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Jamestown: England Dreams of a New Colony
Over one hundred years after Christopher Columbus landed in the New World, the English King James created two companies of merchants establish a new colony there. These companies were called the London Company and the Plymouth Company. The London Company, later known as the Virginia Company, was the first to make the voyage that was commanded by a famous sea captain named Christopher Newport. They set sail in December 1606, with three small ships and a hundred and five people including carpenters, blacksmiths, barbers, and masons to help build the colony and set up trade when they arrived in America.
The voyage was long and difficult. 'When the first colonist reached the New World they arrived at Chesapeake Bay and named each side of the bay Cape Henry and Cape Charles for the King's two sons. Out of the Bay was a great…
The study of American history has had a range of phases and transitions that have seen the country and its continent develop to its current state. These developmental phases range from the history of its natives, reconstruction era and to the modernity and current-world diversity. This context, however, looks upon the history of native culture that existed in the Columbus period. ith reference to Galloway and Mann, a vivid pictorial vision is eluded on how the American Indians, the Native Americans, were juxtaposed between their way of life and invasion of European settlers in Jamestown, Virginia. The latter was among the first colonies to be established by the settlers, and so did the impacts of colonization to the town's natives.
According to Mann 2007, a group venture consisting of European Settlers was formed in the Columbus Period. The members arrived at Jamestown under the Virginia Company.…
Calloway Colin. First Peoples: A Documentary Survey of American Indian History. New York: Bedford / St. Martin's. 2004.
Mann Charles. Jamestown, America, Lost and Found. National Geographic. [Online] Retrieved from http://< http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2007/05/jamestown/charles-mann-text/1 > 2007.
By 1614, the colony was already sending tobacco to England. A series of supply ships brought by De La Ware and other Englishmen meant that the colonists had enough food too. Although no gold would ever be discovered in Virginia, the colony was becoming lucrative on its own.
In 1613, Pocahontas was captured and taken to Jamestown as a hostage in response to an Englishman being held by her tribe. Pocahontas and John Smith had met years earlier and Smith reports that she helped save his life. As a captive, Pocahontas was introduced to John olfe and the two were married. Pocahontas converted to Christianity and changed her name to ebecca.
The conditions under which they were married have been romanticized as a chapter of American history but undoubtedly the wedding changed the political alliances between the English settlers and the indigenous peoples living in Virginia. The wedding signified the…
Association for the Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. "Jamestown Island."
Cox, Brad. "A Brief History of Jamestown Virginia."
These types of insertion provide both an interactive relation with the reader and a more digestible means of absorbing historical information.
This type of narrative style can be very efficient. In the case of Dr. Kelso's book this attitude provided the subject a much more approachable side and therefore the reader was not intended to have previous experience in artifacts or archaeology in general. The style used by the author ensures the reader's attention and at the same time interest in the general subject of the book.
Dr. Kelso succeeded wonderfully in creating an entire universe of Jamestown from only the information gathered on site. The way in which he connected the information provided by the walls, the artifacts was important for drawing the attention of the reader but most of all, for providing the universe of the first settlers. This included the economic and social activities undergone at that…
Kelso, W.M. (2006). Jamestown: The Buried Truth. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press,.
Likewise, it would have been advisable to conduct observations at different times of year so as to be able to anticipate the range of climatic conditions. The results of those series of experiments and observations would have allowed planners to stock future vessels with the necessary supplies (such as seeds, grains, raw materials, tools, and weapons) to ensure the safety and likely success of permanent settlements.
Another approach that would have been preferable to the ad-hoc method of dealing with issues as they arose would have been to allow those preliminary expeditions to remain on the continent long enough to actually test out proposed methods of sustenance and self-protection. Only after they demonstrate the viability of their plans for establishing a settlement should any families (and children, especially) have been sent to live in untested circumstances.
It would also have been advisable to establish formal arrangements for leadership…
This earned him the title of werowance, a chieftain among the whites (Ibid.).
Lema, J. (1991). The American Dream of Captain John Smith. University Press of Virginia.
"Pocahontas," (1995). Disney Archives. Cited in: http://disney.go.com/vault/archives/characters/pocahontas/pocahontas.html
Q: Why is the favorite American settlement story about the Plymouth Pilgrims, and not the New England Puritans or the Jamestown settlers? Please briefly answer the question with a solid (approx. 150 words) yet short paragraph. Make sure you provide some examples from any readings, movies, etc. that support your reasoning.
A: Plymouth Rock is the traditional site that the Mayflower Pilgrims landed in 1620. The symbol has become so engrained in American history that in the biographical film Malcolm X, the civil rights advocated even refers to the rock, "We didn't land on Plymouth Rock, Plymouth Rock landed on us" (Rule, 1992). The symbol has been prominent in American history for centuries: "This Rock…
Many Europeans viewed America as the New World. To them this was a world full of new expectations, opportunities and, for others, the chance of a new beginning. The success, or failure, of the early settlers was largely dependant on the motives and expectations that they brought with them, but also on the way in which they dealt with the problems awaiting them in their new land. Just as with the Spanish settlers of the 16th Century, the inhabitants of the first permanent English colonies, at Jamestown in Virginia and Plymouth in New England, came to America with differing motives and an individual set of expectations. Records appear to suggest, however, that in pursuit of their opportunities, the colony at Jamestown adopted an approach that was similar to that of the Spanish, unlike their counterparts in Plymouth.
Those who traveled to America did so for a wide variety…
Ayers, Edward. American Passages: A History of the United States. London:
Harcourt Brace College, 1999.
Brinkley, Alan. The Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American People. New York: McGraw Hill, 1993.
Virtual Jamestown. Jefferson Village. 25th September 2002 http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/vcdh/jamestown/ .
In the literature the colonists had been exposed to before traveling to the Americas, Indians were characterized as savages who should be converted to Christianity, and the land they lived upon was seen as open land, ripe for the taking, because the Native Americans populated the lands like wildlife, rather than truly owning the country (90). Thus the founding of Jamestown was an openly colonizing act, designed to dispossess the natives from the soil. Ironically, one might argue, the reason for the failure of Jamestown as a colony was that the land took possession of the colonists and eradicated them from the inside out -- unbeknownst to the settlers, the water was filled with parasites, and was also unpalatably salty, and soon the death toll rose from what the colonists called "the bloody flux" or unceasing diarrhea (50).
Using the story of Pocahontas with which to present the Jamestown story…
The colonist's primary objective, as mentioned before, was to make money, and also try and drive out Spanish colonies. None of the colonists concentrated on survival and focused on their search for prosperity. Because of all the time spent on looking for gold or the route to China, and their lack of skills, the colonists were not prepared for the harsh upcoming winter. The results were devastating. During the winter of 1609-1610 almost ninety percent of the colony was wiped out, and only 50 out of the 500 colonists survived.
The government of the colony consisted of a governor and 12 council members, all whom were appointed. The government, named the Virginia Council, had no decision making power at all. Everything was sent over to England, settled there, and then sent back. This system was outrageously inefficient and often took several years for anything to be resolved. This absurd and…
In contrast, Plymouth Colony was established as a place that provided an opportunity for Pilgrims from Holland to overcome great difficulties and challenges in their native land. The nature of this colony was to provide a home for the pilgrims to escape great hardships while contributing to the development of this colony. Therefore, the nature of the colony could be considered as a home of foreigners i.e. For the pilgrims of Holland. Unlike the other colonies, Maryland was increasingly involved in trade of various commodities or items that were sold to the Inhabitant (Aslop, n.d.).
Despite of these differences in establishment, these colonies consists of some similarities and differences that characterized their early history. Some of the major similarities between the colonies include the fact that their populations were mainly settlers from other regions and dependence on trade for the growth of the communities. The populations in each of these…
Aslop, George . "A Character of the Province of Maryland." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36763/9411393.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 25, 2013).
Bradford, William. "History of Plymouth Plantation (1630-1650)." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36765/9411844.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 25, 2013).
He seems to think, from his closing remarks, that the colony had little purpose in those early days beyond mere survival, which would have been impossible without him.
William Bradford also wrote is account of the Plymouth landing and the colony founded thereabouts in the third person, but he is not nearly as self-aggrandizing as Smith. His account is not exactly humble though, but rather speaks with a certain religious authority that comes perhaps in part from the years between the actual events and Bradford's writing about them. The purpose for the colony, as he seems to see it, was to establish a place where God would receive due reverence. That had been their purpose in leaving Europe, after all, and he counts misfortunes as trials from God and good events as signs of God's blessing. He, too, lists the difficult times that were encountered by the colonists upon landing;…
The passing of time does not necessarily denote progress: women made little noticeable social and economic advancement and almost no political or legal advancements between the European settlements of Jamestown in 1607 until the end of the Reconstruction era in 1877. In fact, most Native American women lost a considerable degree of power and status due to the imposition of European social values on their traditional cultures. African women, brought to the New World against their will and in bondage, likewise did not enjoy the fruits of social progress. White women of European descent, however, did make some progress over the course of more than two centuries of early American history. Divorce laws became more favorable toward women, who over the course of these few centuries were increasingly able to extricate themselves from violent, abusive, or unsatisfying unions. However, divorce laws were one of the only legal progress…
Case study There is no such thing
Q1.The origin of slavery can be traced back to late 1600's in Jamestown in Virginia. In early 1600's the Virginia Company came to America and established the colony of Virginia. In the process of establishing the colony the English settlers also brought with them Portuguese and Dutch traders to help in the establishment of the colony. The English settlers had previously failed in their several attempts to establish a colony but were persistent enough to sees their dream come true. The successful establishment of the colony was later followed by successful trading between the settlers and the locals. In one such incidence that may have most importance was when one trader traded his cargo of African slaves for food.The slaves were first taken in as indentured servants to work in return for freedom, food or land.
The African were given same considerations…
Alexander, R. (2005). Racism, African-Americans, and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.
Buell, T. (2004).Slavery in America: A primary source history of the intolerable practice of slavery. New York: Rosen Central Primary Source.
Oskamp, S. (2000).Reducing prejudice and discrimination. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
There is a record of a similar account found in a chronicle of the Spanish voyager to the new world Hernando De Soto (134). Afterward, in Smith's account, Smith says that Powhatan told Smith he was now a 'friend' which would be an unusual way of describing a man Powhatan actually rather than ritually intended to kill. Powhatan then invited him to return to the English settlement to find suitable presents for this new 'friend.'
Besides the most famous and enduring myth attached to Smith, the Hooblers' use of Smith's own diaries, letters, and autobiographical accounts provide illumination of the early colony. Smith was unsparingly critical of his fellow settlers. After "many months had passed," it became clear that the "preponderance of gentlemen would prove disastrous for the colony (85-85). The chief characteristic of an English "gentleman" was that "he could live without doing manual labor" (85-86). This qualification, although…
Hoobler, Thomas and Dorothy Hoobler. Captain John Smith: Jamestown and the Birth of the American Dream. New York: Wiley, 2005.
In comparison the works all also demonstrate the extreme difficulty that must have been experienced by the colonists when they sought to move to places where there was no infrastructure. The Plymouth and Jamestown accounts even say something so similar it could have been written about the same place and peoples, "But when they departed, there remained neither tavern, beer house, nor place of relief" (Smith) and "Being thus passed the vast ocean, and a sea of troubles before in their preparation (as may be remembered by that which went before), they had now no friends to welcome them nor inns to entertain or refresh their weatherbeaten bodies; no houses or much less towns to repair to, to seek for succor." (Bradford)
In contrast the works offer a divergent general feel, as the Jamestown colony sets up a small government simply to oversee the development of the common goal,…
The National Park Service Web site also does not mention the role of Native Americans during the colonial period of history or the role of African slaves. The omission of the latter is striking, given Yorktown was an important Virginia tobacco port (Twin Cities Public Television 2004). Not mentioning the impact of colonialism on Native American culture is a significant omission for a park called Colonial National Historical Park. Just as the Battle of Yorktown commemorates victory of the British, it also emphasizes the conquering of the indigenous people and the taking over of their lands. Interestingly, the perception that the colonialists now owned that land is stressed by the very fact that it was the colonialists of European descent who fought for the New World and not the Native Americans. Discounting the British or loyalist point-of-view is understandable, given that the battlefield signified victory for the Americans over the…
"Battle of Yorktown." (nd). Kidport. Retrieved May 4, 2010 from http://www.kidport.com/reflib/usahistory/americanrevolution/YorktownBattle.htm
"The Battle of Yorktown 1781," (nd). BritishBattles.com. Retrieved May 4, 2010 from http://www.britishbattles.com/battle-yorktown.htm
"Colonial National Historical Park." (2010). National Park Service. Retrieved May 4, 2010 from http://www.nps.gov/colo/index.htm
"Colonial Parkway." (nd). National Park Service. Retrieved May 4, 2010 from http://www.nps.gov/colo/parkway.htm
hen a northern imposition of tariffs, ratified in Pennsylvania in 1828, began to damage southern income, the 'abomination,' as this legislation was labeled, became a flashpoint for Southern identification with anti-federalist principles. This spoke to one of the strengthening ideological holdings in the South as it pertained to maintaining a slave-labor system in spite of the nation's prevailing cultural, ethical and economical trends.
The South would generally hold that the Constitution was conflictive to the independence of states.
In the unfolding dispute between the regions, South Carolina would be a leader for the concept of nullification, which as explicated in a doctrine anonymously written by southern leader John C. Calhoun, would entitle states to undermine Federal laws that were inconsistent the individual states' constitutions. An act which elicited a military response against South Carolina from then president, Andrew Jackson, this underscored the extremity of distinction in economic interest which had…
APVA. (1997). History of Jamestown. The Association for Preservation of Virginia Antiquities. Ret. Online at http://www.apva.org/history/.
Morrison, Michael. (1997). Slavery and the American West: The Eclipse of Manifest Destiny and the Coming of the Civil War. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press.
Rosenberg, Daniel. (2005). Calculating the Value of the Union: Slavery, Property Rights and the Economic Origins of the Civil War. The Historian, Vol. 67.
Woodworth, Steven E. (2000). Cultures in Conflict: The American Civil War. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
The scientists could then begin a genealogical study to exclude the possibility of a later introduction of the Y-chromosome into the family line (DNA Project website).
An archaeological dig was begun last summer at the oanoke site to see if any additional information can be determined about what took place. Scientists have done several excavations since the late 1940s, finding artifacts undoubtedly left by the colonists such as remains from Hariot's science laboratory. In 2000, National Park Service archaeologists with ground-penetrating radar found rectangular-shaped objects buried beneath several feet of sand. Yet they have not found the site of the colonists' village. Since some relics have found under water, it is possible that what is left of the settlement has eroded and is under water. Disagreement exists about this between researchers (National Geographic).
Despite their debates about where the colonial village may have been located, the experts agree that the…
DNA Project. Roanoke Colony. 2 November 2005. http://papayne.rootsweb.com/Lost-Colony / DNA Project
Drye, Willie. America's Lost Colony: Can New Dig Solve Mystery? National Geographic News. March 2, 2004. 2 November 2005. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2004/03/0302_040302_lostcolony.html
First English Settlement in North Carolina. 2 November 2005 http://statelibrary.dcr.state.nc.us/nc/ncsites/english1.htm
Kupperman, Karen Ordahl. Roanoke, the Abandoned Colony. New York, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1984.
American History: Discussion
Today, the existence of America is often assumed to be obviously good because of the existence of American democracy and positive American democratic values exported all over the world. However, that was not always the case. The American colonists did not find untouched, virgin land but land that was already occupied by native peoples with unique cultural worldviews. Because the Indians did not 'own' land in a manner that was comprehensible to the Europeans the colonists viewed the territory as effectively 'up for grabs.'
The initial motivation of many of the early colonists was purely mercenary such as in Jamestown: "The colony was sponsored by the Virginia Company of London, a group of investors who hoped to profit from the venture. Chartered in 1606 by King James I, the company also supported English national goals of counterbalancing the expansion of other European nations abroad, seeking a northwest…
What is quality improvement? (2014). Duke University. Retrieved from:
McElroy's thesis serves to isolate America from Europe, intellectually, in its development, and affirms America's sense of being a special nation in relation to the rest of the world. The vastness of the American wilderness, and its wide-open spaces that gave rise to the need for self-reliance also helps explain why modern European social welfare state institutions, like socialized medicine and generous pension plans, often meet with resistance in an America that is still in love with the ideal of individualism and hard work. Even in today's discussion regarding the status of illegal immigrants, on both sides of the debate, the willingness of desperate people to work for a mere pittance at jobs that Americans find too hard or poorly paying is often seen as admirable, rather than tragic, because hard work is so valued in American society.
McElroy's focus on the colonial period on of American history, however, neglects…
For instance the establishment of Massachusetts was for the preservation of Puritan values, Jamestown for economic gains, Maryland for expansion of trade, and Plymouth for providing an alternative settlement to disgruntled Dutch people. However, the author of discussion failed to state that the differences in establishment and events that took place in the colony were linked to the specific population in the settlement.
In this case, Massachusetts sought to become a city on the hill because it was occupied by Puritans with strong religious beliefs (Winthrop, n.d.). Plymouth faced many hardships and aimed at producing profit for investors because its population was disgruntled people from Holland (radford, n.d.). While the origin of Maryland's settlers is not indicated in the article, trade became the center stage of the population's activities because of their focus on the existence of numerous commodities in the colony. Jamestown experienced significant difficulties because of the poor…
Aslop, George. "A Character of the Province of Maryland." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36763/9411393.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 27, 2013).
Bradford, William. "History of Plymouth Plantation (1630-1650)." Pearson Education, n.d.
http://wps.pearsoncustom.com/pls_21270577390/143/36765/9411844.cw/content/index.html (accessed January 27, 2013).
During the 18th century there was a fierce competition between the British and the French colonial empires which ultimately led to The Seven Years War. The final result of the conflict favored the English who, nonetheless, were forced to make appeal to the force of the American colonies in order to defeat the French. Following such an action, the opponents of the British rule over the American territories would later on recall and use in supporting the cause of independence the aid the Americans provided the British in tackling the French threat.
The British considered the Americans as being the closest political ally and colonial region. Moreover, the historical context determined such an approach. This special treatment protected the American colonies from any external and foreign threat; in return, the British sought to maintain a preferential trade connection with the American colonies who were, without a doubt, one of the…
The Great Awakening brought people together (though it did also divide them), but its influence on what the United States would later become is great. First of all, it forced people to have their own religious experience and it decreased the heavy hands of the clergy; new denominations also would come to be because of the Great Awakening as a direct result of the importance that was put on personal faith and views on salvation. The Great Awakening also brought the American colonies together and though there was also some division, there was more unification than ever before in the colonies.
The Great Awakening is so significant in the shaping of American and what it would later become because it gave individuals the freedom to find their own peace with life and God as it pertained to their earthly life -- and also to their later salvation. The United States…
Middleton, Richard. Colonial America: A History, 1565 -- 1776. Wiley-Blackwell; 3rd
Geiter, Mary K., & Speck, W.A. Colonial America: From Jamestown to Yorktown.
Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.
ace and evolution
An iconoclastic figure in the study of American History, Gary Nash, who is Director of the National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA, writes from a position of authority as he questions the history that many of us were taught during our primary and secondary educations. In ace and evolution, Nash turns his keen vision toward the matter of slavery at the time our country was founded. A collection of essays based upon his series of Merrill Jensen Lectures in Constitutional Studies at the University of Wisconsin, ace and evolution is an indictment of our country's, primarily northern, founders as they hemmed and hawed and, ultimately, declined the opportunity to create a true, free, racially diverse republic.
ather than focusing on the issue of slavery at its post-independence height, during the antebellum period in the South, ace and evolution examines the issues surrounding slavery during…
Nash, G. (1990). Race and revolution. Lanham, Maryland:
Madison House Publishers
Nash, G. (2010). Red, white, and black: the peoples of early North America (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
history of the native American Indians is a long and colorful one. The first Indians arrived on the North American continent subsequent to the end of the Ice Age approximately 15,000 years ago. These early Indians arrived from Siberia as they passed through Alaska and gradually settled throughout what is now the United States. These early arriving Indians were hunter-gatherers and, as a result, they traveled freely across the vast North American continent and by 8,000 years ago had spread as far east as the eastern seaboard.
As indicated, the early Indians were hunter-gatherers and many of the tribes remained such until the early 1900's but a select few tribes began farming. The Indian tribes electing such life style were centered in present day Mexico City and by the time that this area began to be explored and settled by Europeans the farming life-style of these Indian tribes had been…
Randolph Smithers December 30, 1676
It is amazing how great a difference a single incident can make in the lives of so many different people from different places. Ever since acon's Rebellion was quelled here in Jamestown, there has been a significant increase in the amount of African and West Indian slaves who are being used as the preferred source of labor around these parts. This is just my personal opinion, but I think it is because of the fact that Nate was able to rally so many poor farmers and indentured servants to help him in his rampage against the Native Americans, that these chattel slaves have now become even more popular as a means of working in the fields. ut unlike indentured servants, who can eventually be freed and given land and tools with which to farm, African and West Indian slaves have very little hope of ever…
Famous American Trials. "Salem Witchcraft Trials, 1692." Last modified September 9, 2009. http://law2.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/salem/ASA_TIT.htm
Hubbard, Jr., Bill. American Boundaries: The Nation, The States, The Rectangular Survey. Illinois: University of Chicago Press 46-47.
Jamestown Settlement and Yorktown Victory Center. "The Evolution of the Slave Quarter in Tidewater Virginia." No date. http://www.historyisfun.org/slave-quarter.htm
17th century, a book inspired by Sir Walter Raleigh and written by Richard Hakluyt, entitled "Western Planting," built up great interest in American colonization. Focus of commercial explorations was possible trade with the East India Company for the West. The King of England formed and granted a royal charter to the London Company and the Plymouth Company (Interesting.com) to found a colony. In December 1606, the London Company, led by Captain Christopher Newport, reached a town and named it Jamestown, after the King of England. It was the first permanent settlement in North America, the whole of which was then Virginia. The first settlers in this new land consisted of 12 laborers, a few carpenters, a blacksmith, a mason, a barber and a tailor and 50 other men.
When Captain Newport returned England for a while and left the colony to the inefficient leadership of Governor Wingfield, trouble and misery…
1. Folk, Stephney. Virginia's Founding Fathers. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.lineone.net/~fight/Stephney/virginia.htm
2. Garman, Gene. Founding Principles Rejected: Colonial Virginia. 1998 accessed 28:03:03). http://www.sunnetworks.com/~ggarman/princip.html
3. Interesting.com. Colonial Virginia. (accessed 28:03:03). http://www.interesting.com
4. Jeff. The Founding of Jamestown. The Montague Millennium, 2002.
Your Highnesses have an Other World here, by which our holy faith can be so greatly advanced and from which such great wealth can be drawn," wrote Christopher Columbus to the king and queen of Spain following his third voyage to the Americas in 1498 (rinkley 1). ut even after visiting the New World three times he still had no idea what he had truly started, and he certainly saw no sign that he had began a new era in history. Yet, the history of European involvement in America had begun. Over the next several decades Spanish conquistadores made more and more voyages to the New World, and the royal treasuries grew. Settlements were established and the other European powers, seeing their opportunity, soon made efforts to establish colonies of their own.
In the midst of all of this, the native inhabitants were removed from their lands and…
Brinkley, Douglas. American Heritage: History of the United States. New York: Viking, 1998.
Davis, Kenneth. American History. New York: Harper Collins, 2003.
Gutman, Bill and Anne Wertheim. The Look-It-Up Book of the 50 States. New York: Random House, 2002.
Turner, Frederick. The Frontier in American History. New York: Dover Publications, 1996.
This can be seen in the Catholics who were so tightly bound to the Vatican in Rome (17). The textbook points out that this wasn't just the case for Catholics, the Protestants in the New orld were also closely tied to their Protestant religion in England.
The relationship that the colonists had with the Native Americans was an important one because the European colonists needed the Native Americans to help them build their New orld; in short, the Europeans needed the Indian workforce (Ruckman 17). Sadly, Indians became slaves who were bought and sold, or they were forced (indentured) workers (17). Ruckman notes that the colonists needed major work done and the Indian workforce was not enough to meet the demands of a growing society, which is why slaves for Africa were being imported -- roughly beginning around the year 1502 (17).
Spain came to the New orld in 1492…
Ruckman, FIRST NAME. NAME of TEXTBOOK. PLACE, PUBLISHER, DATE.
However the text was also written to promote both the New World colonies and Smith himself, and these strains often appear stronger than the push towards historical objectivity. It could be said, then, that the real purpose behind the writing of the General History was to advance Smith's own career and image back in England, rather than to provide other people of his day an accurate description of life in the New World. It could also have been motivated as a defense of colonial efforts, as there are several mentions of bettering certain "savages" by exposing them to English culture and Christianity, as well as other feature of European society that Smith sees as superior (Smith, 328).
Because of these ulterior motives, this text cannot be entirely trusted. Its basic depiction of life in the New World and the specific events mentioned can generally be regarded as reflecting the truth,…
Unlike the more committed New England settlers who were fueled by a desire to practice their faith and farm and to create a 'shining city on a hill,' settlements in the southern regions of North America were made up of single men, unused to labor and farming as well as taking orders. Despite certain famous incidents from this period of history, such as the friendship established between Powhatan and Pocahontas with Captain illiam Smith, settlements like Jamestown floundered (Davis & Mintz 52). The Puritans, for all of the criticism leveled upon them, fared better, perhaps because they brought a form of government and a structured ideology to sustain them as a people, although the struggles that beset this community (not the least of which was the Salem 'witch scare') in terms of tilling unfamiliar soil and surviving a harsh climate cannot be underestimated.
Eventually, all of the colonies began prosper.…
Davis, David Brion & Steven Mintz. The Boisterous Sea of Liberty: A Documentary History of America from Discovery Through the Civil War. New York: Oxford University Press,
Perhaps she realized her husband did not really love her. or, she may have realized that her married her simply to convert her, and she chafed at giving up her own culture and roots. Probably, she followed him willfully as his wife (and as a woman's duty), but she could have found that marriage without love is not nearly as satisfying as a loving relationship, and she may have been disappointed and disillusioned, something that clearly shows in her proud features. Whatever the painting explores, it shows a rigid and seemingly unhappy woman, and this seems to mirror many women's lives at the time. They were subservient to men, and even more, they played little role in most of society, and so, they were not masters of their own fates or well being. They could not own property, they could not vote, they could not hold office, and most of…
Bjelajac, David. American Art, a Cultural History. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Peterson Education, 2003.
This view, however, fails in Limerick's mind, to adequately show how we can directly trace our current social, economic, and political order to Jamestown, Salem, and the Louisiana Purchase. "White Americans saw the acquisition of property as a cultural imperative" (Limerick, 55). How has that changed either before or after? Isn't that the justification used by the Virginia Company when establishing Jamestown? Isn't that the same as Sam Houston's justification for the subjugation and annexation of Texas? Isn't that the same as our ongoing destruction of the environment to create homes, shopping malls, and warehouses? Manifest Destiny existed in the European mindset even before the phrase was coined. Thus, Limerick observes that we have to see our history as part of that same kind of continuity of intent.
Indeed, Limerick promotes a moral significance on the history of the American West rather than a focus on specific dates and specific…
Limerick, Patricia Nelson. The Legacy of Conquest: The Unbroken Past of the American West. New York: W.W. Norton, 1987.
history slavery North Atlantic British colonies United States
Observations egarding Slavery
One of the primary methods of resistance for people of African descent who existed in servitude in the North Atlantic British colonies and in the United States was rebellion. Although far from occurring frequently, armed, violent revolt from chattel slaves helped to shape the history of their descendants in these locations. One of the most notorious of these uprisings was known as the Southampton Insurrection led by Nat Turner in Virginia's Southampton County in August of 1831. The effect of Turner's armed insurrection, and those of others in the Southern United States and in other North Atlantic British colonies can be evidenced in the amended legislature which ultimately influenced the future and perception of both slaves and former slaves for several years to come.
Turner's 1831 rebellion was just the latest in the lengthy list of historical uprisings slaves…
Dr. Thomas C., Parramore (1998). Trial Separation: Murfreesboro, North Carolina and the Civil War. Murfreesboro, North Carolina: Murfreesboro Historical Association, Inc.. p. 10
"Nat Turner's Rebellion," Africans in America, PBS.org. Retrieved from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part3/3p1518.html
Aptheker, H. (1943). American Negro Slave Revolts. 5th edition. New York, NY: International Publishers.
Cullen, Joseph P. "Bacon's Rebellion," American History Illustrated, Dec 1968, Vol. 3 Issue 8, p.4
Executive-Legislative relations in Post-Communist Europe
There are two main methods for appointing the executive, the one used in parliamentary systems, the other one in presidential systems. According to the parliamentary method the people first elects the legislature, which, in turn, appoints the executive. In a pure parliamentary system the executive, furthermore, can remain in office only as long as it enjoys the support, or confidence, of a majority in the legislature. This requirement is often referred to as the parliamentary principle. According to the presidential method separate popular elections are held for appointing a president and, thereby, the rest of the executive. In a presidential country, there are thus two main types of popular elections, those for electing the executive and those for electing the legislature.
As for methods for appointing the members of the legislature there are, again, essentially two types of methods. First there are the majoritarian methods…
1) McCauley, M., Directory of Russian MPs (1992)
2) Jamestown Foundation Monitor www.jamestown.org
3) www.moscowtimes.ru ( Moscow Times)
4) www.insideworld.com ( Reuters)
The United States is known as the "nation of immigrants." The reason for this is not hard to find: the economic opportunities and the "American Dream" have attracted waves of immigrants from different parts of the world to make America a mosaic of diverse cultures. hile America has lived up to its reputation as the "land of opportunities" and provided new settlers with the freedom and means to achieve their dreams, people who have adopted U.S. As their country have also played their part in making America great. This essay focuses on why the immigrants from Europe wanted to come to America in the early 1600s and from the 1820s to 1914; what were their expectations and what did they achieve in their adopted country.
The Early European Settlers
The history of European settlement in America started with a group of 214 Englishmen, belonging to the Virginia Company, arrived…
Dinnerstein, Leonard. "Immigration." Article in Encyclopedia Encarta. CD ROM Version, 2003
"U.S. Immigration History." World Immigration. 2003. December 16, 2004.
Small groups of Spanish colonists had established European settlement in Saint Augustine, Florida, even earlier in 1565, but the English immigration is more relevant to the history of colonial America and the United States
The first Africans who were brought to America were not slaves -- slave trade started later.
, 2006). The ongoing investigation is being conducted by a "National Interagency Serious Accident Investigation Team," with the purpose of "determining fact surrounding the incident, identify lessons learned," and with the end result a set of "...recommendations for accident prevention purposes."
The investigation will no doubt look into the fire shelter issue, although since the firefighters are gone, the question of why shelters were not used cannot be answered. If all five men had fire shelters on board the engine, it will seem sadly ironic that those protective units were not deployed. For wildland firefighters, it is not only important for escape routes and other safety procedures to be established, but it is imperative that firefighters are in possession of the very newest, safest fire shelters; and with this in mind, the USDA / USFS "Fire & Aviation Management" eb site offers some conflicting and confusing information.
On one page…
Golway, Terry. (2005). Firefighters. American Heritage Magazine. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.americanheritage.com .
Fire Chief. (2006). Near-Miss Report Total Reaches 1,000. Retrieved 1 Nov. 2006 at http://www.firechief.com/news/1000_near_miss10242006/index.html .
Firehouse.com. (2005) VFIS's Operation Safe Arrival: Don't
Become a Statistic. Retrieved 29 Oct. 2006 at http://cms.firehouse.com/content/article/printer/jsp?id=50236.
New World" & "Black Robe"
Both Terrence Malick's "The New World" and Bruce Beresford's "Black Robe" deal with themes of Native American encounters with European settlers and how it impacted both parties. There are subtle differences in each movie, but the main themes of cultures clashing and the inevitable conflict that will occur as a result permeate both films. Both films are notable for their attention to detail and their respective quests for historical accuracy, though "The New World" deals with the far more mythologized and recognized story of Pocahontas. These two films together represent a shift in the telling of Native American tales in the cinema, no longer satisfied to project the image of "Noble Savage" that had previously dominated these types of movies.
In Malick's "The New World," Pocahontas is portrayed as a woman torn between two cultures: the one she has known for the whole of her…
Framing is a fundamental of construction. Therefore, it can be helpful to understand the history of framing and how it has evolved in terms of materials, uses, and techniques. The frame can be considered the skeleton of a building. Its "rough carpentry" concept is "the basic building skill of new construction and almost every remodeling addition project," ("Framing"). The history of framing in construction does not extend far into the ancient world, and most framing techniques are relatively modern. Ancient methods of construction often included bricks, stones, and concrete assembled in a frame-free manner. Framing from the perspective of construction almost always refers to the use of timber.
Although not used in most monumental architecture, framing in timber was not uncommon in oman and Greek building. eserved mainly for roof elements, timber framing came to relatively common use in beam and post roofing somewhere between 500 BCE and 100 BCE…
Blue Ridge Timberwrights. A history of timber framing. Retrieved online: http://brtw.com/historyoftimberframing.php
Chapter 3: Framing and Closing In. Retrieved online: http://www.engr.sjsu.edu/dmerrick/164/framing/ah73chapter3.pdf
"Framing." Hometime. Retrieved online: http://www.hometime.com/Howto/projects/framing/frame_1.htm
Original Barn Company. "History of Timber Frame and Oak Construction." Retrieved online: http://www.originalbarnco.co.uk/history.php
Massachusetts and Virginia
The Colonial period saw the English established a number of colonies in America. These colonies were not only divided by geography, but also by such things as religion, economics, and other factors. Far to the north, in an area called "New England," lay the colony of Massachusetts, a religious-based society founded by members of a strict religious sect as a refuge from persecution. In the south lay Virginia, settled by a company, for economic purposes, and where religion did not dominate every aspect of society. These two English colonies were both English and Protestant., but could not be more different.
During the early 17th century there was "bitter persecution in England of those whose religious views differed from the Church of England." ("Massachusetts Colony") Among these were the Puritans, who wanted to purify the Church of England from harmful doctrines that were too similar to Roman Catholicism.…
"Massachusetts Colony." Colonial Ancestors- Colonial Genealogy Records and History. Web. 16 June 2011. http://colonialancestors.com/ma/colony.htm
"Puritan Life." Ushistory.org. Web 16 June 2011. http://www.ushistory.org/us/3d.asp http://www.usahistory.info/southern/Virginia.html
"Virginia" History of the U.S.A.: Converted from Henry William Elson's History of the United States. 1904. Web 15 June 2011.
Slavery, The Civil ar and the Preservation of the Union
In the face of oppression and harsh treatment, slaves formed communities as a coping mechanism and to resist the belief that they were simply property. Members of these slave communities came together often to sing, talk, and even plan covert plots to runaway or sabotage the system in which they were living. Slaves married, had children and worked to keep their families together. Families were often broken up as members were sold off to different masters, but when a family was kept together, nuclear families of two parents and their children working for the same master were common. It was in these communities that countless elements of African-American slave culture were passed on for generations, including skills such as medical care, hunting, and fishing as well as how to act in front of whites, hiding their feelings and escaping punishment.…
Buchanan, James." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/B/BuchannJ1.asp .
Lincoln, Abraham," Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/L/LincolnA1.asp .
Missouri Compromise." Columbia Encyclopedia. 6th ed. 2000. Encyclopedia.com. 14 December 2002. http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/m/missrc1omp.asp .
The Terrible Transformation." Africans in America. PBS Online. 14 December 2002. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aia/part1/title.html .
Trade Books in a Specific Curriculum
In the book give title, author's name discusses the potential advantages and difficulties of using textbooks and trade books in a specific curriculum. Though the use of such books can cause problems in terms of student learning, there are also many ways to integrate the use of text and trade books into specific curriculums. The key lies in the way the teacher integrates the material into their thematic study curriculums.
This paper looks at two examples of the use of textbooks in specific curriculums.
In the first article, Jean Ciborowski argues that too many students have difficulty comprehending information that is in their textbooks. Among the reasons Ciborowski cites are unduly difficult textbooks and uninspired teacher's editions.
Meanwhile, in the second article, Peter Afflerbach and Bruce VanSledright examine a case where an innovative history text enhances the learning of history in middle school classrooms.…
Afflerbach, Peter and Van Sledright, Bruce (2001). "Hath! Doth! What? Middle graders reading innovative history text." Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy 44(8): 696-707. EBSCO Database.
Ciborowski, Jean. (1995). "Using textbooks with students who cannot read them." Remedial and Special Educators, 16(2): 90-102. EBSCO Database.
China's accession to the World Trade Organization for China and its trading partners with a focus on the United States. Findings indicate that China will benefit from new export markets and increased foreign investment. The main efficiency gains from WTO membership for China will be in the protected and non-traded sectors, which will feel the impact of import competition or the arrival of new foreign-backed competitors.
China's market access commitments will provide U.S. businesses the opportunity for significantly greater market access to a broad range of goods and services in sectors that are of key importance to U.S. businesses. East Asian economies could also benefit significantly from China's membership. Japan, the Republic of Korea, and Taiwan (China) all provide intermediate goods and quality consumer durables that could gain market share in China.
Premised on the principles of free trade, the World Trade Organization (WTO) requires new member nations to…
Cheng, L. (1999, December). China's economic benefits from its WTO membership. Retrieved November 25, 2003 from Center for Economic Development Web site: http://www.bm.ust.hk/~ced/wto.htm
China and the WTO. (1999, November 20). Retrieved November 25, 2003 from Taiwan Security Research Web site: http://taiwansecurity.org/IS/Economist-991120-China-and-the-WTO.htm
China at the gates of the World Trade Organization. Transition Newsletter. Retrieved November 25, 2003 from World Bank Web site: http://www.worldbank.org/html/prddr/trans/marapr00/pgs13-14.htm
Groombridge, M. (2001, July 24). China's accession to the WTO: a winning outcome for both China and the United States. China Brief Vol 1 Issue 1. Retrieved November 25, 2003 from The Jamestown Foundation Web site: http://russia.jamestown.org/pubs/view/cwe_001_002_001.htm
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Some also do grudge at the great increase of people in these days, thinking a necessary brood of cattle far better than a superfluous augmentation of mankind" (Harrison 1586). One way to ease the situation was to induce or force some to settle in the new territories. They would become the workforce in the colonies and reduce the problem back home at the same time. "These petty thieves might be condemned for certain years in the western parties" as indentured servants to provide hard labor and menial tasks (Hakluyt 1584). This was not only an attractive concept for the privileged classes but also for many of the poor or disadvantaged. In the society they left behind they had little hope of ever improving their circumstances. The hardships and threats they would face in the new world were worth the risk for the chance to improve their condition. Many, however, regretted…
Frethorne, John. "Letter to His Parents." Indentured Servitude. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1623.
Fumas, J. The Americas: A Social History of the United States. New York: Putnam, 1969.
Hakluyt, R. "Reading 2." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1584.
Harrison, W. "Reading 1." Motivations for English Colonization. www.digitalhistory.uh.edu, 1586.
So alike yet distinct did these early writers create, that they are now required reading in British schools (Duquette).
In terms of religion, American culture emulated Britain less than many of the early settler were reactionary against British conservatism. Several of the original 13 Colonies were established by English, Irish, and Scottish settlers who were fleeing religious persecution. By 1787, in fact, the United States became one of the first countries to place a freedom of religion code into law, even if it was only at the Federal level (Gaustad).
Thankfully, America has a taste for more exotic foods and cuisine than the British, but if we think of many of the celebrated Holidays, they either derive from or are part of the British tradition. Thanksgiving, for instance, is now a traditional American holiday evolving from the Pilgrim's plight during the first winter of their landing. Christmas, Easter, and Lent…
Ciment, J., ed. Colonial America: An Encyclopedia of Social, Political, Cultural, and Economic History. New York: Sharpe Reference, 2005.
Duquette, E. Loyal Subjects: Bonds of Nation, Race and Allegiance in 19th Century America. Trenton, NJ: Rutgers University Press, 2010.
Gaustad, E. Proclaim Liberty Througout All the Land: A History of Church and State in America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003.
Gienow-Hecht, J. "A European Considers the Influence of American Culture." 1 Febuary 2006. America.gov - Engaging the World. .
I am very happy that everywhere there are rich woods with good timber I will use for the construction of houses for our people. but, we are a long way from being able to build a solid foundation for a colony of her Majesty here. Our people are either suffering from illnesses or they are starving. There are innumerable riches here offered by nature beneath and above the ground, but it is hard to harvest them or to exploit them with a handful of people from who half are ill or starving. I hope that her Majesty's subjects and our compatriots will soon find out about what lies here as I was able to find out and join us in our efforts to spread the holly beliefs of our Mother Church of England among these savages oversees and bring the glory of conquering new territories and acquiring all the commodities…
It is likely that her status within the Powhatan tribe has been exaggerated by her notoriety.
That said, it is factually that she was a daughter of the chief of the Powhatan tribe. It is also the case Pocahontas would become an important emissary between her tribe and the colony of Jamestown. Likewise, this relationship would be channeled through her closeness with the high ranking colonist John Smith. She factually was married to John Rolfe. Further, indications drawn from Rolfe's correspondent demonstrate that he was truly in love with her. Also, it is indicated that he had intended to introduce her to Christianity. Finally, in relation to her marriage to Rolfe, as well as on the basis of her high regard amongst colonists, she traveled to England as a representative of the colonies.
The two central commonalities between legend and reality seem to be the genuinely positive and voluntarily assistive…
This is why Lytle and Davidson use first-hand narratives as only one piece of evidence. They are always quick contextualize personal narratives with hard, cold facts, like the evident death toll of the early colony, which they attribute to a failure to plant crops like corn for food. Settlers were foolishly determined to leave land and time open to cultivate the cash crop of tobacco. Laws forcing men to plant food suggest, according to the historians, that the settlers lacked a sense of what was necessary to survive times of scarcity during the winter -- and 3,000 of them died as a result. Statistics and primary source documents such as laws, records of immigration and even botanical information about the labor-intensive nature of farming tobacco vs. corn are required to fully flesh out a picture of what life was like and to solve the mystery of why the death toll…
Davidson & Lytle. After the Fact. New York: McGraw/Hill, 1999.
Nash, Gary. American People. New York: Wesley: Addison, 2000.
Others believe that it is no better than other drugs and can even be more dangerous when used for long periods of time ("Medical Marijuana," 2008).
After centuries of use, it seems ridiculous that the government would get up in arms about marijuana proliferation for personal or medical use in the United States. If marijuana can relieve the symptoms of deadly diseases, allowing those suffering from them to be more comfortable, it should be used. In addition, Guither (2009) makes it clear that the reason marijuana was made illegal was not a result of scientific evidence or the opinions of experts. Instead, the illegalization of marijuana was fueled by political, economic, and social incentives. By legalizing marijuana, the United States would free law enforcement from focusing on this problem to train their focus on real crime.
Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? etrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.…
Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.
"Medical Marijuana." (2008). Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Pro-Con.org. Web Site:
Berlin is not the first to assert that slave life in the early history of the country was far from what it became before the Civil War. Another author notes, "In his study of the poor in early America, Philip D. Morgan notes that some slaves in the Chesapeake region might have had more material benefits than some destitute whites. Nonetheless, Morgan reiterates the famous observation of the scholar, Orlando Patterson, that slavery was 'social death'" (abe). Here is where Berlin and other authors differ. Berlin acknowledges the evils of slavery at times, but his book is more like an account of social and racial class formation, and it glosses over many of the harsh realities that have been often repeated in slavery. In this, he seems to do a disservice to the black community, and to those slaves who suffered during this time. He shows how slaves were free…
Berlin, Ira. Many Thousands Gone: The First Two Centuries of Slavery in North America. Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press, 1998.
Bland, Sterling Lecater, ed. African-American Slave Narratives: An Anthology. Vol. 1. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 2001.
Rabe, Stephen G. "Slavery in the Development of the Americas." The Historian 67.4 (2005): 749+.
The Algonquian also had harmonious relationships with the French fur trappers who came to this country and Canada to make their livings. In fact, the French bonded with the Algonquians so much that they fought with the Algonquians against their enemies, the Iroquois, during the seventeenth century. The editors of a historical Web site continue, "The Algonquian were among the first North American natives to strike alliances with the French, who adopted Algonquian means of travel and terms like 'canoe' and 'toboggan'" (Editors). This indicates the Algonquian people were eager to strike a balance with the new settlers entering the country, but they were not willing to give up their lands or way of life, something the settlers often demanded as their colonies continued to grow.
Another aspect of the relationship between the Algonquians and the settlers is the issue of disease. Many Algonquian tribes (and others) suffered huge losses…
Bragdon, Kathleen J. The Columbia Guide to American Indians of the Northeast. New York: Columbia University Press, 2001.
Editors. "The Algonquians." USHistory.com. 2009. 26 Feb. 2009. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h560.html .
Hatfield, April Lee. "Spanish Colonization Literature, Powhatan Geographies and English Perceptions of Tsenacommacah/Virginia." Journal of Southern History 69.2 (2003): 245+.
Jalalzai, Zubeda. "Race and the Puritan Body Politic." MELUS 29.3-4 (2004): 259+.
In colonial America, formal education for girls historically has been secondary to that for boys. In colonial America girls learned to read and write at dame schools. They could attend the master's schools for boys when there was room, usually during the summer when most of the boys were working. (Women's International Center)
During the latter half of the Republic Era, rapid economic growth presented new opportunities for northern white women. Previously limited to homework or to household-related jobs like cleaning and cooking, some young women now became school teachers or mill workers. One destination for young farm women was the Lowell mills in Massachusetts, at the falls of the Merrimac River. An unnamed rural crossroads in 1823, Lowell by 1830 boasted ten mills and three thousand operatives, nearly all of them female. (oyer)
eginning in the 19th century, the required educational preparation, particularly for the practice of medicine, increased.…
Boyer, Paul S. "Early Republic, Era of the." 2001. encyclopedia.com. 20 February 2009 http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1O119-EarlyRepublicEraofthe.html .
Do History. "Who Was Martha Ballard?" n.d. Do History. 19 February 2009 http://dohistory.org/martha/index.html .
Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Women and Work in Early America." n.d. about.com. 20 February 2009 http://womenshistory.about.com/od/worklaborunions/a/early_america.htm .
PBS. "Martha Ballard's Diary." n.d. PBS. 19 February 2009 http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/midwife/gallery/index.html .
The ideology of race only came to justify the existence of slavery after all 'equal' men were said to have inherent rights. Until then, virtually all peoples of the world had been enslaved at one point or another, even before the existence of 'races,' and inferiority as a category could be applied to the poor, to despised ethnicities like the Irish, or even to despised members of other tribes in Africa.
Fields, Barbara. "Presentation." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2001. February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-02.htm
Africa: A Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson. RM Arts, 1984.
Horton, James O. "Origin of race, slavery." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS ebsite. 2003.
February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-04.htm
Obadina, Tunde. "Role of African Slave Traders." Edofolks. February 9, 2009. http://www.edofolks.com/html/pub157.htm
Smedley, Audrey. "Origin of the idea of race." Anthropology Newsletter. November 1997.
Reprinted 2003 on Race:…
Fields, Barbara. "Presentation." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS Website. 2001. February 9, 2009. http://www.pbs.org/race/000_About/002_04-background-02-02.htm
Africa: A Voyage of Discovery with Basil Davidson. RM Arts, 1984.
Horton, James O. "Origin of race, slavery." Race: The Power of an Illusion. PBS Website. 2003.
Davids purports that the MNF would operate under U.N. jurisdiction, with the Organization of American States as its head. (Saskiewicz, 2006) in his review of Davids' book, Saskiewicz (2006) notes that Davids " does not address the difficulties associated with sharing intelligence with foreign nations, nor does he prescribe a means by which this could be accomplished." In turn, he leaves the impression, based on interpersonal relationships and camaraderie, allied MNF members would merely cooperate and share intelligence. This potential "dream," Saskiewicz (2006) proposes would cause nightmares for personnel assigned to any special-security office.
In addition, Davids' assertion the MNF would ultimately fight narco-trafficking organizations, along with political considerations, coupled with logistical and manpower constraints, would most likely dissuade the majority of Latin American militaries from contributing forces to the MNF. MNF financing would also likely serve as an astronomical block to Davids' and/or similar proposed wars against narco terrorism.…
Chouvy, Pierre-arnaud. "Narco-Terrorism in Afghanistan." Terrorism Monitor, Volume 2, Issue 6 (March 25, 2004). Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.jamestown.org/terrorism/news/article.php?articleid=23648 .
Hutchinson, Asa. Narco-Terror: The International Connection Between Drugs and Terror= (Speech). Institute for International Studies. Washington, DC., April 2, 2002. Retrieved June 30, 2008, at http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/speeches/s040202.html .
Manwaring, M.G. (2005). Street Gangs: The New Urban Insurgency. Carlisle Barracks, PA: Strategic Studies Institute.
The following chart illustrates the orientation and where the dog's social, sexual and micturition behaviors should be oriented.
Source: Tieken (1999)
The appropriate socialization of the dog is also important. Guidelines for socialization of the dog is shown for the age appropriate socialization in the following table.
Dog needs nurturing from the dam and to be protected from environmental extremes.
Some human contact is advisable
Continue nurturing, but allow some mild stress such as cold or short-term social isolation. Also increase human contact with some interaction. Studies have revealed that pups that experience mild stress grow up to handle stress better than littermates who were protected from all stress.
This is a fear imprinting period. Avoid negative forceful reinforcements; minimize all stress; be careful to avoid threatening situations (e.g., close proximity to large strange dogs, manwork,…
Hubble, Bert (nd) a Brief History of War Dogs in the U.S. Military: A Historical Perspective. 47th Scout Dog Platoon. Online available at http://www.47ipsd.us/47k9hist.htm
K-9 History: The Dogs of War!
History of Police Dogs (2007) K9 Global Training Academy Working Dogs. Online available at http://www.k9gta.com/History-of-Police-Dogs.html
Of course, a separation of the races meant really the preservation of white superiority at the expense of those formerly enslaved. The law mandated distinct facilities for hites and Blacks. Everything from schools, to transportation, movie theaters, hotels, and even public restrooms were carefully segregated. Few Black only facilities approached white ones in quality or amount of money expended on their upkeep. Black public schools were notoriously inferior as were hospitals and other essential services. As arguments about the disparities became more apparent toward the mid-Twentieth Century, the South sought to defend its segregationist policies by - in the case of medical schools - expanding and consolidating its physician training facilities so as to avoid providing more facilities for Blacks. A plan was actually floated, not to increase Black enrollment at the South's twenty-six medical colleges, but rather to consolidate all training of Black medical personnel at a single facility.…
Boskin, Joseph. Into Slavery: Racial Decisions in the Virginia Colony. Philadelphia J.B. Lippincott, 1976.
Louw, Eric P. The Rise, Fall, and Legacy of Apartheid. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004.
The immunities are spying, sedition and drug trafficking in huge quantities. Soon after two years, in reply to the Oklahoma City ombing, President Clinton signed the anti-terrorism and effectual death penalty law in 1996. The acts which have an effect equally on state and federal criminals limited the evaluation in federal courts by setting up even more strict file targets, restraining the chance for evidentiary inquiries and customarily permitting no more than a single habeas numbers of filing in federal court. (Tom Streissguth, October 1, 2002). However, in about 1970s, the National Association of Evangelicals (NAE) represented more then ten million conventional Christians and forty seven denominations. Secondly, the ethical majority were along with the Christian cluster supporting the death penalty. In the present days, fundamentalist and Pentecostal churches give support to the death penalty, mostly on biblical basis, particularly quoting the old testimonies. Even though, typically also a follower…
DPIC, Death Penalty Information Center (2007) Retrieved on December 5, 2007 at http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/
Streissguth, Tom (October 1, 2002). The Death Penalty: Debating Capital Punishment. Enslow Publishers.
The British Empire gained significant land share within North America through its conquests and emigration. From the founding of Jamestown to the growth of the greater New England region, the North American territories represented a significant portion of the British Empire. Following the Seven Years War, England won the entire territory of New France and doubled the territory possession within North America. Although from a trade perspective North America was not the furtive economic zone that Britain originally envisioned, it did become a several exporter of tobacco, cotton and rice to the British Empire, as well as naval material and furs from the northern region. The American Revolution affected the British Empire in several different ways, it proved to be a symbolic blow the largest empire of the European Continent, and it provided a model for liberation and freedom throughout the rest of the colonial territories. The American Revolution occurred…
Death penalty advocates rationalize capital punishment under the principle of an eye for an eye which is the belief that punishment should fit the crime. In particular, people who support capital punishment dispute that murderers should be put to death in retribution for their crimes and that such vengeance serves justice for murder victims and their survivors. Death penalty opponents stress the purity of life, quarrelling that killing is forever wrong whether by a person or by the state and that justice is best served by way of reconciliation (The Death Penalty: Specific Issues, 2010).
Opponents of the death penalty dispute that there is a hazard of putting to death innocent people, and cite real cases in which defendants were incorrectly convicted of, and occasionally put to death for, capital crimes. Death penalty opponents see current laws which limit the appeals process as equivalent to mounting the likelihood for putting…
Constitutionality of the Death Penalty in America. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://deathpenaltycurriculum.org/student/c/about/history/history-5.htm
Introduction to the Death Penalty. (2010). Retrieved from http://www.deathpenaltyinfo.org/ part-
Recent Legal History of the Death Penalty in America. (2011). Retrieved from http://usgovinfo.about.com/library/weekly/bldeathpenalty.htm