Jihad Essays (Examples)

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Ethical or Moral Arguments

Words: 1134 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 93448698

jihad with reference to the practices and believes of the Muslims regarding the word "jihad." Further the paper will develop ethical/moral arguments regarding the stoppage of violence by both Ireland and Syria. Although one can name many countries with reference to jihad and practices of Muslims against the violence attacks, but this paper will limit the discussion to the violent attacks of Syria and Ireland.

It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says: "There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256)." http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/glossary/term.JIHAD.html

The definition of Jihad states that it is a struggle, a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

As retrieved from JIHAD - THE HOLY WAR http://www.alislam.org/books/study-of-islam/jihad.html. On5 April, 2004

As retrieved from The Spiritual Significance of Jihad http://www.al-islam.org/al-serat/jihad-nasr.htm. On5 April, 2004

As retrieved from Jihad in Islam (Submission)

http://www.submission.org/muhammed/jihad.html. On 5 April, 2004
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Terrorism a Profile of a

Words: 1650 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55569205

Establishing better relations with Jordan and Saudi Arabia, where the core leaders of the terrorist organizations were reared, as well as attempting to target the nations where the terrorist threats to the est are based, is another vital 'leg' of the current anti-terrorist aspect of the larger 'war' on terror. Even establishing pro-peace and tolerance websites for Muslims, rather than allowing young Muslims to be attracted to militant websites that promote terror could be a positive strategy that the governments of the est could embark upon with community leaders.

Other anti-terrorism tactics consist of conducting litigation against terrorist actors, or supporters of terrorism, such as the current formal trial of Saddam Hussein, conducted according to the protocols of international law. Providing adequate protection for civilians working, living, or traveling in terrorist prone areas, such as Iraq, and ensuring that public places and areas that would be attractive to terrorists are…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Armond, Paul. "Rock, Paper, Scissors: Counter-terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and Terrorism." 1997. Accessed 25 Aug 2005. http://nwcitizen.com/publicgood/reports/rockpaperscissors / 'Iraqi Insurgency." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraq_insurgency.htm 

'Jamaat al-Tawhid wa'l-Jihad / Unity and Jihad Group Tanzim Qa'idat Al-Jihad in Bilad al-Rafidayn (Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers)." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/zarqawi.htm 

Mendenhall, Preston. "Alleged British Bombings Masterminds U.S. ties." Newsweek. 20 July 2005. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8647113/

"Text from Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi Letter." Global Security.org. 2003. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/02/040212-al-zarqawi.htm
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Islamic Philosophies on September 11

Words: 1195 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14070700

Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.

Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from www.islamfortoday.com

Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.
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Ncc Book Waller Book

Words: 2820 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3766690

The Israel government was not able to find the perpetrators, and the PIJ profited greatly from the event. On the Friday following the killing, "…hundreds of worshippers at Jerusalem's al-Aqsa mosque demonstrated their support for Islamic Jihad" for killing an innocent Israeli (Milton-Edwards, p. 140). The demonstrators (who were worshipping prior to being engaged in support for a cold-blooded killing) were chanting, "Allahu Akbar" -- and according to a local newspaper police in Jerusalem said the "tone of the demonstrators was more religious than political" (Milton-Edwards, p. 140).

Given that vocal support by citizens, and its more visible presence in Palestine, the Islamic Jihad carried out a far more bold and brazen attack, mentioned earlier in this paper, tossing live hand grenades into a military ceremony at Jerusalem's estern all. "Activists were willing to take significant risks," Milton-Edwards wrote (p. 140). Moreover, by killing the father of one recruit and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cordesman, Anthony H., and Moravitz, Jennifer. (2005). The Israeli-Palestinian War:

Escalating to Nowhere. Abingdon, Oxford: United Kingdom.

Cragin, Kim, and Daly, Sara a. (2004). The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group

Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World, Issue 1782. Santa Monica: Rand
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Samuel Huntington Defines Culture as

Words: 1391 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 5217304

It was generally a peaceful method of setting personal and social example of moral and caring behavior so others will join Islam because of its clear advantage for human desire for better, honest and non-violent life. But during history especially in the early days of Islam, Jihad by sword was an acceptable method, although never the only option. By its definition Jihad is therefore, global.

Yes there is a global Jihad that wishes to establish Islam every where in the world through acts of terrorism and religion imposition. The war is best understood as a global insurgency, initiated by a diffuse grouping of Islamist movements that seek to remake Islam role in the world order. They use terrorism as their primary but not as their sole tactic. Therefore they offer the best approach to defeating global jihad but in a single country.

David J. Kilcullen theory is devoted to counterinsurgency…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Edward W. Said, The Class of Ignorance, Vintage, New York, 2000.

Hardcover, Globalization, Poverty and Conflict: A Critical 'Development' Reader:; 1 edition. Amazon, 2004

Huntington, Samuel and Schuster, The Clash of Civilizations and The Remarking of World Order, Touchstone, New York, 1996

Kilcullen, David, The Accidental Guerilla: Fighting small wars in the midst of a big one, 2009
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Gathered 1 The Reading Selection Barber -Benjamin

Words: 1460 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1290000

gathered: 1. The reading selection Barber -Benjamin Barber, "Jihad . McWorld," The Atlantic (Mar. 1992) http://www.theatlantic./magazine/archive/1992/03/jihad -- mcworld/3882 / 2.

The significance of coffee as a commodity

The globalization has produced in time some of the most interesting changes in the economy of the world. In the 16th, and 17h centuries, the trade with Indian spices or exotic condiments was seen as one of the most important aspects of trade in the world. Conquest wars have been fought for the control of these regions. In today's world, the market has become more specialized from the point-of-view of the commodities it nurtures. In this sense, coffee has become a true commodity in the sense of the globalized world.

The issue of globalization is by no means a new element for the study of international relations and that of international trade. It can be said that even the ancient omans and Greeks…… [Read More]

References

Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. 1992. Available online at http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1992/03/jihad-vs.-mcworld/3882/

Brata, Aloysius Gunadi. Social Impact of Coffee Crisis on the Pasemah coffee farmers in South Sumatera. MPRA. 2007. Available online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/12624/1/MPRA_paper_12624.pdf

Coady, David et al. Coping with the Coffee Crisis in Central America: The Role of Social Safety Nets in Honduras. World Bank studies. n.d. Available at  http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/383704-1109618370585/No310_Coady_05.pdf  FAO NewsRoom.Coffee crisis: FAO helps Nicaragua's small-scale growers. 2004. Available at  http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2004/35687/index.html 

Good, Jonathan. "Coffee." University of Minnesota Library. n.d. Available at http://www.lib.umn.edu/bell/tradeproducts/coffee
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Islam and Politics the Islamic

Words: 2281 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67614134



There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.

Question

In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.

According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004

Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89

Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi

Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
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Islam and Terrorism

Words: 2282 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 48371157

Islam and Terrorism

Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?

Background of Islam

Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam

Public Opinion Polls

Islam in the Media

There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."

Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AFP. (2008, February 27). Major survey challenges Western perceptions of Islam. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i5ajtNJ0qTTRMBSFpYngMOjrmDbQ

Imam, M. (N.d.). The Perception of Islam and Muslims in the Media and the Responsibility of European Muslims Towards the Media . Retrieved from Cuturelink:  http://www.culturelink.org/conf/dialogue/mesic.pdf 

Kidd, T. (2009). American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism. Princeton University Press.

Lostopedia. (N.d.). Syid Jarrah. Retrieved from Wikia:  http://lostpedia.wikia.com/wiki/Sayid_Jarrah
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Issues of Terrorism

Words: 687 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42298553

terrorist groups; besides Al Queda and Al Jihad that possess both the motive and capability to implement a terrorist attack on the United States and decide which of these two groups pose a greater threat. Examine both the likelihood and potential impact. It will also assess the likelihood of another terrorist attack by the Al Queda and the Al Jihad terrorist groups. Identify and provide examples of the most likely targets in a future terrorist attack.

It seems two of the most dangerous terrorist organizations facing America today are Hezbollah and the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). These groups are particularly dangerous because they are well funded, and they consistently target the United States in their attacks. Perhaps most dangerous of these two is Hezbollah, also known as the Party of God, who are credited with numerous terrorist activities against Americans since the 1980s. These included kidnapping several Americans in the…… [Read More]

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Terrorism Justified According to Purpura 2007 Terrorism

Words: 721 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60203145

Terrorism Justified?

According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.

The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments

Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.

Terrorism as "War by Other Means"

It…… [Read More]

References

Osama Bin Laden (1996, August 23). Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holly Places: A Message from Osama Bin Muhammad Bin Laden to his Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally and in the Arab Peninsula Specifically. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from the Terrorism Files Website:  http://www.terrorismfiles.org/individuals/declaration_of_jihad1.html 

Purpura, P.P. (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.

Smilansky, S. (2004). Terrorism, Justification and Illusion. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from: http://philo.haifa.ac.il/staff/smilansky/Ethics%20terrorism.pdf
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Israeli-Palestinian Conflict

Words: 1765 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90959021

1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…… [Read More]

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Aryan Nation Although Not the

Words: 2442 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97141798

The Aryan Nations Web site describes edfearin as "an individual of cunning mind, violent tendencies and radical outlook who aided in the evolution of the Aryan Nations worldview as the organization moved into a future which was very different than that perhaps originally envisioned by the Aryan activists of past generations."

Aryan Nations as a Terrorist Organization

Setbacks since the 1990s has largely left the Aryan Nations a "shadow of its former self," (Hoffman 2006, 110). However small its membership might be relative to the population as a whole, the Aryan Nations remains a formidable force. The organization's Web site indicates a slight ideological change, towards more radical and violent approaches to creating a constant state of "revolution" to dismantle the current social and political order (Aryan Nations). The Aryan Nations remains committed to racial purification but "it is prerequisite and indeed necessary that 'the System' be disrupted and broken…… [Read More]

References

Al-Khattar, Aref M. 2003. Religion and Terrorism; An Interfaith Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.

Aryan Nations. http://www.aryan-nations.org / (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).

Borgeson, Kevin, and Valeri, Robin. 2009. Terrorism in America. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Aryan Nation." http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/anation.htm (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
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Bosnia Islam the Islamic Faith

Words: 2530 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84161527



The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.

A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.

Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.

Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.

Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
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Personal Agency The Importance of

Words: 2482 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24222691

Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.

Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.

Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.

6 May 2013.

Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
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Globalism and the Culture of American Consumption

Words: 1486 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59246987

Globalism and the Culture of American Consumption

The United States has long been a world leader on many fronts. The presidential administration of Theodore Roosevelt may have been the first to declare openly that Americans wanted to show that they were a global power, but the U.S. had long had interest in global politics. In the last decade of the eighteenth century, America fought land and sea battles in the Mediterranean against the Barbary pirates (Sassen 216). The Marine Hymn which talks of "the shores of Tripoli" is dedicated to that conflict in which U.S. Marines first fought on foreign soil. An intrepid spirit has caused the free men and women of America to create innovations in business, finance, war, agriculture, and other industries that have been the envy of the rest of the world. This has produced a certain amount of arrogance among the people and leaders of the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Barber, Benjamin. Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy. New York: Corgi Books, 2003. Print.

Fotopoulos, Takis . "Globalization, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalization Movement." Democracy & Nature: The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. 7.2 (2001): 111. Print.

Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. 488. Print.

Norberg, Johan. In defense of global capitalism. United States: Cato Institute, 2003. Print.
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Globalization Often Has a Paradoxical

Words: 831 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70964938



Q2. From an American perspective, it is tempting to look out at the world and to assume that American culture now dominates and reigns over all, given the seeming ubiquity of American movies, television, and music. However, a cultural analysis of many regions of the world yields the finding that culture is far more regional and pluralistic in nature.

For example, in Mexico, soap operas known as telenovelas captivate almost the entire population. They often give voice to Mexican fantasies about transgressing economic borders. One such soap opera, Ugly Betty, has actually been appropriated by U.S. culture. Mexican culture has changed the U.S., as well as vice versa, despite the U.S.'s greater economic power in the region. And within India, Bollywood films are far more popular than Hollywood films because of the way they speak to unique Indian culture needs. Within this densely-populated and fantastically diverse nation, the fascination with…… [Read More]

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Soviet-Afgan War Conflict Analysis Focus

Words: 5116 Length: 18 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10933340

(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)

Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."

[26] Contrary…… [Read More]

Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.

Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .

United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
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Globalization and the Problems Associated

Words: 359 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 445310

" This predictability is not and could never be a part of democracy; democracies must change with the will of the people, and so might have periods of instability. In fact, Berber notes, "Multinational corporations sometimes seem to prefer doing business with local oligarchs, inasmuch as they can take confidence from dealing with the boss on all crucial matters." Consistency and predictability are almost by definition easier to find in harsh dictatorships or oligarchies than democracies. The real danger I see in this is the possibility of a totalitarian state that looks like a democracy, such as the imagined by Aldous Huxley in Brave New World and which is every similar to the McWorld Barber sees us approaching. It might, in fact, already be happening, as warrant-less wiretapping becomes executive practice, and perhaps even more insidiously through the attempts of companies like Google to maintain huge databases of information about…… [Read More]

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Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next

Words: 5067 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10464176

Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack

Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New

York:

Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).

Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
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Terrorism and Weapons of Mass Destruction

Words: 1626 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37164865

Weapons of Mass Destruction

Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and…… [Read More]

References

Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger

Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies

Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School

O'Neil, Andrew. 2003. Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: how serious is the threat? Australian Journal of International Affairs 57:99 -- 112.
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Islamic History in Russia and Central Asia

Words: 1243 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98238957

Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia

Approximately twenty million of the world's one billion Muslims live in Russia, even more in Eastern Europe. The media and academics alike are scurrying to react to this seemingly new wave of Islam in Russia, however attention is mainly focused on extremist activity. "Fundamentalism," "Wahhabism," "Islamism," and other such banner concepts are tainting our perception of Islam in Russia. The place of Islam in Russia is being assessed primarily as a factor of danger that threatens its national security and the interests of its citizens.

This current wave of Islamic activity in Eastern Europe is largely an extension of thousands of years of history. In Russia, Islam was the unfortunate foe of Communist politicians who challenged the very notion of religious freedom. Indeed, Islam has endured centuries of antagonistic regimes and related controversy. The following analysis will consider in what ways the demise…… [Read More]

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Islamic Movements

Words: 1833 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83176190

Islamic movements come to dominate the political landscape of Iran and Saudi rabia in the last thirty years?

Why have democratic advances been so limited in these two countries? Is there any relationship between these two trends or are they independent of each other?

In both modern Iran and modern Saudi rabia, over the past thirty years, two fundamental forces have dominated the discourse of these nations -- that of Islamic Fundamentalism and a hatred of Western, specifically merican intrusions of 'modernity,' in cultural and political forms. In the absence of the ability to compete, technologically with the West, or culturally on a global level, these nations have turned inward, and some historians might say 'to their pasts' and attempted to create Islamic rather than secular renditions of modernity. However, because of the corresponding lack of democratic structures within these referenced traditional Islamic political modalities, and the association of the…… [Read More]

After the Islamic revolution in Iran the new political structures that were instated ensured that fundamentalist Islamic point-of-view became synonymous with the new Iran. For instance, in 1982 Khomeini insisted that Iran's courts discard all secular legal codes and base their decisions solely on Islamic regulations. (Cleveland 423) To oppose Islamic fundamentalism in Iran was not only to stand against the new regime, it was to engage in an act of heresy. Democracy was decadent, and Western, and to adopt the Western political mindset was to disastrously weaken the nation.

In this text, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam Gilles Kepel in Chapter 5 states that Iran, in the wake of the death of Khomeni, has since attempted to reform some of its strictures, instating democratic but still Islamic elections, for instance, that has created some semblance of what one might call 'democracy' in the nation. Even more recently, the arts have begun to be resurrected in Iran. There has even been a return to pre-Iranian cultural institutions, such as the presence of Western music and movies within the republic.

Likewise, nascent Saudi Arabian feminism has manifested itself as women have protested their inability to drive, or made use of mandatory 'all female' enclaves such as banks, to discuss and create sites of discussion and debate. The private/public dichotomy of female dress and both male and female behavior in both countries may hold the seeds of a kind of revolution or renegotiation of Islamic identity. But it will be a revolution on Islamic and Middle Eastern cultural terms, a negotiation rather than a revolution in the Western sense of uprooting the old entirely -- for what is Islamic in these nations is not really 'old' at all, as William Cleveland suggests. Rather, Islamic fundamentalism is more of a delicate negotiation, socially, politically, and economically, in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, in an effort for these nations to remain distinct in a world and even a region they see as increasingly dominated by American needs and influence.
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ISIS Attacks in America Essay

Words: 3702 Length: Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

Table of Contents

I.  Opening
II.  Titles
III.  Related Topics
IV.  Outline
V.  Introduction
VI.  Essay Hook
VII.  Thesis Statement
VIII. Body
A.  Background
B.  Jihad
C.  Sunni/Shia Split
D. Relationship between AL Qaeda and Isis
E. ISIS attacks on the United States
IX.  Conclusion
X.  Works Cited
XI.  Closing


Opening

In this essay about ISIS attacks in America, we examine attacks by the terrorist organization ISIS, which have occurred on U.S. soil.  Because of the structure of ISIS/ISIL, which operate in cells, it can be extremely difficult to determine whether a terrorist attack carried out by someone claiming to be working on behalf of ISIS was actually directed by ISIS.  Therefore, for the purposes of this essay, we are working on the assumption that attacks by people who appear to be radicalized Muslims and claim a personal affiliation with ISIS are, indeed, ISIS attacks.  This essay will give some…… [Read More]

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Homeland Security

Words: 2038 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34045118

Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.

The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.

The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology of Terrorism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 10.2, 177-187.

Moghadam, Assaf. 2008. Defining and confronting the Salafi Jihad. Middle East Strategy at Harvard. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://blogs.law.harvard.edu.

Proctor, Pat. 2012. War Without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Security, 5.2, 47-64.
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Clash of Civilizations Samuel P

Words: 2233 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23271805

Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.

Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…… [Read More]

References

Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.

Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.

Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.

Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
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Usman Dan Fodio in Attempting

Words: 2105 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24826056

Their fight, like dan Fodio's, was not against external forces or non-Muslims, but rather oriented towards those Muslims seen to be practicing their faith incorrectly or not enough, or else capitulating to the colonial and Christian leadership.

Of course, as the cited article mentions, this confrontation is not especially surprising considering that the time period during which northern Nigeria was ruled by colonial or Christian leaders is far overshadowed by the long history of Muslim rule. Thus, not only did Usman dan Fodio transform the entirety of the social, political, religious, and commercial structure of the region during his own lifetime, but the lasting effects of his actions, and particularly his famous jihad, are still being felt to this day. In fact, were it not for the destruction brought about by colonialism, the contemporary world would likely be even more influenced by dan Fodio's work, considering that almost independent of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Blench, Roger. "The Expansion and Adaptation of Fulbe Pastoralism to Subhumid and Humid

Conditions in Nigeria ."Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines . 34.133/135 (1994): 197-212. Print.

Casey, Conerly. "Marginal Muslims": Politics and the Perceptual Bounds of Islamic

Authenticity in Northern Nigeria." Africa Today. 54.3 (2008): 67-92. Print.
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Religion of Islam Compatible With

Words: 1831 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 88245500

No doubt, such feelings are greatly exacerbated by the current hard-line policies of the U.S. government in the Middle East,

Conclusion

There is a general perception in the estern world that the religion of Islam is inherently incompatible with the ideals of democracy such as individual liberties and freedom of speech. The recent controversy over the cartoons of Prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper, and the violent reaction of Muslims has further solidified the impression. A deeper look at the basic Islamic beliefs and history indicates that such a perception may be misplaced. The apparent unbridgeable gulf between Islam and modern day democratic societies can be breached if the commonalities between the two instead of their differences are highlighted.

orks Cited

The Internal Jihad." BBC ebsite. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml

Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2

The Last ord:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

The Internal Jihad." BBC Website. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml

Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2

The Last Word: Flemming Rose." Newsweek International. February 13, 2006 issue. November 12, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11179140/site/newsweek/

Mcnern, Ethan. "Holocaust Cartoons." The Scotsman. February 09, 2006. November 12, 2006. http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=204162006
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Jemaah Islamiyah Tracing the Roots

Words: 3157 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97718047

Social dynamics, meanwhile, look into the prevalent perception of JI's society and the international viewpoint on radical Islamism. Lastly, the political dynamics centers on the viewpoints supporting and opposing JI activities, specifically its linkage with Al-Qaeda.

Religious dynamics

Explicated earlier is the ultimate goal of JI in establishing itself as an Islamic militant group: to create an Islam-centered social order, starting specifically in Indonesia. Jones' (2005) analysis of the history of JI as a terrorist organization delved deeply into the events surrounding its early establishment in Indonesia, and its later development as one of the Muslim groups who subsisted to jihad to promote this main objective.

Jihad is an important concept in the lives of JI members, for this became the manner in which it succeeded in increasing its membership and strengthening its network of Muslim militant groups, both locally and internationally. Among the initial contacts that JI had in…… [Read More]

Bibliography

9/11." (2006). Foreign Policy, Issue 156.

Chehab, Z. (2006). "Al-Qaeda: Still a step ahead." New Statesman, Vol. 135, Issue 4799.

Jones, S. (2005). "The changing nature of Jemaah Islamiyah." Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, Issue 2.

Kaplan, D. (2003). "The shadow over the summit." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 135, Issue 13.
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Jemaah Islamiah Jemaah Islamiyah Is

Words: 4383 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46633607



Religion plays the center part in Jemaah Islamiyah and the extremist religious interpretation is one of the methods of manipulation of the members. In fact, religious teaching is the first step in the recruiting process of almost all Muslim terrorist organizations. As it is the case of Jemaah Islamiyah, religious teachings organized for general audience represent the first stage of the recruitment process as it draws people that are easily manipulated by the extremist interpretation of religious beliefs and that soon become dedicated to jihad. The second stage of the recruitment process is identifying the ones that seem particularly interested in finding out more about the views presented by the teacher. oth of the founders of Jemaah were school teachers.

After identifying in religious education classes the ones that seemed more interested in learning more, the students are introduced to the organization and if they seem eager to be part…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jemaah_Islamiyah;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at  http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/ji.htm ;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3613;

Jemaah Islamiyah, available at  http://www.rotten.com/library/history/terrorist-organizations/jemaah-islamiah/ ;
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Terrorist Organizations

Words: 6350 Length: 19 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80361872

Terrorist Organizations and the Media

Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.

Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…… [Read More]

References

Abu Nidal Organization (ANO) a.k.a. Fatah Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Council, Arab Revolutionary Brigades, Black September, and Revolutionary Organization of Socialist Muslims. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ano.htm.[7 September 2003].

Abu Nidal, Terrorist Organizations. (2000). FORSNET. Available at http://www.teror.gen.tr/english/organisations/abunidal.html.[7 September 2003].

Ahmed, E. (2003. April). Defining Extremism. The Voice.

Al-Qa'ida (The Base), Qa'idat al-Jihad, Islamic Army for the Liberation of the Holy Places, World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Christians, Usama bin Laden Network. (2003. April 30). FAS. Available at http://www.fas.org/irp/world/para/ladin.htm.[7 September 2003].
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Terrorism and the Internet Modern

Words: 2030 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10999243

(Ulph, 2006)

The document is remarkable for a couple of reasons, which more widely emphasizes on the importance of the internet for the jihadi terrorists. The first one is the component of collective initiative that the writer promotes; emphasizing the pace of communication and the prospective strength that spread jihadi sympathizers throughout the world could concentrate on a single project. Second relates to the competence for data storing that the internet entails, permitting quick reach not only to data of academic interest but also to sensitive forms of infrastructure details containing utilities, distribution as well as transport networks, along with the risk and susceptibility perceptions of such facilities -- that governments are presently providing at ever higher standards of transparency. (Ulph, 2006)

Activity over the web is not a current phenomenon and not limited to Islamic outfits- either moderate or extremist. Terrorist groups of several features i.e. racial, ideological or…… [Read More]

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Sayyid Qutb's Transformation From Pro-Western

Words: 2641 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83595100

e. greed, lust and jealousy). To do this, Qutb advocated using a by any means necessary approach, in preventing the status quo from imposing its will upon everyone. This meant that there will be some kind of armed struggle against these forces.

What impacts has he had on Islamic thought?

The biggest impact of Qutb's ideas is in Islamic philosophy. What happened was Qutb, became involved in the Muslim Brotherhood when he returned to Egypt in 1952. During this time, he was actively involved in supporting governments and individuals that challenged Western policies. This led to him being arrested twice.

When he was in jail the first time, he wrote a number of pieces that discusses his radical ideas and how Muslims should stand up to this oppression. After being released in 1965 (for a brief period), is when he would publish these ideas. This led to his re-arrest and…… [Read More]

References

"Sayyid Qutb Milestones."Gems of Islamism. Last modified 2005.  http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/milestones_qutb.html 

Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2001.

Euben, Roxanne. Enemy in the Mirror. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.

Khatab, Sayed. The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006.
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Strategic Security in the Middle

Words: 3247 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53674326



Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).

Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.

Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com

Retrieved September 7, 2011, from  http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .

Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
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Gender and Islam Religion Is

Words: 2355 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2441196

In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.

Men in Islam

As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.

The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.

Knapp, Michael G. "The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 82+.

Tell, Carol. "The Women of Afghanistan." Social Education 66.1 (2002): 8+.

What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does it Matter? http://hnn.us/articles/934.html
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Terrorism Who Leads the Group

Words: 1998 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62700665

While the main bases are still located in the Bangladesh area, there are branches in almost every country (Muktadhara, 2001).

Most of the crimes committed by the Jamaat were done in Bangladesh and surrounding areas. The actual locations vary between Shrines, local businesses, celebrations, airfields, and sporting events. As funding increases, both their crime locations and base of operations continues to increase (Muktadhara, 2001).

The Jamaat organization dislikes the United States and other Western cultures for two main reasons. First, they challenge the western methods to achieve social and industrial reform. According to the Jamaat, their method provides more opportunity for equality and change from within, rather than changing the industry, and leaving the citizens to starve. Secondly, the Jamaat dislikes the capitalistic ways of the Western world. They view the values and methods of the United States and other western nations as actions taken against Islam, and view those…… [Read More]

References

Jamaat e-Islami Organization. (2002). Vision and Commitment. About Jamaat. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Jamaat e-Islami. Web site: http://www.jamaat-e-islami.org/about/visioncommitment.html.

Jamaat e-Islami Organization. (2002b). Objectives, goals, and approach. Organization. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Jamaat e-Islami. Web site: http://www.jamaat-e-islami.org/about/objectivesgoalsapproach.html.

Kidwai, R. (Feb 2, 2004). Moderates wait for echo from the majority. The Telegraph, p. C2.

Muktadhara. (2001). Jamat e-Islam. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Muktadhara.net, maintained by the Institute for Humanist Studies, Bangladesh. Web site: http://muktadhara.net/page80.html.
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Saladin and the Christian Crusaders Saladin or

Words: 2735 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40917325

Saladin and the Christian Crusaders

Saladin, or Salah al-Din, or Selahedin, was a twelfth century Kurdish Muslim general and warrior from Tikrit, in what is currently northern Iraq. Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt. The Muslim leader was renowned in both the Muslim and Christian worlds because of his leadership and his military prowess. He was also seen as a chivalrous figure who showed mercy during his war against the Christian Crusaders. The image of Saladin developed in his lifetime and persisted long after so that he has remained a heroic figure much revered in both the Islamic world and the Christian world, the latter in spite of the fact that he opposed Western expansion into Islam and fought agasint the West in the Crusades. Still, he is idolized in literaure and art and is often the subject for Western writers as for Islamic writers, though the two groups…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Esposito, John L. Islam: The Straight Path. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.

Firestone, Reuven. Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.

Franzius, Enno. History of the Byzantine Empire. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967.

Lane-Poole, Stanley. Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1898.
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Islam Teaches That Faith Must

Words: 985 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42780168

There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.

The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.

The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…… [Read More]

References

Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?

Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.

Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.

Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).
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Global Terrorism

Words: 5841 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69761973

Terrorist Groups Are Aligning to Conduct Global Terrorism.

Terrorism used to be a topic limited to only certain sectors of the world, such as the Middle East or South Africa. However, in recent years, it appears that no one is safe in any part of the world. A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the threat of terrorism. The Unites States is the latest addition to this list. It has become evident in recent years that terrorism is not a localized event any more, but has become an increasing global problem. It has also become obvious that terrorism requires a global solution as well. Evidence has been mounting that terrorist groups are beginning to connect and form alliances. This gives them greater strength and greater resources. It seems that they are finding common ground and are beginning to coordinate efforts. This will be…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Office of the Secretary Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (OSOCC) U.S. Department Of State. 1994 April: Patterns Of Global Terrorism, 1993. Department of State Publication 10136. 1994. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm. Accessed December 2002

U.S. State Department (USSD) (1996) State-Sponsored Terrorism. 1995 Patterns of Global Terrorism. April, 1996. USIA Electronic Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1997. Retrieved at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0297/ijge/gj-9.htm. Accessed December, 2002.

United Stated Department of State (USDS) (1996a). Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1995. The Year in Review Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. Department of State Publication. Embassy of the United States of America. Dag Hammarskjlds V g 31, SE-115 89 Stockholm. Released April 1996. Retrieved at   http://www.usis.usemb.se/terror/ rpt1995/year.htm . Accessed December 2002

United Stated Department of State (USDS) (1996b). Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1995 Appendix B:Background Information on Major Groups Discussed in the Report. Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. Department of State Publication. Embassy of the United States of America. Dag Hammarskjlds V g 31, SE-115 89 Stockholm. Released April 1996. Retrieved at
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Islamic Terrorism Essay

Words: 1620 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: Array

 
Islamic Terrorism: The Radicalization of Religion
 
Abstract
This essayfocuses on radical Islamic terrorism, from its roots in the Shia rebellion that led to the Iranian Revolution to the modern day terrorist group Daesh/ISIL/ISIS/IS. It discusses how 9-11 introduced many Westerners to the idea of radical Islamic terrorism and the self-proclaimed holy warriors who carry out these acts as a form of jihad. In order to help explain modern terrorism, the paper discusses the roots of the Sunni/Shia split and the lingering impact that split has on the modern geopolitical environment. The foundation of modern terrorist groups that can be traced to the radicalization of Sunni students is traced through Al Qaeda and back to the Taliban.
Introduction
For people in the United States, radical Islamic terrorism became a real threat on 9-11, when terrorists from a group known as Al-Qaeda used box knives to take over airplanes and…… [Read More]

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Top Al-Qai'da Leaders Living or

Words: 2514 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19576481



Richard Reid

Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.

Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009

Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"

"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
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Islam in Spain Islamic Spain

Words: 2165 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27927486

Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.

Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…… [Read More]

References

W. Montgomery Watt, a History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965)

Charles Reginald Haines. Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) LONDON

KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1889

Watt p.1
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Soviet-Afghanistan War Specifically it Will

Words: 1980 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75281137

The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."

The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…… [Read More]

References

Editors. 2007. The Soviet-Afghan War. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Online. Available from Internet: http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/grasov.html, accessed 11 June 2007.

Esposito, John L. 2003. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.

Joes, Anthony James. 1996. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Edited by Robin Higham. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.

Strmecki, Marin. 1986. Can the Afghan Rebels Win?. National Review, 4 July, 32+.
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Islamists and Moderate Muslims Islamism

Words: 342 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49070493

In contrast to Islam as religion, Islamism attempts to manifest itself via the violent power of Jihad.

oderate uslims, on the other hand, personalizes their religion towards an individual adherence to a set of rules and regulations particularly appropriate for their faith. In such a case, the concept of Jihad takes a more personal meaning: it is the personal struggle against wrongdoing and diverting from the path of Islam. oderate Islam is often referred to as a "peaceful" religion, and many moderate uslims are against the concept of Jihad as interpreted by Islamism.

oderate uslims are close in ideology to other religions: they make an attempt to follow the tenets of their faith without attempting to impose this upon others or indeed to eradicate the other religions of the world.

Source

Pipes, Daniel. Distinguishing between Islam and Islamism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 30, 1998. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/954… [Read More]

Moderate Muslims are close in ideology to other religions: they make an attempt to follow the tenets of their faith without attempting to impose this upon others or indeed to eradicate the other religions of the world.

Source

Pipes, Daniel. Distinguishing between Islam and Islamism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 30, 1998. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/954
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Islamaphobia Is One of the

Words: 1489 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46384391

Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.

Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…… [Read More]

Sources

Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.

Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press

Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press

Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
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Crash of Arrow Airs DC 8 Flight 12 12 85

Words: 1607 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44258445

Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on December 12, 1985. Thesis: "The crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on 12 December 1985 was caused by terrorists." (Gander, Newfoundland) Research concludes that this flight carrying soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division actually crashed due to terrorists act. Five sources are used. MLA.

The Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 Flight December 12, 1985

It had been nearly two decades since an Arrow Airs DC-8 jet crashed just after taking off from a refueling stop in Gander, Newfoundland on December 12, 1985. The plane rose less than 1,000 ft., then crashed, tail first, into a small hill, disintegrating in flames about a half-mile from the end of the runway (Magnuson 22). It has been listed as the worst military air disaster, killing 248 American soldiers along with eight crew members. There is still much speculation as to the cause for the crash, although…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Cox, Matthew. "Decade Later, Crash Debated." Newsday. August 25, 1996; pp A16.

http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Newsday&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.newsday.com&querydocid=4307815@urn:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Matthew+Cox&title=Decade+Later%2C+Crash+Debated++&date=08%2D25%2D1996&query=The+Crash+of+Arrow+Airs+DC%2D8+Flight+December+12%2C+1985&maxdoc=6&idx=5. (accessed 09-26-2002).

Magnuson, Ed. "NATION: THE FALL OF THE SCREAMING EAGLES A charter-jet crash kills 248 members of a famed Airborne unit." Time. December 23, 1985; pp 22.

http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Time&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~pathfinder.com~S~time&querydocid=28168329@urn:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Ed+Magnuson%2E+Reported+by+Peter+Stoler%2FGander%2C+with+other+bureaus&title=NATION%3A+THE+FALL+OF+THE+SCREAMING+EAGLES+A+charter%2Djet+crash+kills+248+members+of+a+famed+Airborne+unit++&date=12%2D23%2D1985&query=gander+crash&maxdoc=8&idx=6. (accessed 09-26-2002).
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Terrorist Attacks Changed the World and the

Words: 2126 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17418370

terrorist attacks changed the world, and the way America looks at the world, but they also changed the way the world looks at us.

Causes of September 11

Earlier attacks, including Tokyo nerve gas, Iran barracks, Cole attack

Muslim hatred of United States and call to "jihad"

LAX security at airports and U.S. entry points

Lack of reliable security and intelligence information

Effects of September 11

Death toll and destruction

"War on terrorism"

Homeland security

Emotional issues

World outlook and worldview of the U.S.

The Causes and Effects of September 11

The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and analyze the topic of the terrorist attacks of September 11. What were the causes leading up to the terrorist attacks of September 11, and what have been the effects of the attacks? One political expert writes, "There is no single September 11 effect, if by 'effect' we mean the…… [Read More]

References

Arthur, Paige. "The September 11 Effect." Ethics & International Affairs. Volume 16, No. 2, 2002. http://www.cceia.org/viewMedia.php/prmID/102

Jervis, Robert. "An Interim Assessment of September 11: What Has Changed and What Has Not?" Political Science Quarterly 117.1 (2002): 37+.

Lindberg, Tod. "September 11 & September 10." Policy Review (2001): 3.

Schoenfeld, Gabriel. "Could September 11 Have Been Averted?" Commentary Dec. 2001: 21+.
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How Did the Terrorism of the Middle East Develop

Words: 2054 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61244410

drives a person to terrorism?

As Hamid (2008) notes, the drive to become a terrorist can be part of a personal journey that has roots in personal beliefs. For Hamid, those beliefs were religious and rooted in his Islamic conviction. He believed in the words of Mohammed and though he liked Christians as a boy, he was warned against befriending them: "By restricting my contact with Christians, I felt that I was doing a great deed to satisfy Allah" (p. 3). Thus, by not mixing with Christian society, the terrorist-to-be was steeling himself to later inflict harm on a people that he did not really know. So part of what drives a person to be a terrorist might be ignorance. eal-life education on what others are like and why they are not bad could help to prevent people from moving towards terrorism -- but in the case of Hamid, it…… [Read More]

References

Engdahl, W. (2015). Interview 1112 with James Corbett. Corbett Report. Retrieved from https://www.corbettreport.com/interview-1012-william-engdahl-explains-the-context-of-the-paris-attacks/

Escobar, P. (2015). Say Hello to My Cruise Missiles. Asia Times. Retrieved from http://atimes.com/2015/10/say-hello-to-my-cruise-missiles-escobar/

Foreword. (2015). Dabiq, 12: 2-3.

Froese, P., Mencken, F. (2009). A U.S. Holy War? The effects of religion on Iraq War policy attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 90(1): 103-116.
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Future of a Place Strangling

Words: 2378 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49719878

"

Putin reiterated that ussia does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization, and urged the global community to work with a Hamas-led Palestinian government.

"Hamas has arrived at the doors of power through legitimate elections," Putin said. "We must respect the Palestinian people and we have to look for solutions for the Palestinian people, for the international community, and also for Israel. Contacts with Hamas must continue," he added. (Hamas not a terror organization)

The leaders of Hamas have some chance to make an alliance with Israeli leaders that would allow them to gain an unencumbered claim to some territory and gain some support from Western leaders. There has been some attempt to do this. In 2008, former President Jimmy Carter worked with Hamas leader Khaled Meshal to reach an agreement that Hamas would agree to a truce with Israel if and when the Palestinian people agreed to a Palestinian…… [Read More]

References

Ayyash, M. (2010). Hamas and the Israeli state: A 'violent dialogue'. European journal of international relations 16 (1): 103-123.

Carter Says Hamas and Syria Are Open for Peace. (22 April 2008). New York times.

Hamas covenant. Retrieved 15 March 2010 from  http://www.mideastweb.org/hamas.htm 

Hamas is not a terrorist organization. Retrieved 16 March 2010 from http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3213707,00.html
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Islam Radicalization the Radicalization of

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26418086

The ultimate implication of the events of 9/11 is that Islam has become, as a result of American foreign policy, economic patterns and military endeavors, a hostile and radicalized culture. This is largely based on perceptions in the Islamic orld that the estern orld acts with favoritism toward Israel in diplomacy, demonstrates a tendency to exploit Arab states with military acts and pursues opportunistic relationships based on its dependence on Mid-East oil. One of the reasons that is most noted for anger with the estern orld by Muslim leaders of state and by the average Islamist residing in the Middle East, is the fact that the United States has so strongly supported Israeli statehood.

The Mamdani (2004) text captures this geopolitical disposition particularly well, indicating that the United States, the U.S.S.R. And other global powers helped to create the current Islamic cultural tendencies toward violence and armed resistance. Mamdani notes…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Gottschalk, P. & Greenberg, G. (?). Islamophobia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Husain, E. (2007). The Islamist: Why I Joined Radical Islam in Britain, What I Saw Inside and Why I Left. Penguin.

Leiken, R.S. (2005). Europe's Angry Muslims. Foreign Affairs, 84(4).

Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, Bad Muslim. Random House.
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Role Islam Played in the

Words: 2913 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92209702

According to Hiro (2001), "During the Iran-Iraq ar it openly backed Baghdad, arguing that its defeat would lead to the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the region which would hurt estern interests. It was the French corporations that were building two nuclear reactors near Baghdad which were bombed by Israel in June 1981" (75). Approximately 1,000 French companies were active in Iraq, and 6-7,000 French specialists were based there by 1983. As much as 40% of total French military exports were destined for Iraq. Military cooperation between the two states had developed to the extent that the French government decided to lease to Baghdad five Super-Etendard warplanes originally meant for use by the French air force. This raised the more immediate lucrative prospect of selling scores of expensive Exocet missiles to Iraq to be used by Super-Etendards to hit Iranian oil tankers in the Gulf. These missiles proved devastatingly effective.…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Abdulla, Abdulkhaleq. 1994. "Gulf War: The Socio-Political Background." Arab Studies

Quarterly 16(3): 1-3.

Aydin, Mustafa and Damla Aras. 2005. "Political Conditionality of Economic Relations between

Paternalist States: Turkey's Interaction with Iran, Iraq, and Syria." Arab Studies