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Primatologist Jane Goodall delivered a speech entitled "Reason for Hope" at the University of Miami Bank United Center on April 29, 2013. Tickets were required for entry, but there was no fee. The speaker began with an anecdote about her childhood to offer the audience information about how and why she became interested in animals and ecology. She lived on a farm when she was a girl in England and was fascinated by the fact that hens laid eggs. One day, young Jane became determined to watch the miracle of egg-laying, and that was how she became an astute observer of animal behavior. "Wasn't that the making of a little scientist?" she questions. The audience instantly appreciated Goodall's informal and conversational tone, as she launched into more serious discussions about the Earth later in the speech. Goodall even addresses gender issues during her discussion, as she refers to…
Jane Goodall is one of the most remarkable people alive on the planet, and her presence on the Bill Moyers journal illustrates why. In this relatively brief interview, Goodall and Moyer discuss a range of subjects, not all related to the chimpanzees. However, it is for her work living with the chimpanzees that Goodall is most renowned, and that experience also changed her own life. Through her work with the chimpanzees and related advocacy work in Africa, Goodall has become an international speaker who goes around the world with her organizations like Roots and Shoots. Now, Goodall’s main message has extended beyond the conservation and understanding of chimpanzee sociology, and includes empowering young people to become conscientious stewards of the environment and compassionate actors in the world.
Goodall’s discussion inevitably turns to her observations of the chimpanzees. She speaks about chimpanzees as having individuality, which comes as a surprise for…
pronounced differences between the habitats in which the scientists that wrote, respectively, In the Shadow of Man and the Wolves of Isle oyale: A Broken Balance, studied. The author of the former, Jane Goodall, was located relatively close to the equator in the Tanzanian jungles of Africa. Her counterpart, olf Peterson, was in the midlands of the United States near the Great Lakes in Michigan. Whereas Goodal was fairly close to the equator, Peterson was much more close to the North Pole. As a result, one of the immense points of variation in the habitats in which these researchers studied was in the climate. Peterson experienced immense temperature extremes in his work, whereas for the most part, the temperature remained fairly consistent where Goodall was -- meaning it was regularly hot. This difference in climate, as well as the degree in which human intervention was found in both of these…
Goodall, J. (2000). In the Shadow of Man. New York: Collins.
Peterson, R.O. (2007). The Wolves of Isle Royale: A Broken Balance. Barrington: Willow Creek Press.
Fouts, R. (1996). Next of Kin: My Conversations with Chimpanzees. New York: William Morrow and Company.
As part of the 1977 National Academy of Sciences Energy and Climate Panel, he discovered "forty percent of the anthropogenic [human-generated] carbon dioxide has remained in the atmosphere, two-thirds of that from fossil fuel, and one-third from the clearing of forests." (oger evelle, 2010, p.2). evelle's presence on the panel would demonstrate the long-standing nature of global warming. evelle could also discuss why taking action on global warming has been so difficult politically, despite mounting scientific evidence that the phenomenon exists for so many years. evelle began his work in oceanography but gradually expanded his focus to population studies, enabling him to bring his expertise in both fields to the panel (oger evelle, 2010, p.3).
Michael Pollan, the author of the Omnivore's Dilemma and Food ules, has devoted his career to exposing the harms of commercial agriculture on the environment and upon human health. Pollan details simple ways…
Peter, Tom. (2008, May 19). Interview: Jane Goodall. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://www.csmonitor.com/Environment/Wildlife/2008/0521/interview-jane-goodall-embraces-a-broader-mission
Pollan, Michael. (2007, December 16). Our decrepit food factories. The New York Times.
Retrieved August 9, 2010 at http://michaelpollan.com/articles-archive/our-decrepit-food-factories/
Roger Revelle. (2010). Earth Observatory. NASA.
Chimpanzees Have Culture?
The Culture of Chimpanzees
The term "culture" has many different definitions, but for purposes of this discussion it should be defined loosely as the values, goals, beliefs, and attitudes that are shared by and characterize a group, organization, or institution. For some time, anthropologists have been studying chimpanzees in order to determine whether they have culture as it relates to that definition. Field-studies on diet, hunting, and chimp tool-use have contributed to this issue and to the attempted resolution of it (McGrew, 1998). Noted anthropologist Jane Goodall has long stated that chimpanzees have behaviors which they have learned from others, and which have been passed down to them, therefore they have a culture (Goodall, 1986). Despite Goodall's opinions, not all anthropologists agree with what she believes and how she defines and understands culture. Anthropological primatologists are divided in their opinions of whether non-human primates like chimpanzees have…
Goodall, J. 1986. The Chimpanzees of Gombe: Patterns of Behavior. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
McGrew, W.C. 1998 Culture in nonhuman primates? Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 301 -- 328
Boesch & Boesche-Achermann found that this organization was key to a hunt's success -- when three or four chimps hunted, there was a success ratio of more than half. The chimps knew it, too; 92% of all the hunts the researchers observed were carried out in groups. Of those that were done in groups, 63% had some level of coordination. This statistic differs greatly from Jane Goodall's chimps at Gombe, who coordinated only 7% of their hunts. Boesch & Boesche-Achermann suggest that this contrast is of value to our understanding of human evolution; when a dramatic climate change struck Africa, east of the ift Valley, it caused our ancestors to -- in adaptation to these new conditions -- develop cooperation in hunting. However, in Boesch & Boesche-Achermann's rainforest-dwelling chimps, we also see a high level of cooperation. Thus, we may need to rethink the timeline and setting of human evolution.…
Boesch, Christopher, and Boesch-Achermann, Hedwige. "Dim Forest, Bright Chimps." Natural
History September (1991): 50, 52-56.
When the driver looked in the hole, he found a dog sleeping inside -- and only when the dog was chased away would the elephant place the log into the hole (Holdrege, 2001).
Octopi -- Suprisingly, octopi have been shown to use tools. The will retrieve discarded coconut shells, manipulate them, and then reassemble them to use as a makeshift shelter (Coghlan, 2009). Other octopi will use Jellyfish and Portugese Man o War tenticles that they shear as their own weapon. They are the only invertebrates known to use tools and show surprising cognitive ability in mazes, food training, and even handler recognition (Jones, 1963).
Implications - esearch into this new discovery is important because it redefines what it means to be "human," as well as implications about the evolution of violence and hominid predation. Finally, an understanding of non-human "culture" may help in answers questions about other intelligent species…
Coghlan, A. (2009, December 14). Octopuses Use Coconut Shells as Portable Shelters. Retrieved October 2010, from The New Scientist: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn18281-octopuses-use-coconut-shells-as-portable-shelters.html
Cohen, J. (2010). Almost Chimpanzee: Searching for What Makes Us Human. Chicago: Times Books.
De Waal, F. (2007). Chimpanzee Politics: Power and Sex Among Apes. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.
"Emerging Explorers," (2010). The National Geographic Society. Cited in:
One of the humans working with her used sign language to ask her what she should do for an upset stomach. Koko signed back "stomach you there drink orange," "there" being the refrigerator, which Koko pointed at. Amazingly, ten days later Koko apparently remembered this and used sign language to find out if the woman was feeling better (p. 159). In another remarkable story, a chimpanzee learned to draw and sought the activity out although she was never rewarded for doing so (p. 203). The authors note that the animal may have started drawing to relieve the boredom of being in captivity, but point out that the animal still showed the desire to be creative artistically.
Ultimately the authors plainly state what they have been leading the readers to: "In the end, when we wonder whether to ascribe an emotion to an animal, the question to ask is not, 'Can…
In the wild, the young of both baboons and chimpanzees must be potential prey for other animals. It seems unlikely that a zoo would put a valuable primate troupe in proximity to a pride of lions and just let nature take its course.
Nevertheless, the study of these animals, while always flawed in some way, has significance for humans. Kummer's conclusions about the genetic basis for much behavior in particular prompts some thought. If many behaviors are genetically driven in baboons and other primates, how much of human behavior is genetically driven? Obviously the need to procreate is present in all animals, but do genetics drive who we choose to marry? How much does genetics influence the jobs we choose? How much of our social activity is wholly our own choice, and how much of it is preprogrammed behavior? Most people would not want to believe that their choice to…
Maybe there is a reason for these great apes to fling things at us in the zoo through the bars of the cage. There but for the grace of Darwin go I.
As the A's, C's, G's and T's switch on an off, it's fascinating to think about the minor and major changes, environmental and otherwise that could have made things different. The stray transcription factor would make the difference. Is there such a thing as counterfactual evolution (like counterfactual history)? It is fun to think about this.
Most of the 2% differential applies to factors we would absolutely expect, such as olfaction and reproduction. Sapolsky points out a fascinating fact that what makes the human and chimpanzee brains different. A neuron in a sea slug and a neuron in a human are essentially the same. Both chemically and physiologically are the same. As he points out, the number of…
Sapolsky, Robert. "The 2% Difference." Discover April 2006: 42-45.
Zyga, Lisa. "Cro Magnon Skull Shows That Our Brains Have Shrunk." Physorg.com.
Physorg.com, 15 March 2010. Web. 13 Apr 2010. .
Picard: Like this hearing.
With this acknowledged, Maddox admits Data is intelligent, but lacks self-awareness and consciousness.
Picard: What about self-awareness? What does that mean? Why am I self-aware?
Maddox: Because you are conscious of your existence and actions. You are aware of your own self and your own ego.
Picard: Commander Data. What are you doing now?
Data: I am taking part in a legal hearing to determine my rights and status. Am I a person or am I property?
Picard: And what is at stake?
Data: My right to choose, perhaps my very life.
Really, then, we see that if Data has information about his own beliefs and can extrapolate those consequences, he must then be self-aware and therefore, closer to being human.
Picard: Now tell me Commander [Maddox], what is Data?
Maddox: I don't understand.
Picard: What is he?
Maddox: A machine.
Picard: Are you…
Star Trek: The Next Generation. "Measure of a Man."
Retrieved from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3PM1DidyG-I
Capek, K.R.U.R. Retrieved from:
Retrieved from: Http://wbooks.adelaide.edu.au/c/capek/karel/rur/
Glimpse into Neanderthal Culture
hen one thinks of the Humanoid genus Homo Sapiens neanderthalensis (HSN) they picture a very primitive creature, simplistic in nature with few social complexities. However, upon close examination of several Neanderthan archeological sites, one will find the Neanderthal man had all of the necessary elements for the beginning of the formation of modern society. It was once thought that these elements were only present after Neanderthan culture after contact with Home Sapiens (HSS). However, evidence now exists that suggests that Neanderthals were already well on their way to developing a formal, but rudimentary, culture well before contact with HSS. This research will examine these findings using evidence gathered from the Petralona, Larga Velhol, St. Cesaire, Shanidar, and Arago sites. This research will support the thesis that Neanderthals had the beginnings of an advanced society prior to contact with Home Sapiens and that the disappearance of the…
Bednarik, R.G. (1992). Palaeoart and archaeological myths. Cambridge Archaeological Journal 2(1): 27-43.
Chase, P. And Dibble, H (1987). Middle Paleolithic symbolism: a review of current evidence and interpretations. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 6:263-296.
A d'Errico, F. et al. (1998) "Neanderthal Acculturation in Western Europe? Current Anthropology, Supplement, 39:1-44, p. 3 in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998. http://www.asa3.org/archive/evolution/199809/0121.html Accessed July, 2003.
Fagan, B. (1990) The Journey From Eden, (London: Thames and Hudson) in Morton, G. (1998) Neanderthan Culture. Internet Discussion. September 7, 1998.
Sing with the Pigs is Human
According to the dictionary, 'anthropology' is the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings. The Kaulong peoples of Papua New Guinea devote their lives to moving from the lowest status to political "big men" and "big women," by displaying their accumulation of knowledge at all-night singing competitions ending in pig sacrifice and feasting. In the course of her fieldwork with the Kaulong, who live on the island of New Britain in Papua New Guinea, Jane Goodale discovered and catalogued that everything of importance to them - every event, relationship, and transaction - was rooted in their constant quest for recognition as human beings. Goodale takes considerable time to determine both the Kaulong definition of 'human' and catalogue the tribal rituals and relationships that build into the Kaulong definition.
Her book is the result of her field work, living with…
Goodale, Jane. To Sing with the Pigs is Human. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1995
Is Ahimsa workable?
The author on the one hand says that the Jains are ideal in respecting the sacredness of life but one the other hand they are too impractical. Even Gandhi himself claimed to follow ahimas yet he had to allow use of DDT to kill mosquitoes. Thus, the idea of ahimas is impractical for protecting lower species because they often kill too many people. Thus the workability of an idea depends on the balance. If the idea of behaving positively to members of species means to respect their light to live than every specie should be allowed to live without harming the other and the one harming the other. And the answer given by the Jainism to author's question is not perfect.
How to React?
The author of the essay does not only give an overview of how people behave but he also tells how they people should…
It has "… taken on a life of its own independent of Mary Shelley's text, and indeed even independent of certain parts of her narrative." (Goodall 19) This has resulted in film and stage play versions of the novel.
The reason for this continuing popularity lies largely with the relevance of the themes; particularly with regard to the theme of man 'playing God' through his application of scientific knowledge and his need to manipulate and control nature. This then can be linked to many questions and issued of contemporary importance. One could, for example, take modern scientific attempts at cloning animals and the possibility of human cloning. The question arises whether science will create monsters in the future through scientific knowledge. As one critic notes; "The public debate on cloning continues to be littered with references to Frankenstein." (Goodall 19)
Furthermore, "Mary Shelley's story has been taken variously to illustrate…
Britton, Jeanne M. "Novelistic Sympathy in Mary Shelley's Frankenstein." Studies in Romanticism 48.1 (2009): 3+. Questia. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
Frankenstein by Mary Shelley. Web. 16 Feb. 2011. ( http://www.sparknotes.com/lit/frankenstein/section1.rhtml )
Frankenstein: Introduction. Web. 16 Feb. 2011.
( http://www.enotes.com/frankenstein )
Both of them are very accurate but they do not work together and he tried to solve that problem for the rest of his life. Einstein knew that this problem would have to be solved if we wanted to understand exactly what happened to create the universe in the very first instant of time.
If Albert Einstein were alive today, he would also be trying to stop war because he was very opposed to warfare between nations. He would also be working to promote nuclear power plants for energy and to reduce or eliminate nuclear weapons as much as possible. During World War II, Einstein knew it was necessary to invent the atomic bomb to end the war but he was very opposed to nuclear weapons otherwise.
Goldsmith, D. (1997). The Ultimate Einstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hawking, S. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. New…
Goldsmith, D. (1997). The Ultimate Einstein. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Hawking, S. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. New York: Bantam.