James Madison Essays (Examples)

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Madison's Dilemma What Was Madison's Dilemma and

Words: 715 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84593834

Madison's Dilemma

What was Madison's Dilemma and what was his solution to it?

James Madison's dilemma primarily hinges on the idea that "men are not angels," that if the contrary was true, then no form of government would be needed. However, because men are truly not angels, government is a necessary system. This brings about a dilemma to Madison, who views this roundabout thinking as a paradox: even with government, how does one prevent man from his non-angelic, corrupt behaviors? What separates government from the common man? Madison's solution, then, is a separation of powers, a "checks and balances" system in the judicial, legislative, and executive branch. In this manner, each branch limits powers of the other branches, and can also resist major influences within the separate branches.

What is the process of incorporation and what is its constitutional basis?

The incorporation doctrine -- or the "incorporation of the Bill…… [Read More]

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James Monroe Early Years Born

Words: 1172 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91757964

As a Secretary of State was the next path to Monroe's political career with whom President Madison appointed him in 1811. Monroe tried to prevent the war with Great ritain but was unable to do so because of unavoidable reasons. Monroe became the intelligence of the war and later acquired the position Secretary of War while maintaining his responsibilities as a Secretary of State (History Central Online, 2000).

Monroe as a President of the United States

Monroe won the 1816 presidential election because of his anti-Federalist actions and with the support of President Madison. He had good strategic choices for his Cabinet members, favoring Southerners, Northerners, and Westerners for his Cabinet. However, due to a contradiction from Henry Clay, Monroe was not able to elect a Westerner in his Cabinet (iography of James Monroe).

Monroe's presidency was termed as an "era of good feeling" because of political talent and skills.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Winslow, Chris. Legislators, Governor Honor Monroe. http://www.monroefoundation.org/4.28.04honor.html

Biography of James Monroe.

History Central Online.  http://www.historycentral.com/Bio/presidents/monroe.html 

James Monroe.
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Madison Federalist 10

Words: 1496 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61421971

Federalist Relevance

Madison's Relevance Today: Modern Echoes of Federalist No.

The Federalist Papers penned by James Madison, John Jay, and others in defense of the Constitution during the hotly contested period of its ratification remain some of the most significant documents in American political history to this date. Detailing the arguments of some of the men who helped to frame and influence the composition of the foundational body of laws and structure of government of what is now the most powerful nation on Earth, reading the Federalist Papers is akin to reading the minds of those that have helped to shape global politics and political ideals. At the same time, the fact that so many of the arguments made in these documents are now foregone conclusions, and that the rights and reasons invoked (not to mention the language in which they are invoked) seem so antiquated can make the Federalist…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Holdorf, William. The Fruad of Seat Belt Laws. Accessed 7 May 2012. http://www.thefreemanonline.org/features/the-fraud-of-seat-belt-laws/

Madison, James. Federalist No. 10. 1787. Accessed 7 May 2012.  http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm 

McCormack, John. PPP Poll: 33% of Voters Say Gay Marriage Should be Legal, 57% Say It Should Be Illegal. Accessed 7 May 2012. http://www.weeklystandard.com/blogs/ppp-poll-33-voters-say-gay-marriage-should-be-legal-57-say-it-should-be-illegal

NARLA. (2012). Politicization: A New Era for Women's Bodies. 2012. Accessed 7 May 2012. http://prochoicenc.wordpress.com/2012/03/14/politicization-a-new-era-for-womens-bodies/
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Madison's Role in Trying to

Words: 9173 Length: 28 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78854304

In fact, during the 1787 Constitutional Convention, Slonim notes that the need for a bill of rights was not even a topic of discussion until Virginian delegate George Mason raised the issue just several days before the Convention was scheduled to rise on September 17; Mason suggested that a bill of rights "would give great quiet to the people." Following this assertion, Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts moved that the Convention add a bill of rights to the Constitution and Mason seconded his motion to no avail: "The Convention unanimously rejected the proposal by a vote of 10 to 0, with one state absent. Failure to heed Mason's counsel was to plague the Federalists throughout the ratification campaign" (emphasis added).

The first major confrontation concerning the ratification of the Constitution involving the need for a bill of rights occurred in Pennsylvania several weeks after the close of the Constitutional Convention; at…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Banning, Lance. The Sacred Fire of Liberty: James Madison and the Founding of the Federal Republic. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1995.

Binkley, Wilfred E. And Malcolm C Moos. A Grammar of American Politics: The National Government. New York: A.A. Knopf, 1949.

Bernhard, Virginia, David Burner and Elizabeth Fox-Genovese. A College History of the United States, St. James: Brandywine Press, 1991.

Brant, Irving. The Bill of Rights: Its Origin and Meaning. Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1965.
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Madison Excerpts Madison Refers to

Words: 924 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54671823

The innate need to not let any person or any entity overpower the rights that have been given will allow for a balance of power that will in the end work to produce a functioning government.

In excerpt 5, as posited by Madison, he states that the reason why a stable and structured government is necessary in the first place is because men are always hungry for more power. When given just a little bit of governance over a bigger crowd of people, they will naturally want more, as they see their way as being the right way, and the only way in which problems could be solved. But because men are inclined to want aspects to turn out in ways where their best interests are in mind and where they come out best in the end, a necessary system needs to be implemented to make sure that one branch…… [Read More]

References:

Kelman, Steven. American Government. Dallas, TX: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston. 2003. Print.

Sobel, Syl. How the U.S. Government Works. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's Educational Series. 1999. Print.

Heineman, Robert et al. American Government. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. 1995. Print.
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Dolley Madison 1768 -- 1849 One of

Words: 1271 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18717523

Dolley Madison (1768 -- 1849), one of the most renowned American first ladies, was President James Madison's wife. She was born in North Carolina and spent her life's early years in Virginia in a very simple environment. In 1790, she married John Todd but he died only after three years due to the yellow fever epidemic. In 1794, Dolley married Madison and became the fourth first lady of the United States of America.1 In the subsequent years, Dolley proved herself as a charming, tactful and graceful official White House hostess for both President Jefferson and President Madison. It won't be incorrect to state that her guts, courageousness and the manner with which she conducted herself shaped the role of first lady in the Unites States of America forever.

When Madison took the office in 1809, Dolley took up her role as the first lady very seriously and concentrated on the…… [Read More]

References

Allgor, C. "The Politics of Love." Humanities 31 1 (2010): 14-53.

"Madison, Dolley from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.." Questia. http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-MadisonD/madison-dolley (accessed September 9, 2013).

McDevitt, T. "Dolley Madison: The Problem of National Unity." Library Journal 137 17, no. 82 (2012).
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Presidential Character by James Barber

Words: 1550 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63121539

He seems to draw easy causal connections between policy and personality that deny the exterior circumstances of history. For example, he suggests that Hoover's rigid personality made him unable to accept changes in classical economic theory during the beginning of the Great Depression, and to adopt a more Keynesian approach. Barber asserts that it was not the conventional wisdom of the time that hampered Hoover as much as his own character, despite the fact that few people really could assuredly state they had the 'answer' to the financial crisis at that time. The adaptive-negative aspects of Johnson's personality made that president similarly resistant to the idea of pulling out of Vietnam, and his egoism made him unwilling to be seen as 'losing' the war -- but what about the pressures of the Cold War during that era? Historians also might find some objection to Barber's psychoanalyzing so many major presidential…… [Read More]

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Marbury vs Madison 1803

Words: 855 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68510367

Marbury v. Madison case is a Supreme Court case that is studied due to its legal and historical significance. In the United States, this is the pioneering as well as most influential legal proceedings ever experienced. The case was the first one of that kind as it looked into the administrative that has been classified given that the law involves all interactions involving the Federal Government (Law.com, 2015).

A Federalist, President John Adams, ran for reelection and lost to Thomas Jefferson of epublican Party. It was the same election that saw the federalist lose control over Congress. However, Adams and Federalist Party maintained their control for a few months. This was before the newly elected President and the new Congress took office. It was during this time that Adams decided to persuade the Judiciary Act of 1801 to be passed by the Congress into a new law. The act gave…… [Read More]

References

Infoplease. (2005). Marbury v. Madison (1803). Retrieved from Infoplease: http://www.infoplease.com/us/supreme-court/cases/ar20.html

Law.com. (2015). Marbury v. Madison. Retrieved from Law.com: http://kids.laws.com/marbury-v-madison

(1995). Milestone Documents in the National Archives. Washington, DC: National Archives and Records Administration.
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Bridges of Madison County by Robert James

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82322088

Bridges of Madison County" by Robert James Waller. Bridges of Madison County is this author's first novel and is a love story of a photographer and a farmer's wife. The paper will give an overview of the main characters and the basic story line of the book.

The Bridges of Madison County

The Bridges of Madison County is written by Robert James Waller and is the author's first novel. Bridges of Madison County is a romantic classic of the 1990s' based on a romance between a photographer and a farmer's wife who happen to come into each other's life and experience a passion and love which lasts with them forever. 52-year-old divorcee Robert Kincaid travels to Iowa's Madison County to photograph the seven covered bridges for National Geographic. Once there, he asks directions to the home of Francesca Johnson, who at that time is alone at home while her husband…… [Read More]

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Independent Governance in Thomas Paine's

Words: 809 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7070913

Paine explains: "A government of our own is our natural right: and when a man seriously reflects on the precariousness of human affairs, he will become convinced, that it is infinitely wiser and safer, to form a constitution of our own..."

His concept of independence as a nation-state is no different from people's common notion of independence of the individual as a human being's natural right. Each American has the natural right to be free; and so, upon the creation of a nation in America, the country itself attains 'collective independence.' Paine speaks of independence in the purest and natural sense, where every individual shall actively participate in the process of nation-building of a newly-independent America.

While Madison shares Paine's argument that independence should be given to America, his was an altogether different kind of independence. He firmly believes that the American nation should have representative or a "minority" who…… [Read More]

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American Founding and Its Legacies

Words: 1003 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6732336

Baltimore Advertiser, 18 Mar 1788)

(2) the second class was reported as comprised by "those descriptions of men who are certainly more numerous with us than in any other part of the globe. First, those men who are so wise as to discover that their ancestors and indeed all the rest of mankind were and are fools. We have a vast overproportion of these great men, who, when you tell them that from the earliest period at which mankind devoted their attention to social happiness, it has been their uniform judgment, that a government over governments cannot exist - that is two governments operating on the same individual - assume the smile of confidence, and tell you of two people travelling the same road - of a perfect and precise division of the duties of the individual." (No. 10 -- on the Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends, 18 Mar…… [Read More]

References

The Anti-Federalist Papers (1788) Farmer No. 10. On the Preservation of Parties, Public Liberty Depends. 18 Mar 1788 )Baltimore Maryland Gazette. Retrieved from:  http://www.barefootsworld.net/antifederalist.html 

The Anti-Federalist vs. The Federalist. Polytechnic.org. (nd) *Based on the American Journey: A History of the United States by Goldfield, et al. Retrieved from:  http://faculty.polytechnic.org/gfeldmeth/chart.fed.pdf
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Right to Rule Karl Marx

Words: 1318 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84836961



Comparing Madison's ideas against Karl Marx's proposition of a new form of government (or aptly, a new social order) through Communism, salient differences emerge that highlight how Madison's democracy and Marx's Communism can be found in the opposite poles on the spectrum that is the political school of thoughts. Marx's The Communist Manifesto reflected human history's transition from a traditional to a capitalist society, and eventually, to a Communist society. This transition was a result of a history-long struggle of the "oppressed," who Marx referred to as the "proletariat," the social class that will eventually elevate the status quo of society from an oppressive to an egalitarian one -- that is, through Communism. Marx argues that transitions throughout history prior to the establishment of a Communist societydid not offer any the "class antagonisms" that existed in society:

The history of all past society has consisted in the development of class…… [Read More]

References

Fukuyama, F. (2006). The End of History and the Last Man. NY: Free Press.

Madison, J. E-text of The Federalist No. 10. Available at:  http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa10.htm 

Marx, K and F. Engels. E-text of The Communist Manifesto. Available at: http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/index.htm

Mostov, J. (1989). "Karl Marx as Democratic Theorist." Polity, Vol. 22, No. 2.
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Factions and the Effectiveness of

Words: 543 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2387645

" Of course, he expressed opposition to the first method, simply because it defeats the purpose of the American Revolution, which was to gain independence and autonomy as a nation composed of individuals with free will and liberty. The second method, however, is not also feasible, since to grant the interest of one faction would force the government to grant the other's interest, and the resulting state is a government in conflict with different factions who want to govern the people.

These problems will be resolved, according to Madison, through a republic. In the republican form of government, "a scheme of representation takes place, opens a different prospect, and promises the cure for which we are seeking." This form of government will provide an avenue or platform in which all factions, groups, and individuals will be able to voice out their concerns, opinions, and arguments regarding important issues about governance…… [Read More]

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American Politics

Words: 669 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79313106

Factions: Help or Hindrance

James Madison and Alexander Hamilton, aided by John Jay, were responsible for writing eighty-five anonymous essays for the New York Journal in 1787 and 1788. These articles were known as The Federalist Papers, and they were intended to persuade people into ratifying the proposed Constitution. In The Federalist Paper Number 10, Madison responded to critics who had argued that the United States was too large, and had too many groups, or "factions," to be ruled democratically by a single government. Madison acknowledged the importance of factions in the opening paragraph, stating that, "Among the numerous advantages promised by a well constructed Union, none deserves to be more accurately developed than its tendency to break and control the violence of faction" (Rossiter, 1961). In prescribing how to rule and control the effects of factions, Madison detailed their relationships with other important concepts, such as liberty and property,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rossiter, C. ed. The Federalist Papers. New York: New American Library, 1961.
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US Constitution and Its Framers

Words: 1055 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 32520718

achievement of independence left the American statesmen in a serious institutional dilemma. The new state founded, what was to be its form of organization on the other hand, if decided on the federal organization, the statesmen obviously needed to decide both on the states' representation in the institutions, but also on what these institutions would be. James Madison's notes from May 30 are eloquent in describing the debates around these issues.

As it is suggested in the beginning of the note, there were generally three issues that needed to be addressed at Confederate level and upon deciding on the form of organization. These were "common defense, security of liberty & general welfare"

. On a scale describing the level of integration, one had to decide upon establishing a national government or leaving things at an inferior level of integration and achieving the three issues based on a common treaty between…… [Read More]

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American Constitution A Living Evolving Document --

Words: 1824 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93247708

American Constitution: A living, evolving document -- from guaranteeing the right to enslavement in the 18th century to modifications in favor of freedom in the 19th century

Constitution today protects the rights of all in its language, but this was not always the case in its text and spirit. As a political tactic as well as out of personal conviction and experience, Frederick Douglass' characterization of the American Constitution as an anti-slavery document is certainly an admirable piece of rhetoric. Douglass stated that although the America he spoke to at the time of his autobiography My Bondage and My Freedom, was a nation divided between free and slave states and territories, fundamentally America was and "is in its letter and spirit, an anti-slavery instrument, demanding the abolition of slavery as a condition of its own existence" (396)

Slavery, Douglass stated, deprives an individual of his or her dignity, deprives an…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Douglass, Frederick. My Bondage and My Freedom. Available in full text online at http://etext.lib.virginia.edu/etcbin/toccer new2?id=DouMybo.sgm& images=images/modeng& data=/texts/english/modeng/parsed& tag=public& part=6& division=div2[29 Jan 2005].

Lincoln, Abraham. "First Inaugural Address: Monday, March 4, 1861." From Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O.: for sale by the Supt. Of Docs, U.S.G.P.O., 1989. Bartleby.com, 2001. www.bartleby.com/124/. [29 Jan 2005].

Madison, James. "Federalist No. 10." The Federalist Papers. Available in full text online ( http://www.thisnation.com/library/books/federalist/10.html ) [29 Jan 2005].

"The United States Constitution." Available in full text online http://www.house.gov/Constitution/Constitution.html. [29 Jan 2005].
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U S Government What Reasons Did

Words: 676 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82709682

Property owners were thought to have a more long-term stake in the republic, rather than potentially transient, mobile citizens.

Only later was universal suffrage given to all American men, regardless of whether they owned property. The Founding Father's tempering of the direct, democratic will of the populace was further expressed by the fact that in the original constitution, members of the U.S. Senate are elected by the (democratically selected) state legislature, rather than by the direct will of the people. The 'removed' or representative, republican element of the constitution in its original form was even more extreme in the original constitution, in terms of the electoral process and the incomplete enfranchisement of even the male populace.

Another fear, besides the fickleness of the populace expressed by Madison was that of factionalism, that in a pure democracy the populace would have the ability to form self-interested factions and exert an undue…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American Constitution. Cited in Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000.

Madison, James. The Federalist Paper, No. 10. Cited in Making Connections: Reading American Cultures. 2000.
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Miracle at Philadelphia the Convention Began Gathering

Words: 752 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83709982

Miracle at Philadelphia

The convention began gathering here on the 14th of May (Bowen), but the condition of the roads have kept many of the delegates away. The men already assembled from Virginia and Pennsylvania believed that this is going to be more than just a reaffirmation and strengthening of the old Articles of Confederation (Library of Congress). Since the Articles of Confederation is only a loose contract between the thirteen new states, it is assumed that a completely new document will have to be drawn up. The concern is that there is a great deal of conflict between the factions due to geographical and ideological differences which may subvert the process before it starts.

The roads into Philadelphia were a problem, but the delegates finally began to assemble on the 25th in some strength. It was on that day that a quorum of states was attained when those from…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bowen, Catherine Drinker. Miracle at Philadelphia: The Story of the Constitutional Convention May-September 1787. New York: Back Bay Books, 1986. Print.

Exploring Constitutional Conflicts. "The Constitutional Convention of 1787." University of Missouri at Kansas City, 2010. Web.

Library of Congress. "To From a More Perfect Union." The Library of Congress: American Memory, 2012. Web.
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Second Reconstructions One of the Most Dramatic

Words: 6309 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 52783284

Second Reconstructions

One of the most dramatic consequences of the Civil ar and Reconstruction was that the South was effectively driven from national power for roughly six decades. Southerners no longer claimed the presidency, wielded much power on the Supreme Court, or made their influence strongly felt in Congress But beginning in the 1930s, the South was able to flex more and more political muscle, and by the 1970s some began to think that American politics and political culture were becoming 'southernized'.u How did this happen and what difference did it make to the development of the South and the United States?

Under segregation most blacks in the U.S. still lived in the South and were employed as sharecroppers, laborers and domestic servants, but the system of segregation and discrimination was also found everywhere in other sections of the country. Certainly virtually nothing was done for civil rights during the…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Brinkley, Allen. American History: A Survey, 14th Edition. McGraw-Hill, 2012.

Foner, Eric. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party before the Civil War. Oxford University Press, 1995.

Foner, Eric. Forever Free: The Story of Emancipation and Reconstruction. NY: Knopf, 2005.

Gold, S.D. The Civil Rights Act of 1964. Marshall Cavendish, 2010.
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History Literature

Words: 1565 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19448867

Roger Wilkins presents perhaps the most complete picture of the Founding Fathers in his book Jefferson's Pillow: The Founding Fathers and the Dilemma of Black Patriotism. It is Wilkins' argument that Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, James Madison and George Mason were not the idyllic seekers-of-justice and equality that we have been taught, but rather they were wealthy slaveholders with political powers that were not always exercised is an "American" way. In light of this newly presented information, our former ideals need to be reevaluated against the ideas of black patriotism, as well as against our thoughts on patriotism in general. How could all men have been created equal, when African-Americans were not considered to be men at all? Indeed, Americans cannot fully come to understand themselves until they are able to understand who the aforementioned individuals were - no matter what the results.

Slaveholders were great politicians in our nation's…… [Read More]

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Religion in Our Society the

Words: 2981 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84377998

eligious tolerance and freedoms do come out from holly scriptures of any religion, they are stated in Koran and in Bible nearly in the same way: "avoid unfaithful" not persecute them but simply avoid. These words have a deep meaning, which refers not just to the religion but also to any other belief and views. oger Williams was the first minister who introduced the principles of modern religious liberties into the civil practice as he wrote in the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution (1640):

No man shall be required to worship or maintain a worship against his will." Until then, Europe and America had endured what Thomas Paine later called, "the adulterous connection between church and state."

In order to defend the representatives of different confessions and guarantee free participation of citizens in country's public life, there had to be taken measures that would preserve from the dominance of one religious…… [Read More]

References

Madison, James Memorial and Remonstrance against Religious Assessments 20 June 1785

James Madison, Report on the Virginia Resolutions

Roger Williams the Bloudy Tenet of Persecution 1640;

Ward, Nathaniel the Simple Cobbler of Aggawam, 1645
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Stare Decisis Mr Edwards Was

Words: 853 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93116034

Marbury, the president of the United States appointed him a justice of peace... And that the seal of the United States, affixed thereto by the secretary of state, is conclusive testimony of the verity of the signature, and of the completion of the appointment; and that the appointment conferred on him a legal right to the office for the space of five years...he [Marbury] has a consequent right to the commission; a refusal to deliver which is a plain violation of that right, for which the laws of his country afford him a remedy" (Marshall 1803). However, "the authority, therefore, given to the supreme court, by the act establishing the judicial courts of the United States, to issue writs of mandamus to public officers, appears not to be warranted by the constitution," so Marshall stated the U.S. Supreme Court had no direct authority to issue the writ under the Judiciary…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Grossman, Joel. "The 200th Anniversary of Marbury v. Madison:

The reasons we should still care about the decision, and the lingering questions it left behind." Findlaw. February 24, 2003. March 15, 2009.  http://writ.news.findlaw.com/commentary/20030224_grossman.html 

Marshall, John. Marbury v. Madison (1803). Landmark cases. March 15, 2009. http://www.landmarkcases.org/marbury/majority.html

Using documents to decide the outcome: The Constitution and the Judiciary Act of 1789."
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Republicans and Federalists Differences the

Words: 1004 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85927240

The Hartford Convention was a gathering of Federalist Party delegates from five New England states that met in Hartford, Connecticut, between December 15, 1814, and January 5, 1815. Its members convened to discuss their long-held grievances against the policies of the successive Democratic-

Republican administrations of Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.

After that, the party never regained a national following. Its beliefs and actions during the War of 1812 helped seal its fate. y 1828 the Federalists became the first American political party to die out because it could not adjust to an increasingly democratic national spirit, especially in the nation's towns and cities. And among most Americans, mainly farmers suspicious of government, its policies of strong federal involvement in the economy kept it un-popular. Inconsistency in its stance toward military action (first undertaking a naval war with France, then treating for peace with that same nation, then actively opposing…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander Hamilton's Anglo-American vision. (2008, July 26). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from American Founding:  http://americanfounding.blogspot.com/2008/07/alexander-hamiltons-anglo-american.html 

Corps of discovery: President Jefferson's vision. (2003, October 10). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Center of Military History - U.S. Army: http://www.history.army.mil/LC/the%20Mission/Expedition/page_2.htm

Democratic-Republican party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Law Library - American Law and Legal Information:  http://law.jrank.org/pages/6058/Democratic-Republican-Party.html 

Federalist party. (n.d.). Retrieved March 31, 2009, from Bookrags.com: http://www.bookrags.com/history/federalist-party-aaw-01/
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Federal Antifederal the Framing of

Words: 1546 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36347727

45, for instance, where he argues that "the State governments may be regarded as constituent and essential parts of the federal government; whilst the latter is nowise essential to the operation or organization of the former. ithout the intervention of the State legislatures, the President of the United States cannot be elected at all." (Rossiter, 287) This is a position which suggests not only that the Federalists felt that significant power had already been entrusted to leaders at the state level, but also that this power is seen primarily as a function of the power of the federal government. Thus, we are given further confirmation that the Constitution was inherently a federal document.

In key segments of the debate such as that shown in the Anti-Federalist Paper No. 17, we can see that those who stood in opposition to the empowerment of federal authority derived from the Constitution were a…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Mansfield, Harvey C. Jr., (1979). Selected Writings Jefferson. Harlan Davidson Press.

Rossiter, Clinton. (1961). The Federalist Papers. Signet Classics.

Storing, Herbert J. (1985). The Anti-Federalist. The University of Chicago Press.

The Nation (TN). (2008). The Antifederalist Papers. This Nation.com.
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Constitution Provides Depicts What Is Necessary to

Words: 974 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43008788

Constitution provides depicts what is necessary to amend the Constitution. Either two-thirds of both Houses of the Congress, or an application by the legislatures of two-thirds of the several States, can call for a convention proposing amendments to the constitution. Ratification requires that the Legislatures of three fourths of the several states or Constitutional conventions in three-fourths of the states approving the ratification of those amendments. herefore, the Founding Fathers simultaneously ensured that the Constitution would be a living document, while also taking steps to preserve the Constitution and make it somewhat invulnerable to the changing whims of people.

he Founding Fathers appear to have had some trepidation about the idea of changing the Constitution. After all, the Constitution was the result of literally years of debate. It was not the first document to govern the former colonies after gaining independence from Great Britain, and the first system proved untenable.…… [Read More]

Texas v. Johnson (1989)

In Texas v. Johnson, the Court took a significant, but very controversial, step to protect the freedom of speech in the United States. The underlying facts of the case are problematic for many people, and the case made it clear that First Amendment guarantees are meaningless unless they protect those whose views are repugnant to the majority of Americans. Gregory Johnson participated in a political demonstration during the 1984 Republican National Convention in Dallas. During that demonstration, he poured kerosene on and burned a stolen United States flag. He was charged with and convicted of desecration of a venerated object, a Texas statute aimed at preventing just such actions. Johnson's position was that burning the flag was symbolic speech and that, as such, it had First Amendment protections. The State of Texas' position was that it had an interest in preserving the flag as a symbol of national unity and maintaining order, and that both of those interests were more important than Johnson's free speech rights. The Texas Court of Criminal Appeals agreed with Johnson's position and overturned his conviction. The State of Texas then asked for the Supreme Court to review the case.

The Court agreed with the reasoning of the Texas Court of Criminal Appeals. First, it concluded that burning the flag constituted expressive conduct, which made it symbolic speech and brought it under the protection of the First Amendment. The protection of free speech is not limited to the spoken or written word, and the Court had a history of protecting symbolic speech. While determining whether an activity is considered speech may be fact-specific, the facts in the case made it clear that Johnson burned the flag as an act of communication. Moreover, it was an act of political communication, and political speech receives one of the highest degrees of protection under the First Amendment. Texas' desire to create a feeling of unity among its citizens was not a compelling state interest, and burning the flag did not create any type of danger. Therefore, Johnson's activity was protected. Of course, the irony is that, had he been in another country, he would not have had the freedom to protest the country in the same manner that he had in the United States.
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Judicial Review and Democracy the

Words: 1703 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69620938

Judicial review allows lawmakers to reflect changing morals and ideals when enacting legislation, but prevents them from allowing the hot-button topics of the moment to determine the laws of a nation. In fact, to really understand the success of judicial review, one need only look to the election in the Ukraine, where the Ukrainian Supreme Court may be the only body far-enough removed from party politics to ensure that Ukrainian voters have their say. If imitation is the sincerest form of flattery, Justice Marshall should be very flattered.

orks Cited

The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar

Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.

Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery ebsite. 2004. Arlington National

Cemetery ebsite. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.

Judicial review/Marbury v. Madison." National Legal Center for the Public Interest. 2002.

National Legal Center for the Public Interest 9 Dec. 2004 http://www.nlcpi.org/pdf/JudicialReviewMarburyvMadison.pdf#search='judicial%20review%20marbury'.

Linder, Doug. "Judicial…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Gathering Storm." John Marshall: Definer of a Nation. 2003. DuPage County Bar

Association. 9 Dec. 2004 http:dcba.org/brief/sepissue/1997/art20997.htm.

Hugo Lafayette Black." Arlington National Cemetery Website. 2004. Arlington National

Cemetery Website. 9 Dec. 2004 http:www.arlingtoncemetery.net/hlblack.htm.
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Independent United States Shed Colonial Past Begin

Words: 944 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57872193

independent United States shed colonial past begin a direction, politically

Political and Economic Unity

In order to properly understand the methodology employed by the newly independent United States used to effectively shed its colonial past and begin a new direction politically and economically, one must first understand how the country operated on these two fronts as a series of British colonies prior to the waging of the Revolutionary War. Politically, the colonies existed as an extension of the British crown, were governed by the monarchy which ruled the foreign kingdom, and had little say in matters that were mandated by Britain. The colonists preferred a form of salutary neglect in terms of British involvement with their daily political lives, but when Britain intervened (particularly in the years leading up to the revolution) in the daily affairs of the colonialists, there was little they could actually do about it -- save…… [Read More]

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Polygamous Revolt the Response of

Words: 1019 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48514235

S. Congress' prohibition of the practice and the Court's refusal to allow the practice, conflicted with the rights of individuals engaged in such practice. The actions of a religious group which are normally protected under the First Amendment and the laws of states like Utah that might wish to turn a blind eye to the practice were not allowed.

The states claim the social contract has been broken because the U.S. government has infringed upon individuals' liberty to marry more than one person and the states' rights to regulate matters not specifically delineated in the Bill of Rights. However, if this were the case that a state could secede every time the federal government disagreed with a state's definition of individual liberties. Virtually every constitutional dispute in the history of the nation, regarding the Bill of Rights, from abortion, to affirmative action, to gay marriage, to free speech, could justify…… [Read More]

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Regulatory Issues

Words: 749 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13186689

International Terrorism & Crime: Trends & linkages

Define "LOOSE NETWORKS"

Loose networks describe autonomous terroist groups that do not directly depend on state sponsorship. These networks operate covertly, using clandestine methods such as cellular lines to communicate and shield their activities from scrutiny, which makes gathering intelligence on their activities more difficult. Subgroups exploit local opportunity, allowing their leaders to simultaneously encourage terrorist activity and to deny responsibility.

The impact of the "Former Soviet Union and the alkans"

Institutionalized corruption in regions such as the FSU and alkans has not only domestic, but world-wide implications. For example, the Kosovo Liberation Army has used its connections with drug traffickers and international criminals to fund its paramilitary campaign against Serbia. Likewise, Serbian criminal groups helped fund militia groups in the alkans. The Russian military has become so corrupt that many fear their participation in trafficking biological, chemical and nuclear weapons. About 200…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anderson, J.H. The threat of terrorist-criminal coordination. Retrieved January 19, 2005 from James Madison University Web site: http://www.jmu.edu/orgs/wrni/it.htm

Kimball, D.G. Ending nuclear terror. Retrieved January 19, 2005 from Coalition to Reduce Nuclear Dangers Web site: http://www.clw.org/pub/clw/coalition/natdeb98.htm
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American History as it Relates to the

Words: 2191 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2477589

American history as it relates to the first five Presidents of the United States. Specifically, it will discuss the impact of early leaders of America on the democratic government, and how the first five presidents impacted early American government. It will also look at the accomplishments of each president and different facts about each that contributed positively and negatively on America as it formed as a nation. The first five presidents of the United States were George Washington, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, and James Monroe. Each man influenced American history in his own unique and significant ways, with both positive and negative results. These leaders were really creating the office of President as they tried to run the country with intelligence and finesse. Their accomplishments were not always perfect, but they did the best they could with the knowledge and resources available at the time.

THE IMPACT OF…… [Read More]

References

Agar, Herbert. The People's Choice, from Washington to Harding: A Study in Democracy. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1933.

Kane, Joseph Nashan. Facts about the Presidents: A Compilation of Biographical and Historical Data. New York H.W. Wilson Co., 1959.

Kurtz, Stephen G. The Presidency of John Adams: The Collapse of Federalism, 1795-1800. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1957.

Smith, Abbot Emerson. James Madison: Builder: A New Estimate of a Memorable Career. New York: Wilson-Erickson, Incorporated, 1937.
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Government History

Words: 3756 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94692179

status of federalism within the U.S. It is the thesis of the paper that the President, the Courts and Congress have assumed influential and significant roles in the shaping of federalism in recent decades. Initially, a conceptualization of federalism will be offered as established by the founding fathers. Current literature will then be used to identify factors associated with and the role assumed by the presidency, the Courts and Congress in federalism as it exists today within the U.S.

Conceptual Framework unique federal system of government to replace the original Articles of Confederation was established b the U.S. Constitution. On the basis of federalism, the Framer's of the Constitution delineated that national concerns were to be handled by a national legislative branch and executive branch of government while concerns at the local and state level would be handled by state legislatures and governors. It was the intent of the Framer's…… [Read More]

References

Brock, P. (2001). Supreme Court Justice Thomas Smith speaks. Montpelier Magazine (Spring, 2001), Harrisonburg, VA: James Madison University, Montpelier.

Eastman, J.C. (2002). Re-entering the arena: Restoring a judicial role for enforcing limits on federal mandates. Harvard Journal of Law & Public Policy, 01934872, 25 (3), 931-952.

Greve, M. (2000). The supreme court's federalism. AEI Federalist Outlook, 2 (August 2000). Found at http://www.federalismproject.org/outlook/8-2000.html.

Jeffrey, K. (1995). Guide to regulatory reform: The federalism rule. Brief Analysis No. 151, National Center for Policy Analysis, Washington DC. Found at http://www.ncpa.org/ba/ba151.html
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American History Slave Revolts Although

Words: 6354 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54831518

Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.

Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ferling, John. Adams vs. Jefferson: the tumultuous election of 1800. New York: Oxford University Press. 2004.
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Primary Source an Analysis of

Words: 739 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58285727

10 was written so that people could see the good in the Constitution and why it was so very important that it be ratified and accepted by all of the states in the U.S.

Federalist Paper No. 10 (Madison, 1787) is an excellent primary source because it has been verified by scholars and historians throughout the ages, because it can be safely attributed to Madison as the author, and because it has so much historic significance for the United States overall. However, understanding that Paper in context is vital, or some of what Madison had to say will be lost. For that reason, a secondary source is needed. In this case, hodenhamel's (1987) Letters of liberty: A documentary history of the U.S. Constitution helps to show how Madison's (1787) Federalist Paper No. 10 was used as a part of something much greater. Taken by itself, the Paper is still significant.…… [Read More]

References

Madison, James. (1787, Nov. 23). Federalist No. 10: The size and variety of the union as a check on faction. New York Packet. Retrieved from  http://faculty.rcc.edu/sellick/Fed10.pdf . Also available in Genovese, 2009, p. 49.

Rhodenhamel, John H. (1987). Letters of liberty: A documentary history of the U.S. Constitution. Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles. Microfiche.
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Revolutionary America the Difference Between

Words: 1997 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31394759

" It is course legitimate editorial decision-making to spend less time on one aspect than another writer might invest on that issue; but this points out the way in which Berkin makes her history more like journalism, bringing in as many quotes from a diverse set of speakers whenever she can. It was interesting to know that Jefferson was dead set against the proceedings going private.

Middlekauff (630) writes that by putting their Virginia Plan out first, the Virginians "had framed the terms of the discussion." And for the next two weeks the delegates supporting the Virginia Plan "had forced the pace of deliberations, and, for the most part, controlled the Convention." The momentum was on the side of the Virginians and their supporters; the Virginia Plan called for an executive branch, a judiciary, and a "supreme" legislature - and that the representation in the legislature should be allocated according…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Berkin, Carol. (2002). A Brilliant Solution: Inventing the American Constitution. New York:

Harcourt, Inc.

Middlekauff, Robert. (1982). The Glorious Cause. New York: Oxford University Press.
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Federalist No Primary Source Analysis on September

Words: 637 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84719480

Federalist No.

Primary Source Analysis

On September 17, 1787 the Constitution of the United States was signed by 39 delegates from 12 states in Independence Hall, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, after spending the summer debating the final form in the first Constitutional Convention. The Constitution represented in part an attempt to prevent the dissolution of the confederacy of states formed by the shared goal of independence, by forming a strong federal government (hodenhamel, 1987, p. 6).

Once the Constitution had been signed it had to be ratified by at least nine states before the federal government could be formed. To urge the states to ratify, a series of influential essays were published in New York newspapers by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay, under the pseudonym Publius (hodenhamel, 1987, p. 45). This collection of essays was called The Federalist Papers (Genovese, 2009).

Historians have since recognized that the most influential of…… [Read More]

References

Genovese, Michael A. (Ed.). (2009). The Federalist Papers. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. Retrieved from http://lib.myilibrary.com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/Open.aspx?id=276510&src=2

Madison, James. (1787, Nov. 23). Federalist No. 10: The size and variety of the union as a check on faction. New York Packet. Retrieved from  http://faculty.rcc.edu/sellick/Fed10.pdf . Also available in Genovese, 2009, p. 49.

Rhodenhamel, John H. (1987). Letters of liberty: A documentary history of the U.S. Constitution. Constitutional Rights Foundation, Los Angeles. Microfiche.
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On Liberty and the US Constitution

Words: 2791 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1296870

Mill and U.S. Constitution

None of the issues being raised today by the Occupy all Street (OS) movement are new, but rather they date back to the very beginning of the United States. At the time the Constitution was written in 1787, human rights and civil liberties were far more constrained than they are in the 21st Century. Only white men with property had voting rights for example, while most states still had slavery and women and children were still the property of fathers and husbands. Only very gradually was the Constitution amended to grant equal citizenship and voting rights to all, and even the original Bill of Rights was added only because the Antifederalists threatened to block ratification. In comparison, the libertarianism of John Stuart Mill in his famous book On Liberty was very radical indeed, even in 1859 much less 1789. He insisted that individuals should be left…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Dahl, Robert Alan. How Democratic is the American Constitution? Yale University Press, 2003.

Kaplan, Lawrence. S. Alexander Hamilton: Ambivalent Anglophile. Scholarly Resources, Inc., 2002.

Main, Jackson Turner. The Antifederalists: Critics of the Constitution, 1781-1788. University of North Carolina Press, 1989, 2004.

Mill, John Stuart. On Liberty. London, 1859.
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Causes and Outcomes of War

Words: 1976 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54142514

Furthermore, while it established Canada as an independent
nation, it also established America. As a war over its previous colonizer,
America can be said to have won a second war of independence. This is
further reflected in considering President Madison's war message to
Congress. Madison appeals to the "honor" of his country, as if Britain has
violated it and it is America's responsibility to retain it (Madison,
1812). Although the war was fought primarily for economic reasons, the
"honor" Madison is referring to was regained during the war as Great
Britain was unable to dominate the United States. In fact, the United
States did more than a good job of fighting the British. Thus, it appears
that the war was fought somewhat over honor, and the United States
maintained their honor in the war. This means that the United States
established itself, and its pride, in the war, and this…… [Read More]

References

Feldmeth, Greg D. (31 March 1998). U.S. History Resources. Retrieved 3
March 2007 from
http://home.earthlink.net/~gfeldmeth/USHistory.html.

Harney, Major W. (1989). The Causes of the War of 1812. Retrieved 4 March
2007 from
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/report/1989/HWW.htm.
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American Political Philosophy

Words: 2528 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65411386

American Political Philosophy: epublicanism

Within this paper, the general theory of republicanism will be presented. The conceptualization of republicanism discussed within the paper as an American political philosophy will be based on The Federalist Papers written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison in 1787. Initially, a brief overview of relevant background information on The Federalist Papers will be provided. This will be followed by a discussion of the primary components of republicanism as set forth within the works of Hamilton, Jay and Madison. A summary and conclusions will then be provided.

Overview of The Federalist Papers

The Federalist Papers have been suggested as representing one of the most important writing in American political thought (Yarbrough, 1986). It represents a collection of 85 letters written by Hamilton, Jay and Madison under the pseudonym of Publius. The letters were written to the American public and were initially published in a…… [Read More]

References

Hamilton, A., Jay, J. & Madison, J. (1961). The Federalist papers. C. Rossiter (ed.). NY: New American Library.

Yarbrough, J. (1986). The Federalist. News for Teachers of Political Science, (Spring 1986). 7 June 2003: http://www.apsanet.org/CENnet/thisconstitution/yarbrough.cfm..
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Military the Colonists' Most Revered Military Institution

Words: 1601 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64260428

Military

The colonists' most revered military institution was the militia, a model inherited from their forebears in England. The philosophical underpinnings of the militia model are easy to understand: "fear of a standing army," (Millet and Maslowski 1). A standing army can turn against its people, staging what now would be called military coups one after the other. During and especially after Independence, the validity, effectiveness, efficiency, and relevance of the militia model was called into question. This is why the United States Constitution eventually included the provisions for federalized systems of national security. Naturally, the existence of a standing army to "provide for the common defense" would be required. Independence required an organized military strategy against a powerful Empire; to protect the new nation, it was certain that the military would be necessary to preserve all that hard work. The Constitution therefore enabled the creation and maintenance of standing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Boot, Max. "The New American Way of War." Foreign Affairs. 2003.

Jay, John. "The Federalist 2." Independent Journal. Oct 31, 1787.

Madison, James. "Federalist 41." Independent Journal. Jan 19, 1788.

Millet, Allen R. And Maslowski, Peter. For the Common Defense. Free Press, 1994.
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American Revolution the Pen Is

Words: 2468 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89354896

In the period between the evolution and the drafting of the Constitution, Jefferson noted that the eventual existence of a dictator in place of a king in Ancient ome clearly indicated the existence of real failings within the oman system:

dictator is entirely antithetical to republicanism's "fundamental principle...that the state shall be governed as a commonwealth," that there be majority rule, and no prerogative, no "exercise of [any] powers undefined by the laws." "Powers of governing...in a plurality of hands." (Zuckert, 1996, p. 214)

As a result, Jefferson, like the philosophes before him (and the Iroquois) would turn to ideas that would balance the necessary evils of government power with the rights of the people. James Madison agreed wholeheartedly, and urged in "Government of the United States" that a constitutional government based on separation of powers was the only sure way of preventing the country from taking the "high road…… [Read More]

References

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=8969577

Black, E. (1988). Our Constitution: The Myth That Binds Us. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

A www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001637570

Brooks, C.K. (1996). Controlling the Metaphor: Language and Self-Definition in Revolutionary America. CLIO, 25(3), 233+.
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American Democracy & the U S

Words: 2075 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65426903

"

Thus, the members of the Convention assumed that, although power was a necessary evil, it was also dangerous, especially when provided to the wrong person who might take advantage of this power for his own gain. In essence, the members attempted to compose a constitution that would insure effective power for the government when needed but that would also place reliable checks and safeguards on the use of that power. Once again, this aim can be traced back to Montesquieu's essay in which he states "to prevent the abuse of power, 'tis necessary that by the very disposition of things (that) power should be checked... " (Leone 37).

ut the members were also much too experienced in the ways of politics to take for granted that conscientious and moral men would always be elected to office. To them, human nature was universally fallible and only built-in safeguards could be…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Barzun, Jacques. From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, 1500 to the Present. New York: HarperCollins, 2000.

The Constitution: An Enduring Document." U.S. Constitution: Drafting the Constitution. Internet. 2005. Accessed February 6, 2005. http://www.usconstitution.com/DraftingtheConstitution.htm.

Leone, Bruno, Ed. The American Revolution: Opposing Viewpoints. San Diego, CA: Greenhaven Press, Inc., 1992.
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Prayers in the Public Schools

Words: 1070 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4766735

Prayers in Public Schools

In the case of Engel v. Vitale (1962), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that prayer in the U.S. public school system was unconstitutional and that such prayers "breached the constitutional wall of separation between Church and State." Ever since, the courts around the country have consistently turned down the efforts to reinstitute even the most innocent expression of religious devotion in public funded schools in complete disregard of an equally consistent American public opinion that has expressed its support for prayers in public schools. I believe that prayers in public schools should be allowed just as they were allowed during the first 200 years of our country's existence and shall argue in this essay why I believe so.

If we examine the U.S. constitution closely, it would be apparent that the founding fathers and the framers of the U.S. constitution had never intended a ban on…… [Read More]

References

'James Madison." (2002) One Nation Under God. America's Christian Heritage. Updated: 14 July 2002. Retrieved on November 22 from  http://www.leaderu.com/orgs/cdf/onug/madison.html 

'Public Schools Don't Have a Prayer." (2004). U.S. Gov Info / Resources. About.com. Retrieved on November 22 from http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/aa070100a.htm

Shelby, Mark. (1992). Separation of Church and State: Has it gone too far? Retrieved on November 22 from  http://www.forerunner.com/forerunner/X0183_Separation_of_Church.html 

Southers, Michelle Marie. (2002). School Prayer. National Parliamentary Debate Workshop July 10, 2002. Retrieved on November 22 from http://www.willamette.edu/cla/rhetoric/workshop/DebateResearch/michellesouthers.doc.
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Origins and Characteristics of the Law and Legal Systems of the United States

Words: 2347 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70263546

Origins and Characteristics of the Law and Legal Systems in the U.S.

The Origins and Characteristics of the Law

and Legal Systems in the United States

The origins and characteristics of the law and legal systems of the United States

It is a commonplace observation to state that the Declaration of Independence and The Constitution of the U.S. are the origin of and provide the characteristics of the legal systems of the U.S. But in order to truly understand the ideas behind these landmark legal documents one must delve deeper into history. What of the texts that influenced America's Founding Fathers? Most may know that the Magna Charta, the English charter from the year 1215, was an influence. But the English weren't the only influential opinion-makers for revolutionary Americans. The Scottish and the French were too. The Scottish Declaration of Arbroath, for example, has been linked by scholars as an…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

1. The Inheritance of Rome, Chris Wickham, (Penguin Books Ltd. 2009)

2. John Adams, by David McCullough, (Simon & Schuster, 2001).

3. Inventing America, by Gary Wills, (1978)

4. The Scottish Invention of America, Democracy and Human Rights, by Robert Munro, et al. (2004, University Press of America.)
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Constitutionality of Federal Legislation in

Words: 631 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93028721

In his Virginia Resolution,
Madison maintains that in the aforementioned Alien and Sedition Acts,
Congress "exercises a power no where delegated to the federal government,"
however he does not have an argument against the federal government's power
to rule on the constitutionality of its own legislation (Virginia
Resolution). Furthermore, Madison maintains the state has power because
the states agreed to the Constitution, yet this overlooks the power that
the states vested in the federal government by the Constitution. In the
Kentucky Resolution Thomas Jefferson also opposes what he believes to be
abuses of power by the federal government. He believes the states have
banded as a commonwealth and not a federation, and thus the Kentucky
Resolution is his hopes that the "commonwealth does now enter against them,
its solemn protest" meaning that it protests against the power he and other
Republicans believe that Congress has used to overstep its designated…… [Read More]

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Barbary Terror America's 1815 War Against the

Words: 1010 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12282765

Barbary Terror: America's 1815 ar against the Pirates of North Africa

During the 19th century, pirates were far from an abstract threat on international seas. Nor was piracy merely due to the actions of some rogue elements. The nations of Algeria, Morocco, Algiers, Tunis and Tripoli used state-sponsored piracy to profit off of ransom money. Sailors who were not ransomed in a system of state-sponsored forced labor. European nations had long taken the attitude that piracy was inevitable, and rather than fight it, they rationalized that "paying Barbary rulers a 'license' for trade was less expensive than constantly convoying ships or attacking the Barbary powers in their heavily fortified ports" (Leiner 14). Remarkably, the still relatively weak and young American nation under the leadership of President James Madison was able to challenge and defeat the Barbary nations at the piracy game. The book The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Leiner, Frederick. The End of Barbary Terror: America's 1815 War against the Pirates of North

Africa. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007.
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Differences Between Constitutional Models

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73228007

Constitutional Models and Political Parties

Constitutionalism and noble representative government are concepts and practices that have existed longer than the American epublic. The existence of these concepts provided the foundation for the formation of the American Democratic Experiment through acting as ingredients towards this process. Since the foundation of American epublic, there are various constitutional models that have been established. These different models have been established in attempts to respond to several governance issues that emerge from time to time. Actually, these different models have provided the foundation for governance models and practices for better governance of the society. Some examples of constitutional models include the 18th Century Madisonian and Hamiltonian constitutional models and Barker's normative democratic theory, which differ with regards to their major components.

Madisonian and Hamiltonian Models v. Normative Democratic Theory

The 18th Century constitutional models basically relied on principles introduced by Madison and Hamilton. Madisonian constitutional…… [Read More]

References

APSA Committee on Political Parties (1950). Towards a More Responsible Two-Party System.

Barker, E. (1942). Reflections on Government.

Garrison, A.H. (2008). Hamiltonian and Madisonian Democracy, The Rule of Law and Why the Courts Have a Role in the War on Terrorism. In Papers from the February 2008 conference: terrorism & justice -- The balance of civil liberties. Retrieved from https://www.ucmo.edu/cjinst/Issue8.pdf

Hamilton, A. (n.d.). The Presidency. The Federalist No.70.
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Jeffersonian & Jacksonian Democracies Jeffersonian

Words: 2641 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 20468292

.." And with that that party "controls the spoils of office" by appointing people friendly to the president's election to positions of influence and by keeping the party's masses happy by giving them what they asked for.

In defining HO and HY, and UNDER HAT CONDITIONS the CHANGE CAME on the national political scene that vaulted Andrew Jackson (a roughneck frontier and war hero with little sophistication vis-a-vis national politics and diplomatic elitism) - i.e., Jacksonian Democracy - into the hite House, University of Chicago social science professor Marvin Meyers writes in American Quarterly (Meyers 1953) that there are three distinct phases to examine. Put in the context of published volumes that would cover these three phases, Meyers lays it out: one, "the revolt of the urban masses against a business aristocracy"; two, "simple farming folk rise against the chicanery of capitalist slickers"; and three, "...tense with the struggle of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, John H. Why Parties? Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1995.

Brown, David. "Jeffersonian Ideology and the Second Party System." Historian 62.1 (1999):

Eldersveld, Samuel J.; & Walton, Hanes. Political Parties in American Society. Boston: Bedford/

St. Martin's,
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Culture and Morality In Other

Words: 5560 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92689784

Such differences may lead us to question whether there are any universal moral principles or whether morality is merely a matter of "cultural taste" (Velasquez, Andre, Shanks and Meyer: 1).

If there is no transcendent ethical or moral standard, then cultural relativists argue that culture becomes the ethical norm for determining whether an action is right or wrong. This ethical system is known as cultural relativism. Cultural relativism is the view that all ethical truth is relative to a specific culture. hatever a cultural group approves is considered right within that culture. Conversely, whatever a cultural group condemns is wrong (Relativism: 2).

The key to the doctrine of "cultural relativism" is that right and wrong can only be judged relative to a specified society. There is no ultimate standard of right and wrong by which to judge culture. Proponents of cultural relativism believe this cultural diversity proves that culture alone…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Anderson, Kerby. "Cultural Relativism." (2004):1-5.

Accessed 1 April 2012.

www.probe.org

"Argument by Morality: Axiological Argument." 2002. Accessed 7 April 2012.
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Political Design and Today

Words: 1939 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57339817

People

In 1863, President Abraham Lincoln delivered a brief but stirring speech while the country was in the process of tearing itself apart in a civil war. During that speech President Lincoln stated a phrase that has helped to capture what democracy means. Lincoln told the audience that had gathered to dedicate a soldier's cemetery that the government that had been formed "of the people, by the people, for the people" would not "perish from the earth." In that phrase, Lincoln summarized what the founding fathers had hoped to capture in documents that shaped the system of government they believed was essential for prosperity and happiness for all mankind. The fact that the United States has remained in existence for more than 200 years does not necessarily mean that the ideals Lincoln spoke of are in existence today. In fact, many would argue that the concepts Lincoln captured in his…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hamilton, Alexander, "Federalist Paper 79," Independent Journal 18 Jun. 1788

Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 37," Daily Advertiser 11 Jan. 1788

Madison, James, "Federalist Paper 52," New York Packet 8 Feb. 1788
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American Government Politics

Words: 2631 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93279002

American Government Politics. Discussed is the fourth amendment and the current policies of searches and seizures. Four sources used. Footnotes.

Fourth Amendment

Americans hold very dear the Bill of Rights. Among the ten amendments that make up the Bill of Rights is the Fourth, one many refer to as the most ambiguous of the all the amendments. Search and seizure law is drawn from the Fourth and over the years the Supreme Court has come to view that its main purpose is the protection of a citizen's property and privacy. However, according to the conclusion of the Court, the Fourth Amendment does not "protect all property interests or apply to all situations where people might wish to protect their privacy." Perhaps, never has this amendment felt more threatened than today. The attacks on the orld Trade Center on September 11th, spurred the hite House Administration to create the office of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Civil Rights Reduced." Denver Rocky Mountain News. April 28, 2001.

McWhirter, Darien A. Search, Seizure, and Privacy: Exploring the Constitution.

Greenwood Publishing Group. October 1994.

Rosen, Jeffrey. " Liberty Wins - So Far; Bush Runs Into Checks and Balances in Demanding New Powers." The Washington Post. September 15, 2002.
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American Politics in the U S Society the

Words: 1194 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43710477

American Politics

In the U.S. society, the political powers of groups are determined by the demographic and institution characteristics. The powers is divided into two models, these includes; the pluralism which was created by the Madisonian democracy and the elitism. Pluralism is a system where the decisions of politics are being made resulting to the bargaining and negotiation among the special interested groups. For this case, no one is allowed to hold a majority of powers, since the power is widely distributed. However, elitism is a system where the society are controlled by a few individuals who are at the top, here, the power is concentrated in the hands of some individuals who share a common interests. This paper examines how demographic and institutional characteristics are shaping the political power of the groups in the U.S., society. It also analyzes how pluralism which is created by the Madisonian democracy enshrined…… [Read More]

References

Kenney, H. (2002). The calculus of consent and Madisonian democracy. London: Free Market

Foundation.

Prothero, S.R. (2006). A nation of religions: the politics of pluralism in multireligious America.

London: University of North Carolina Press.
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Unitary Executive the Notion of

Words: 2909 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61411624

(ipley 2002) There is also an increasing presence of Middle Eastern expats within the metropolitan Detroit and its suburbs. Bush genuinely, believed, according to his supporters that ideologically driven Islamic youth might perform terrorist's acts from within despite any efforts by the Transportation Safety Authorities to ensure that no terrorists came into the country from without.

This gave rise to the first critic of President Bush, invoking the American Defense Act to allow security officials to perform security related wire taps on telephones and electronic surveillance on computer activities of suspected terrorists. This was in direct violations of the FISA (Federal Intelligence Surveillance Act). The violations involved non-compliance with FISA. The FISA rule involves the ordering the surveillance of suspects only after such a surveillance is court-ordered. (Apuzzo 2007) the uniqueness of the FISA construct is that for security reasons the court does not have to be informed of the…… [Read More]

References

Apuzzo, Mark. "Secretive Spy Court Refuses to Reveal Wiretap Rules,." Neward Star Ledger 2007.

Constitution. "Article 2, Section 1, Clause 1." 2009. April 3, 2009. .

Greenburg, Jan Crawford, Howard L. Rosenberg, and Ariane de Vogue. "Sources: Top Bush Advisors Approved 'Enhanced Interrogation'." ABC News, 2008.

Johnsen, Dawn E. "What's a President to Do? Interpreting the Constitution in the Wake of Bush Administration Abuses." Boston Law Review 88 (2008): 395.
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Pragmatism in Its Most Basic

Words: 768 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23886106

In Medieval times Christianity took over as the dominant form of ethics and through feudalism, divine law organized social and political hierarchy. As religiosity was replaced by humanism, and the Catholic church by alternative viewpoints (Protestantism) political and social structures were torn apart, forcing change and a decline in the structure of feudalism and the opening of a new, more individualistic, some say greedy, system of capitalism. Philosophies of the Age of Englitenment further distanced themselves from using religion as the sole basis for structure with such philosophers as John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Rene Descartes and others holding that human existence was more individual -- and therefore more dependent upon individual morals and judgements. Romanticism took these ideas and, through fusion, merged them with ideas on nature, emotion, and the grand capacity for actualization, but again, through the individual (Tumin and Plotch, 1977; (luhm and Heineman). The modern age is…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bluhm and Heineman. (2007). Prudent Pragmatism and Consensus: Case Ethics in Monist and in Pluralist Society. In B. a. Heineman, Ethics and Public Policy: Method and Cases (pp. 39-48). New York: Prentice Hall.

Hamilton, Jay and Madison. (1998, July 1). The Federalist Papers. Retrieved September 2010, from Project Gutenberg: http://www.gutenberg.org/ebooks/1404

Hildebrand, D. (2003). The neopragmatist Turn. Southwest Philosophy Review, 19(1), 46-54.

Rescher, N. (2003). By the Standards of Their Day. The Monist, 86(3), 469-80.