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Jean Piaget: The Man Who Listened to Children
As a distinct form of scientific study, psychology does not boast a long history. During the earliest years of its practice, the study was used in a sort of "one size fits all" manner, with the client undergoing the same sort of analysis regardless of gender, age, or background. As more information was gathered through actual interaction with subjects from different parts of human society, it was found that men and women are different and cultural influences can profoundly affect the individuals subject to them.
Jean Piaget was among the first psychologists to understand that children are more than simply little adults (Kitchener, 1986).
Piaget was born on August 9, 1896, in Neuchatel, Switzerland. His father, Arthur, was professor of medieval literature at the University of Neuchatel, and his mother, the former ebecca Jackson, was also an educated person, assuring…
Bridgewater, W. & Kurtz, S.(1969). The Illustrated Columbia
Encyclopedia, Vol. 16, Columbia University Press: New
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget, the Man and His Ideas, Dutton:
Piaget suggested that one way to reconcile these two approaches would be to adopt a method clinique, whereby a traditional intelligence test could serve as the basis for a clinical interview (Indiana.edu. 2006). Piaget's work has influenced other educators and philosophers who share the same respect for children. Examples are John Dewey, Maria Montessori and Paulo Freire, who have fought harder for immediate change in schools. Additionally, Piaget has been revered by generations of teachers inspired by the belief that children are not empty vessels to be filled with knowledge but active builders of knowledge, and little scientists who are constantly creating and testing their own theories of the world (Pappert, 1999).
Piaget's key concepts that have influenced educational reform are as follows: 1). Children will provide different explanations of reality at different stages of cognitive development; 2). Cognitive development is facilitated by providing activities or situations that engage learners…
Allor & McCathren. (2003). Developing Emergent Literacy Skills through Storybook Reading. Intervention in School and Clinic, 39(2).
Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Development of Cognitive Development.
Educational Psychology Interactive, Valdosta, Ga.
Indiana.edu. (2006). Human Intelligence: Jean Piaget. Retrieved December 15, 2006 at http://www.indiana.edu/-intell/piaget.shtml .
Such adaptations include "altruism, humor, anticipation (looking ahead and planning for future discomfort), suppression (a conscious decision to postpone attention to an impulse or conflict, to be addressed in good time), and sublimation (finding outlets for feelings, like putting aggression into sport, or lust into courtship)" (Shenk 2009, p.2). Greta needs a new outlet and a life outside of her husband and the university community. She had an independent life in Norway but in her new environment she is overly dependent upon her husband, his university, and the university community. Altruistically volunteering for a cause Greta believes in might be one way to find a new circle of friends. This would also improve her English ability and perhaps lead to a permanent job. Her ego would be less reliant upon being in the good graces of the university's wives, and she would be less in need of her busy husband's…
Baskovic, Brett W. (2010). Jean Piaget's genetic epistemology. University of Florida. Retrieved February 12, 2010 at http://www.math.ufl.edu/dept_news_events/long/essays/baskovich.html
Shenk, Joseph. (2009). What makes us happy? The Atlantic. Retrieved February 12, 2010 at http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200906/happiness/2
Jean Piaget Cognitive Development Theory
The way we consider development and disability has started to change. With these progressions come new potential outcomes for moving toward the treatment of kids with disabilities. These new thoughts broadly look at health and improvement, considering them to be perplexing networks of cooperation instead of simple chains of timed situations (McLinden, 2012). Piaget's hypothesis of cognitive development generally manages the view that all species acquire two essential tendencies; 'organization' is the first one - organizing thoughts and behaviours into sensible frameworks. The second is adaptation - changing in accordance with your environment. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) is likely one of the pioneers who did precise investigations of cognitive development in youngsters, and sent a standout amongst the most noteworthy theories in cognitive psychology "genetic epistemology" that increased wide acknowledgment in the 1970s. His perspectives, frequently portrayed as a constructivist view, were to a great extent…
Al-Shidhani, A. T., & Arora, V. (2012). Understanding Dyslexia in Children through Human Development Theories. Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J., 286 -- 294.
McLinden, M. (2012) Mediating haptic exploratory strategies in children who have visual impairment and intellectual disabilities, Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 56 (2), 129-139.
Suresh, P., Ayyapan, A., Nandini, J., & Ismail, T. (2015). Cognitive Deficits and Behavioral Disorders in Children: A Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Approach to Management. Annals of Behavioural Science.
Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget
Jean Piaget was intrigued with the reasons children gave to justify their incorrect answers to questions that called for the application of logic. He interpreted these as symbols indicating just how differently adults and children think. In his view, a child's thinking is influenced by the experiences they have with their environment and how mature their biological system is. Towards this end, a child will often construct their own understanding of the world based on what they experience in their physical environment, and will adjust the same as they continue to mature, and as they interact more with the larger environment. Gradually, these formative rational constructs, which Piaget refers to as schemas, are integrated into the child's cognitive processes and become more abstract. This text outlines the theoretical constructs behind Piaget's theory, and examines how relevant Piaget's framework is to contemporary education.
Eddy, S. (2010). Theories of Cognitive Development: Jean Piaget. Wordpress. Retrieved 27 October 2014 from https://psychohawks.wordpress.com/2010/09/05/theories-of-cognitive-development-jean-piaget/
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved 28 October 2014 from http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
Sigelman, C. & Rider, E. (2014). Life-Span Human Development (8th ed.). Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Outline Template: Jean Piaget Essay
A. Historical context of Piaget and why it is important to study the theories of Jean Piaget.
B. The importance of cognitive development and the concept of stages of development.
C. How progressing through the stages of development can lead to successful schemas or to pathological constructs that cause mental or behavioral health issues.
II. First body paragraph: Background information
A. Who was Jean Piaget
B. Who influenced Piaget
C. Piaget’s theory of cognitive development
III. Second body paragraph: Childhood cognitive development in stages
A. Sensorimotor stage from birth until age two
B. Preoperational stage from two years old until age seven
C. Concrete operational stage from seven years until age eleven
D. Formal operational stage from age eleven until adulthood.
IV. Third body paragraph: On assimilation and accommodation of new knowledge into the schema
A. How children integrate new knowledge or concepts…
McLeod, S. (2018). Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from: https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
But the result was bland - boring enough to ruin my kids' morning. I thought of which ingredients were best to add. I thought of adding more sweetener, cheese, and pepper. I tried to approximate the amount of each ingredient that I would put in to make the outcome what I envisioned it to be. I carefully thought of the ingredients to add and at which amount to avoid wastage. Fortunately, I achieved the sweet-sour-spicy taste I was looking for. As I was preparing breakfast, I thought of passing by the grocery later in the afternoon before heading home. I thought of the items I should buy - which stocks ran out, which products come with which, products needed in my menu for the week, and other items that the kids asked for. I listed all these to ensure that I would not miss any, and then I calculated how…
Come nighttime, I helped my kids with their homework. My eldest has an exam the next day so I also helped him review his lessons. Their teacher did not specify which type of exam it would be, so I helped him prepare for multiple-choice, identification, and even essay-type exams. I scanned his notes and books, and asked him about the items that might come out in the multiple-choice or identification types of exam. For the essay type, I thought of situations and let him explain its relevance to the topics they have been discussing in school. After helping my kids with their schoolwork, it was time for me to deal with my own schoolwork. I tried to recall how my day went - my activities - in order to pick out those in which I used formal operational thinking. But I was not able to focus. It has been a stressful day, and during that time I did not know if I was mad, irritated, or just tired. I took time to reflect, and realized that I cannot be mad. Mad with what or with whom? It must be that I was just tired, so I decided to rest for a while, and then got on with this paper.
In each of the above-mentioned activities, I made use of formal operational thinking. I was able to understand abstract concepts, such as anger. I made use of logical problem-solving in trying to fix the shower. Processing hypothetical situations came in while reviewing my eldest for his exam, thinking of what I should be buying in the grocery, and what would happen if I add an ingredient to my pasta sauce. All these show logical thinking and reasoning, that adolescents and adults (like me) engage in formal operational thinking everyday and every time. People do this without being aware that they are already doing so; it happens fast and it almost always happens, that is why they are not aware that they already do delve in abstract concepts, process hypothetical situations, and that their thinking, reasoning and their thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving is systematic and logical.
Santrock, J.W. (2004). Life span development (9th Ed.). New York: McGraw Hill.
Piaget's And Bruner's Theories For Cognitive Development
Cognitive theory, to some extent, is complex and multipart proposition. It puts forward the idea that development in humans is a function of an interaction with their upbringing, surroundings and individual understanding and experiences. Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner are the two great theorists who constructed cognitive theories (William). Both theories have some similarities and differences which would be discussed in the paper.
Piaget's and Bruner's Cognitive Theories: Similarities and Differences
According to Piaget, the cognitive development of a child depends on four factors. These are genetic maturation, familiarity with the physical environment, understanding of the social environment and equilibration. His cognitive theory also gives an explanation of the four stages of cognitive development. The Sensory Motor Stage (Birth -- 2 years). During this stage, children act impulsively. They demonstrate an egocentric behavior and are indifferent to the needs, wants and interests of…
Cherry G. 2004. An Overview of Jerome Brunner His Theory of Constructivism. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.odu.edu/educ/roverbau/Class_Websites/761_Spring_04/Assets/course_docs/ID_Theory_Reps_Sp04/Bruner-Cherry.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Seta, C.E., Seta, J., Paulus, P., & Andrews, E.A. 2001. Study Guide for Psychology, Third Canadian edition, by Baron, R., Earhard, B., & Ozier, M. Toronto, ON: Pearson Education Canada Inc. [Print].
William, R.T. Social Cognitive Theories of Jean Piaget and Jerome Bruner., [Online]. 41, 117-123. Available at: http://www.takamatsu-u.ac.jp/library/06_gakunaisyupan/kiyo/no41/41_117-123_williams.pdf [Accessed 26 May 2012].
Harry James Potter was born in 1980, the son of James and Lily Potter. Both of Harry's parents died when Harry was an infant. The murder of his parents literally left Harry Potter scarred for life: his lightening bolt-shaped scar is one of his most distinguishing physical features. The orphaned Harry was forced to live with distant family relatives who are Muggles, and culturally distinct from Harry. Harry Potter studies at the Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry. Harry has developed a process of adaptation, by which he adjusts himself to assimilate to the social environment at Hogwarts.
One of Harry's main cognitive schemas is that he aware that the Dark Lord Voldemort wants to kill him. The schema related to his personal identity and abstract concepts like good and evil evolve, revealing the process of child development throughout Potter's early adolescence. He demonstrates a process of accommodation, by…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Background and key concepts of Piaget's theory. About.com. Retrieved online: http://psychology.about.com/od/piagetstheory/a/keyconcepts.htm
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved online: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
"Stage Theory of Cognitive Development (Piaget)" (n.d.). Learning Theories. Retrieved online: http://www.learning-theories.com/piagets-stage-theory-of-cognitive-development.html
Sutton-Smith, B. (1966). Piaget on play: A critique. Psychological Review 73(1): 104-110.
Piaget's Cognitive Development
The Webster Dictionary describes the word cognition as; the psychological means of distinguishing, including features such as consciousness, perception, reasoning and decision making (Cognition). Piaget's Cognitive Developmental theory was a novel idea at the time of its birth. In depth, this theory, was the first on the issue and continued the specification of the field for a while. All through this paper, Piaget's thesis will be torn down into its four phases and all will be methodically complete. It is the intention of this research study to see how well Piaget's ideas endured the test of time and see what developments made to the current theory.
Piaget makes the hypothesis that there were four main cognitive phases in practical development, agreeing to four consecutive methods of knowledge. All through each of these stages, children were theorized to ponder and reason in a way that was different. These…
Cook-Cottone, C. (2004). Using piaget's theory of cognitive development to understand the construction of healing narratives. Journal of College Counseling, 7(2), 177-186.
Goswami, U. (2001). Cognitive development: No stages please -- we're british. British Journal of Psychology, 92(00071269), 257-77.
Hinde, E., & Perry, N. (2007). Elementary teachers' application of jean piaget's theories of cognitive development during social studies curriculum debates in arizona. The Elementary School Journal, 108(1), 63.
Leppo, M., Davis, D., & Crim, B. (2000). The basics of exercising the mind and body. Childhood Education, 76(3), 142-147.
Piaget vs. Vygotsky
Cognitive Constructivism and Social Constructivism are both theories in the field of Cognitive Development which focuses on the development of how people attain knowledge about their surroundings and come to understand their world throughout their life span. Both psychologists, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, came up with their own theories on cognitive development. Piaget came up with the idea of Cognitive Constructivism, while Vygotsky came up with Social Constructivism, both of which have become the most studied theories in this branch of psychology.
Piaget focused on categorizing children's cognitive development into stages and made note of the different approaches that children at a given stage and age has toward acquiring new knowledge. Vygotsky's focus was on a more social perspective and suggested that children's ability to learn comes from their social and daily interactions with their surroundings and culture. It is this that helps them think and…
Martin, J. & Sugarman, J. (1997). The social-cognitive construction of psychotherapeutic change: Bridging the social constructionism and cognitive constructivism. Review of General Psychology. 1(4): 375-388.
Palincsar, A.S. (1998). Social contructivist persepctives on teaching and learning. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 49: 345-375.
Davies, D. (2004). Child Development. Second Edition. Guilford Press.
Kall, R.V. & Cavanaugh, J.C. (2010). Human development: A life-span view. Wadsworth Publishing.
Some might say I am too exacting, too much of a perfectionist. But working with children has and will continue to make me more accepting of the need to 'break eggs' to make an omelet, to tolerate disorder to realize a goal. Even at the formal operations stage, an adult must know that his or her cherished philosophical goals and abstractions are not shared by everyone. It is necessary to motivate others through emotions as well as logic to make employees want to achieve critical objectives and benchmarks.
Learning how to convince other people, to make them share my ideals, has been a great learning experience for me in all of my leadership roles. A CEO, above all, cannot have the egocentric perspective of a child. Although it is expected of a child, a CEO must put aside such 'childish things' as concern for the ego, and instead focus on…
There are almost as many different varieties of issues that can impede a child learner from succeeding in a math class as there are particular remedies to ameliorate such a problem. One of the chief reasons that certain children find mathematics difficult is because they are overwhelmed by it. They find the concept of a never ending series of numbers (as well as similarly interminable operations which one can put them through and which are taught daily and tested weekly) beyond challenging to the point where it incites anxiety and fear.
Additionally, difficulties can arise from learning differences such as dyscalculia, or situations in which students may not be familiar with the language that the class is taught in (such as English Language Learners). These two factors can exacerbate the initial feeling of anxiety that math can produce in child learners. Moreover, it is important to realize that in…
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). "Piaget's theory of cognitive development." Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
Comparing the Theories of Piaget and Vygotsky
Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky were both born in 1896 in Switzerland and ussia, respectively. Both men were born at the turn of the 20th century, one of the greatest and most prolific centuries in modern history. Both men were profoundly instrumental in shaping the perspectives and practices regarding education, socialization, and human development. The paper will examine the theories of each gentlemen, offering a comparative analysis and assessment of some of the greater concepts or schools of thought. The paper will additionally offer insight as to the value of incorporating their theories in the classroom as part of the teaching practice. Piaget is more known for Developmental Psychology, Constructivism, and Epistemology, while Vygotsky is more known for Cultural-historical psychology, and the Zone of Proximal Development. While individually distinctive, there is some conceptual overlap, as well as overlap in their intentions to…
Gallagher, Christina. "Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky." Muskingham University, Psychology Department, Web, Available from: http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm , 1999. Accessed 2013 February 04.
McLeod, Sean. "Jean Piaget." Simply Psychology, Web, Available from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html , 2009, 2012. Accessed 2013 February 04.
PIAGET vs. VYGOTSKY
Compared: Piaget and Vygotsky
Piaget vs. Vygotsky: The role of language in cognitive development
Jean Piaget's theory of human development is fundamentally a biological one: Piaget believed that all human beings go through a series of developmental stages, and the ability to understand certain concepts such as volume and mass is determined by the biological and developmental stage of the brain, more so than culture. If the child is not yet ready to learn certain spatial principles, he cannot do so, even with the best of teachers. The child interacts with the environment and is shaped by its contents to some extent, but there are natural constraints based upon the child's mentality.
In contrast, "unlike Piaget's notion that children's development must necessarily precede their learning," Lev Vygotsky argued, "learning is a necessary and universal aspect of the process of developing culturally organized, specifically human psychological functions" (McLeod…
Kristinsdottir, Solrun B. (2001). Lev Vygotsky. Retrieved from:
McLeod, S.A. (2007). Vygotsky. Retrieved at:
What contribution to the understanding of early childhood development did this theorist make?
Jean Piaget has been one of the most influential early childhood and developmental psychologists. Focusing primarily on childhood cognitive development, Piaget hypothesized that children used different logical schemas than adults, and also that children progress through stages of cognitive development as they acquire new knowledge from the world around them and incorporate that information into their mental constructs (McLeod, 2018). The four stages of cognitive development Piaget proposed include the sensorimotor stage, the preoperational stage, the concrete operational stage, and the formal operational stage. Piaget contributed tremendous understanding to how children adapt to new stimuli and changes in their environment, through the assimilation of new concepts into their schemas, the accommodation for potentially conflicting ideas or objects within those same schemas, and through the achievement of cognitive equilibrium as each individual progresses through the various stages of…
Children also gain an insight into the conservation of numbers, mass, and weight; which allows them to understand that just because the image of object changes that does not mean the nature of the object has to change with it. For example, children in this stage can tell that a cup of water is the same amount despite being poured into two different cups. Children also learn to classify objects by several features based on increased schemes from more external stimuli. Finally, the formal operational stage represents the state of the mind from eleven years onward. In this, there is logical abstract thinking, which goes beyond the child's immediate environment and incorporates abstract concepts. Children learn to test hypothesis using reason and the human mind looks forward into the future and the abstract hypothetical. According to Piaget, these stages are universal and occur within every individual.
There is another side…
Daniels, Harry. (2005). An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.
Minick, Norris. (2005). The development of Vygotsky's thought: an introduction to Thinking and Speech. An Introduction to Vygotsky. Routledge Press.
Piaget, Jean & Inhelder, Barbel. (1999). The Psychology of the Child. Basic Books.
Both Piaget and Vygotsky approached the role of artifacts on the development of mind. Piaget believed action is used by the child in order to understand and construct their knowledge base. "To understand is to invent." In contrast, Vygotsky believed that understanding comes only through social interaction.
Role of Culture
Vygotsky believed that cultural artifacts pla a major role in illiciting an account of where the mind is. The ZPD reflects Vygotsky's view that learning is distinct from development, as the ZPD has been defined as "the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance, or in collaboration with more capable peers (Vygotsky 86). Piaget, on the other hand, does not have a clear set of issues and phenomena that appear because of culture, so it is hard to compare the two…
Crawford, Kathryn. Vygotskian Approaches to Human Development in the Information Era. Educational Studies in Mathematics. (31) 43-62, 1996.
Driscoll, Marcy P. (1994). Psychology of Learning for Instruction. Needham, MA: Allyn, Bacon.
Hausfather, Samuel J. "Vygotsky and Schooling: Creating a Social Contest for learning." Action in Teacher Education. (18) 1-10, 1996.
Riddle, Elizabeth M., Lev Vygotsky's Social Development Theory, March, 1999. http://chd.gmu.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/constructivism/vygotsky.htm.
maturation, and why is Piaget's theory a good example of a maturational theory of children's cognitive development?"
Maturation is the way an infant gets to learn to become a proper individual by various maneuvers all through the early stages in life. The term maturation has different connotations in the theory of development if viewed from different angles. There are many theories of development that have links or are a part of the theory of maturation. The theories that try to explain the cognitive development are the behavioral theory propounded by Skinner which says that learning is a result of the environment. By creating a better environment, learning can be directed and shaped. Children introduced to a better environment learn to give better responses and the behavior theory seem to work where special education is required. Freud and Eriksson believed that children came with drives that had to be channeled in…
Alexander, Patricia A; Winne, Philip H. (2006) "Handbook of educational psychology"
Anderson, Norman H. (1996) "A Functional Theory of Cognition." Lawrence Erlbaum
Associates: Mahwah, NJ.
educational principles derived Piaget's theory continue a major impact teacher training classroom practices, early childhood. Then discuss limitations preoperational thought Piaget's point view text.
Swiss developmental psychologist Jean Piaget played an important role in shaping society's understanding of children's minds and of attitudes teachers would have to employ in order to effectively connect with students. Piaget made it possible for the world to comprehend how teachers needed to concentrate on how children thought in addition to knowing what the end product of their thinking would be. He emphasized the need to observe the important role of children's tendency to get actively involved in the learning process, as interest in discovering more is one of the principal elements assisting children in accumulating information. Another idea that Piaget introduced and is still widely used today relates to how teachers have to address each student in particular in order to effectively help them…
Vygotsky vs. Piaget
The French developmental theorist Jean Piaget is notable because of his biologically-oriented, developmentally-driven concept of how children learn. ather than viewing children merely as small, less intelligent adults, Piaget was the first theorist to stress that children conceptualized the world in a very different way than adults -- in his view, due to biological limitations inherent to a child's brain. " He was more interested in was the way in which fundamental concepts like the very idea of 'number', 'time,' 'quantity', 'causality', 'justice' and so on emerged" (McLeod 2015). In Piaget's view, these were not concepts which were taught but rather emerged as part of maturation, just as a child grew taller and stronger with age. A child in the sensorimotor stage eventually achieves object permanence, according to Piaget, around 9 months, the child will look for a toy taken out of his or her viewing framework…
McLeod, S. A. (2015). Jean Piaget. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
McLeod, S. A. (2014). Lev Vygotsky. Simply Psychology. Retrieved from:
This is because they are both considered as constructivists whose approach to learning and teaching is based on the link between mental construction and cognitive development. On the stages of development from birth through adolescence, the two theorists propose that boundaries of cognitive development are determined by societal influences.
Piaget explains the ability of societal factors to influence a child's cognitive development through the sensorimotor, pre-operational and concrete operational stages. In his explanations of these stages, Piaget states that intelligence is demonstrated through symbols, which are obtained from societal influences. On the other hand, Vygotsky believes that societal influences especially cultural tools have a significant effect on cognitive development since they can be passed from one person to another. Cognitive development cannot be separated from the societal influences and include imitative learning, instructed learning and collaborative learning. In possible classroom applications, the views of both Piaget and Vygotsky on cognitive…
Gallagher, C. (1999, May). Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/vygotsky.htm
Huitt, W. & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://www.edpsycinteractive.org/topics/cognition/piaget.html
"Social Development Theory (L. Vygotsky). (n.d.). The Theory Into Practice Database.
Retrieved July 25, 2011, from http://tip.psychology.org/vygotsky.html
Moreover, as Piaget explains, children's behavior patterns are based on invention and representation, not merely innocent discovery, and not only sensorimotor groping. The transition from groping to actual invention is also supportive of Piagetian model of cognitive development.
Thinking Development -- Vygotsky and his Example (ZPD)
In general terms Lev Vygotsky argued that "situated social interaction" that is connected with "concrete practical activity in the material world" are the root drivers for cultural and individual development (Thorne, 1998). Vygotsky developed the "genetic law of cultural development," which stresses that the first cultural development for a child appears "twice or on two planes," according to the University of Helsinki. The first appearance for the young child is "interpsychologically," in interaction between people; and the secondly it appears as an "intrapsychological achievement" (Helsinki). Author Kurt L. Kraus explains that Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Activity Theory boils down to three elements: ontogeny, phylogeny, and sociocultural…
Kraus, Kurt L. (2008). Lenses: Applying Lifespan Development Theories in Counseling.
Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Paiget, Jean. (1974). The Origins of Intelligence in Children. New York: International
Universities Press, Inc.
Jean Piaget's theory of child development dates back to the 1920s, although he became more prominent in the 1950s. Like the Freudians, he posited that children underwent certain stages of moral and cognitive development, although these were not so heavily based on sexuality and gratification of the basic drives and instincts of the id. ather he maintained the infants and small children passed through a stage of gaining basic control over sensorimotor and bodily functions, eventually developing concrete and finally abstract thought by the end of adolescence. He also recognized that cognitive development and morality were closely related, as did Erik Erikson and the other ego psychologists. Piaget claimed that children should develop ethics of reciprocity and cooperation by the age of ten or eleven, at the same time they became aware of abstract and scientific thought. Erikson in particular deemphasized the early Freudian concern with oral, anal, phallic…
DeRobertis, E.M. (2008). Humanizing Child Development Theory: A Holistic Approach. Lincoln, NE: iUniverse.
Sigelman, C.K. And E.A. Reder (2012). Life-span Human Development. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Firstly, in Piagetian manner, the subject is confronted with a moral dilemma, that is, a short story in which two or more moral principles oppose each other. He or she is asked to make a choice. Secondly, the interviewer uses intensive probing, that is, why-questions, and questions which stimulate the respondent to consider varying situational contexts. Thirdly, stage scoring of interview is based on well conceived and meaningful measurement units.Through the confrontation with moral dilemmas, the subject is stimulated to consider moral norms rather than merely technical knowledge of solving a problem (most people suggest a technical solution first, which seems an appropriate strategy in most every-day decision making).(Kolhberg)
There are six levels of leaders, according to the combined works of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and obert Kegan. esearch shows the majority of leaders are level four leaders or level five leaders. Level four leader 'Achiever' is categorized as…
Cherry, Kendra.(2012)About.com guide. Kohlbergs Therory of Moral
Development.Retrieved from website:
There are others though that believes that learners are born with certain innate capabilities that are then shaped and formed from the outside (Montessori theory, 2011)
No matter which theory one looks at though the bottom line is that each philosophy is based on the idea that everything possible should be done to encourage as much learning as possible. All philosophies are based on the fact that education should be about learning and that no matter how the learning takes place, what environment is takes place in or under what circumstances the edn result should be something was learned. Educational philosophy in general believes that in order for people to be successful and productive they must learn as much as possible and that this should be done by way of formal education.
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. etrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong.…
Chinn, C. (2012). Epistemological Beliefs. Retrieved from http://www.education.com/reference/article/epistemological-beliefs/
Evers, W.M. (2012). How Progressive Education Gets it Wrong. Retrieved from http://www.hoover.org/publications/hoover-digest/article/6408
Gray, P. (2009). Rousseau's Errors: They Persist Today in Educational Theory. Retrieved from http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/freedom-learn/200902/rousseau-s-errors-they-persist-today-in-educational-theory?page=2
Jean-Jacques Rousseau on nature, wholeness and education. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.infed.org/thinkers/et-rous.htm
Unrecognized Genius of Jean Piaget
Kegan reflects on the work of Jean Piaget, emphasizing the importance of his work. He first looks at Kegan's most famous study, in which he fills two identically shaped beakers with equal amounts of water. He then asks the child whether or not they are of equal volume, and when the child agrees, he pours the contents into a thinner beaker. The child then has to decide which has more, and usually opts for the taller and thinner beaker. Kegan is pointing out the relative adaptive balance that is being made by the child. Children have their own perceptions of the physical world, and often have difficulty discerning relative differences in shapes and forms, among other things. Kegan purports that, "For the preoperational child, it is never just one's perceptions that change; rather, the world itself, as a consequence, changes" (29).
Kegan then goes on…
Kegan, Arthur. The Evolving Self. Massachusetts: Harvard UP. 1982.
Sister's Keeper -- Case Study Using Developmental Theories
Anna Fitzgerald was given a life so that she could keep another person alive, her seriously ill older sister Kate. On the surface that seems terrible cruel and wholly unfair. Looking deeper into the issues surrounding the Fitzgerald family, Anna and her older sister Kate, it is more unfair and cruel than it appears on the surface. There are important ethical issues involved in this novel by Jodi Picoult, but there are also developmental issues that cry out to be addressed. Hence, this paper will review the developmental theories of Erik Erikson, Jean Piaget and Lev Vygotsky, and use instances and circumstances from Picoult's book to link to concepts in the developmental theorists' work. The terribly inequitable theme of this book will be juxtaposed at the outset with what would be considered a "normal adolescent development" for a girl just reaching her…
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. (2001). Facts for Families: Normal
Adolescent Development. Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.aacap.org .
Harder, Arlene F. (2008). The Developmental Stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online,
Retrieved July 9, 2011, from http://www.learningplaceonline.com .
Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development & adolescent depression
This is a paper concerning the development stages of an adolescent and depression. Erickson's and Piaget's Theory of Child Development will be used to explain what may lead to a child feeling depressed or suicidal.
DEPRESSION IN TEENS
Approximately five percent of children and adolescents experience depression at some point in their lives (AACAP 1998). Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson studied the development of the adolescents. Their theories will give clearer understanding to why teenagers become depressed and what can be done about the problem. Depression comes from a variety of problems in the adolescent's life. Recognizing depression is important. "Out of 100,000 adolescents, two to three thousand will have mood disorders out of which 8-10 will commit suicide" (Brown 1996). The causes of depression in a teenager can stem from family problems, peer pressure and bullying, and changes in…
Bond, Lyndal; Carlin, John B.; Thomas, Lyndal; Rubin, Kerryn; & Patton, director, George. "Does Bullying Cause Emotional Problems? A Prospective Study of Young Teenagers." BMJ: British Medical Journal. 9/1/2001, Vol. 323. Issue7311. p. 480
Chandler, Jim M.D. FRCPC. "Depression In Children and Adolescents -- what it is and what to do about it" http://www.klis.com/chandler/pamphlet/dep/depressionpamphlet.htm
Depression in Children and Adolescents" A Fact Sheet for Physicians. National Institute of Mental Health. http://www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/depchildresfact.cfm
The Depressed Child" AACAP Facts for Families American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Fact sheets No. 4. 1997.
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
Carl ogers' Theory of Personality Compared to Those of Erik Erikson?
Over the past century or so, a number of psychological theorists have provided new ways of understanding human development over the lifespan, including Carl ogers, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget. Although these theorists share some common views concerning how people develop over time, they differ in other ways with regards to what forces tend to be the most salient at different periods and how therapists should approach helping others resolve the problems they inevitably encounter along the way. To determine what ogers, Erikson and Piaget share in common and how they differ, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature concerning these theorists, followed by a personal reflections analysis. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the conclusion.
eview and Analysis
Best known for his person-centered approach to counseling, Carl ogers was…
Comstock, Dana L., Tonya R. Hammer, Julie Strentzsch, Kristi Cannon, Jacqueline Parsons and Ii Gustavo Salazar (2008), "Relational-Cultural Theory: A Framework for Bridging
Relational, Multicultural, and Social Justice Competencies." Journal of Counseling and Development, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 279-281.
DeCarvalho, Roy J. (1999), The Founders of Humanistic Psychology. New York: Praeger.
Demorest, Amy (2005), Psychology's Grand Theorists: How Personal Experiences Shaped
theories currently being used in the field of nursing today. While each has their respective positive and negative points, all are useful in certain nursing settings, and can assist nurses in their positions. This paper will discuss two of those theorists, Jean Watson and Jean Piaget. Each theory will be discussed and explained, and examples of how each can be applied in the field of nursing will be discussed. This paper will show that both theories, though very different, can be useful in the field of nursing.
The Theory of Human Caring, created by Jean Watson, was originally developed based on Watson's experiences as both a teacher and in the nursing profession. According to Watson, the theory was created to explain those values of nursing that differ from the values of "curative factors," those of doctors and specialists. The Theory of Human Caring is devised based on the explicit values,…
Erci, B., Sayan, A., Kilic, D., Sahin, O., & Gungormus, Z. (2000). The effectiveness of Watson's caring model on the quality of life and blood pressure of patients with hypertension. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 41 (2), 130-139.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York, N.YE.P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Watson, J. (1979). Nursing: The philosophy and science of caring. Boston, M.A.: Little Brown.
Watson, J. (1988). Nursing: Human science and human: A theory of nursing. New York, N.Y.: National League for Nursing.
eligion and Education
eligious development in children and adults alike have been research areas that have historically been of interest to those involved in the developmental psychology arenas such as theorists of religious development, religious educators, and designers of religious education curricula in various settings. However, religious development did not receive a great deal of consideration during the early phases of growth in the psychology or the schools of human behavior and development. Even though the work of Sigmund Freud has been extremely influential in education and psychoanalysis, there are many other eminent psychologists who have made greater strides for humankind by trying to understand the planning and teaching aspects of religious education. This paper, therefore, aims to discuss three such prominent individuals: Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson and Jerome Bruner.
Ironically, behaviorism and psychoanalysis entail some aspects of atheistic presuppositions and therefore create many psychologists who are leaning more towards…
Eminent Psychologists of the 20th Century. (2004). 100 Eminent Psychologists. Retrieved on November 8, 2004, from http://www.coe.uga.edu/echd/counpsy/eminentpsychologists_new.htm#piaget
In this, the individual does soak up the behaviors of those he or she is associated with. Yet, this is out of mimicking others behavior, with no regard for self gain. On the other hand, Bandura placed more emphasis as development being based on a balance between the environment and one's internally set goals. From this perspective, the individual mimics behaviors that lead to the achievement of certain goals, specifically engineering a more personal purpose to what is learned.
Bandura can also be seen as contrasting the theories of Jean Piaget as well. Once again, the two place a huge role on the nature of social environments on learning and development. Still, there are clear differences. First, there are clearly issues in regards to when the stages of development actually occur. The two present different age ranges for the important stages. Then, there is the increased importance of the social…
The subject interviewed is a 17-year-old Hispanic male from Cleveland, Ohio. Although his legal name is Harley, this adolescent chooses to call himself by the name "Renegade." Renegade lives in a loft with 12 other boys ranging from the ages of 15 to 27 above a rare book store in a historic and impoverished section of the city. Renegade was either orphaned or abandoned at a young age, and spent many years bouncing around foster homes and group homes as a ward of the state of California. Since leaving the care of the state, Renegade was able to uncover many mysteries about his past that were officially "sealed" regarding his biological family. Renegade was not given any information about his ethnic background as a child, but his mocha-colored skin and dark, striking hair obviously set him apart as an ethnic minority. There were Latino and Mexican boys in…
Aranel et al. (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Erik_H._Erikson
Brainmeta. (2004) "Jean Piaget" Retrieved 3/10/2005 from: http://brainmeta.com/personality/piaget.php
Huitt, W., & Hummel, J. (2003). Piaget's theory of cognitive development. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [3/10/2005] from http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/cogsys/piaget.html .
Karp, J. (2004) "Erikson's stages of psychosocial development." (2005) "Erik Erikson." Wikipedia. Retrieved 3/10/2005 from:
History of Constructivism
As long as there were people asking each other questions, we have had constructivist classrooms. Constructivism, the study of learning, is about how we all make sense of our world, and that really hasn't changed."
Jacqueline Grennan rooks (1999)
The concept of constructivism is as old as Socrates, but 20th Century pioneers of the movement include Jean Piaget, John Dewey and Lev Vygotsky. Jean Piaget and John Dewey were early adaptors of "Progressive Education" ideals that led to the formal concept of constructivism. For Piaget, these ideas were grounded in the notion that people learned in logical increments, through structured introduction and that children absorbed information in different ways than did adults. John Dewey thought that learning should be associated with real life experience achieved through inquiry. Vygotsky introduced a social aspect by asserting that children exceed their average learning capability when interacting with others.
Dettrick, G.W. Constructivist Teaching Strategies. School of Education
Monash University - Gippsland Campus. Churchill Australia 3842
1896 EW5: 96-109 The reflex arc concept in psychology
Infancy is the stage between birth and two years of age. This stage is characterized by rapid physical growth than any other stage of life. Very interesting changes occur in this couple of years. Brain development also occurs rapidly at this stage. Prior to birth, the unborn baby has most of the brain cells, but not all. There is a very rapid development of the neural connections between the cells. Contrary to what most people think, the baby is not entirely helpless. It is capable of all the basic activities required to sustain life -- breathing, suckling, swallowing and excretion. By the first week, the newborns can identify the direction from which sound is coming, recognize the voice of the mother from other voices and is capable of simple imitating basic gestures such as opening the mouth and sticking out the tongue (Shaffer & Kipp, 2013).
Harmonic Accompaniment on the Development of Music Aptitude and Singing Achievement
The rationale of the scrutinize was to investigate the effect of xylophones harmonic accompaniment on the tone realization and tone improvisation of young children[aged eight].It provide the children cognitive development, multiple intelligence emphasis on music and bodily kinesthetic intelligence which will involve auditory, visual and kinesthetic stimuli.
It entails rhythmic development, music amptitude which test the effect of harmonic accompaniment on music development and music amptitude children vocal development and finally the effect of harmonic accompaniment on singing achievement.Even though result based on research on singing achievement between the children which had song instruction with a root melody accompaniment had no significant on tone attainment according to Gordon's (1982)IMMA, there was significance effect on singing achievement between children who received song instruction with root melody accompaniment.Xylophones which comes from a Greek word 'xylon'meaning wooden sound.It is from percussion family…
ATHERTON JS (2010) Learning and Teaching; Piaget's developmental theory [Online] UK: Available: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/piaget.htm Accessed: 27 January 2011
Azzara, C.D. (1999). An aural approach to improvisation. Music Educators Journal, 86(3), 21 -- 25.
Gardner, Howard (1983; 1993) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
Gordon, E.E. (1979). Primary Measures of Music Audiation. Chicago: GIA Publications.
Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and rickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new tiquette Revolution for tots at…
Erik Erikson accepted the Freudian theory of infantile sexuality, but believed that other non-sexual issues were equally important in childhood development. He theorized that the infant moved from stages of "Basic Trust vs. Mistrust," followed by conflicts of "Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt," "Initiative vs. Guilt," Industry vs. Inferiority, "Identity vs. Role Confusion, "Intimacy vs. Isolation," Generativity vs. Stagnation," and finally into the stage of "Ego Integrity vs. Despair." Personality malformation was likely to occur if the child's conflicts were not resolved, resulting in the child being stuck in one of these stages (Davis & Clifton, 2007, p.1). Jean Piaget, in contrast believed that the child's neurological capacity was the primary influence upon his or her ability to comprehend the world, as the child moved from the sensorimotor, to the preoperational, to the concrete operational stages, followed by the formal operational stage when the child could comprehend such concepts as 'here' and 'away,' and size, shape and mass ("Jean Piaget's Theory of Development,"2007). Lawrence Kohlberg based his ideas of moral development on Piaget's stage theory, stating that children proceeded from the pre-conventional punishment-obedience and personal reward orientation, to the conventional good boy-nice girl orientation/law and order orientation, and finally to the mature social contract orientation/universal ethical principle orientation (Becker, Dorward, & Pasciak, 1996).
Unsurprisingly perhaps, popular media aimed at parents, such as Child magazine, does not emphasize childhood sexual awareness, but rather the control that parents have over their child's intellectual and moral development is. The inability of parents to propel their children beyond the logical progression of stages stressed by Piaget and Kohlberg, or the dangers of arrested development if conflicts are not resolved in Freud and Erickson are subsumed in advice on how the parent can engineer the child's social environment. In the article "Charm School for Tots," the magazine explains what it calls the new Etiquette Revolution for tots at New York's Plaza Hotel, which hosts a class the teaches children how to be respectful of others by offering advice on how to choose the right silverware.
Kohlberg would no doubt see the age group that apparently delights in the class as being in the 'nice/good' child stage or law and order conventional periods of development, and are thus eager to obey parents in exchange for approval while Erickson would see the desire to receive rule-governed behavior as a desire for affirmation of boundaries and trust in adult authorities. Freud would see such an obsession with control over oral and sanitary issues as a hold over from the anal and oral stages. The teacher of the class does show some acknowledgement of the existence of stages of childhood development, when she states that
Term: Winter, 2014
Age of Child: 6 years old
Date of Observation: February 3, 2014
Time of Observation: 9:00 to 10:00
Place of Observation: Child Care Center
Other People Present in the Observation Setting: 1 teacher, 1 assistants, 15 other children
Development: Appears mostly normal; has some problems with fine motor skills and challenging cognitive skills.
Permission: Permission was granted by the Director of the Child Care Center, the child's teacher and his parents
John was observed unobtrusively from some distance. The observer sat at a desk in the classroom while the teacher and assistant worked with children. The observer did not interact with the child and in fact remained out of the way of the children and teachers for the duration of the observation. The observation included classroom activities such as children writing their names, coloring, and building puzzles. The children then had snacks after which…
McLeod, S. (2009). Jean Piaget. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from: http://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2007). Lev Vygotsy. Simple Psychology. Retrieved from:
That is, until an infant ealizes that she is looking at heself in the mio athe than anothe baby, the concept of self cannot begin to fom (Johnston, 1996). As childen matue, the link between cognition and self-concept becomes moe illuminated. In olde childen, pat of the matuation pocess is the ability to solve poblems and pocess infomation (Siegle and Alibali, 2004). The fact that childen use a vaiety of stategies and behave diffeently when ovecoming obstacles to each a common goal eflects diffeences not only in thei cognitive abilities but also how they see themselves -- "I don't give up easily; I always ty my best; I lean well; I don't like myself," etc. (Measelle et al., 2005).
If, as ealie suggested, by five to seven yeas of age, childen ae able to give accuate self-desciptions of themselves, then the pecusos of self-concept clealy evolve aound the toddle and…
references, discussing negative emotions, engaging children in conversations, discovering unique attributes, and the like all have Western upbringing tones. In other cultures, these norms may not be norms at all and hence the psychometric procedures used to generate traditionally Western self-description may not apply, say among Chinese or Asian children (Wang, 2004). The Chinese, as opposed to the autonomy-oriented European-Americans, are interdependent and put value in kinship such that a person's identity is often tied to his social responsibilities. Social rules exist in the Chinese culture that promotes humility and self-criticism for the sake of social harmony (Chin, 1988, in Wang, 2004). This, of course, is in contrast to Western culture that promotes self-enhancement.
A recent study on the comparative autobiographical memories and self-description in 3- to 8-year-old American and Chinese children considered the following differences and used a relatively novel, open-ended narrative method to examine the development of self-constructs. The results of the study are consistent with the cultural outlines above. American children tend to describe themselves in terms of their personal attributes and inner disposition in a generally light tone. Chinese children, on the other hand, focused on specific relationships, social roles, observable behavior, and situation bound features in a modest tone (Wang, 2004). The implication of this study is that self-concept is culture-specific and that the early emergence of cultural self-constructs may prepare children to become competent members of their respective societies (Wang, 2004).
In summary, this paper illustrates that the development of self is a product of cognitive achievement, everyday experiences, and cultural values. The role of child-parent interactions and differing cultural beliefs are emphasized as crucial in shaping self-concept among children.
This concept says that the low zone represents what the child already knows and can handle alone, and the high zone represents what the child needs mentoring for. With help, Sara could very well pick a gift appropriate to her mother's interest and taste. Because Jane at 10 has a broader experience of the world and more experience with her mother's likes and dislikes, her zone of proximal or potential development will be much larger, however she might very well take advantage of the more complete knowledge of people around her and try to buy or possibly make something really special.
Siegler: Information Processing Theories
Information processing theories have much the same foundations as constructivist or socialcultural theory but seem to focus more on exactly how attention and memory work and grow and change in the child. Attention improves a lot in early childhood although with the younger child, focus…
What do abies Think?
Psychologists and the rest of the world have always regarded babies as incomplete, merely forming adults whose thoughts can only be rudimental and purposeless. ut Alison Gopnik explored deeply into this issue and came out with the staggering finding that babies are actually smarter and meaningful than we all thought, even more intelligent than adults in essence. Gopnik is a psychology professor at the University of California at erkeley who published her discover in a book entitled, "The Philosophical aby: What Children's Minds Tell us about the Truth, Love and the Meaning of Life."
In totality, Gopnik (2010) discovered that babies and young children are designed by nature to learn but with a kind of intelligence far different from that of adults but very relevant to development and growth. abies and young children, first of all, do think and their minds develop in a way…
Brooks, C.N. (2012). What do babies think about? Family and Parenting: Examiner.com.
Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.examiner.com/article/what-do-abies-think.about
Catania, M. (200). What do babies think before thus start talking? Exploration:
Vanderbilt University. Retrieved on November 15, 2013 from http://www.exploration.vanderbilt.edu/news/news.baby.htm
The concept of egocentrism in adolescence has been controversial for years. Many theorists have addressed the topic with differing beliefs and conclusions (McDevitt, 2002). Egocentrism in adolescence can be painful not only for the adolescence but for those who are within his or her life circle. It is all about concern that they are being watched. Teens often stop letting mom or dad go to their school, they do not want to be seen in public with them and they insist on wearing the popular name brand clothing or they believe that their life will be ruined.
There are several schools of thought regarding egocentrism in teens. Piaget believed that it actually began to dissipate during the teen years though he did develop a theory about why teens are preoccupied with what others think about them (McDevitt, 2002). According to Piaget it is actually a bit contradictory. It is…
Child Development: Educating and Working with Children and Adolescents. (2nd Ed.) By McDevitt & Ormrod. Pearson-Prentice Hall 2002.
Learn the signs of early puberty http://pediatrics.about.com/cs/conditions/a/early_puberty.htm
Boys Delayed Puberty: How To Ease Fears by Charles Wibbelsman, MD
In Erikson's "Stage Two" children are trying to become self-confident and do things themselves ("Autonomy vs. Doubt"), like tying their own shoes even if it takes hours. Parents should let them do things because, according to Erikson, "...failure to reinforce these efforts will lead the child to doubt themselves" and doubt a parents' trust in them. hen Bambi ventured out of his little sleeping spot into the snow for the first time, surely his mom knew he would slip and slide and even get banged up a little. But she stayed in the sleeping nest spot and let Bambi learn for himself, which he did by slipping on the ice over and over before he finally got his feet under him and learned about the reality of slippery ice.
Jean Piaget put forward a theory for very young children, that he called "heteronomous moral orientation." He theorized that in the…
Disney, Walt. (2005). Bambi: 2-Disc Special Edition. Buena Vista Home Entertainment.
Burbank, California. J4756.
Levine, Melvin D. (1999). Developmental Variation and Learning Disorders: Second Edition.
Cambridge, MA: Educators Publishing Service, Inc.
younger brother's development since he was born in 1985, I would not have been able to until the beginning of this century. Until the early 1900s, no one was studying the changes that occurred in individuals from childhood to adulthood.
Now psychologists and other social scientists recognize that children go through similar behavioral, intellectual and mental, and physical steps while growing up. By using these theoretical steps as a guide, I can keep track of the development of my brother and any other child. It should always be remembered, however, that the time frames presented are averages and some children may achieve various developmental milestones earlier or later than the average but still be within the normal range. This information is presented to help interested parties understand what to expect from a child.
The idea that specific development stages exist for adults as well as children began with the initial…
Healy, Jane. Your child's growing mind. Galena, IL: Main Street Books, 1994.
Murray, Thomas. Human development theories. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1999.
Singer, Dorothy. A Piaget primer: How a child thinks. New York: Plume, 1996.
This would help a victim open up to the teacher and thus seek help. School is an important period in a child's life and should be free of stress. It is the responsibility of school authorities to ensure child' safety. In the schools, where bullying incidents are non-existent have some active form of intervention in place. Bullying is a more serious problem in public schools compared to private school mainly due to the quality of education, teacher training and level of accountability. Higher level of accountability can result in fewer cases of bullying in public schools too. Concerted effort is required to reduce prevalence of bullying in schools across the country.
Atlas, .S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational esearch, 92(2), 86-99.
Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of…
Atlas, R.S., & Pepler, D.J. (1998). Observations of bullying in the classroom. Journal of Educational Research, 92(2), 86-99.
Espelage, D.L., Bosworth, K., & Simon, T.R. (2000). Examining the social context of bullying behaviors in early adolescence. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 326-333.
Hoover, J.H., Oliver, R., & Hazier, R.J. (1992). Bullying: Perceptions of adolescent victims in the Midwestern USA. School Psychology International, 13, 5-16.
Horne, a.M., & Newman-Carlson, D. (2004). Bully Busters: A Psycho-educational Intervention for Reducing Bullying Behavior in Middle School Students. Journal of Counseling and Development. Volume: 82. Issue: 3.
Psychologists, such as Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, theorize that humans go through stages in their development throughout life, growing from infancy to old age. Piaget outlined stages of thinking, referred to as cognitive development; Erikson described stages of personality, referred to as psychosocial development. How can you use this information to better understand your own life? hat stages of cognitive and psychosocial development have you gone through since you were an infant? hich stages will you encounter during adulthood and old age?
Piaget and Erikson both took a systematic approach to trying to determine what the different stages of human development. However, both individuals used different perspectives and formulated models that were inherently different. Piaget was interested in trying to determine the way children begin to develop various mental capacities to understand things such as numbers, time, causality, justice, etc. and he considered his work to be the realm…
McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from Simple Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2017). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
This paper explores two fundamental theories that are considered to be worthy guides and reference points in different discourses of early childhood cognitive development and education. Scientists and scholars world over hold the principles established in the two theories in high esteem. However, the theories, though explicably analyzed the behaviors and learning abilities at each developmental stage of early childhood, but have divergent opinions on how those behaviors early are formed. Jean Piaget (1896-1980) theory basically attributed a child development and learning process to self-discovery and natural abilities. Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) on the other hand, believed a child’s learning abilities and mental development are facilitated by his immediate socio-cultural environment. This paper focuses more on early childhood as presented in the preoperational stage of Piaget's theory’s, and the information processing, language development and individual differences in mental development as established in Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Keywords: early childhood, cognitive development…
Jean Piage is a luminary as far as cognitive development theory goes. This is because of his contributions in his intellectual development theory. According to Piaget, intellectual development is a continuation of innate biological processes. He emphasizes that children go through four sequential processes of development. These four stages also occur with sub stages within them.
The sensory motor stage: 0 to 2 years; intuitive stage: 2 to 7 years; concrete operations stage: 7 to 11 years; and the formal operations stage: 11 to 15 years (Simatwa, 366).
hat "Active Construction of Knowledge and Understanding" Means
A person's way of understanding occurs in five ways that are related. These are referred to as cognition domains. These ways include understanding as a representation, understanding as connectivity between knowledge types, understanding that forms active knowledge construction and understanding as cognition situation. Understanding as a representation refers to owning internalized ideas,…
Aleven, Vincent and Koeginger, Kenneth. "An Effective Metacognitive Strategy: Learning by Doing and Explaining with A Computer-Based Cognitive Tutor." Cognitive Science, 26 (2002): 147-179. Print.
Casey, Betty, Jones, Rebecca, and Hare, Todd. "The Adolescent Brain." Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1124 (2008): 111-126. Print.
Hill, Patrick and Lapsley, Daniel. "Egocentrism." Education.com, http://www.education.com/reference/article/egocentrism/ . Accessed 23 August 2016.
Hurst, Melissa. "Differences between Piaget and Vygotsky's Cognitive Development Theories." Study.com, http://study.com/academy/lesson/differences-between-piaget-vygotskys - cognitive-development-theories.html. Accessed 23 August 2016.
ABC/23 Version X
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Week 3 Review Worksheet
Highlight the correct answer.
Angelica wants to win the beauty contest because she wants the trophy and the recognition. She is extrinsically motivated.
intrinsically avoidance extrinsically situationally
Maslow believed that all human beings strive to become self-actualized great people self-actualized goal oriented achievement oriented
James-Lange theory postulates that bodily reactions occur before the emotions and Cannon-Bard theory postulates that both the bodily reactions and emotions occur at the same time.
Cannon -- Bard theory; James -- Lange theory
James -- Lange theory; Two factor theory
James -- Lange theory; Cannon -- Bard theory
Emotional intelligence; Dual Pathway Model of Fear
Emotional intelligence is the ability to manage emotions effectively in a variety of situations.
. Mental toughness
. Erik Erickson believed that the process in which we handle specific…
1. Vygotsky's Sociocultural Theory -- the process of development takes place in the course of social interaction. Cultural assimilation occurs in a person through interactions with others.
Copyright © XXXX by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
Copyright © 2015 by University of Phoenix. All rights reserved.
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Nonetheless, this does not make philosophy any less important in the field.
Philosophy today can be seen as a manifestation of the workings of the human mind, while psychology studies the mind itself. Philosophy is therefore a very important aspect in helping the psychologist understand the human mind. Philosophy is indeed responsible for the birth of psychology as a discipline in itself, as mentioned.
While the early philosophers, Socrates, Plato and Aristotle, are responsible for many of the ideas in both philosophy and psychology today, the 17th century philosopher ene Descartes is known as the "father of modern philosophy" (Consciousness 9). All these philosophers made a specific point of studying what it means to be human and conscious.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung built upon the work of all the above philosophers in order to develop his theories of the conscious and the…
Consciousness: Section PS13D
Holism, Reductionism and Four Theories: John B. Watson; B.F. Skinner; Jean Piaget; Gestalt Psychology
Nature vs. Nurture: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54B, Fall 2008.
Psychological Assumptions of the Cognitive Revolution: Psychology 4012 Recitation Section T54E, Fall 2008.
children cannot help but notice about certain unusual behavioral, cognitive, emotional, and physical traits and wonder if they are "normal." The puzzle of human development has been a popular area of study and, as a result, there is a wealth of theories striving to understand the many twists and turns of maturation. rik rikson, a developmental psychologist and psychoanalyst; Jean Piaget, a Swiss biologist and Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist, put forth three of the most well-known theories on aspects of human development.
rikson believed humans went through eight distinct physical and emotional developmental periods called "psychosocial stages." In each stage rikson proposed that humans confront a task or dilemma and that their ability to address each challenge would further define their personality and abilities. The stages correspond to specific physical stages and are as follows: Trust vs. Mistrust (infancy), Autonomy vs. Shame (toddler), Initiative vs. Guilt (preschool), Industry vs.…
Erickson, E.H. (1972). Eight ages of man. In C.S. Lavatelli & F. Stendler (Eds.), Readings to child behavior and child development. San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Piaget, J. (1929). The child's concept of the world. New York: Harcourt, Brace.
Vygotsky, L.S. (1997). Educational psychology. Boca Raton, FL: St. Lucie Press
Unlike humans, these eflexes contol the behavio thoughout the lives of animals. While in humans' infant use these eflexes to adapt to the envionment, and soon the eflexes ae eplaced by constucted schemes. Piaget descibed two pocesses adapted by individuals, namely assimilation and accommodation. Assimilation is a pocess of tansfoming o utilizing the envionment so that it can be composed in coheence with aleady existing cognitive stuctues in the human bains, convesely, making a efeence point with espect to the envionment; while accommodation is a pocess of changing the cognitive stuctues with a motive of accepting something fom the envionment. Both these pocesses ae used thoughout life as peson inceasingly adapts to the envionment in a complex meshwok of schematic development. When schemes take a moe complex fom they become stuctues. In tun when stuctues become complex they ae oganized in a hieachical manne i.e. moe specific and less vague…
references. The structures or schemes present in the long-term memory are responsible of enabling us to treat multiple elements as one whole. These as mentioned before make up the knowledge base. They differentiate a novice and an expert. Learning requires a change in the schematic structures of long-term memory and is demonstrated by performance that transforms sluggishness and difficulty to smoothness and effortlessness. This change is a consequence of familiarization with the material. Conversely, the cognitive characteristics associated with that material are altered in such a way that the subject material can be handled more efficiently by the working memory as it is now embedded in the long-term memory.
From teaching point-of-view, informational contained in the instructional material must first be understood by working memory. In order to acquire the contents of the schema more effectively, instruction should be designed to minimize the working memory load. Cognitive load theory is concerned with techniques for reducing the working memory's load for better learning. Sweller's theory can be best applied in the area of complex technically challenging subjects like mathematics since people find learning such materials more difficult.
In light of above theories and scholarly opinions, I believe the best teaching approach would be Vygotsky's developmental theory for cognitive learning in children. Environmental theory though extremely plausible and useful for understanding learning process is of minimal use in instructional terms as compared to the Social developmental theory. Where as Cognitive Load theory is best suitable for adult advance learners.
Constructivist Computerized Learning
Constructivist theories of knowledge development and learning have been around since the turn of the 20th century. But it may well be the advent of computerized and e-learning educational opportunities that offer this perspective its real chance to make a difference in the virtual world of learning and instruction. From Piaget to Papert, the core precepts of the constructivist understanding have been affirmed by what technology has to offer, even though researchers are just beginning to see what that means in practice. The current work reviews this transformation and what it might mean for the future of knowledge making and learning.
One of the most exciting aspects of the technological invasion of education is that the interactive and creative abilities of these tools allow students and teachers to design and develop their own relationship with knowledge. Computerized technologies of all sorts are simply fundamentally changing the game…
Ackermann, E. (n.d.). Piaget's Constructivism, Papert's Constructionism:What's the difference? Viewable at http://learning.media.mit.edu/content/publications/EA.Piaget%20_%20Papert.pdf .
Concept to Classroom (2004). Constructivism as a Paradigm for Teaching and Learning. Thirteen Online. Viewable at http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/concept2class/constructivism/index_sub4.html .
Cox, J. And Cox, K. (2009). Constructivism and Integrating Technology in the Classroom. Boise State University. Viewable at http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/coxk/eportfolio/EdTech%20504%20Final%20Synthesis%20K&J.docx.pdf.
Doolittle, P. And Hicks, D. (n.d.). Constructivism as a Theoretical Foundation for the Use of Technology in Social Studies. Viewable at http://www.itma.vt.edu/modules/spring03/learnth/DoolittleHicks5.pdf .
It is now recognized that individuals learn in different ways -- they perceive and process information in various ways. The learning styles theory suggests that the way that children acquire information has more to do with whether the educational experience is slanted toward their specific style of learning than their intelligence.
The foundation of the learning styles methodology is based in the classification of psychological types. The research demonstrates that, due to heredity factors, upbringing, and present circumstantial demands, different students have an inclination to both perceive and process information differently. These different ways of learning consist of: 1) concrete or abstract perceivers, where concrete perceivers acquire information through direct experience of doing, sensing, and feeling, and abstract perceivers, instead accept new ideas through analyzing, observing and thinking; 2) active or reflective processors -- active processors understand a new experience by immediately utilizing new information, and reflective processors analyze an…
Bruner, J. (1973). Going Beyond the Information Given. New York: Norton.
Dewey, J. (1910) How We Think. Boston: Heath.
Dryden, G. And Vos, (1999) Jeannette. The Learning Revolution. Austin, TX: Jalmar
Gardner, Howard (1983) Frames of Mind: The theory of multiple intelligences, New York: Basic Books.
(the Teacher's role in developing social skills)
ole of Workplaces:
espectable work is seen as a social standard based on harmonizing and mutually collaborative policies to advance rights at work; employment; social protection and social dialogue. It tackles a basic ambition of women and men everywhere, that is, to get respectable and productive work in situations of freedom, equality, security and dignity of human labor. This ambition stresses a collective attempt by many bodies, namely, by international organizations, national governments, business and workers, and by all the social bodies in civil society. It needs all mediators of change to be involved in pioneering economic and social initiatives, customized to particular national and local needs. It specifically calls for new working relationships and dialogue between the conventional social partners in the sphere of work which includes governments, organizations of employers and trade unions and other associations of civil society, which have…
Jacobs, Garry; Cleveland, Harlan. (1 November, 1999) "Social Development Theory" retrieved at http://www.icpd.org/development_theory/SocialDevTheory.htm . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Keirsey, David. (1998) "Parenting and Temperament" retrieved at http://keirsey.com/parent.html . Accessed on 26 February 2005
Lavoie, Rick. "The Teacher's role in developing social skills" Retrieved at http://www.ldonline.org/article.php?max=20&special_grouping=&id=400&loc=22Accessed on 27 February 2005
Moore, Shirley. G. "The Role of Parents in the Development of Peer Group Competence" ERIC Digest. Retrieved at http://www.fww.org/articles/misc/0628e.html. Accessed on 26 February 2005
It includes morphology and syntax, often complemented by phonetics, phonology, semantics, and pragmatics (Grammar, n.d.).
Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated; it is the ability to understand another speaker's intended meaning is called pragmatic competence; and an utterance describing pragmatic function is described as metapragmatic (Pragmatics, n.d.).
The ole of Language Processing in Cognitive Psychology
Jean Piaget, the founder of cognitive development, was involved in a debate about the relationships between innate and acquired features of language, at the Centre oyaumont pour une Science de l'Homme, where he had a discussion about his opinion with the linguist Noam Chomsky as well as Hilary Putnam and Stephen Toulmin (McKinney, & Parker, 1999). Piaget discussed that his cognitive constructivism has two main parts: an "ages and stages" component which foretells what children can and cannot understand at different…
Language. (n.d). Retrieved March 13, 2009, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org /wiki/Language' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.
ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…
Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.
A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878
Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.