Language renders reality in a mediated way. riters do not offer an objective truth; they can only supplement reality with words. Likewise, the reader interprets the supplementary material and objectivity is impossible. I wholeheartedly agree with Derrida's analysis and his critique of Rousseau. I also appreciate Derrida's deconstruction of language as being representative of postmodern theory. The sort of pessimistic hyper-analysis that characterizes postmodernism is exemplified in Derrida's essay.
A also concur with Derrida's assessment that the reader cannot separate the writer from the writing. The historical context of the text always includes the psychoanalysis of the author. A writer is unconsciously bound by his or her background, values, culture, and psychological makeup. Derrida points this out convincingly in the essay, referring to Rousseau. Ultimately, Derrida deconstructs Rousseau stunningly, showing how reading cannot "double" a text any more than a text can double reality. Any critical assessment including my own…… [Read More]
The panopticon centralizes the space of the observer while simultaneously mystifying the act of observation, such that the threat may be ever-present even if an actual prison guard is not. In the same way, Foucault's conception of the societal panopticon imposes its standards on the individual, who must conform to the standards of society due to a fear of the possibility of discovery and punishment. According to Foucault, "the Panopticon is a privileged place for experiments on men, and for analyzing with complete certainty the transformations that may be obtained from them" (Foucault 204). The space the narrator finds himself in at the beginning of The Unnamable functions in this same way, except that in this case the object of the panopticon's gaze has not undergone the process of subjectification prior to finding itself there.
The narrator simply exists upon the reading of the novel, and is subsequently unable to…… [Read More]
Jacques Derrida has been accused of writing in a deliberately obtuse and obfuscated manner, so the relationship between his work and that of Plato's might not be immediately discernible. Perhaps the clearest connection between the two can be derived from Derrida's of Grammatology, especially as it compares to Plato's aesthetics and view of reality. In this rather dense treatise, Derrida first outlines the phenomenon of what he calls logocentrism -- the attitude that speech (logos in Greek) is the most basic and essential form of language, while writing is secondary in development and its ability to reflect meaning. Derrida claims that logocentrism has long been a silent and foundational part of Western thought, even from the time of Plato.
Plato believed that truth and meaning existed in a pure state somewhere, with the shadows of meanings existing in our own world. Derrida sees this as a flawed worldview, though not…… [Read More]
In Iran, the need for more robust information technologies in the classroom is apparent. he outmoded methods of education still practiced, ie. ones that do not ascribe to the Global Village concept, are reflective of the philosophy of Michel Foucault. Foucault argued that the modern education system had become too prison-like. We need to "understand the subtle, complex and harmful effects of power relations that shape and control educational institutions," (McDonough, 1993). A revolution in education is called for, one that maintains some of the essential social and political structures that define modern Iran while also incorporating liberalizing elements that bring Persian students into the era of globalization.
Foucault's analysis of the importance of power in the educational system is especially apt when applied to educational institutions in Iran. "Foucault was concerned mostly with power," as Cheshier (n.d.) points out. Yet the analysis is far deeper than that. It is…… [Read More]
Malone dies just as he finally does away with the alternate identities of his storytelling, such that he can be seen as 'becoming Malone' at the same moment of Malone's death, so that his death forces the reader to recall the beginning of the story and the Malone already in existence there, restarting the narrative loop.
In effect, Malone's storytelling creates an infinitely looping continuity that diminishes the finality of his death, because 'although the physical body will eventually die, we cannot be sure that consciousness discontinues,' and in fact, the novel seems to suggest that Malone's consciousness never ultimately discontinues, but rather briefly goes dark before being reactivated once again at the beginning of the novel (hite, 2009, 45). The tragedy, of course, is that Malone is entirely unequipped to deal with this kind of torturous immortality, so his mind is frayed and confused, with different characters and moments…… [Read More]
Their primary aim was to destabilize existing orders and this is what they accomplished with arts forms such as butoh. "Liminal entities are neither here nor there; they are betwixt and between the positions assigned and arrayed by law, custom, convention, and ceremonial" (Turner 1969, 94).
Hijikata, the man responsible for creating Butoh, also upheld Artaudian views on life and humanity. Keeping in view the traditional Japanese thinking of a connection between nature and man, Hijikata incorporated it in butoh movements. However he focused more on nature's darker side believing that, "the dirty is beautiful and the beautiful is dirty, and [life] cycles between them forever" (Kurihara 1997, 38). Hijikata, just like Artaud, forced the viewers to pay closer attention to the side of life that they had usually ignored. He believed that it is due to a break between man and the darker side of life that we suffered…… [Read More]
But the real world was a whole and perfect entity." (Philosophy Is a Way of Life)
The theory of dualism and its implications in term ethics and politics can be derived from the following concise but insightful analysis.
A dualistic view of reality understands there to be two (thus dualism) levels of existence. The top level... is ultimate reality, and consists of ideas, such as truth, beauty, goodness, justice, perfection. In other words, the ultimate reality is non-corporeal, or non-physical. It is the level of spirit and deity. The lower level is the physical world which in which we live. It is the opposite of ultimate reality, thus it is not real in the sense that it is not ultimate. It contains the imperfect physical manifestations of the ideas that exist in the perfect plane, so by definition it is characterized by falsehood, ugliness, evil, injustice, imperfection.
Note…… [Read More]
Paul Patton (1998) maintains, "in this manner, the ways in which certain human capacities become identified and finalized within particular forms of subjectivity the ways in which power creates subjects may also become systems of domination (71).
Foucault contends that discourses on sex positioned at the end of the 18th century were not designed nor used in such a way to regulate or repress the people. Instead, these conversations, dialogues or conventions were designed by the emerging bourgeoisie as a strategy for self-affirmation. Through discourses on sexual relationships and sexuality, these groups slowly established itself as a class distinguished from the "ignorant masses and decadent aristocracy" (1980: 121).
It seems to me that the deployment of sexuality was not established as a principle of limitation of the pleasures to others by what have traditionally been called the 'ruling classes'. Rather it appears to me that they first tried it on…… [Read More]
Fundamental and inherently subjective (and thus at least partially false) systems of though cannot be avoided, and in Western thought this basic system consists of these ultimately false binary oppositions. This makes an understanding of a science that could incorporate objective and subjective elements a logical contradiction to Western minds.
Sivin concedes that Chinese science is not exactly the same as Western science (though this is arguably not really true in the present era), but he doesn't really put this in terms of a concession. Advances in Chinese astronomy and mathematics were made at approximately the same time they were being made in Europe, he contends, but due to a long and unbroken working understanding of how the observable world and universe worked -- even if it was more flawed than Ptolemy had achieved -- these advances did not cause or warrant the type of Scientific Revolution experienced in the…… [Read More]
Defense of Globalization
Jagdish Bhagwati and the Defense of Globalization
It has lately become fashionable to talk about the evil face of globalization as a parasitic force that devours small nations and economies for the benefit of the rich and powerful countries. The anti-globalization movement today has a wide range of supporters, in the West and developing countries, among politicians, scholars, students, environmentalists, human rights activists, and many others. Globalization, these critics contend, further enriches the rich and impoverishes the poor, by using international trade and financial institutions and imposing Western forms of economics on the rest of the world. But in this paper I argue, using insights and arguments from the works of Columbia law and economics professor Jagdish Bhagwati, that the attacks on globalization are contradictory, misguided, and unjustified. Globalization, I argue, has been a force for good in the West and the rest of the world.
One…… [Read More]
Eat, Pray, Love
Into the Wild
Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail
epresentation from Media Studies -- Culture and its elevance
Post Modernism Literature
Importance of Culture in Analysis
Theory and Methodology
Thematic Analysis -- Framework
Thematic analysis is appropriate for the following situations
Detective and inductive approaches
Analysis of two different phased of data
Analysis and Process of Comparing Literary Works of Post-Modern Period
Post Modernism Writers
Post Modern Literary Theory
A person's personal, work, and family life and how they relate to nature all define how well the person knows himself. This article will explore how one comes of age and life stages by comparing three movies and three novels. The books are Motorcycle Diaries (Che Guevara), Wild: From Lost to Found on the Pacific Crest Trail (Cheryl Strayed) and Into the Wild (John Krakauer). The…… [Read More]
The Al-Qaeda network which dominated in the surrounding regions of Iraq successfully penetrated into the Iraq, and was bale to develop understanding with the Iraqi militia to continue their joint struggle against the American forces. The efforts and struggle of the Iraq militia against the American forces have no religious justification, it is just that these force is trying to secure the support of the local population for bringing the real Iraqi people into the power. The Al Qaeda network has created differences and conflicts with the American forces on the basis misinterpreted religious teachings, and have tried to justify their authority through abuse of religious knowledge and fundamental. In the case of Iraq we have observed the existence of strong coalition of the local militia with Al-Qaeda network, which has proved every deadly in recent past. The convergence of the religious elements and those who have prejudice against the…… [Read More]
This is a natural development, and is part of a general process of change. This process can be seen in historical context, just as the modern world built in and changes the ideas of the period known as the enlightenment, which in turn built in the period known as the renaissance.
In the past there has been the creation of ideas on the way that people should view and interpret the world. The post modernist approach is different, arguing that reality will be subjective. In other words, there is no single correct model reality; it will vary between different people and reality will always be subjective. There are many post modern philosophers that put forward the idea that the universe is not seen in the same way by everyone, these philosophers include Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault and ichard orty.
In the past, especially following the enlightenment, it was assumed that…… [Read More]
History Of Theory Behind Curriculum Development
The evolution of curriculum theory by and large reflects the current of thought found in the academic-political landscape. The essence of the ancient maxim cuius regio, eius religio applies here: who reigns, his religion. In this case, who reigns, his curriculum. This has been true throughout all the centuries where education was deemed important by a group of individuals or a State. For example, in the West, the ancient Greeks (most notably Plato and Aristotle) devised a curriculum with the purpose of attaining knowledge and/or achieving "soundness" in the mind. Curricula are ever-tied to an aim -- and the objective of a curriculum may be ascertained by a review of what it contains or what its teachers hope to achieve. Therefore, the evolution of curriculum theory is related to the evolution of individual and societal objectives. Historically speaking, these objectives are manifest in every…… [Read More]
It is only through occult understanding that the forms and the archetypal images and symbols can be interpreted.
Here we see that the term unconsciousness is very similar to the Platonic ideals and forms. Another aspect that will form part of the theoretical perspective of this study is the concept of transformation. In order to understand the occult and its relationship to the forms, a process of transformation has to take place. In Platonic terms this transformation is a radical change in life, morality and ethics; while for Jung it is transformation in terms of the deeper understanding of the relation of the unconscious to the conscious mind.
Transformation also has related occult meaning and symbols such as fire. Fire is an age-old indication of change of perception and consciousness. This also refers to Jungian concepts such as the shadow. There are many other points of reference and similarity between…… [Read More]
Those same relationships often influence how we do or do not express our thoughts. Language itself, and the way it is either delivered or received, is very important to the expression of our thoughts, both one's use (and the other person's use) of language, and the context of the language either spoken or received.
On the other hand, everyone has had a circumstance where some thought, feeling, perception, or experience could not quite "be put into words." Arguably, also, language goes beyond words, such as the "language" of music or art. Still, it is through either spoken or written language that we most easily, and most commonly, express our thoughts, and in ways best understood by others.
However, since language is never independent of either a social context or relationship of power, the expression of our thoughts through language can never be just literal, uninflected expression. Instead, its meaning is…… [Read More]
It is never just about the music.
No matter how great the musician, music is always the expression of an entire culture, of a moment in history, of a particular place in time. The genius of a particular musician, the synergy of a particular group - these are both essential to the success or failure of a particular group. But that success or failure is never intrinsic to a single song, to a single album. Music that succeeds - both in its own time and later - does so because it has the ability to express something important about that moment in time. eggae has been able to provide just such an expression of the beliefs of a particular people at a moment in history for the last two years - and it has been able to do so because of its ability to change with larger political…… [Read More]
Literature is allowed to expand across class lines because it is constantly seeking out new forms of expressing the human experience. Even the most elite of the bourgeoisie are allowed to enjoy the latest experimental or ethnic literature, which serve as pure representations of the proletariat human experience, "it is common to see 'literature' defined as 'full, central, immediate human experience,' usually an associated reference to 'minute particulars,'" (illiams 45). These "minute particulars" are what make literature so interesting and entertaining, thus successful. It is with this understanding of literature as an ideology that the concept of ideology can take on duel roles, "A common culture is thus entirely compatible with a hierarchical one," (Eagleton The Idea of Culture 115). Much unlike the theories which state that a true ideology cannot live up to a duel existence, literature as an ideology proves to do just that.
It is in this…… [Read More]
" (Iraq Body Count). To begin to understand the extent of the problem, the media needs to address the following questions about civilian deaths: "ho is killing them? How are they being killed? ho is being killed? How do current patterns compare to earlier periods?" (Iraq Body Count). hile these questions can be answered for some of the civilian deaths, many of the murdered are targeted in anonymous killings, like bombings, while others are kidnapped and executed, making it virtually impossible to assign blame for the deaths. The highest numbers of deaths are linked to Coalition and anti-Coalition violence, but the underlying causes of those deaths are too complex to attribute to Coalition involvement in Iraq. The more insurmountable these problems became, the less press coverage they got, despite the fact that actual conditions were not improving. In fact, press coverage became so biased against Iraqis who complained about life…… [Read More]