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Jazz Report: At the Mezzrow
This is a jazz performance report on the show by Aaron Parks with Ralph Alessi and John Hebert at the Mezzrow -- a Greenwich Village showplace. The show was performed on 23 July 2016. Aaron Parks played the piano, Ralph Alessi the trumpet and John Hebert the bass. This was an instrumental performance.
As is typical of most jazz, the instruments used were piano, trumpet and bass and the three combined to produce harmonious sounds that were rhythmically conducted by the bass rhythm and punctuated by the hammers of the piano and the bursts from the trumpet. The piano and the bass are chordophones and the trumpet is an aerophone, according to the classifications of the Sachs-Hornbostel system (Schmidt-Jones).
The timbre of the instruments is rich and poppy. The base drives the sounds but yields up energy to the horn and to the piano, letting…
Kubik, Gerhard. Africa and the Blues. MI: University of Mississippi Press, 1999. Print.
Schmidt-Jones, Catherine. "Classifying Musical Instruments." Openstax, 2015. Web. 9
Biographical Introduction: Teo Macero
Producers work behind the scenes and are the unsung heroes of music. While some producers receive public notoriety like Brian Eno and George Martin; others like Teo Macero remain known mainly to music scholars and serious audiophiles. In 2008, when Macero died, The New York Times ran an obituary with the tagline: "Teo Macero, 82, ecord Producer," as if readers would need that crucial bit of vocational data. Indeed, Macero is best known for his work on Miles Davis's masterpieces Kind of Blue and Bitches Brew. He was also a composer, whose approach to music takes into account the big picture rather than attention to minute detail.
Macero was ahead of his time. He incorporated electronic effects and electronic media in ways that made Bitches Brew as momentous and groundbreaking an album as it is. The embrace of new technology is therefore a hallmark…
"George Martin," (n.d.). Beatles Bible. Retrieved online: http://www.beatlesbible.com/people/george-martin/
Martin, G. (2012). Interview with Marc Myers. Retrieved online: http://www.jazzwax.com/2012/09/interview-sir-george-martin-pt-1.html
Ratliff, B. (2008). Teo Macero, 82, Record Producer, Dies. The New York Times. 22 Feb, 2008. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/22/arts/music/22macero.html
Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (2010). George Martin Biography. Retrieved online: http://rockhall.com/inductees/george-martin/bio/
The Miami Big Sound Orchestra is an ensemble group that plays original arrangements by Miami composers. The music that the ensemble plays has a distinct sound that can be attributed to the cultural influences of Miami and the instruments that are used. It is difficult to describe the ensemble's specific style as they appear to embrace a variety of styles.
The Miami Big Sound Orchestra is clearly influenced by Latin sounds, which is evident through the style, rhythm, and composition of the music being played. The music the Miami Big Sound Orchestra plays sounds a lot like music that was played by major artists such as Tito Puente. The music relies heavily on brass and woodwind instruments. It was interesting to see how one of the songs highlighted the use of the flute. In the song, there was a prominent flute solo, however, the solo sounds a little…
Music and Personal Association
What music do you associate with childhood? How did/does this music make you feel? How do your choices reflect your childhood experiences?
There is not much that I can recall about my childhood in detail. My memory tends to be unreliable at best. That is why I find it so incredible that the music of the Beatles remains a vivid and constant presence in my memories. Indeed, even before I remember knowing that red means 'stop' or green means 'go,' I knew all the words to "Yellow Submarine." It was almost as if I was born with the melody to "Hey Jude" in may head. In fact, since my parents were such devoted listeners to the Beatles, I have little doubt that this was the soundtrack to my gestation.
The constant presence of the Beatles would have an indelible impact on me. There are…
People are now looking ways to fight this problem of stress. Some people take help of drugs to control the stress issue but the side effects of drugs create more problems rather than solving one. Exercise has been proven as a natural solution to the problem of stress with no side effects. In certain cases of other psychological problems combining exercise and music can be helpful.
Effects on Mental Performance: esearches have also shown that both music and exercise combined together have positive effects on cognitive abilities. In a research including 33 men and women in the final weeks of a cardiac rehabilitation program after bypass surgery, angioplasty or cardiac catheterization, the effects of classical music and exercise were studied. All participants were asked to complete a verbal fluency test before and after two separate sessions of exercising on a treadmill. Vivaldi's 'The Four Seasons', a classical music piece, was…
Henderson, S. (August, 2005). The Rhythm of Capoeira: Aerobic Workout Combines Cultural Music and Dance for an Effective Exercise. Ebony. 60(10): 94+.
The Effect of Music on Exercise', Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://www.anselm.edu/internet/psych/theses/2004/hall/webpage/
Morris, a. Myers, S. Schaumburg, L. Schrage, K. And Veasey, M. (2006). The Perceived Effects of Music on Exercise Performance. Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/541.asp
Little Music with Exercise Boosts Brain Power, Study Suggests' Retrieved on September 26, 2007 at http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/hartsong.htm
Music on Life
How Music Has Influenced My Life
Music has always played a major role in my life. For as long as I can remember, I have always looked to music as a way to define my life. I even found it amusing when my high school began to play music over the PA during our lunch hour, making me feel as though my life was, for a brief moment, a silly teenage movie. I am very grateful for my family's introducing me to music as I have found that it has helped me to define various, important milestones in my life.
As long as I can remember, my parents have listened to the Beatles. They had all their songs on records and cassette tapes. This was the first band to which I felt loyalty towards and pretty soon, I knew all the lyrics to all the songs on…
Blue Monday. (1983). New Order. Single. London.
God Bless the Child. (1956). Billie Holiday. Lady Sings the Blues. Clef Records.
Yellow Submarine. (1966). The Beatles. Revolver. Capitol Records.
jazz as a musical tradition not only has a bright future ahead of it, but has also had an illustrious past. The reasons for this are its flexibility. This flexibility, as well as its ability to effortlessly mould itself not only to current events, but also to current musical paradigms, ensures that jazz has a past, a present and a future that can be rivaled by few other genres in music.
The flexibility of jazz translates to and from the world around it. We live in a very dynamic world, with overnight change accepted as the order of the day. Jazz then caters to this by being a flexible musical tradition.
Jazz has also become a sort of language; the "English" of the musical world. It crosses all musical boundaries and is likely to appeal to most audiences. The audience for jazz then is the "global village." Jazz can potentially…
The Hippie community was rapidly expanding and its primary stimulator was music, as people were literally going through brain-affecting experiences as they listened to psychedelic music.
IV. Music is essential in some people's lives because they associate it with particular feelings. Patriotic music is a very important factor in most countries because it makes individuals identify with it and because it triggers sentiments related to belonging. Religious music is also important, considering that many religions accept that religious teachings can be expressed more efficiently by being sung. People often turn to music simply because they feel that it helps them as they try to relax or as they attempt to amplify their feelings.
hereas music can be beneficial when used in certain contexts, it can be particularly harmful when used inappropriately. Aggressive language alongside of a rapid beats-per-minute tempo can influence listeners in adopting hostile attitudes and in behaving unethically.…
Bonta, Steve, "Morality of Music: Because Music Primarily Communicates Emotions, Its Morality May Be Judged According to Whether the Feelings Conveyed Are Positive and Noble or Negative and Base," The New American 8 Apr. 2002
Kirkweg, Sara B. "The Effects of Music on Memory," Retrieved October 27, 2011, from the National Undergraduate Research Website: http://clearinghouse.missouriwestern.edu/manuscripts/230.php
Oldfield, Amelia Interactive Music Therapy: A Positive Approach: Music Therapy at a Child Development Centre (London: Jessica Kingsley, 2006)
He has also learned to appreciate an even wider and more eclectic variety of music than even his mother enjoyed. But without an early musical foundation and exposure to music as a part of life, he does not think he would be nearly as adventurous. The pairing of certain musical styles against one another, like posh vs. common, classical vs. contemporary, and Mod vs. Rock, has more to do with personal, class-based and aesthetic self-definition, he felt, than the fact that one musical style is inherently superior to another musical style.
As he has grown older, Martin says that he listens more for personal taste, rather than to suit his tastes to a particular style because of personal self-definition. He attributes this to being more secure in his own identity. He says that he likes to listen to the music of his youth, although he also listens to a great…
One cannot think of Jazz without thinking of Miles Davis. Davis is widely regarded as one of the foremost jazz trumpeters. However, it would be a mistake to believe that Davis' influence on the world of jazz was limited to his abilities as a trumpeter. Davis was recognized as a composer, a bandleader, and a keyboard player. In addition, Davis helped develop improvisational playing techniques, which incorporated modes. Finally, "Davis had an uncanny ability of always selecting great sidemen for his recording sessions. These recordings are full of original and creative sensitivity and are outstanding examples of jazz recordings made at that time." (The Official Miles Davis Website, 2001).
If Davis' mother had her way, jazz music today would be dramatically different. Davis was born to Miles Henry Davis, a dentist, and Cleota Davis. Cleota Davis was a blues pianist, but she kept that fact hidden from her…
Frankling, K. (1986). Miles Davis: life size. Retrieved November 9, 2005 from Jazzhouse.org
Web site: http://www.jazzhouse.org/library/library2.php3?read=franckling1
The Official Miles Davis Website. (2001). Biography. Retrieved November 9, 2005 from MilesDavis.com
Web site: http://www.milesdavis.com/bio.htm
The piano plays quick octaves and the urgent bass motive portrays an intense wild ride. This strong galloping is also being formulated by the piano's triplet rhythm which allows for the development of the dramatic storyline's urgency.
5. ) There are four different characters in this piece: the Narrator, the father, the son, and the Erlkonig. Although Schubert uses one singer to portray and sing all of the four parts of the characters, the listener is able to quite clearly differentiate them from one another. The son is sung in the high register in a minor key with dissonant harmonies. On the other hand, the father is sung in low register while the Erlkonig is sung in a coy with pleasant and soft melodies in the major key.
6. ) There are two ways that Schubert builds momentum in his piece. The first way is by using the bass as…
Kamien, R. (2010). Music: An appreciation, brief edition. (7th ed. ). New York: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages.
Fake books with jazz notation might look as if they are intended for amateurs. However, although beginners may use the simplified notation to practice music, the fake book's original intention was to provide a stepping-stone for a musician or an ensemble to create their own, unique rendering of the music. Thus jazz notation reflects the stress in this musical tradition upon the musician or the band's individual style. The musician, rather than the composer is the star, when using jazz notation. Rather than attempt to slavishly recreate a performance from the past, which is impossible, as every audience, every musical context changes from night to night, jazz notation empowers the musician to create a living and vibrant performance on the stage, with his or her fellow musicians. ("Fake Books," ikipedia, 2006)
Fake books and jazz notation originated with illegal transcriptions of overheard music, although most fake books today copyrighted with…
Fake Book." Wikipedia. [6 Jun 2006]
Marsalis, Wynton. "On a slave's need for improvisation." From Jazz: A PBS documentary by Ken Burns.2001. Companion Website. [6 Jun 2006] http://www.pbs.org/jazz/time/time_slavery.htm
Musical notation." Wikipedia. [6 Jun 2006] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Musical_notation
Music, Art, Literature Trends
From impressionism to pop art, jazz to hip hop, science fiction to beat poetry, artistic, musical, and literary expressions have varied considerably between 1870 and 2005. The period between the end of the nineteenth century to the current day can be generally described as the modern and postmodern eras. The beginning of the modern era, during the final decades of the nineteenth century, coincided with the Industrial evolution. Along with fascination with modern technology and optimism for the future came simultaneous disillusionment. However, modern technological advancements have made such widespread creativity possible. Social and political trends have also influenced creative endeavors, and vice-versa. Art, music, and literature are more accessible and more possible to create than they ever were in the past. The modern era has been characterized by an overall flourishing of the expressive arts, but some trends have a more lasting significance than others.…
Rock music became more than just a musical trend; it also characterized the rise of the teenage culture, symbolized rebellion, and influenced political and social attitudes. Furthermore, rock and roll remains a viable creative endeavor today, and is also internationally popular, which is why the trend is so important. Beyond rock and roll, electronic music and hip hop are recent significant musical trends. Electronic music has been around for decades, and reached a peak with the advent of the rave. Electronic music remains a vital force in the industry, and has also impacted the development of hip hop. Hip-hop is yet another musical trend that coincides with social and race-related realities in the United States. The genre is so important because it represents American urban culture.
Among the literary trends between 1870 and the present day, the most significant ones include post-colonialism, science fiction, beat poetry, and horror. Post-colonial literature such as the works of Joseph Conrad brought awareness to the problems associated with the colonialist mentality. Post-colonial fiction put a human face on the very real political, social, and economic issues of the modern world. Realism was a major literary method used by post-colonial authors, who depicted their worlds with stunning detail. With the modern fascination with technological advancements, science fiction became a highly significant literary trend to emerge during the twentieth century. Science fiction originated in the early twentieth century when Orson Welles' reading of H.G. Wells' novel the War of the Worlds shocked the nation into believing that aliens had indeed attacked the United States. Science fiction literature strongly influenced television and film, too, and is responsible for the popularity of both Star Trek and Star Wars. Related to but different from science fiction, fantasy writing also emerged during this time and gave rise to the writings of J.R.R. Tolkein, whose works recently spawned motion pictures.
Another significant literary trend to emerge during the middle of the twentieth century was beat poetry and beat literature. Beat poetry was completely free verse and free form, in sharp contrast to earlier, more structured forms. Moreover, beat poetry was far more abstract than previous works. Just as modern art was becoming more abstract and expressionist, so too was literature. Another key literary trend to emerge during the past century was horror fiction. While horror derives from earlier Gothic literature as well as from science fiction, the horror genre has had a huge impact on modern literary expression. Authors like Stephen King have become immensely famous by making people afraid, and his works as well as the works of countless other horror writers have impacted the plots and themes of films and television shows.
Music Since 1900
A Survey of hree Works by Ives, Schoenberg, and Barber
In the film Legend of 1900, im Roth plays an orphan who grows up aboard the SS Virginian, where he becomes a virtuoso piano player, whose styling rivals the greatest Jazz pianists of the early twentieth century. he Italian film is supposed to represent the impermanence of art and the cheapness of capturing a live performance on a record. However, what cannot be achieved in the film is actually achieved by the film, as the New Orleans jazz artist is surpassed by the glorious skills of an orphan who has spent his entire life aboard a steam liner. What it says is that music may be recorded, but what is even greater than the recording is the music itself and the story that inspired it. his paper will compare and contrast three different works of musical art…
Tornatore G. 1999 The Legend of 1900 Fine Line Features Los Angeles
White DA. 2000 Lecture on Music Theory St. [sound recording] Thomas Aquinas
..it has to affect people in predictable ways regardless of particular circumstances" (Linton pp). However, music, says Linton isn't like that because one listener might hear the opening E-minor chorus of the St. Matthew Passion and become grief stricken, while someone else might become bored, and another might find that piece incomprehensible (Linton pp). According to Linton, listening to a particular kind of music does not throw listeners into a trance any more than heavy metal music turns its listeners into sociopaths (Linton pp).
However, even Linton back-stepped a bit when he revealed that there was one area of life in which music apparently had the ability to affect people's behavior, grocery shopping (Linton pp)! Several studies reveal that faster paced music tends to make American shoppers walk down the aisles more quickly than slower paced music (Linton pp).
Apparently Holloway believes that society can be transformed by the cultivation…
Linton, Michael. "The Politics of Music.'
Today many mainstream popular artists have Rhythm and Blues influences. In addition some artists fluctuate between signing R&B and pop music. Although there are often distinctions made between the two genres R&B is definitely a type of popular music that has been greatly influenced by all of the above Genres.
Rap music or hip hop is also a prime example of the influence of African-American Music on popular music. Rap music actually comes from the ancient art form of poetry. The original intent for rap was to tell a story -- provide a narrative. ithin the context of African-American folk tradition storytelling is extremely important -- the griot is important. Griots are the keepers of the oral traditions -- the storytellers. According to Powell (1991) "To the accompaniment of drums or other percussive instruments, griots entertain and educate their audiences by reciting tribal history and current events. Their performances are…
Powell, CT. (1991) Rap Music: An Education with a Beat from the Street
The Journal of Negro Education, Vol. 60, No. 3,
Progler., J.A.(1995) Searching for Swing: Participatory Discrepancies in the Jazz Rhythm
Section Ethnomusicology, Vol. 39, No. 1,, pp. 21-54
" Instead of those key lines, a wailing voice suggests that prayers for love remain unfulfilled. The stress is on lines like "without a dream in my heart, without a love of my own," as the wailing replaces the rest of the chorus. Elvis's "Blue Moon" is truly blue: filled with sadness and unfulfilled longing.
To enhance the reinvented theme of "Blue Moon," the instrumentation is stark. Throughout the recording, only a bass and a drum accompany the sultry vocals. The effect is clearly and intentionally that of a cowboy song. The rhythm of both the bass and the drums convey a horse gently trotting, carrying its lone rider through the Wild West. Evoking cowboy movies and mystique is one way the arrangement sends a far different message than the one that ogers and Hart had intended. In Elvis's version, the male vocalist is totally, utterly alone. He is a…
"Blue Moon: by Richard Rogers and Lorenz Hart" (n.d.). Retrieved online: http://www.lorenzhart.org/moonsng.htm
"Blue Moon." Versions performed by the Boswell Sisters, Elvis Presley, and Rod Stewart. Retrieved on YouTube.
Music and Cognitive Theory
Music tends to have a phenomenal power over the human mind and emotions. A movie without a soundtrack would seem so dull and boring. If you try closing your eyes and picture a scene with music, it gives a completely different mood and emotion to it. Even before the music culture that exists today, human beings were still making some kind of music. They made flutes with the bones and jaw harps. Music has always had an innate appreciation for humans. Pleasant sounds lure a person to identify its source, whereas a shrill, unpleasant sound makes a person uncomfortable.
Studies show that while an orchestral concert, the pleasure centers of a human brain are activated. These are also active while a person has chocolate, engages in sexual acts or during the intake of stimulants like hash and cocaine. hen a baby is being formed inside a…
Mursell, J. (1970). The Psychology of Music. New York: Prentice Hall.
Schlaug, G.L. Jancke, Y. Huang, and H. Steinmetz. 1995. In vivo evidence of structural brain asymmetry in musicians. Science 267: 699-701.
Ratey, J. (2002). A Users Guide to the Brain. New York: Vintage.
Strickland, S. (2001). Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Childhood Education, 78(2), 98-109.
Jazz Performance eport
Jazz in its essence is a group of assorted musicians seamlessly communicating with one another. The communication may be planned or take place in spontaneity as the musicians become one in music. Since the tempo, key, rhythm and etiquette of the music is so potent, the musicians allow for great excitement generated by the music to shine, thereby making spontaneous improvisation easier. Jazz is a constantly evolving music genre and is great music to dance to and enjoy (HJW).
Jazz grew in popularity quickly, and for the first half of the 20th century, it was the world's most popular music. This period produced great music that is being enjoyed even today by the young generation. This period in time was also one of the most depressing in history as the great depression struck by an influenza pandemic and citizens of the world endured the world wars and…
Harrington, Jim. Diana Krall's Solo Performance at the Montreal Jazz Festival. 27 June 2011. .
HJW. What is Jazz? 2012. .
Sabbatini, Mark. Diana Krall: Live At The Montreal Jazz Festival. 2005. .
Spitzer, Peter. Jazz Theory: Harmony and Form of Jazz Standards. 2011. .
Music and Dance in Indian Films
In sheer quantity, INDIA produces more movies than any other country in the world-over 900 feature-length films in at least 16 languages, according to a recent industry survey. This productivity is explained by several factors: the size of the Indian audience, low literacy rates, the limited diffusion of television in India, and well-developed export markets in both hemispheres. (http://worldfilm.about.com/cs/booksbolly/)
In its historical development, India's film industry paralleled that of the West. Dadasaheb Phalke's Raja Harishchandra, the first silent film for popular consumption, appeared in 1913; Alam Ara, the first "talkie," was released in 1931. ut the Indian cinema derived its unique flavor from the older Indian musical theater-particularly from the Urdu poetic dramas of the late nineteenth century. The influence of this tradition ensured that Indian movies would favor mythological or legendary-historical stories, that their dialogue would carry an Urdu flavor even in languages…
National Identity in Indian Popular Cinema 1947-1987 (Texas Film Studies) by Sumita S. Chakravarty Univ of Texas Pr; (December 1993)
Encyclopedia of Indian Cinema by Ashish Rajadhyaksha (Editor), Paul Willemen (Editor) British Film Inst; Revised edition (September 1999)
Cinema of Interruptions: Action Genres in Contemporary Indian Cinema by Lalitha Gopalan British Film Inst; (July 1, 2002)
Music and Society
Music has a profound influence on society. As with other forms of art, music has the ability to communicate messages that are both complex and oblique -- the message need not be specific, but may convey an emotion or ethos, external to the lyrical content of the songs. Music gives a voice to generations by allowing those who have the ability to convey their thoughts and feelings through the form, and others to convey theirs through the consumption of the media. Thus, while music can have significant influence over a generation, and reflect its values, likewise the music to which that generation is drawn to reflects its values outward to the world, allowing some of the music (and other art) consumed by that generation to be understood by any society that chooses to consume that music. One cannot replicate the 60s just by listening to the Doors…
Edmonson, J. (2013). How social media and streaming have influenced the music industry. Socialnomicsi. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.socialnomics.net/2013/12/02/how-social-media-and-streaming-have-influenced-the-music-industry/
Gordon, A. (2014). Subcultures, Popular Music and Social Change.: Subcultural practices in UK punk culture. Cambridge Scholars Publishing: Newcastle-upon-Tyne.
The roots of such music can be traced back still further to the gospel hymns, work songs, and field calls that developed amongst slave populations in the south during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Scholastic 2011). The Southern and decidedly African-American sounds of blues and early jazz were brought along with the Great migration, where New Orleans styles like Dixieland met with the calmer strains of the Mississippi blues and other styles (Scholastic 2011). In New York, with the greatest concentration of African-Americans, new collaborations and iterations sprang up quite rapidly.
The Harlem enaissance, named for the neighborhood in Manhattan where the African-American community was concentrated and centralized, was an explosion of artistic, literary, and musical expression largely because it represented the first major community of African-Americans located in a small geographical area (McDougal & Littell 2008). The jazz music that developed in New York as a part of this…
McDougall & Littell. (2008). Creating America. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&q=cache:Kw-WjacYGhEJ:www.quia.com/files/quia/users/nygardgeo/RoaringTwenties/The-Jazz-Age-and-the-Harlem-Renaissance+jazz+harlem+rennaissance&hl=en&gl=us&pid=bl&srcid=ADGEESiTwUV7ZR1UBvIK6Wk5zZj1K7s9dsOtMZZ6U19HXCPtpQ_GchKhK8HsMmQd0Ib5OHiIHJZ7qB5DfaCxk-krvFwwG8-j9-TKWEbF3mkOJwo4-Gn-nejkpsjMWjvQjS66vTchyieT&sig=AHIEtbRLiTwGmw1QGRN1drC4BnuJ9VD4bw
Mintz, S. (2006). The Great Migration. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/database/article_display.cfm?HHID=443
Scholastic. (2011). History of Jazz. Accessed 6 June 2011. http://teacher.scholastic.com/activities/bhistory/history_of_jazz.htm
This were then replaced with larger big band orchestras as technology allowed such large groups to be clearly recorded, "As the swing era began, shorts were made of many of the top orchestras," (Yanow 2). Big band orchestras began showing up in all the major Hollywood productions. They featured pre-recorded songs where the musicians lip singed. It is interesting to have such a crucial period on film. The Swing Era "was fortunately captured for feature films and short subjects at the time it was all happening," (Behlmer 1). Big bands became incredibly popular in feature films during the 1930s and 40s. Benny Goodman, "The King of Swing," had a movie- Hollywood Hotel in 1937 "the full orchestra plays an abbreviated version of that quintessential Swing Era arrangement of 'Sing, Sing, Sing' in the film," (Behlmer 1). From big Hollywood productions came popularity on the small screen. As televisions became the…
Behlmer, Rudy. "Big Bands in the Movies." Turner Classic Movies. 2009. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://www.tcm.com/thismonth/article/?cid=199314
Gridley, Mark C. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2006.
History Link, "The Jazz Singer, the First Successful Feature Film with Sound, Debuts in Seattle at the Blue Mouse on December 30, 1927." The Free Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 15 Nov 2009 at http://www.historylink.org/index.cfm?DisplayPage=output.cfm&file_id=2485
Schoenherr, Steven E. "Recording Technology History." San Diego University. 2005. Retrieved 16 Nov 2009 at http://history.sandiego.edu/GEN/recording/notes.html#origins
ith a career spanning several decades, and an influence spanning several continents, Miles Davis has arguably had a bigger influence on jazz music than any other musician. In the 1991 obituary in The New York Times, Miles Davis was described as an "an elusive touchstone of jazz," and someone who "defined cool," (Pareles). Davis' album The Birth of the Cool makes his name not just symbolically associated with the quality of coolness, but actually a synonym of the birth of cool jazz -- a specific genre of jazz that originally and bravely broke from established big band and be-bop traditions to enter the realm of the avant-garde via improvisation and experimentation. Jazz was forever transformed via Miles Davis' contributions and his musical legacy as composer and trumpet master.
Davis was born in Alton, Illinois on May 26, 1926. His upbringing was "middle class," and he was exposed to…
Davis, Miles. Miles: The Autobiography. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990.
Early, Gerald Lyn. Miles Davis and American Culture. Missouri History Museum, 2001.
Kirker, Tim. "Miles Davis." All About Jazz. Retrieved online: http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=18568#.UTfMJ3zreII
"Miles Davis and John Coltraine." Chapter 42 in?
Evolution of Jazz
Dizzy Gillespie was a jazz musician and composer who mostly known for his work on the trumpet. He also played several other instruments, including the piano and alternative horns. His tenure in jazz was fairly lengthy, and spanned several eras including big band and bebop, the latter of which he helped to popularize. He also played swing music on more than one occasion and performed vocals on both recordings and during live sets. Count Basie was mostly known for his work on the piano and his compositional skills. He was one of the most noted jazz musicians during the time in which this art form initially became popular. Basie was a part of the big band movement in jazz, and led expansive jazz orchestras for the vast majority of his career. Chet Baker was a jazz musician who was largely renowned for his work on the trumpet,…
Bourne, M. (1972). Fat cats at lunch: an interview with Dizzy Gillespie. www.downbeat.com Retrieved from http://www.downbeat.com/default.asp?sect=stories&subsect=story_detail&sid=1015
Brady, S. (2011). Gordon Goodwin & the big phat band. http://jazztimes.com Retrieved from
Crossing the Bridge
The video opens with a punctuated sound that is monophonic and seems to be a drum being hit on the rim, and a symbol being played with a brush. The video show a river and the bridge and men discussing something on board a vessel. Of course their language is foreign so all the English speaking reader can do is note the emphasis and the emotions attached to the voices. There are no subtitles. It would have been helpful to know what these men are saying.
The music in the background is traditional Turkish music, instrumental with repetition as a high-pitched instrument interacts with percussion. It sounds like the music in old movies where a snake charmer is doing his work and the snake is slowly coiling and its head is ready to strike.
The underground band Baba Zula is getting ready to perform. They are all…
Earliest Origins of Jazz
Jazz has several origins and influences that make it what it is today. The earliest origins of jazz can be traced back to the Congo where the slave trade was based. Here the Congo natives had a tradition of music that consisted of a single line of melody and had a pattern of the call-and-response that is typical of jazz today. The rhythms found in this native music also consisted of a structure that was a cross-beat. This cross-rhythm drove the sub-Saharan styles of music in Africa and was related to the speech patterns of the Africans. The relationship between the beats of the music is what made it complex, for one could not be separated from the other, as they participated in a kind of dialogue, so to speak. This supports the call-and-repeat scheme of the overall structure of this early influence on the development…
Cooke, Mervyn. Jazz. UK: Thames and Hudson, 1999. Print.
Kubik, Gerhard. Africa and the Blues. MI: University of Mississippi Press, 1999. Print.
Palmer, Robert. Deep Blues. NY: Penguin, 1981. Print.
The 2003 Detroit International Jazz Festival gave me a welcome introduction to the complexity and variety of jazz music. Prior to the Festival, my exposure to jazz was limited, but Festival acts like the Caribbean Jazz Project revealed that jazz could be exciting and contemporary. Overall, I would highly recommend the Festival to anyone from a newcomer to jazz to a long-time jazz fan.
Officially titled the Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival, the Festival began in 1980. It was founded by the Detroit Renaissance, and has seen tremendous success since that day. Since 1994, the Festival has been produced by the Music Hall Center for the Performing Arts. The Festival was originally called the Ford Montreux Detroit Jazz Festival (Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival).
The festival aims to provide exposure for a wide number of artists, from international stars to emerging artists to high school and college music groups.…
Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival. 23 July 2004. http://www.detroitjazzfest.com/
Hovan, C. Andrew. 2003 Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival. All about Jazz. 23 July 2004. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=694
The Detroit News.com. Friday, August 29, 2003: Ford Detroit International Jazz Festival schedule. 23 July 2004. http://www.detnews.com/2003/entertainment/0308/29/e08-257042.htm
Obviously, Sal Paradise, much like Kerouac himself, loves American jazz music, especially played on the acoustic guitar by an African-American jazz/blues giant like Huddie Ledbetter, better known as Leadbelly.
As Mark Richardson sees it, writing in "Peasant Dreams: Reading On The Road," "The strain of the basic primitive," in this case jazz, ". . . is what Sal and Dean listen to in order to hear" what they call "wailing humanity" (Texas Studies in Literature and Language, Internet) or, in other words, the vocals of someone like Leadbelly wailing out the blues, another original form of American music with roots sunk deep in the elements of jazz. For Richardson, it seems that Kerouac's application of jazz in the text of On The Road serves not only as a theme but also as the basic framework for the personalities of Sal and Dean, two rebels "on the road" and "on the…
Kernfeld, Barry, Ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Jazz. New York: St. Martin's Press,
Kerouac, Jack. On the Road: 50th Anniversary Edition. New York: Viking Press, 2007.
Liukkonen, Petri. "Jack Kerouac (1922-1969)." Books and Writers. Internet. 2008. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/kerouac.htm.
The Jazz Age and Gatsby
F. Scott Fitzgerald’s The Great Gatsby is the great novel of the Lawless Decade—the Roaring Twenties or the Jazz Age, as it was otherwise known. It was a time of easy credit and flowing cash. It was a time of Prohibition, when alcohol had been outlawed and people looking for a good time had to go underground to the speakeasies, where they drank their liquor in hiding. To be human meant to be a criminal, and thus everyone who wanted to have a drink became a scofflaw. The 1920s was the decade of the scofflaw, the decade of excess and the decade of the nouveau riche—the ones who, like Jay Gatsby, made their millions from bootlegging or from the stock market or from both. Nothing captured the essence of the post-war 1920s like jazz, which was a new kind of music in America—a music that…
music of the Twentieth entury. Specifically, it will compare music of the Twentieth entury to the music of a previous period, and include information about the significance of composers in society, the role of music in the societal landscape, and the evolution of musical forms through the centuries.
Twentieth entury music embodies so many different forms and types that it is difficult to lump it together under one heading. In the United States, the Twentieth entury brought music listeners everything from Gershwin to rap and blues to headbanging. Just as America is a rich cultural melting pot, her music is just as rich and varied, and this is nowhere more evident than in the Twentieth entury.
At the turn of the Twentieth entury, most of America listened to opera and classical music - much of it from some of Europe's most famous composers of the previous centuries, such as Bach,…
Composers have always been revered by society, and the part they play in the social fabric of a time is incredibly significant. The music of Copland and Gershwin embodies an age in American culture, just as the music of Duke Ellington and Benny Goodman embodies another time and place. Good composers can "feel" the time and place, and create music that embodies the spirit of the country and the people. This was never more evident than after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, when people suddenly wanted to hear patriotic melodies, and several composers complied by writing touching tributes to America and the victims of the attacks. Composers have always created music that spoke of the people and the times, and as such, they are mirrors of society, and change in society. Jazz came about because the lifestyle of the people was changing, and they needed music that reflected these changes. Rap came about for the same reason, and so did rock and roll. All of these forms of music came about at the right time. Composers recognized the societal changes, and were not afraid to change with them.
Music can touch a place in a person's soul, and this is another reason composers who can feel what the people are feeling are so important. Music is woven into the fabric of our lives. We marry to special music, are buried with special music, and remember certain music of the past by the memories it evokes. Music, and the people who write it, are a vital part of society at every level, and at every stage in a person's life. We tend to look back at the music of our youth with fondness, which is one reason music of the past can sometimes resurge, such as the current cult popularity of swing bands, such as Big Bad Voo Doo Daddies, Manhattan Transfer, and the Brian Setzer Orchestra.
In conclusion, music has always evolved and changed how we listen to it. One critic said, "Reviewing the popular music of the twentieth century as a whole, most people would probably agree that some of it is excellent, some unbearable, and most of it very indifferent" (Van der Merwe 3). This continues to be the case.
Most large cities have a symphony orchestra, which may perform a dozen times during a season. Jazz and the blues, however, are usually available most of the time in small venues like bars and clubs, and often during the year at large festivals, such as the Monterey Jazz Festival in Monterey, California. Jazz is gaining in popularity on the radio too, and most larger cities have at least one jazz station, while they might not have a classical station. Classical music is accessible in a number of areas, but jazz and the blues are accessible in many more, and that is why today's listener has a wide choice of options when looking for live jazz and blues concerts.
Any trained musician knows all musical genres have similarities. They all use a distinct language of notes and rhythms, and they all use meter, tempo, and harmony. In this, jazz and blues…
Gioia, Ted. "The History of Jazz." WashingtonPost.com. 1997. 18 July 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/style/longterm/books/chap1/historyofjazz.htm
Knight, Richard. "All That JAZZ." Geographical Oct. 2001: 14.
Porter, Eric. What Is This Thing Called Jazz? African-American Musicians as Artists, Critics, and Activists. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2002.
Shepard, T. Brooks. "Music Notes Earworthy." American Visions Oct. 1999: 48.
relationship of music and culture and history in Japan. The music of Japan is as rich and diverse as the culture of Japan's people, and it has a long place in Japan's history. Several different musical forms and instruments make up Japan's musical history, and it has ancient beginnings in the earliest history of Japan in many cases. While the Japanese have held on to their musical past, they are also not afraid to create new musical traditions, such as the karaoke fad that swept the world in the 1990s and beyond.
Ancient Japanese Music
Many scholars believe that Japanese music has its roots in the music of China, an ancient culture that dominated Asian culture from the earliest recorded history. However, studies indicate this is really not the case. Japanese music historian Egon Wellesz notes, "It might be expected that Japanese music would exhibit considerable Chinese influence; but it…
Asai, S.M. (1999). Nomai dance drama: A surviving spirit of medieval Japan. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Malm, W.P. (2000). Traditional Japanese music and musical instruments. Tokyo, Japan: Kodansha International.
Tokita, A. & Hughes, D.W. (2008). Ashgate research companion to Japanese music. Surry, UK: Ashgate Publishing.
Wellesz, E. (Ed.). (1999). Ancient and oriental music. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
23. "96 degrees in the shade." Third World (Jamaica). Reggae Greats
The guitar opening in "96 degrees in the shade" make the song sound not like reggae but like soft rock or smooth jazz. In fact, as the song progresses I was surprised that it took so long for the quintessential reggae sounds to start: including the syncopated rhythms and baseline.
24. "Dodi Li." Theodore Bikell (Israel). Folk Songs of Israel
Meaning "My beloved is mine," Dodi Li is a classic Israeli folk song that has been sung by an astonishing variety of groups including Peter, Paul, and Mary and the Milwaukee Children's Choir. The song emphasizes beautiful vocals and heartfelt Hewbrew lyrics. Theodore Biskell's version is evocative especially because the vocals are haunting and resonate throughout my soul. Moreover, the song is deceptively simple with simple soft strumming and drums in the background.
25. "Slow Hora/Freylekhs." The Klezmer Conservatory…
In the music field, Germany boasts of some of the world's most renowned producers, composers and performers. Germany is the third largest music market in the world and the largest in Europe. The earliest roots of the music culture in Germany are within monastic chants and religious music. The 12th century saw the mystic abbess Hildegard who was from Bingen writing storing compositions and hymns. These were sought to be free musical expressions coming from narrow conventions. Between the 12th and 14th century, minnesingers who were wandering nobles and knights wrote and recited love poems in country version in the tradition of French trovers and troubadours. Out of the many minnesingers during that period of time, einmar Von Hagenau and Walther Von de Vogelweide were the most famous ones. Apart from the minnesingers there was also the development of a secular folk music tradition. There are collections of…
Joseph, A. (2012). Ten Reasons to love German culture: German Giants of classical Music. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://theculturetrip.com/europe/germany/articles/ten-reasons-to-love-german-culture-german-giants-of-classical-music-/
InterNations.org. (2014). The German Music scene. Retrieved September, 26 2014 from http://www.internations.org/germany-expats/guide/16030-culture-shopping-recreation/the-german-music-scene-16028
Countriesquest. (2009). Culture, Music. Retrieved September 26, 2014 from http://www.countriesquest.com/europe/germany/culture/music.htm
Brown had succeeded in spite of a terrible start in life and seemingly without making musical compromises" (95). Indeed, he did.
Brown's style has been one that successfully changed with the times. A close look at his songs will reveal how his music evolved with the sounds of the times. Brown drew from rhythm and blues musical influences such as Little Richard and Ray Charles, as these influences are present in his early work. From "Please, Please, Please" to "Living in America," Brown's identifiable sound has never lost his style. His first hit Please, Please, Please" demonstrates sounds that were popular in the late 1950s. In "Papa's Got a Brand New Bag," we hear the earlier influences of the late 50s and early 60s in the lyrics and the guitar riffs.
Brown's career and musical inclinations began to change in the mid-60s, which can be seen in "I Feel Good…
Brackett, David. "James Brown." Grove Music Online. Site Accessed May 19, 2008. http://www.grovemusic.com
Kamien, Roger. Music: An Appreciation. Boston: McGraw-Hill. 2000.
Danielson, Anne. Presence and Pleasure: The Funk Grooves of James Brown. Connecticut: Wesleyan University Press. 2006.
Elliot, Marc. I Feel Good: A Memoir of a Life of Soul: Introduction. New York: Penguin Books. 2005.
Japanese Music from Anime and Video Games on American Culture
Music found in Japanese anime and video games has found its' way into American culture, as the popularity of these mediums has provides a route through which Japanese artists and creative works may extend beyond the Asian region (Shahriari 179). The cross cultural nature of music can be seen in the development of today's Japanese popular music; known as J-Pop, has roots which can be traced to the pre-orld ar II western jazz clubs (Shahriari 178). The Japanese music scene developed its' own culture, as seen with Japanese crooners emulating the style of Elvis Presley, such as Paul Anka and J-Pop songs of the time such as Sukiyaki (Shahriari 179). The style mainly stayed within Japan, with little music becoming well know externally (Shahriari 179). However, the use of the music in anime, as well as video games has increased…
Kelts, R. Japanamerica: How Japanese Pop Culture Has Invaded the U.S. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006. Print.
Knobel, M, and C Lanlshear. "Remix: The Art and Craft of Endless Hybridization." Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 52.1 (2008): 22-33. Print.
Sexton, J. Music, Sound and Multimedia: From the Live to the Virtual. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2007. Print.
Shahriari, A. Popular World Music. Abingdon: Routledge, 2015. Print.
Music may be counted among the strongest neurobiological tools at hand for altering individual moods, conduct and attitudes. What effect does it have on us in relation to the promotion of hatred and violent behavior? In what way does it shape people’s explanatory approach and minds? An inherent relationship has been found between mood and music. Scholars constantly attempt at objectively explaining the occurrence of such influences. Research works demonstrate that music engages, within the listener, a broad array of psychology-influencing neurobiological systems (Bergland, 2012).
Music apparently impacts an individual’s physical performance by enhancing vigor with shifting rhythms and diverse tempos, in contrast to the utter absence of music (Belford et al, 2013). This paper will address three distinct models with an aim to gauge the influence or degree of influence of music on individuals working out at gymnasiums.
Observation and Models
Model 1: Concentration represents an attentional practice…
Jazz dance is an integral part of American history. The various types of jazz dance all come from a fusion of African and European traditions, which is why jazz dance symbolizes American culture itself. According to Tilton's film Jazz Dance, jazz dance first evolved in the Deep South and spread as far as Europe before returning home to America. Jazz dance is not monolithic, and it is important to recognize the differences between types of dancing such as tap and swing in order to understand the contexts in which the dances were or are used. For example, some dances became popular in theater, while others were more comedic. Jazz dance might not seem to have a political or even an economic dimension, but it certainly does. The impact of jazz dance on American society has been felt on almost every dimension including political, economic, and social realms. In particular, jazz…
Hill, Constance Valis. Tap Dancing America. New York: Oxford University Press, 2010.
Nalett, Jacqueline "Jazz Dance History." Retrieved online: https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&ved=0CEcQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.uh.edu%2Fclass%2Ftheatre-and-dance%2F_docs%2Fnalett%2FJACQUELINENALETTJazzDanceHistory2.doc&ei=6F2AUtW0C8aG3AXtpIC4BA&usg=AFQjCNHhplX8I-J6Tc2cChANwl32kdS0oQ&sig2=SCTcAFKh_ZPTxob_htvq6Q&bvm=bv.56146854,d.b2I
Stearns, Marshall and Stearns, Jean. Jazz Dance: The Story of American Vernacular Dance. Da Capo, 1994.
Tilton, Roger. Jazz Dance. [Feature Film]. 1954. Retrieved online: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h-DPiVVQJlY
Jazz Consisted of:
• Folk and blues styles
• Emphasis on:
• simple harmony
• and improvisation (based on melody)
• Mostly ensemble playing with all instruments playing together except for solos
The special conditions that gave rise to its development in New Orleans were:
• Brass band marches were popular
• The red-light districts known as "Storyville" had clubs where dance bands played
• French quadrilles, ragtime and blues were popular there
• The Afro-Creole and vaudeville shows were influences there
• Tourists came to New Orleans and that is how the "jazz" style of the area spread
• Many Africa-Americans were hired to perform in brothels and bars: Buddy Bolden, Louis Armstrong and many others
With so many different ethnicities and cultures gathering together in one urban location, people latched onto their community traditions and introduced their folk music trends into American society. Irish,…
A Brief History of Cool Jazz
December 6, 2012, would have marked the ninety-second birthday of pianist Dave Brubeck. The nonagenarian was looking forward to performing at the Palace Theater near his home in aterbury, Connecticut. Sadly, Brubeck died of heart failure just one day shy of the celebratory concert. The concert went on as scheduled, but it was a memorial rather than a birthday party. It is what Brubeck would have wanted. Brubeck was one of the originators of a jazz style that became known as "cool jazz." He was a brilliant pianist who loved to experiment with rhythms and instrumentation in ensemble work. Brubeck never stopped innovating over his long career during which he composed symphonies, classical and religious music, ballets and film scores He valued musical integrity over commercial reward. "You never know what's going to work," he said. "You just go with what you…
Dave Brubeck Quartet. 1961. YouTube. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. .
Dryden, Ken. "Take five: The public and private lives of Paul Desmond." All About Jazz.
2 Feb. 2011. Web. 10 Dec. 2012. http://www.allaboutjazz.com/php/article.php?id=17894 >.
Miles Davis and Modern Jazz
In every artistic medium there are innovators who push innovation to the edge -- who change the paradigm of their art, and who become iconic figures within their world. Classical music had innovators in every generation -- Stravinsky's ite of Spring, Leonard Bernstein, and more. Jazz, too, evolved from a combination of folk and tribal styles through different eras (Dixie, Be Bop, etc.) into what now is really a true 20th century musical phenomenon.
The origins of Jazz have been much discussed -- emerging out of the African slave culture with a musical synergy of tribal (rhythm, scales, syncopation, and improvisation) and the European musical tradition of harmony, instrumentation and chromaticism. One famous musician noted, though, that jazz was uniquely American and that, "No America, no jazz. I've seen people try to connect it to other countries, for instance to Africa, but it doesn't have…
Remembering Miles. (1991, November 12). Retrieved March 2013, from The Rolling Stone Archieves: http:/www.rollingstone.com/Desktop?s=1991111428#/19911114/44
Miles Davis. (2006, June). Retrieved March 2013, from Rock and Roll Hall of Fame Indusction: http://www.rockhall.com/inductee/miles-davis
House Resolution 894 Honoring the 50th Anniversary of "Kind of Blue" and Reffirming Jazz as a National Treasure. (2009, December 15). Retrieved March 2013, from clerk.house.gov: http://clerk.house.gov/evs/2009/roll971.xml
Cook, M., et al. (2002). The Cambridge Companion to Jazz. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press.
Popular Music and Social Change in the Present: Green Day's 'American Idiot' (2004)
Following the catalyzing events of September 11th, 2001, the United States would find itself deeply divided over the issues of terrorism, war and presidential politics. At the heart of this frequently impassioned and vitriolic debate would be the U.S.-led invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq as well as a far-reaching culture clash between two distinction American populations. The 2004 album by pop-punk trio Green Day, American Idiot, would be crafted with the intent of exploring these divisions. In the title track, Green Day would author an anthem that would become omnipresent in pop culture as the U.S. used falsified information to justify its invasion of Iraq.
"American Idiot" would serve both as a harsh critique of the war, of the presidency of George . Bush and of the violent, materialistic culture being fomented in the U.S.…
Geek Stink Breath (GSB). (2012). American Idiot Song Meaning. Geekstinkbreath.net.
Wiebe, C. (2007). Walkn' With Green Day. Center for Parent/Youth Understanding.
Popular Music and Identity
Sound Clash-Popular Music and American Culture
Identifying through music is fantastic and creates social movements. People find music to be liberating, relaxing, and calming. Identifying oneself through music a person is able to have direct experiences in their body. This allows a person to place them self in an imaginary cultural narrative. Popular music has been analyzed as though it is a classical composition, which makes the analysts neglect the improvisational and performative aspects of popular music. Analyzing how audiences respond to popular music and how they identify with this kind of music is vital. This would allow people to better understand how different people identify with certain popular songs. Theodor Adorno viewed popular music as a culture industry, which is designed to appeal to society by creating a false need for entertainment. Simon Frith views popular music as a complex world where that values and…
Adorno, Theodor W, and George Simpson. On Popular Music. Institute of Social Research, 1942. Print.
Frith, Simon. "Music and Identity." Questions of cultural identity (1996): 108-27. Print.
Hill, S., and B. Fenner. Media and Cultural Theory. London: Bookboon. Print.
Ethnic Music Humanities
a) Origin and Development of Traditional and Contemporary Ethnic Music
My personal experience in learning this subtopic reveals to me that music is a global cultural practice found in every known culture, both in the past and present, but with a wide variation with regards to time and place of practicing it. Since every ethnic group around the world, including some of the most secluded tribal groups, depicts their own forms of musical practices, I conclude that music might have been present among the ancestral populations prior to the dispersion of human populations around the world. This confirms that music must have been existing and evolving into different forms for over 50,000 years, and the first music might had been invented in Africa, which is regarded as the cradle of humankind. Then the music evolved through diverse parts of the world during human dispersion to become the…
House music also influenced the development of b-boying, or breakdancing, which took house dance moves and made them more aggressive. Close physical posture and movement without physical contact in b-boying can be seen in capoeira. Like capoeira, house dance styles varied by region. For instance, in Chicago and Detroit, jacking was a major element of house dance. Jacking was a dance move that focused on torso movements and created a rippling effect, and the dance known as "The Farmer" also originated in this type of house music (Mirani). Jacking was influenced by the heavier sounds of techno and acid music. On the East Coast, house music was highly influenced by hip-hop music. Dance moves that originated on the East Coast include "Loose Legs," the "Train," skating, and Jamaican skanking (Mirani). On the est Coast, house music was more commercial and dance moves were influenced by b-boys.
In addition to the…
Brown, James. "Shared Characteristics of Music & Dance: Capoeira and Dance Music." Prezi.
20 April 2013. Web. 26 April 2013.
"Capoeira Instruments." Capoeira World. Web. 26 April 2013.
"History of Capoeira." 1999. Web. 26 April 2013, from http://www.capoeira.htmlplanet.com/
Reggae music, born of a combination of R&B, blues, jazz, and traditional African music, and combined with a religious tradition, was unique to Jamaica at a time when the country was looking for her identity. The combination of political messages, religious connotation, and raw sound was ideal for the changing society of the time. However, to be pushed to international stardom, the music was altered and rerecorded by milder, less powerful white British artists who helped internationalize the genre. The end result, however, was that it would take many years for true reggae to reach international audiences, complete with the ideology and messages the music was intended to portray. hile the British musicians helped popularize the culture, it would take Bob Marley and many others decades to bring the true message of reggae music to international light.
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge,…
Connell, John. Sound Tracks: Popular Music, Identity, and Place. London: Routledge, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=103320803 .
Everything Jamaican. "The History of Reggae Music." Jamaica. Everything Jamaican. 2004. 7 May 2007. http://www.everytingjamaican.com/jamaica/ .
Farred, Grant. What's My Name? Black Vernacular Intellectuals. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2003. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=109751409 .
Bays, Barry T. Reggae, Rastafari, and the Rhetoric of Social Control. Jackson, MS: University Press of Mississippi, 2002. Questia. 7 May 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=106845661 .
There is an old cliche that contemporary music, especially popular music, is without lasting significance or quality. The truth is just the opposite. Contemporary music is extremely creative, and employs a wide range of styles and draws on many traditions around the world. In fact, contemporary composers and singers encompass all the known traditions and rich styles of the past, in both western and eastern cultures, in mainstream society as well as indigenous groups. Contemporary music is all music -- from string quartets like the Kronos Quartet, whose classically trained string quartet offers jagged, minimalist, modern music that has won many fans, to the seminal and groundbreaking work of popular singer/composers like Paul Simon, who in his Rhythm of the Saints album, employed African and tribal percussion. Contemporary music can be rock and roll, rap, classical, gospel, jazz, country western, or world music (music of other cultures).
Dylan, Bob. Lyrics 1962-2002. Simon & Schuster (2002).
Dylan, Bob and Ellison, James. Younger Than That Now: The Collected Interviews With Bob Dylan Thunders Mouth Press (2002).
Grout, Donald J. And Palisca, Claude. A History of Western Music, 6th Edition. W.W. Norton & Company (2000).
Kostka, Stefan. Tonal Harmony, With an Introduction to 20th Century Music. McGraw-Hill. (2000).
This section was made up mainly of alto and tenor saxophones, but sometimes also included baritones as well.
1935 saw the creation of the Benny Goodman Trio, yet another development in the evolution of Goodman's style. The trio was made up of legendary jazz musicians; Teddy Wilson, Gene Krupa who he had played with in his radio days, with Goodman leading and composing. In this era, Goodman followed a much more mature style, as seen in After You're Gone, (Groove Music, 2008). In these recordings, he explored a complete range of the clarinet and was prone to play in "blue thirds," (Groove Music, 2008). In 1936, the trio became a quartet with the addition of Lionel Hampton on the vibraphone.
One night in 1938, Goodman got the chance of a lifetime, and has been thereafter accredited with bringing swing music into national recognition. He and his band performed at Carnegie…
De Toledano, Ralph. "The Night Swing was Born." Insight on the News. Vol. 13. Feb.,
Gridley, Mark. Jazz Styles: History and Analysis. 9th ed. Prentice Hall. 2005.
Groove Music. "Benny Goodman." Associated with PBS' Jazz a Film by Ken Burns:
Selected Artist Biography. Oxford University Press. Retrieved on 3/31/08 at http://www.pbs.org/jazz/biography/artist_id_goodman_benny.htm
When jazz is viewed in this manner, the historical narrative becomes organic rather than linear and compartmentalized. Devaux's article is valuable for the musical scholar not because it contains factual information about the history of jazz, information that as the author points out is plentiful, even ubiquitous. What Devaux hopes is not to illustrate new facets of the lives of jazz musicians but rather to present the entire portrait of jazz from unique and varying perspectives. Moreover, the author suggests that there may be no singular correct way to draft a historical narrative about jazz: jazz can be a springboard for discourse in a variety of subjects, from race relations to American history to musical theory.
Most importantly, jazz should not be oversimplified; historians risk losing sight of the complexity of the music, political, and social phenomena to which jazz has given rise. Jazz should be viewed in conjunction with,…
However, there was a greater seriousness to the concert than jazz as 'background music' might possess. The music had a kind of melancholic quality, despite the fact that it was not spontaneously arising as an emotional outpouring of the musicians. The other instruments prominently featured were piano, drums, and base. All of these instruments are very visceral in nature, and complimented the soprano saxophone's lighter tone.
Although all of the instruments had solo passages, the solos were not strident 'featured' performances, or showpieces like a guitar or drum solo during a rock concert. The solos emerged from the hum of the other musicians, as the other instruments took up the background chords while the solos gradually emerged in prominence. Melody in "My Favorite Things" is passed around, and because it is fairly unobtrusive and unostentatious -- more like a rhythm than a distinct melody -- the status of 'soloist' slowly…
This, along with the older Psalter by trenhold and Hopkins, was the main influence of the Bay Psalm Book printed during 1640 in Massachusetts. This can be compared with the first musical influences on and compositions by Li Jinhui. The traditional forms were explored thoroughly before new ideas in music were explored.
Culturally, the new Americans at the time were deeply religious, following the Puritan tradition on which they based their way of life. Their music therefore reflected this tradition, and the earliest genres were mainly religious in nature. As such, the musical format was unaccompanied by musical instruments, as these were viewed as secular and therefore sinful. The same type of division can be seen in the later genres of Asian music, where Cantopop began to lose its popularity in the face of new and more trendy developments. In contrast, however, the Chinese does not have as clear a…
Faigin, Tom. "The Minstrel Show's Contribution to Folk Music." 2007. http://www.jsfmusic.com/Uncle_Tom/Tom_Article6.html
Wikipedia. "C-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-pop
Wikipedia. "K-Pop." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/K-pop
Wikipedia. "Li Jinhui." Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 2007. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Li_Jinhui
Race and Music: Richie Valens
In the past, an individual's culture would dominate whether or not he or she could have any kind of financial success outside of fans of that particular culture. However, there have been a few musical artists who have been able to transcend the limitations of their culture and become what would be considered mainstream performers. These people are extraordinary in that not only were they able to achieve great success, but were able to do so without sacrificing the integrity of their heritages. One of the first successful Latin or Chicano artists to achieve mainstream success in the United States was Richie Valens, born Ricardo Esteban Valenzuela Reyes. This man introduced 1950s America to the sounds of Latin and Hispanic culture and incorporated Spanish language into popular songs which became big hits in America among Hispanic and white audiences as well. hat is particularly remarkable…
Lehmer, Larry (2004). The Day the Music Died: The Last Tour of Buddy Holly, the Big Bopper,
and Richie Valens. Schirmer: New York, NY.
"Son Jarocho Music." (2011). National Geographic. Retrieved from http://worldmusic.nationalgeographic.com/view/page.basic/genre/content.genre/son_jarocho_789/en_US
He encourages people to come aboard a train being engineered in "weirdo abandon" by musicians who "dramatized a sense of what it is to be American" (1987, p. 10). Christgau, another writer who sees the correlation between this music and the greater society in which it occurred, adds: "rock criticism embraced a dream or metaphor of perpetual revolution. . . . Worthwhile bands were supposed to change people's lives, preferably for the better. If they failed to do so, that meant they didn't matter." (2003, p. 140)
ock and roll is recognized much more than by its musical and stylistic differences. It is also utilized in many different ways by its followers. Grossberg (1983) analyzes the way that rock and roll functions in societal transformations. He notices that although rock and roll has a variety of different local effects, it appears to also have a unified historical identity. He says…
Cohen, S. (1993) Ethnography and popular music studies. Popular Music. 12(2), 123-138
Christgau, G. (2003) a History of Rock Criticism, in National Arts Journalism Program: Reporting the Arts II: News Coverage of Arts and Culture in America, Andras Szanto, Daniel S. Levy, and Andrew Tyndall (Eds) New York: NAJP at Columbia University, 140.
Finnegan, R. (1989). The Hidden Musicians: Music-Making in an English Town Cambridge: Cambridge University
Greil, M. Mystery Train: Images of America in Rock 'n Roll Music (1975) New York: Penguin Group
Blacks in Blues Music
Biographer Lawrence Jackson wrote that author Ralph Ellison was exposed to the blues and classical music from an early age, eventually playing the trumpet and pursuing a degree in music at Tuskegee (McLaren Pp). hen he moved to New York to pursue his writing career, Ellison was exposed to the musical developments in jazz and often attended the Apollo Theater, the Savoy Ballroom, and Cafe Society Downtown, and although he admired such figures as pianist Teddy ilson, Count Basie and Duke Ellington, he did not particularly admired Dizzy Gillespie's Bebop, considering its use of Afro-Cuban influences as a "strategic mistake" (McLaren Pp). Ellison, writes Jackson, was more concerned with the "homegrown idiom" (McLaren Pp). That homegrown idiom that Ellison referred to was the blues, a music born in the fields of the South by black workers who used their African musical heritage to give birth to…
McLaren, Joseph. "Ralph Ellison: Emergence of Genius."
Research in African Literatures; 12/22/2004; Pp.
Southern, Eileen. The Music of Black Americans. W.W. Norton & Company.
1983; pp. 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 338.
Woody Allen's Annie Hall
Music is hardly used at all throughout the course of Woody Allen's classic comedy film Annie Hall. Like the great Ingmar Bergman, a director that Allen has idolized throughout the course of his career, Allen chose to leave a music score out of the film altogether.
Allen has always been known for his unconventional use of music in his films. He has never commissioned an original score for any of his movies; rather, he prefers to use established jazz and classical music recordings. But in a lot of his films, these jazz scores can be heard constantly in the background. Not so in Annie Hall.
One of the few uses of background music to be heard in Annie Hall include a boy's choir Christmas melody that features in a scene where the characters are driving through Los Angeles. In another instance, Mozart's Jupiter Symphony can be…
Then in 1949, China was liberated and the state controlled by Mao Zedong, took over all music and artistic activities. Mao made great efforts to change musical traditions which he had associated with the older, defeated Chinese society. Promoted revolutionary songs and "Yangko Plays," (Yu un 1991). He moved the traditional away from professionalism, and towards exploring the life of the proletariat, the common people. Mao then allowed ussian influences to permeate into Chinese cultural traditions based on the nature of communism in the Soviet Union. Communism forced music like you would force production. Mao basically destroyed creative expression, all music other than state approved works were banned Popular musical developments were still occurring in British held Hong Kong, where the 1950s saw movements of Chinese ock and oll based on its Western influences (Wong 2000). Yet, it is clear that the music being handed down by the generations in…
During, Jean. 1982. "Music, Poetry and the Visual Arts in Persia." In The World of Music, 24(1). pages 72-84.
Nelson, Kristina. 1982. "Reciter and Listener: Some Factors Shaping the Mujawwad Style of Qur'anic Reciting." In Ethnomusicology 26(1). pages 41-47.
Nueman, Daniel M. 1985. "Indian Music as a Cultural System." Asian Music 17(1). pp.98-113.
Nueman, Daniel. 1989. "Music." The Cambridge Encyclopedia of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan and the Maldives Francis Robinson, ed. Cambridge University Press. (pp.445-8).
The creation and enjoyment of music has been a part of our collective human culture since long before the beginnings of recorded history. It is believed that once upon a time even cavemen and Neanderthals were able to create music using their prehistoric instruments and technologies. Archaeologists and historians have discovered remnants of musical instruments in dig sites from all across the globe. The various instruments or what may or may not have at one time been instruments, that have been found at each of these locations have been a reflection of the culture in which it was used. As modern culture is reflected in current musical interests, so too the cultures of past civilizations have been reflected in the instruments and music that those cultures had left behind. Part of the culture invariably involves the tools and available materials that the population would utilize in order to…
Anderson, J 2008, 'Slaves to the rhythm,' CBC News.
Busoni, F 1962, 'Sketch of a new esthetic of music,' Three Classics in the Aesthetic of Music:
Cher 1998, 'Believe,' Believe. Warner Bros.
Everett-Green, R 2006, 'Ruled by Frankenmusic,' The Globe and Mail.
Music is constantly changing. Most people only know the cliches of music from other lands -- a bit of tango, maybe flamenco. But just as American artists are inspired by the sounds of the lands of their heritage, world artists today honor their nation of origin and take some of the best sounds of the West, to make something new. I love mestizo (fusion) of Putumayo, how new African artists are blending jazz and traditional songs of their homeland, and also how rock and traditional folk songs can become fused and give old words new power.
World or ethnic music is grounded in a tradition that transcends commercialism, yet it is becoming wildly popular because the Internet has enabled more and more people to become exposed to international artists. When I first developed my interest in world music, I was an anomaly because I sought out music beyond the confines…
Ethiopian Music 4
Ethiopia actually contains many distinct cultures. The most populous is that of the Christian Amhara around the capital plateau, but there are other Christian, Jewish, and Muslim peoples, some remote and virtually unknown. The following remarks apply to Amhara lyric poetry.
Sung verse poetry is here the major musical artform, given a very plastic melodic conception based in artistic standards which revel in double meanings. The basic formats together with the ambiguities in phrasing have something in common with poetic forms in Yemen and serve principally to attract interest. The sonorities of instrumental ensembles can also be similar, with the instruments serving primarily to accompany or mimick the voice, but with the notable inclusion of the krar lyre which seems to have direct ties to ancient lyres of Greece and King David (a fixture of Ethiopian iconography). The music itself is very much melodically driven, frequently with…
Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.scaruffi.com/history/african.html
Abyssinie Swing. Ethiopian Music. Retrieved May 23, 2006 at http://www.rootsworld.com/reviews/book-abbys.shtml
Gebrekidan, Fikru. Roots, Kwas, and Reggae. Retreived May 23, 2006 from htt:/ / www.seleda.com/may00/bawza.shtml
World Fact Book. Ethiopia. Retireved May 23, 2006 at http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/et.html