italy itself was split into many states and kingdoms, in accordance to the different ethnic peoples of the country. Through the political activism engaged by such celebrated names as Mazzini, Garibaldi, Cavour, Pallavicino and Victor Emmanuel II, and the people's enthusiasm to see their kingdoms united, Italian nationalism was not just a dream shared by many. In all respects, Italian nationalism also became a reality.
The Leaders of Italian Unification
Of the proponents regarding Italian unification, perhaps one of the most vocal of the group would be revolutionary activist Giuseppe Mazzini. As many nationalists believed, the strength of a nation came not from the…
Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism: Q. Hotel
A Critical Analysis of Italian and ritish Cultures and Management Styles in Tourism:
Italy is a country in a stage of transition. It is no longer a predominantly agrarian society nor yet a fully industrialized economy. It is also a land of striking contrasts, with no unified social or economic patterns. As a society, Italy is centuries old; as a modern sovereign state it was born but yesterday. The very nature of the political unification process probably accounts for some of the disunity. It was not a broad-based movement but occurred predominantly under the auspices of one family, the Savoys, who succeeded in expanding their influence and political rule throughout the country (Rosenzweig & Nohria, 1994). The masses participated only vicariously through national figures and agitators, such as Garibaldi, Mazzini, and Cattaneo, whose dreams of a republican…
Adams, E. 1991. "Quality Circle Performance." Journal of Management, 17 25-39.
Adler, N. 2006. International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior. Cincinnati, OH: SouthWestern.
Adler, N., and Jelinek, M. 1986. "Is Organisational Culture 'Culture Bound'?" Human Resource Management, 25, 1, 73-90.
Aran, J.D., and Walochik, K. 2007. "Improvisation and the Italian Manager." International Studies of Management and Organization. 26, 1 73-89.
Otto Von Bismarck achieve the unification of Germany?
Del Delosandro T. Dugeon
Western Civilization II History 1102
It is proven by many centuries of international relations' history that some strong country appeared every century and was able to change the traditional system of international relations according to own values in this sphere. For example XVII century can be characterized as a period of French influence when French monarchs considered the main priorities of their foreign policy to be fighting for national interests of their mono-national country. XVIII century is famous for British equilibrium conception which meant that no European country should be stronger that any other state, particularly Britain. And the same occurred in 19th century when Germany led by Bismarck created new order in Europe, which meant that the major factor of international relations was military and economical strength. So, French theory of "raigon d'etat" (which meant using any…
1. Zieger, Michael The Iron Chancellor J& QPublishers 1979.
2. Geiss, Imanuel Bridgham, Fred The Question of German Unification: 1806-1996 University of California Press 1999
3. Schneider, Bruno German Empire Pacific Press 2000
4. Eyck, Erich Bismarck and the German Empire W.W. Norton & Company 1964
Mafia and Their elation to the Italian Identity
The primary popular culture expression of the Italian-American identity is The Mafia whose fame is much to the dismay of many Italian-Americans. The Mafia is the basic popular culture expression of the Italian-American identity largely because of the influence of Francis Ford Coppola's hit film, "The Godfather" that won an Oscar award in 1972 ("The Mafia in Popular Culture," n.d.). This popular expression of the Italian-American identity is also attributable to the reinvention of the gangster movie genre by Coppola's hit film in 1972. The popularity of the Mafia as an expression of the Italian-American identity has been fueled by the group's extortion, establishment as a deeply rooted criminal organization, and political corruption and murder. The Mafia is essentially characterized by popular American derivations and strong relations to the Italian identity.
Historical Context of the Mafia
Sicily is a region in Italy…
Battilana, S.C. (2003, November). Why Did the Mafia Emerge in Italy? An Institutional Answer. Retrieved from Stanford University website: http://web.stanford.edu/~silviacb/PEPR/Why%20did%20the%20Mafia%20Emerge%20in%20Italy.pdf
Lindo, S.B. (2008, May). Identity in Flux: The Mafia, Antimafia, and Sicily's Discovery of New Italian Unity. Retrieved from Connecticut College website: http://digitalcommons.conncoll.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1001&context=italhp
"The Mafia in Popular Culture." (n.d.). History. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/the-mafia-in-popular-culture
"Origins of the Mafia." (n.d.). History. Retrieved November 18, 2015, from http://www.history.com/topics/origins-of-the-mafia
Organized crime underwrites the bulk of political, social, and economic history in America. What has often been mentioned in passing as legitimate business activities can and often should be reframed as organized crime, such as the trans-Atlantic slave trade and the colonial mercantilism that it supported (Woodiwiss, 2003). When organized crime is taken out of its Hollywood context, which portrays organized crime as an immigrant problem, some patterns emerge that clarify the function and structure of organized crime in America. Organized crime tends to flourish in "societies that experience rapid and intense social change," (Albini et al. 1995, p. 213). This is why the United States has been a hot spring of organized crime in various manifestations throughout the nation's history. In only a few hundred years, the United States has gone from colonial outpost to global superpower. apid change and cultural transformation foment organized crime, as do…
Abadinsky, H. (2013). Organized Crime. Belmont: Wadsworth
Albanese, J.S. (2011). Organized Crime in Our Times. 6th Edition. Burlington: Elsevier.
Albini, J.L. et al. (1995). Russian organized crime: Its history, structure, and function. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice 11(4), 213-243.
Cornell University Law School. (2014). 18 U.S. Code § 1961 -- Definitions. Retrieved online: http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/18/1961
European and American imperialism from 1900-1918
Empire is the term from which the word imperialism is carved. Government implies the act of mastery of one nation by another one, with the sole intention of expanding region, power and impact. It conveys with it the thought of social prevalence from the radical, judging the lifestyle, cultures and convictions of those colonized as sub-par and in need of changeover (Encyclopedia, encyclopedia.com).
Nonetheless, Imperialism normally posits as a political control and making monetary subservience. In Europe, the time of dominion coincided with patriotism and unification when prior political units were assembled under governance that asserted the privilege to keep rule over them. "I rehash that the elite races [European] have a privilege in light of the fact that they have an obligation. They have the obligation to socialize the downtrodden races [non Europeans] (South Africa History, n.d.)"
Ashley Smith the journalist isolated hypotheses…
Encyclopedia. "Imperialism." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 1 Jan. 1968. Web. 25 Jan. 2015. http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/imperialism.aspx
Grafs History. Word War 1: Consequences of the Great War. (2014). Retrieved from: https://grafshistory.wordpress.com
Humbold. Goal. The American Quest for Empire. Retrieved from:
History Of Zionism
is the political movement that arose in Europe in the late 19th century with the aim of creating a Jewish state in Palestine. It asserted that the Jewish people were a separate nation and were entitled to have a country of their own and succeeded in its objective with the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948. Since then, the Zionist movement has concentrated on strengthening Israel and encouraging Jews from around the world to migrate and settle in the Jewish state. This paper traces the history of Zionism from its origins to the present time.
Origins and ackground
Although the Zionist political movement started in the late 19th century, its roots lie as far back as 70 AD when Great Jewish Revolt against the Romans ended with the destruction of the Temple and the expulsion of Jews from Jerusalem. The land of Israel was…
Cohen, Michael Joseph. "Zionism." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta, CD-ROM Version, 2002
Edelheit, Abfaham J. And H. Edelheit. "History of Zionism: A Handbook and Dictionary."
Westview Press, 2000
Spiro, Rabbi Ken. "Crash Course in Jewish History Part 62 - Return to the Land of Israel." Aish.com. Jan 27, 2002
Leopard Giuseppe Di Lampedusa the Leopard set Sicily late 1800s early 1900s. Analyze author combines actual historical events (Garibaldi's revolution, Plebiscite Unification, .) fictional characters situations create effective backdrop main themes .
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa's novel "The Leopard" -- A historical novel?
Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa's novel "The Leopard" is historical in character, considering that it uses an intriguing script with the purpose of putting across important historical events. Giuseppe focused on providing readers with a complex picture concerning the effect of the Risorgimento on the Italian society as a whole and on the Sicilian community in particular. The writer relates to how individuals in the upper class view the event and to their first-person perspective in regard to the impressive reform that everyone was waiting for at the time. Giuseppe uses his characters in an attempt to take readers directly into the late eighteenth-early nineteenth century society and…
Giuseppe Tomasi Di Lampedusa, "The Leopard: Revised and with new material," (Random House, 07.09.2010)
The naked man causes Ludwig to feel odd and in his desperation, pleads to the heavens to help him signifying his other rebellion, his dormant homosexuality. The wedding follows and Elisabeth steals the show with Sophie falling to the background. What happens later is a failed rendezvous with a prostitute and other failed attempts of Ludwig to behave like a heterosexual. His desires to be around Wagner vs. Sophie and the subsequent scene with the valet demonstrate more and more Ludwig increasing desire to seek the company of men. This leads then to a deteriorating condition in which a bandage is over his eyes. He is fooling around in a Bavarian inn implying he yet again gives in to his homosexual tendencies much like the SA revelry in the previous movie, The Damned. The film ends with the government planning to depose him much like what happened in reality and…
Bacon, H. (1998). Visconti: explorations of beauty and decay. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Blunt, W. (1970). The Dream King, Ludwig II of Bavaria. New York: Viking Press.
Cardullo, B. (2009). After neorealism: Italian filmmakers and their films: essays and interviews. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars.
Landy, M. (2000). Italian film. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Somalia Civil war
SOMALIA- CAUSES OF THE CIVIL WA
Columbia Encyclopedia describes the geographical position of Somalia in these words:
Somalia is directly south of the Arabian Peninsula across the Gulf of Aden. It comprises almost the entire African coast of the Gulf of Aden and a longer stretch on the Indian Ocean. It is bounded on the NW by Djibouti, on the W. By Ethiopia, on the SW by Kenya, and on the S. And E. By the Indian Ocean. Mogadishu is the capital. There are 18 regions. (The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, 2000)
Somalia has been ruled by various imperial empires. Some of its earlier rulers were the nations of Oman, Turks and Zanzibar. Most of these nations lost control in Somalia. Britain, France and Italy came to this part of the world in the 19th century. Each country has had a say during its rule. It was…
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition, Columbia University Press, Page 43895, 2000
I.M. Lewis: A Modern History of Somalia: Nation and State in the Horn of Africa, I.M. Lewis, Westview Press, 1988
Simons, Anna: Networks of Dissolution: Somalia Undone, Westview Press, 1995
Learning from Somalia: The Lessons of Armed Humanitarian Intervention, Walter M. Clarke, Jeffrey M. Herbst, Westview Press, 1997
Although scientists found artifacts and art objects of the Olmecs; until this century they did not know about the existence of the Olmecs. Most of the objects which were made by this community were associated with other civilizations, such as Mayan, Toltec or Chichimecan. The Olmec lived between 1600 B.C. And 1400 B.C. In South Mexico. The name of this tribe comes from an Aztec word "ollin" which means "land of rubber."
At first they ate fish and they later start to farm, and that made it possible for them to "develop the first major civilization in Mesoamerica." (The Olmec Civilization) Thanks to the steady food supplies the Olmec population grew and some came to have other occupations. "Some became potters or weavers. Others became priests or teachers." (Ibidem) Once the population grew, so did their farming villages which developed into cities. The present-day city of San Lorenzo was…
1. The Olmec Civilization, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Pleasant Valley School website: http://www.pvsd.k12.ca.us/180120521134440680/lib/180120521134440680/11-2_SG_7th.pdf
2. Villeacas, Daniel, Mother Culture of Mexico: The Olmecs, Denver Public Schools, 2005, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Denver Public Schools website: http://etls.dpsk12.org/documents/Alma/units/MotherCultureMexicoOlmecs.pdf
3. Olmec -- Masterworks of Ancient Mexico, Retrieved December 14, 2012, from the Los Angeles County Museum of Art website: http://www.lacma.org/eduprograms/EvesforEds/OlmecEssay.pdf
4. Hansen, Valerie, Curtis Kenneth, Curtis, Kenneth R., Voyages in World History: To 1600, Volume 1, Cengage Learning, December 30, 2008
As the film unfolds the couple flirts with other people at a party given by a billionaire. Both are aware of the other's flirtations. When they hear of the death of their friend Tommaso the woman tells her husband that she no longer loves him. But Giovanni reassures her that they are in love and can make their marriage work. La Notte ends with Lydia reading out a love letter that Giovanni wrote to her just before they got married. However, she cannot remember it.
This film leaves one with a feeling of emptiness and a sense of a journey that has led nowhere. There is a strong feeling of existential crises and the breakdown of communications and relationships in the film. This film can perhaps best be understood in terms of mood structure and in the creation of a certain atmosphere, rather than in looking for a conventional narrative…
To be sure, serious obstacles still remain in Europe -- most notably, the rigid labor laws that make relocating jobs a long and costly process. For example, while it's relatively easy for companies in the U.S. To fire employees whose jobs they want to outsource, to lay off an employee in Germany, a company first has to justify its decision to the union and then give its worker a notice period of four weeks to seven months.
The difference in attitudes goes back to the way both regions developed, says ichard Hill, an intercultural consultant with Europublic, a Brussels-based agency that advises companies in international business. "America was based on a can-do mentality, which is a reflection of the first Europeans who got to a huge, open, immensely rich country and were able to exploit it without any inhibitions," Mr. Hill says. On the other hand, Germany became a nation…
____. 1997. Exporter, skills upgrading, and the wage gap. Journal of International Economics 47:3-31.
____. 1999. Exceptional exporter performance: Cause, effect, or both? Journal of International Economics 47:1-25. Leach, Peter T. (2004). A developing market. Journal of Commerce. 2. 1
Bernard, a., and Jensen, J.B. (1995). Exporters, jobs, and wages in U.S. manufacturing: 1976-1987. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity: Microeconomics, 67-119. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution.
Business: More gain than pain; Offshoring; the Economist. London: Jul 17, 2004.Vol.372, Iss. 8384; pg. 60
European Federalism: Historical Analysis
Fascism is considered to be a political belief and concept, which is based on the principle that social, economic and cultural and traditional beliefs of a country must be used in order to increase nationalism. In Europe, fascist movements had emerged in twentieth century. The goal of these fascist movements was to promote fundamentalist and fanatic beliefs in order to deal with the social and political turmoil that occurred in the European region after the end of World War I. Federalism is considered to be the theory, which is based on the principles of federation, which seeks to create a balance of power by dividing it among the member of the same institution. The aim of this paper is to historically analyze the rise of European Union from 1918 to the end of World War II in the lights of broad and diverse academic resources. Furthermore,…
1. Boka Eva (2005): The Democratic European Idea in Central Europe, 1849-1945 (Federalism contra Nationalism) Specimina Nova, University of Pecs,2005. 7-24
2. Boka Eva (2006): In Search of European federalism. Society and Economy (The Journal of the Corvinus University of Budapest), 28. 2006. 3. 309-331.
3. Levi, Lucio (ed.) (1990): Altiero Spinelli and Federalism in Europe and in the World. Franco Angeli, Milan
4. Lindberg, Leon (1963): The Political Dynamics of European Economic Integration. Stanford University Press
Thus, German nationalism and the German nation-state came into being, an entity that existed well into the 19th century.
Similarly, the nation of Italy was highly influenced by the events of the French Revolution of 1789 and the outbreak of war between France and Austria in 1793. During this time, a number of important changes occurred within Italy, most of which like Germany were filled with violence and destruction, all in the name of nationalism and national sovereignty. Following Napoleon's military triumphs in late 1796, various northern Italian cities attempted to organize themselves into republics, cities like Bologna, Milan and Genoa, but with the Peace of Campo Formio with Austria in 1797, France gained control of all northern Italy with the exception of Venice which experienced the collapse of its independence and liberty.
Under the influence of Napoleon and his generals, much of Italy was re-structured into a form of…
ECB can be successful at emulating the stategic model set foth by the Geman Bundesbank. The discussion will focus on the fact that the ECB is facing diffeent poblems as it is still in the developmental phases. The investigation will seek to detemine whethe the tools of the Bundesbank can povide suppot fo the ECB in achieving economic stability in the Euopean Monetay Union.
Reseach about this paticula topic is impotant because the Euopean Union is expected to expand in the yeas to come. In addition, many membes of the Euopean Union have opted to have a single cuency. This means that economic stability is even moe essential in ensue that the Euopean Monetay System is economically efficient.
The methodology fo this eseach will encompass seveal foms. Fistly, the eseach will contain backgound infomation about the ECB and the Bundesbank. In addition, the eseach will contain a liteatue eview to…
Crusaders were able to implement feudal states throughout their travels during this period of warfare, many of which have been termed Crusader states and which were erected throughout the Holy Land and in parts of Asia Minor as well as Greece. The most famous of these, of course, was the establishment of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which took place in 1099 and reigned until its fall in 1291.
Kingdom of Jerusalem
It should be remembered that for the vast duration of the reign of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, European settlers were widely outnumbered by Franks and Muslims, and only comprised approximately 15 to 25% of the entire population (Kedar 148). The Europeans lived in areas which were both rural as well as urban, and despite attempts to integrate with the surrounding foreigners, they did not infiltrate areas which were predominantly Muslim and which had never had many Christian dwellers (Ellenblu…
The rhyme scheme of this sonnet follows Shakespeare's usual structure, wherein the quatrains all have an independent alternating rhyme (ABAB CDCD EFEF), and the final two lines form an heroic couplet (GG). This adds to the feeling of receiving discrete steps of an argument, and enhances the divisions of the versification. There is also a noticeable prevalence of "l's and "s's in the poem, particularly in the first and third quatrains. these sounds make up the basics of the word "lies," which is itself used as a rhyme and is repeated in the poem, and which forms one of the major themes of the sonnet. In this way, the alliteration subconsciously reinforces the meaning and feel of the poem. There are also instances of repeated words, such as "love" in the lines "O love's best habit is in seeming trust, / and age in love, loves not to have..." (lines…
De Grazia, Margreta. The Cambridge Companion to Shakespeare. New York: Cambridge University Press 2001.
Evans, G. Blakemore and M. Tobin, eds. The Riverside Shakespeare. New York: Houghton Mifflin, 2003.
Shakespeare, William. "Sonnet 138." In the Riverside Shakespeare.
This idea is also strengthen by the example of the inhabitants from the northern region. Yet, the idea is not completely tolerated. There are, of course, groups which benefit from the current context, like the elite groups that one would furthermore refer to when analyzing social stratification.
Along with the political context of Somalia, which is the principal factor of the economical failure of the country, another significant reason consists in Somalia's vulnerability and lack of defense in front of the world's biggest states which transformed it, at the beginning of the 1990s in a sort of testing ground for all the issues they confronted with.
For example, one knows the fact that a significant amount of the local economy before the 1990 stood in natives' activity of fishing, as both the Aden Gulf and the Indian Ocean are known as being rich in piscicultural resources. After becoming independent in…
Mubarak, Jamil Abdalla (1996). From Bad Policy to Chaos in Somalia: How an Economy Fell Apart. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Abdullahi, Mohamed Diriye (2001). Culture and Customs of Somalia. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press
Feldman, Stacy, Slattery, Brian (2003). Living without a Government in Somalia: An Interview with Mark Bradbury: Development Processes in Somalia Exist Not as a Result of Official Development Assistance, but in Spite of it. Journal of International Affairs, 57 (1), pag 1.
U.S Department of State- Bureau of African Affairs (2011). Background Note: Somalia [January 3, 2011]. Retrieved from http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2863.htm
ismarck's Impact On Foreign Policy In Germany And On The alance Of Power In Europe
Otto von ismarck (1815-98) is unquestionably one of the dominant figures of modern German, and European, history. Much of his fame as a statesman has always rested on his handling of foreign policy and diplomacy. His consistent policy was to position Germany as a unified and dominant power in continental Europe, consolidating her territorially and diplomatically to the point where she was, to use his own term, "satiated."
ismarck pursued an aggressive policy, involving Germany in three localized wars, seeking to isolate France and build alliances with Austria, and maintaining a suspicious distance from Great ritain, but did not seek war or territorial expansion when he believed such activity would threaten German stability. His achievement was to leave Germany stable, peaceful, and at the heart of the European states system; to integrate a dynamic and…
Stefan Berger, 'Historians and nation-building in Germany since reunification', Past and Present, no. 148 (August 1995), pp. 187-222.
F.R. Bridge and Roger Bullen, The Great Powers and the European States System, 1815-1914 (London: Longman, 1980).
Gordon A. Craig, Germany 1866-1945 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978).
George O. Kent, Bismarck and his Times (Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press, 1978).
There was a further explanation for this phenomenon: the European currencies, most notably the British Pound and the Italian Lira, suffered strong devaluations in a short period of time and the investors began to turn to U.S. dollar stability for help. As such, demand subsequently grew for the dollar and its rate rose as to the German Mark.
The put option that Stephanie had bought was an excellent hedging mechanism against a bearish market, as she had expected it to be and as it had manifested itself in the period between July and September. If the dollar began a period of appreciation against the Deutsche Mark, then the put hedging mechanism was no longer necessary, as the market would be bullish. The events in September all pointed out towards this. The lowering interest rates in the German space, corroborated with the tendency of growing demand for the U.S. dollar turned…
The article remarks with respect to asphalt that "a baseball will get ruined on a surface like this: it's too dense and hard for asphalt or brick, and the canvas-like surface of the ball will get chewed up. Not to mention other problems: in densely populated areas, there are a lot houses near school yards with glass windows, and we all know what happens when a baseball hits a glass window. To sum it up: while baseball is a romantically American game, and was without question our most popular pastime for about 50 years, you can't play it in the city." (Beccary, 1) Foregoing this blanket statement -- given the evolution of inner-city athletic youth programs in recent decades -- the point of Beccary's remarks remains useful. Namely, the unique game that was stickball would come to fruition in response to the desire to play baseball and the absence of…
Beccary, G. (2007). A Complete History of Stickball. Greg's Words of Wisdom. Online at http://gregswords.wordpress.com/2007/04/07/a-complete-history-of-stickball/
Curry, J. (1989). Beyond Nostalgia: Reviving a Tough Game of Stickball. The New York Times. Online at http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/09/nyregion/beyond-nostalgia-reviving-a-tough-game-of-stickball.html
Devlin, B. (2009). Making a Phillies Fan: Always Imagining You Were a Phillie. The New York Times. Online at http://bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/10/30/making-a-phillies-fan-always-imagining-you-were-a-phillie/
Greene, M. (2004). Stickball Hall of Fame. Streetplay. Online at http://www.streetplay.com/stickball/halloffame/
But Augustus' real administrative breakthrough was to make the second element in the social and financial hierarchy, being the knights, into salaried employees of the State, both in civil jobs and in the army, for these men had already, over a long passage of time, been showing their talents for business and administration. But apart from their employment as judges, which was often highly contested by some senators, they had never before been systematically mobilized to occupy official posts. The knights, then, broadened the scope of Augustus' assistants in a very valuable way because they represented a whole class of new men from the towns of Italy and the provinces who felt somewhat unattached to the ideals of the traditional Republican leadership and were thus susceptible to the appeal of the new regime headed by none other than Augustus.
Unfortunately, this new system was doomed to failure, not so much…
Considering that GM has acquired 20% of the Fiat Company, it can be mentioned the financial advantages gained by the Italian company, considering its decrease in the last years. As intangible resource, it may be mentioned that Fiat has increased its reputation on the market, on the basis of this alliance with GM. The possibility to reduce the cost and consequently to better compete on the market remains the most important intangible resource of the alliance.
The Value chain activities are the inbound logistics (receiving and warehousing the raw materials, and their distribution to the manufacturing), the operations (the processes of transforming inputs into finished products and services), outbound logistics (the warehousing and distribution of finished goods), marketing and sales (the identification of the customers needs and generation of sales) and service (the support of customers after the products and services are sold to them). Although, the two partners have…
organized crime scholar Mark C. Gribben, defines organized crime as "an ongoing criminal enterprise consisting of multiple actors working for economic gain who use or will use force to promote and protect their enterprises." y this definition a number of groups might fit into the definition of organized crime. Street gangs, hate groups, drug cartels, and the Mafia are merely the tip of the iceberg when it comes to organized crime in the United States.
The preceding graphic demonstrates the scope of organized crime in America. It is important to understand that the crimes within the largest circle are those which are generally considered organized in nature. Those outside the circle, such as the solo murder or the one-time bank robbery are not considered to be organized. They key elements of organized crime must include "ongoing criminal activity with multiple actors."
The following pages will explore organized crime in America.…
Israely, Jeff. "Meet the Modern Mob." Time. 2 June 2002. http://www.time/world/printout/0,8816,257072,00.html
Organized Crime Ed. Mark Gribben. February 2003. http://organizedcrime.about.com/library/weekly.htm
Lindberg, Richard C. "The Mafia in America: Traditional Organized Crime in Transition." Search International. February 2003. http://www.search-international.com/Articles/crime/mafiaamerica.htm
Is This the End of R.I.C.O. February 2003. http://www.fsu.edu/~crimdo/rico.html
"The rumor claiming that the commercial almost never aired is true," said Clow (www.ciadvertising.com).The Apple board "demanded that it not be aired," Clow goes on, but Apple CEO Steve Jobs insisted that it be played, and so it was. Clow says that this commercial wasn't just a parody of Nineteen Eighty-Four; "one could almost interpret this commercial as a bleak commentary on society," he writes. It shocked the "PC world into paying a little more attention to their competitors in their field," Clow asserts.
In conclusion, TV Guide called the Apple commercial "the greatest commercial of all time," according to CNN. And while Orwell's book isn't the greatest by any means, it has created an endless number of allusions and references, including the phrase "Big Brother," who, unfortunately, is with us today far more than most of us probably realize.
Clow, Lee. "Lee Clow: His Masterpiece." Chiat/Day Advertising.…
Clow, Lee. "Lee Clow: His Masterpiece." Chiat/Day Advertising. Retrieved Nov. 28, 2007, at http://www.ciadvertising.org/SA/fall_02/adv382/qwkag/assign2/master.htm .
Leopold, Todd. "Why 2006 isn't like '1984'." Cable News Network / CNN.com. Retrieved Nov. 28, 2007, at http://www.cnn.com/2006/SHOWBIZ/0202/eye.ent.commercials.
Orwell, George. Nineteen Eighty-Four. New York: Plume / Penguin Group, 2003.
During this period, Austria also continued industrial expansion, but at a slower pace than Germany.
With growth came further instability. Investment and founding of new organizations exploded since 1867, with over 400 new corporations being founded (Pulzer 1964) from 1867 to 1872. This was the age of the Gruender, which meant "entrepreneur," but also came to be associated with financially shaky schemes which resulted in the bursting of a speculative bubble in 1873.
The period of the Liberal government spanned from 1867 to 1879, a period during which Austria lost its power and prestige, unemployment and economic insecurity reigned, and newly-vociferous minorities were exerting their rights to equality in language and culture. In the meantime, Germany seemed to be growing from success to success, as its liberalization engendered national unity and a growth in wealth and military power.
Conservative Ascendancy in Austria
The nature of the conservatives in Austria was…
Burant, S.R. Hungary: A Country Study. Washington: Library of Congress, 1989.
Campbell, D.P. The SHADOW of the HABSBURGS: MEMORY and NATIONAL IDENTITY in AUSTRIAN POLITICS and EDUCATION 1918-1955. PhD Thesis, College Park: University of Maryland, 2006.
Grandner, M. Conservative Social Politics in Austria, 1880-1890. Working Papaer 94-2, Vienna: University of Vienna, 1994.
Habe, H. Our Love Affair with Germany. New York: Putnam, 1953.
Far from being contrite, Southerners more emphatically held to the perceived, innate superiority of their race and breeding, comparing themselves to Biblical patriarchs as a means of validating these perceptions and justifying slavery (432). If Perry's journey had demonstrated Northern hubris, Stowe's novel generated its Southern equivalent.
Then, there was an ironic unification of the British and the Americans in the development of Samuel Colt's revolver in these years. hile the new gun was proving remarkably effective in aiding American conquest of Native American territories, it meant more than this; it was evidence of Anglo-Saxon superiority, which inspired the British as well (424). Old animosities, it seems, were lost in the greater commonality of a shared idea of racial superiority. On the strictly American front, this belief in Protestant and white superiority was also fueled by challenges coming from other nations. Long before the great tide of European immigration at…
Maier, P., & Keyssar, A. Inventing America, 2nd Ed. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2006.
They needed to pass a medical exam, a test on their language skill and many others. Among the people who were turned away without exception were those deemed mentally deficient, admitted or suspected revolutionaries, and those who did not pay for their own passage (Anderson 28-29). In short, many immigrants felt that they were being inspected, manhandled, mistreated, and dealt with in a manner more befitting of animals than human beings.
The quota system that made this sort of treatment possible was eventually overturned in 1965. "Following the passage of the Immigration Act of 1965, which ended the National Origins System, a new wave of immigration began. Since 1970, more than three-quarters of legal immigrants have come from developing nations in Latin America, the Caribbean, and Asia." (Torr 71). This has often been regarded as the third wave of United States Immigration. This act sought to base whether or not…
Anderson, Dale. Arriving at Ellis Island. Milwaukee: World Almanac Library, 2002.
Andryszewski, Tricia. Immigration: Newcomers and Their Impact on the United States. Brookfield: The Millbrook Press, 1995.
Brimelow, Peter. Alien Nation. New York: Random House, 1991.
Brown, Lester R. And Gary Gardner et al., eds. Beyond Malthus: Nineteen Dimensions of the Population Challenge. New York W.W. Norton and Company, 1999.
It is administratively aggravated which will only assist European policy makers. Account means a continuing shift of domestic monetary autonomy to the European Central Bank indicating providing elasticity on exchange rates and interim interest rates. Domestic monetary policy would in no case be able to react supplely to exterior economic alarms like the increase in goods price increase. The prospect for lessening local economic problems will be more narrowed by the shortage of any organization between European monetary policy, rising from a board of central banks, and European fiscal policy, rising from a committee of finance ministers. (What are the arguments for and against joining the Euro?)
This is clearly illustrated by the south-North immigration of millions of Americans and Italian citizens in the early period of their currency unions. The European financial system has not congregated wholly in a valid structural sense and at some point in the future…
Brittan, Samuel. Blair should forget the euro for 5 years. The Financial Times. 2 February 2000. Retrieved at http://www.samuelbrittan.co.uk/text30_p.html. Accessed on 11 December, 2004
Browne, Anthony. How to make sense of the euro debate. February 18, 2001. Retrieved at http://observer.guardian.co.uk/business/story/0,6903,439386,00.html . Accessed on 11 December, 2004
Currie, David. The Pros and Cons of EMU. July, 1997. Retrieved at http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/mediastore/otherfiles/emupc.pdf . Accessed on 11 December, 2004
Government would be right to look before euro leap. 15th May, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.ippr.org.uk/press/index.php?release=219¤t=2003Accessed on 11 December, 2004
Till the period up to 11,000 BC every individuals remained Stone Age hunters/gatherers. Nearly that time, the roads of growth of human societies on various continents started to move away in a large scale. (Guns, Germs, and Steel- the Fates of Human Societies: (www.2think.org) During that period, when Stone Age hunter-gatherers comprised the total human population, a big segregation happened in the proportion that the human societies progressed. In Eurasia, several regions of Americas, and Africa, agriculture started to be the existing pattern of livelihood when domestication of aboriginal wild plants and animals were done by the prehistoric planters and herders. Diamond fairly examines the human history on each continent starting from the Ice Age at a proportion that stresses just the widest traversals of people and concepts. However, his assessment is symmetrical: one eye has rather long-term view of the evolutionary biologist, whereas the other eye and his spirit…
Bradford, DeLong, J. Review of Diamond, Guns, Germs, and Steel. November 1999. Retrieved at http://www.j-bradford-delong.net/Econ_Articles/Reviews/diamond_guns.html. Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Editorial Reviews: Amazon.com. Retrieved at http://www.amazon.com/gp/product/product-description/0393317552/ref=dp_proddesc_0/104-9?%5Fencoding=UTF8&n=283155Accessed on 1 February, 2005
Guns, Germs, and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://www.actionismyreward.com/item-0393317552.shtml . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Guns, Germs and Steel: The Fates of Human Societies. Retrieved at http://search.barnesandnoble.com/booksearch/isbnInquiry.asp?isbn=0393317552&itm=1Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Perceptions of Che Guevera
PERCEPTIONS OF CHE GUEVARA
Che Guevara was born as Ernesto Guevara de la Serna in 1928 to a middle-class family (Castaneda 1998, 3). He was Argentinean by birth but was later awarded with an honorary Cuban citizenship in recognition of his contribution towards the armed struggle in the Cuban revolution. Studying to become a doctor, Guevara became influenced by Marxist ideals and teachings upon a motorbike trip across South America at the age of twenty-four where he observed the exploitation and deprivation of the poor people under capitalism (Castaneda 1998, 50). He became a champion of the class struggle against capitalism on an international level. He joined Fidel Castro in 1955 in overthrowing the Cuban government of atista. Subsequently, he became an important figure in Cuban diplomacy and a vocal critic of the United States and the Soviet Union. Later on he helped revolutionary groups…
Anderson, Jon, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Revolutionary Life. Grove Press
Castaneda, Jorge, G. 2008. Companero: The Life and Death of Che Guevara. Bloomsbury Publishing
Harris, Richard, L. 2010. Che Guevara: A Biography. ABC-CLIO
Salmon, Gary, P. 1990. The Defeat of Che Guevara: Military Response to Guerrilla Challenge in Bolivia. Greenwood Publishing Group
America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict
Susan yle's book Revisiting America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict explores the history of the America through the lens of the political, racial, social, and cultural issues that make up the population. The story of American history is retold. idely known stories about America's past are revisited and additional information about cultural conflict of the period is used to show a new reality to the country's past. yle's history also discusses the importance of socially constructed terminology and how the conflicts of America's past continue to shape the United States today.
The textbook includes both primary and secondary sources to explore the truth behind American history. Of particular interest are some of the historical documents, such as the transcripts from the actual Salem itch Trials. This period of American history is symbolic of all occasions where religious zealotry and fear overtake the…
Wyle, Susan. (2003). Revisiting America: Readings in Race, Culture, and Conflict. Prentice Hall.
Hispanic vs. Latino
In these times of political correctness and cultural awareness and sensitivity, it is very important to know the right term when discussing a people or their culture. It is very easy to offend without intending to so or to cause emotional pain through ignorance. This is why it has become increasingly important to know the right cultural term for a given population. People with Mexican heritage have interchangeably been referred to by the terms Hispanic or Latino for many years. Lately, it has become necessary to create a single identifying term so that the group feels unified and no one feels at all slighted by a term they deem to be in any way offensive to themselves or their culture. Many cultural critics have argued that the term Hispanic is more offensive that Latino because it the term was created by the government and Latino was the…
Beretto, Holly." Cuts, by Budget. "Cultural Uniqueness: Hispanic vs. Latino | USARiseUp.
Cubias, Daniel. "Hispanic vs. Latino: What's in a Name?" Latino Like Me.
Granados, Christine. "Hispanic vs. Latino." Hispanic Magazine. Dec 2000.
Grech, Dan and Jose Maya. "Episode 4: Hispanic vs. Latino."
homosexual practices might have begun in the early centuries, the word "sodomy" was first used by a Catholic missionary, now a saint, Father Peter Damien around 1050. y sodomy, he meant masturbation and anal intercourse between men, a sin he condemned as the most perverse of sexual sins in his long letter to the Pope, entitled "the ook of Gomorrah." He emphasized that God designed sex exclusively for procreation and that the enjoyment of the sexual act outside this divine purpose was unnatural and therefore summarily grievously and wickedly sinful.
The unnaturalness of sodomy remained more or less the same through the centuries, till the 1700s when the so-called modern homosexual subcultures made themselves visible in London, Paris and Amsterdam. The rest soon perceived them as "sodomites (who were merely) ... constitutionally different from other men" (Wikholm 1999) and effeminate woman-haters who refused to have sex with women. Things were…
1. Alic, Margaret. Alfred Charles Kinsey. Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology, second edition. Gale Group, 2001
2. Boeree, George. Personality Theory: Sigmund Freud. 1997
3. Cameron, Paul. The Psychology of Homosexuality. Family Research Report.
Family Research Institute, 1999
lack Death and Religion in Western Europe
The lack Death is perhaps considered as the most devastating pandemic that has happened to humanity in the previous to the present century. The disease was transmitted from Asia into and through Europe. The disease set feet in Europe by the sea in October of 1347 when trading ships belonging to Genoese set their dock at the Silician Port of Messina when it had covered a long journey through the sea. It was not business as usual because the people who had gathered to receive the ship were met with drilling surprise. The sailors, almost all of them, who were on the ship, were dead. Those who were not yet dead were suffering in ill pain. They have a somewhat strong fever that had overcome them and could not do anything because of the pain. What was notable is that the bodies of…
Bulliet, Richard W. 2014. The Earth And Its Peoples: A Global History. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Byrne, Joseph Patrick. 2012. Encyclopedia of the Black Death. Santa Barbara, Calif: ABC-CLIO.
Cantor, Norman F. In the Wake of the Plague: The Black Death and the World it Made. Simon and Schuster, 2001. Print
Hecht, Richard D., and Vincent F. Biondo. 2010. Religion and Everyday Life and Culture. Santa Barbara, Calif: Praeger.
Post World War One, Germany boasted a booming economy and there was a need for healthy male workers to fill the demand. Germany was in need of men who could act as laborers for both factories and mines in the period after World War Two. This period bestowed Germany with much economic blossoming and swift expansion. Turkey and Germany had a recruitment treaty, which established terms for the guest workers; after Turkey, subsequent Islamic nations formed recruitment treaties with Turkey, such as Morocco and Tunisia. For many of these workers from Islamic nations, finding employment in Germany was a wise decision as it meant that they could receive good pay and send that money home to their families. Furthermore, it also meant they could increase their skillset, making them a more competitive worker when and if they returned to their native countries. However, even though this was a win-win situation…
Hence, his plan here was not even based upon the assumption of ethnic plurality, but simply upon his own hunger for territorial power.
Franjo Tudjman, equally power hungry, was the elected president of Croatia in 1990. His focus was not ethnic plurality. Rather, his aim was to establish a Croatian state for Croatians, without providing any minority rights to other citizens. For this reason, his focus on Bosnia was also to annex the Croatian areas of the country.
The respective nationalistic and dictatorship tendencies of these two leaders, far more than intergroup ethnic conflict, have led to the complete destruction of ethnic plurality in Bosnia. Even in cities, such as Sarajevo, where ethnic groups lived peacefully side by side, political manipulation has caused only destruction. Instead of ethnic pluralism, media such as television has caused rampant nationalism, which fed on the historic fears of ethnic groups to stir them to…