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The McWorld model is a threat to democracy because of the dominance of the economic system, wherein the large and dominant economic societies dictate social order and structure in terms of the capitalist objectives. As Barber countered in the article, "[a]ll national economices are now vulnerable to the inroads of larger, transnational markets..." This increased dependency of society on markets and economic societies result to greater dependence also on changes in the technology and policies regarding capitalist endeavors and free trade.
The McWorld model showed that the capitalist economic system, with its competitive nature, tended to threaten democracy because of its self-governing nature. As popularly contrasted against socialism, the McWorld model trivializes the role of government and society in the inner workings or operations of this kind of society.
The Jihad model, meanwhile, affects societies socio-politically as the McWorld model, but in a different manner. While the McWorld model called…
This is the mixed outcome of real and genuine political
disenfranchisment and the persuasive quality of propaganda on both sides
since the inception of the ar on Terror. This allows respective
governments to act on instincts of politic, power or personal vendetta all
in the name of Islamic jihad, often deeply bastardizing that which was
originally meant by struggling in the way of Allah. The public
presentation of information seeks to capitalize on images of western
brutality while simultaneously pushing home the need to act for Allah.
Beneath, however, leaders who have successfully indoctrinated their people
thusly, are free to vie for all of their wills and desires with the
staunchest buttresses of human tenacity. A growing interest in the
correlation between Islam and hatred for America is evidence that two
concepts have been inextricably linked by a heavily integrated, and by now
ingrained, canon of ideas.
Still, in no…
Crone, P. (2004). Medieval Islamic Political Thought. Edinburgh:
Edinburgh University Press.
Sachedina, A.A. (1990). The Development of Jihad in Islamic Revelation
and History. Cross, Crescent, and Sword: The Justification of War in
Western and Islamic Tradition: New York: Greenwood Press.
Who would say that "drinking the blood of the slain" is what God's people do.
The people of Midian together with Moab began to interact with the people of Israel. "Israel was staying in *****tim when the people began to behave immorally with the Moabite girls. [the girls] invited the people to their religious sacrifices, and the people ate, and worshipped the [Moabite] gods. "Numbers 25:1-2
For these transgressions, the Midianites were attacked by Moses and his followers (Num 31:1-54). When Moses learns that some Midianites have been spared (Num 31:15), he orders all males and non-virgin females killed, and all the virgin females to be taken captive (Num 31:17, 18). The virgins were divided among the priests and the people. (Num 31:32-35)
Leviticus 14:2-32 describes the regulations of ceremonial cleansing of a person who had had an infectious disease of skin. The priest is to take some of the…
Ali, a.Y. (1983). The Holy Qur'a-n text, translation and commentary. Brentwood, Md: Amana Corp.
Azizi, F. (2006). Jihad [in the light of Holy Qura'n]. Mumbai: Islamic Awareness Society.
Esposito, J.L. (2002). Unholy war terror in the name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.
Naik, Z. (2005). Terrorism and jihad an Islamic perspective.
First, the admonition to repent is given to the reader in the second person, demonstrating that the Koran is speaking directly to the believers -- it is not addressed to those who would not be reading it in the first place. In essence, this passage contains no commands for the non-believers, which would be fruitless anyway. Those who interpret this passage to mean they must convert non-believers by forcing them to repent through any mean -- even violence -- are making an argument similar to those Christians who hold up the Bible as "proof" of God's existence. It is circular logic; the argument depends upon its result to remain "true."
There is a more direct and less philosophically rigorous way to disprove the idea that this passage advocates violence on the part of Muslims against any non-believers. The second sentence tells the followers of Islam to "give glad tidings of…
Of course, it is somewhat disingenuous to suggest that such a simplistic interpretation of this passage -- either the one detailed immediately above or prior to that and attributed to jihadists. As with any text, multiple interpretations and shades of meaning are always possible. These passages, like the word jihd, have been interpreted in many different ways over the millennia or so of Islam's existence, and few of these interpretations are as black-and-white as those here.
In 1939, before the close of the Second World War and the drawing of boundaries that did much to shape our modern era and created many of the issues between the Islamic and Western worlds today, one Muslim scholar delivered an address in which he claimed that a Holy War was solely a Western interpretation of the term jihad, and that the violence that is historically attributed to the Islamic faith is a complete imagining of Western scholars without any real basis: "what do we know of war and slaughter. We are pacifist preachers like the mendicants and religious divines" (Jihad in Islam, 2). This is a somewhat disingenuous statement for the cleric to make; it ignores the Moorish invasion of Spain, which though arguably provoked did not necessitate the level of response that it achieved. Still, his words assert that even in the middle of strife against the Muslim people, many clerics and scholars still do not advocate violence as an acceptable response. The concept of jihad is interpreted by this scholar as a means to assert the Muslim religion in the face of opposition, and even to convert others who do not believe, but not to do so through violence or any other form of physical coercion (Jihad in Islam, 8). This is the basic concept of jihad and Islam (according to this singular interpretation), and violence would be completely antithetical to bringing others into the fold.
It is clear that the concept of jihad is still a controversial one today. Yet an examination of the Koran, by laypersons and Muslims scholars/clerics alike, reveals that the idea of violence is antithetical to basic Muslim precepts. Jihad should be viewed as an internal struggle, and perhaps a struggle to assert religion in a world that doesn't agree. But this struggle should never turn violent, as it destroys the precepts of the religion it puports to protect.
This leads to the identification of the two primary cultural/social institutions that show a traditional and an extreme resistance to the development of homosexual rights in Muslim societies: the state and the family. Hegel identified a close relationship between these two institutions, as the family establishes both the internal and external (i.e. social and sexual) roles of its members in a way that creates the basic social structure of the state -- but influence works both ways. It is not merely that the family creates the state, then, but that the state also influences the formation and form of the family. In other words, "the family is a universal institution which performs certain specific functions essential to society's survival" (Shifting the Center p. 7). The Islamic religion and Muslim society are in danger from homosexuality, according to many state governments and the religious hierarchy, so the family is invoked as…
Furthermore, the Koran (2:194) requires that principles of "discrimination" and "proportionality" be observed in responding to acts of violent warfare, prohibiting responding in a worse or more harsh or destructive manner that is disproportionate to the type of violence, warfare, or harm inflicted upon Muslim.
In general, the Koran restricts the use of violent warfare to the responses to very egregious and prolonged direct persecution against Muslim and otherwise, (2:251) as a response to evil of such profound magnitude (Smith 1997) as to threaten to corrupt the entire earth. Contrary to popularized Western beliefs among many about Islam, the Koran does not promote the use of warfare to convert believers in false faiths to acceptance of Allah. In fact, the Koran very specifically provides (2:256) that religious faith is not a matter of "compulsion," that separate societies are destined to remain different in their beliefs (11:118), and that it is…
Ajami, Fouad. (1999) the Dream Palace of the Arabs: A Generation's Odyssey. New York: Vintage Friedman, Thomas, L. (1995) From Beirut to Jerusalem. New York: Anchor
Lewis, Bernard. (2004) From Babel to Dragomans: Interpreting the Middle East. New York: Oxford University Press.
Scheuer, Michael. (2004) Imperial Hubris: Why the West Is Losing the War on Terror. Washington, DC: Brassey's Smith, Wilfred, C. (1997) Islam in Modern History. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Warraq, Ibn. (1998) the Origins of the Koran: Classic Essays on Islam's Holy Book. Amherst: Prometheus
God is better than your god
Extremism has lead to numerous catastrophes throughout history and religion has sometimes served as a motive for extremists to act. hether one is Christian, Muslim, or whether he or she is affiliated with any other religious ideology, the respective person is likely to have a distorted understanding of society as long as he or she is bombarded with malicious information meant to turn them against a series of presumed enemies. Many are inclined to look at religious extremism as a whole, but the truth is that it would be wrong to do so. This topic is much more complex and one would have to concentrate on learning more about the background in each religion and the reason why particular individuals slowly but surely come to believe that it would be essential for them to perform extreme acts in order to prove their religiousness.
Abate, Mark T., "The Crusades, 1095-1291," (Gale, 2004)
Jones, Robert, "The Crusades: A Brief History (1095-1291)," Retrieved September 28, 2013, from the Sunday School Courses Website: http://www.sundayschoolcourses.com/crusades/crusades.pdf
Laiou, Angeliki E., and Mottahedeh, Roy P., "The Crusades from the Perspective of Byzantium and the Muslim World," (Dumbarton Oaks, 01.01.2001)
Setton, Kenneth M., Hazard, Harry W., and Zacour, Norman P., (Univ of Wisconsin Press, 01.06.1990)
Islamic Jihad and Homeland Security
The United States of America is recognized as the world's only superpower. There is no other country, which can match its military might. The United States of America's history changed forever after the events of September 11, 2001. Two aircraft crashed into the world trade center in New York 3000 Americans were killed in the 9-11 attacks. No one expected an event of such a huge scale to take place in the United States of America.
This event stunned the entire world. America declared a war on terrorism and declared several measures to safeguard the country from further terrorist attacks. The FI had warned the president and his national security advisor about potential attacks. However the president and his NSA didn't take any action. A homeland security department was created to safeguard the American public from further attacks. All these attacks have been blamed on…
1. Robert Marquand, The tenets of terror, Christian science monitor, 2001
2. Religion of the Jahiliya - Jihadism is Kufr, not Islam, sultan shaheen, 1999
September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States did not happen in a vacuum and were not isolated events. On the contrary, those terrorist attacks were one of a string of similar events, signifying the growing jihad movement around the world. Although most media attention since September 11 has focused on major international groups based outside of the United States, the reports of investigative journalists have shown that Muslim extremism has been brewing for decades even in the United States. As early as 1974, Brian Jenkins was writing about international terrorism as a clear and present danger. Decades later, Jenkins continued to investigate the causes and repercussions of the September 11 terrorist attacks. In "Would-be Warriors," Jenkins (2010) documents dozens (46 to be exact) of only the publically reported cases of "domestic radicalization and recruitment" to jihad movements in America (iii). These recruitments are often voluntary, as individuals feel drawn…
Emerson, S. (2002). American Jihad. New York: The Free Press.
Jenkins, B.M. (1974). International terrorism: A new kind of warfare. Retrieved online: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/papers/2008/P5261.pdf
Jenkins, B.M. (2010). Would-be warriors. Rand. Retrieved online: http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/occasional_papers/2010/RAND_OP292.pdf
edesigned World eligion Lesson Plan -- Understanding Islam
21st Century Skills & Standards
The study of world religions is an enormous, seemingly unmanageable undertaking for some students. Indeed at some point the learner certainly needs to understand the various approaches to the dogma practiced by the world's religions -- ignorance of global faiths and religious beliefs is unacceptable for today's well-educated student -- but taking an initial small bite out of this enormous religion-themed project (and chewing it thoroughly for proper digestion) is the aim of this modification. The ISTE-S changes in this plan transition the learner from the role of technology to number 4, "a" -- critical thinking and problem solving.
ather than a broad examination into all faiths, this revised plan focuses only on Islam from an objective Western perspective. Due to the never-ending violence that student learners may witness on television and in electronic media --…
Common Core Standards. (2010). Key Shifts in English Language Arts. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.corestandards.org .
Elshtain, J.B. (2011). The World As We Know It. Political Theology, 12(5), 691-695.
International Society for Technology in Education (2014). ISTE Standards. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from http://www.iste.org/standards .
Jensen, E. (2005). Teaching with the Brain in Mind. Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Retrieved November 24, 2014, from the Gale Virtual
jihad with reference to the practices and believes of the Muslims regarding the word "jihad." Further the paper will develop ethical/moral arguments regarding the stoppage of violence by both Ireland and Syria. Although one can name many countries with reference to jihad and practices of Muslims against the violence attacks, but this paper will limit the discussion to the violent attacks of Syria and Ireland.
It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says: "There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256)." http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/glossary/term.JIHAD.html
The definition of Jihad states that it is a struggle, a…
As retrieved from JIHAD - THE HOLY WAR http://www.alislam.org/books/study-of-islam/jihad.html . On5 April, 2004
As retrieved from The Spiritual Significance of Jihad http://www.al-islam.org/al-serat/jihad-nasr.htm . On5 April, 2004
As retrieved from Jihad in Islam (Submission)
http://www.submission.org/muhammed/jihad.html . On 5 April, 2004
Establishing better relations with Jordan and Saudi Arabia, where the core leaders of the terrorist organizations were reared, as well as attempting to target the nations where the terrorist threats to the est are based, is another vital 'leg' of the current anti-terrorist aspect of the larger 'war' on terror. Even establishing pro-peace and tolerance websites for Muslims, rather than allowing young Muslims to be attracted to militant websites that promote terror could be a positive strategy that the governments of the est could embark upon with community leaders.
Other anti-terrorism tactics consist of conducting litigation against terrorist actors, or supporters of terrorism, such as the current formal trial of Saddam Hussein, conducted according to the protocols of international law. Providing adequate protection for civilians working, living, or traveling in terrorist prone areas, such as Iraq, and ensuring that public places and areas that would be attractive to terrorists are…
Armond, Paul. "Rock, Paper, Scissors: Counter-terrorism, Anti-Terrorism, and Terrorism." 1997. Accessed 25 Aug 2005. http://nwcitizen.com/publicgood/reports/rockpaperscissors / 'Iraqi Insurgency." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/ops/iraq_insurgency.htm
'Jamaat al-Tawhid wa'l-Jihad / Unity and Jihad Group Tanzim Qa'idat Al-Jihad in Bilad al-Rafidayn (Organization of Jihad's Base in the Country of the Two Rivers)." Global Security.org. 2004. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/zarqawi.htm
Mendenhall, Preston. "Alleged British Bombings Masterminds U.S. ties." Newsweek. 20 July 2005. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://msnbc.msn.com/id/8647113/
"Text from Abu Mus'ab al-Zarqawi Letter." Global Security.org. 2003. Website last updated 2005 and accessed 25 Aug 2005 at http://www.globalsecurity.org/wmd/library/news/iraq/2004/02/040212-al-zarqawi.htm
Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…
"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.
Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from www.islamfortoday.com
Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.
The Israel government was not able to find the perpetrators, and the PIJ profited greatly from the event. On the Friday following the killing, "…hundreds of worshippers at Jerusalem's al-Aqsa mosque demonstrated their support for Islamic Jihad" for killing an innocent Israeli (Milton-Edwards, p. 140). The demonstrators (who were worshipping prior to being engaged in support for a cold-blooded killing) were chanting, "Allahu Akbar" -- and according to a local newspaper police in Jerusalem said the "tone of the demonstrators was more religious than political" (Milton-Edwards, p. 140).
Given that vocal support by citizens, and its more visible presence in Palestine, the Islamic Jihad carried out a far more bold and brazen attack, mentioned earlier in this paper, tossing live hand grenades into a military ceremony at Jerusalem's estern all. "Activists were willing to take significant risks," Milton-Edwards wrote (p. 140). Moreover, by killing the father of one recruit and…
Cordesman, Anthony H., and Moravitz, Jennifer. (2005). The Israeli-Palestinian War:
Escalating to Nowhere. Abingdon, Oxford: United Kingdom.
Cragin, Kim, and Daly, Sara a. (2004). The Dynamic Terrorist Threat: An Assessment of Group
Motivations and Capabilities in a Changing World, Issue 1782. Santa Monica: Rand
It was generally a peaceful method of setting personal and social example of moral and caring behavior so others will join Islam because of its clear advantage for human desire for better, honest and non-violent life. But during history especially in the early days of Islam, Jihad by sword was an acceptable method, although never the only option. By its definition Jihad is therefore, global.
Yes there is a global Jihad that wishes to establish Islam every where in the world through acts of terrorism and religion imposition. The war is best understood as a global insurgency, initiated by a diffuse grouping of Islamist movements that seek to remake Islam role in the world order. They use terrorism as their primary but not as their sole tactic. Therefore they offer the best approach to defeating global jihad but in a single country.
David J. Kilcullen theory is devoted to counterinsurgency…
Edward W. Said, The Class of Ignorance, Vintage, New York, 2000.
Hardcover, Globalization, Poverty and Conflict: A Critical 'Development' Reader:; 1 edition. Amazon, 2004
Huntington, Samuel and Schuster, The Clash of Civilizations and The Remarking of World Order, Touchstone, New York, 1996
Kilcullen, David, The Accidental Guerilla: Fighting small wars in the midst of a big one, 2009
gathered: 1. The reading selection Barber -Benjamin Barber, "Jihad . McWorld," The Atlantic (Mar. 1992) http://www.theatlantic./magazine/archive/1992/03/jihad -- mcworld/3882 / 2.
The significance of coffee as a commodity
The globalization has produced in time some of the most interesting changes in the economy of the world. In the 16th, and 17h centuries, the trade with Indian spices or exotic condiments was seen as one of the most important aspects of trade in the world. Conquest wars have been fought for the control of these regions. In today's world, the market has become more specialized from the point-of-view of the commodities it nurtures. In this sense, coffee has become a true commodity in the sense of the globalized world.
The issue of globalization is by no means a new element for the study of international relations and that of international trade. It can be said that even the ancient omans and Greeks…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. 1992. Available online at http://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1992/03/jihad-vs.-mcworld/3882/
Brata, Aloysius Gunadi. Social Impact of Coffee Crisis on the Pasemah coffee farmers in South Sumatera. MPRA. 2007. Available online at http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/12624/1/MPRA_paper_12624.pdf
Coady, David et al. Coping with the Coffee Crisis in Central America: The Role of Social Safety Nets in Honduras. World Bank studies. n.d. Available at http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTISPMA/Resources/383704-1109618370585/No310_Coady_05.pdf FAO NewsRoom.Coffee crisis: FAO helps Nicaragua's small-scale growers. 2004. Available at http://www.fao.org/newsroom/en/news/2004/35687/index.html
Good, Jonathan. "Coffee." University of Minnesota Library. n.d. Available at http://www.lib.umn.edu/bell/tradeproducts/coffee
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…
Gilles Kepel, "The War of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London, England, 2004
Bernard Lewis and Robin Wright, Laith Kubba, "Islam and Liberal Democracy: Recognizing Pluralism," Journal of Democracy 7.2 (1996) 86-89
Meria, Middle East Review of International Affairs, Journal, Volume 3, Number 1, March 1999, Article "Islam, Islamists and democracy," by Ali R. Abootalebi
Zuleyha Keskin, "Status of Women in Islam," 2005
Islam and Terrorism
Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?
Background of Islam
Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam
Public Opinion Polls
Islam in the Media
There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."
Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…
AFP. (2008, February 27). Major survey challenges Western perceptions of Islam. Retrieved from http://www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5i5ajtNJ0qTTRMBSFpYngMOjrmDbQ
Imam, M. (N.d.). The Perception of Islam and Muslims in the Media and the Responsibility of European Muslims Towards the Media . Retrieved from Cuturelink: http://www.culturelink.org/conf/dialogue/mesic.pdf
Kidd, T. (2009). American Christians and Islam: Evangelical Culture and Muslims from the Colonial Period to the Age of Terrorism. Princeton University Press.
Lostopedia. (N.d.). Syid Jarrah. Retrieved from Wikia: http://lostpedia.wikia.com/wiki/Sayid_Jarrah
terrorist groups; besides Al Queda and Al Jihad that possess both the motive and capability to implement a terrorist attack on the United States and decide which of these two groups pose a greater threat. Examine both the likelihood and potential impact. It will also assess the likelihood of another terrorist attack by the Al Queda and the Al Jihad terrorist groups. Identify and provide examples of the most likely targets in a future terrorist attack.
It seems two of the most dangerous terrorist organizations facing America today are Hezbollah and the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). These groups are particularly dangerous because they are well funded, and they consistently target the United States in their attacks. Perhaps most dangerous of these two is Hezbollah, also known as the Party of God, who are credited with numerous terrorist activities against Americans since the 1980s. These included kidnapping several Americans in the…
According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.
The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments
Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.
Terrorism as "War by Other Means"
Osama Bin Laden (1996, August 23). Declaration of War against the Americans Occupying the Land of the Two Holly Places: A Message from Osama Bin Muhammad Bin Laden to his Muslim Brethren All Over the World Generally and in the Arab Peninsula Specifically. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from the Terrorism Files Website: http://www.terrorismfiles.org/individuals/declaration_of_jihad1.html
Purpura, P.P. (2007). Terrorism and Homeland Security: An Introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.
Smilansky, S. (2004). Terrorism, Justification and Illusion. Retrieved October 7, 2011, from: http://philo.haifa.ac.il/staff/smilansky/Ethics%20terrorism.pdf
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…
The Aryan Nations Web site describes edfearin as "an individual of cunning mind, violent tendencies and radical outlook who aided in the evolution of the Aryan Nations worldview as the organization moved into a future which was very different than that perhaps originally envisioned by the Aryan activists of past generations."
Aryan Nations as a Terrorist Organization
Setbacks since the 1990s has largely left the Aryan Nations a "shadow of its former self," (Hoffman 2006, 110). However small its membership might be relative to the population as a whole, the Aryan Nations remains a formidable force. The organization's Web site indicates a slight ideological change, towards more radical and violent approaches to creating a constant state of "revolution" to dismantle the current social and political order (Aryan Nations). The Aryan Nations remains committed to racial purification but "it is prerequisite and indeed necessary that 'the System' be disrupted and broken…
Al-Khattar, Aref M. 2003. Religion and Terrorism; An Interfaith Perspective. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Aryan Nations. http://www.aryan-nations.org / (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
Borgeson, Kevin, and Valeri, Robin. 2009. Terrorism in America. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. "Aryan Nation." http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/anation.htm (Accessed Nov 11, 2009).
The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.
A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…
Bougeral, X. (?). Bosnian Islam as 'European Islam.' Islam in Europe.
Cesari, J. (2006). When Islam and Democracy Meet: Muslims in Europe and in the United States. Palgrave.
Malik, J. (2004). Muslims in Europe from the Margin to the Centre. Transaction Publishers.
Yavuz, M.H. (2004). Is There a Turkish Islam? There Emergence of Convergence and
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…
Barber, Benjamin. "Jihad vs. McWorld." The Atlantic. N.p. 1 Mar. 1992. Web. 6 May 2013.
Kapur, Akash. "How India became America." The New York Times. 1-2. 9 Mar. 2012. Web.
6 May 2013.
Kristof, Nicholas and Sheryl WuDunn. "Microcredit: The Financial Revolution." Half the Sky:
Globalism and the Culture of American Consumption
The United States has long been a world leader on many fronts. The presidential administration of Theodore Roosevelt may have been the first to declare openly that Americans wanted to show that they were a global power, but the U.S. had long had interest in global politics. In the last decade of the eighteenth century, America fought land and sea battles in the Mediterranean against the Barbary pirates (Sassen 216). The Marine Hymn which talks of "the shores of Tripoli" is dedicated to that conflict in which U.S. Marines first fought on foreign soil. An intrepid spirit has caused the free men and women of America to create innovations in business, finance, war, agriculture, and other industries that have been the envy of the rest of the world. This has produced a certain amount of arrogance among the people and leaders of the…
Barber, Benjamin. Jihad vs. McWorld: Terrorism's Challenge to Democracy. New York: Corgi Books, 2003. Print.
Fotopoulos, Takis . "Globalization, the reformist Left and the Anti-Globalization Movement." Democracy & Nature: The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy. 7.2 (2001): 111. Print.
Friedman, Thomas L. The World Is Flat: A Brief History of the Twenty-First Century. New York: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 2005. 488. Print.
Norberg, Johan. In defense of global capitalism. United States: Cato Institute, 2003. Print.
Q2. From an American perspective, it is tempting to look out at the world and to assume that American culture now dominates and reigns over all, given the seeming ubiquity of American movies, television, and music. However, a cultural analysis of many regions of the world yields the finding that culture is far more regional and pluralistic in nature.
For example, in Mexico, soap operas known as telenovelas captivate almost the entire population. They often give voice to Mexican fantasies about transgressing economic borders. One such soap opera, Ugly Betty, has actually been appropriated by U.S. culture. Mexican culture has changed the U.S., as well as vice versa, despite the U.S.'s greater economic power in the region. And within India, Bollywood films are far more popular than Hollywood films because of the way they speak to unique Indian culture needs. Within this densely-populated and fantastically diverse nation, the fascination with…
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
Isby, David C. (1999) War in a Distant Country. New York: Arms and Armour Press, 1989. Rashid, Ahmed (2000) Taliban. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2000.
Terrorism Project. (2001) "Lessons from History: U.S. Policy Towards Afghanistan, 1978-2001." 5 October 2001. Online available at; .
United States Department of State (1976) Annual Policy Assessment, March 9, 1976.
" This predictability is not and could never be a part of democracy; democracies must change with the will of the people, and so might have periods of instability. In fact, Berber notes, "Multinational corporations sometimes seem to prefer doing business with local oligarchs, inasmuch as they can take confidence from dealing with the boss on all crucial matters." Consistency and predictability are almost by definition easier to find in harsh dictatorships or oligarchies than democracies. The real danger I see in this is the possibility of a totalitarian state that looks like a democracy, such as the imagined by Aldous Huxley in Brave New World and which is every similar to the McWorld Barber sees us approaching. It might, in fact, already be happening, as warrant-less wiretapping becomes executive practice, and perhaps even more insidiously through the attempts of companies like Google to maintain huge databases of information about…
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…
Anthony Cordesman, Terrorism Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, (New
Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002).
Eric Croddy, James Wirtz, Weapons of Mass Destruction, (London: ABC-CLIO, 2005).
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and…
Cordesman, Anthony H. 2002. Terrorism, Asymmetric Warfare, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: Defending the U.S. Homeland. Westport, CT: Praeger
Long, Jerry M. 2008. Strategic Culture, Al-Qaida, and Weapons of Mass Destruction. USAF Academy, Colorado: USAF Institute for National Security Studies
Mowatt-Larssen. 2010. Al Qaeda Weapons of Mass Destruction Threat: Hype or Reality? Cambridge, MA: Harvard Kennedy School
O'Neil, Andrew. 2003. Terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction: how serious is the threat? Australian Journal of International Affairs 57:99 -- 112.
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
Approximately twenty million of the world's one billion Muslims live in Russia, even more in Eastern Europe. The media and academics alike are scurrying to react to this seemingly new wave of Islam in Russia, however attention is mainly focused on extremist activity. "Fundamentalism," "Wahhabism," "Islamism," and other such banner concepts are tainting our perception of Islam in Russia. The place of Islam in Russia is being assessed primarily as a factor of danger that threatens its national security and the interests of its citizens.
This current wave of Islamic activity in Eastern Europe is largely an extension of thousands of years of history. In Russia, Islam was the unfortunate foe of Communist politicians who challenged the very notion of religious freedom. Indeed, Islam has endured centuries of antagonistic regimes and related controversy. The following analysis will consider in what ways the demise…
Islamic movements come to dominate the political landscape of Iran and Saudi rabia in the last thirty years?
Why have democratic advances been so limited in these two countries? Is there any relationship between these two trends or are they independent of each other?
In both modern Iran and modern Saudi rabia, over the past thirty years, two fundamental forces have dominated the discourse of these nations -- that of Islamic Fundamentalism and a hatred of Western, specifically merican intrusions of 'modernity,' in cultural and political forms. In the absence of the ability to compete, technologically with the West, or culturally on a global level, these nations have turned inward, and some historians might say 'to their pasts' and attempted to create Islamic rather than secular renditions of modernity. However, because of the corresponding lack of democratic structures within these referenced traditional Islamic political modalities, and the association of the…
After the Islamic revolution in Iran the new political structures that were instated ensured that fundamentalist Islamic point-of-view became synonymous with the new Iran. For instance, in 1982 Khomeini insisted that Iran's courts discard all secular legal codes and base their decisions solely on Islamic regulations. (Cleveland 423) To oppose Islamic fundamentalism in Iran was not only to stand against the new regime, it was to engage in an act of heresy. Democracy was decadent, and Western, and to adopt the Western political mindset was to disastrously weaken the nation.
In this text, Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam Gilles Kepel in Chapter 5 states that Iran, in the wake of the death of Khomeni, has since attempted to reform some of its strictures, instating democratic but still Islamic elections, for instance, that has created some semblance of what one might call 'democracy' in the nation. Even more recently, the arts have begun to be resurrected in Iran. There has even been a return to pre-Iranian cultural institutions, such as the presence of Western music and movies within the republic.
Likewise, nascent Saudi Arabian feminism has manifested itself as women have protested their inability to drive, or made use of mandatory 'all female' enclaves such as banks, to discuss and create sites of discussion and debate. The private/public dichotomy of female dress and both male and female behavior in both countries may hold the seeds of a kind of revolution or renegotiation of Islamic identity. But it will be a revolution on Islamic and Middle Eastern cultural terms, a negotiation rather than a revolution in the Western sense of uprooting the old entirely -- for what is Islamic in these nations is not really 'old' at all, as William Cleveland suggests. Rather, Islamic fundamentalism is more of a delicate negotiation, socially, politically, and economically, in both Saudi Arabia and Iran, in an effort for these nations to remain distinct in a world and even a region they see as increasingly dominated by American needs and influence.
Table of Contents
III. Related Topics
VI. Essay Hook
VII. Thesis Statement
C. Sunni/Shia Split
D. Relationship between AL Qaeda and Isis
E. ISIS attacks on the United States
X. Works Cited
In this essay about ISIS attacks in America, we examine attacks by the terrorist organization ISIS, which have occurred on U.S. soil. Because of the structure of ISIS/ISIL, which operate in cells, it can be extremely difficult to determine whether a terrorist attack carried out by someone claiming to be working on behalf of ISIS was actually directed by ISIS. Therefore, for the purposes of this essay, we are working on the assumption that attacks by people who appear to be radicalized Muslims and claim a personal affiliation with ISIS are, indeed, ISIS attacks. This essay will give some…
Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.
The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.
The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…
Cook, David. 2009. Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions into an Ideology of Terrorism. Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions, 10.2, 177-187.
Moghadam, Assaf. 2008. Defining and confronting the Salafi Jihad. Middle East Strategy at Harvard. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://blogs.law.harvard.edu .
Proctor, Pat. 2012. War Without Violence: Leveraging the Arab Spring to Win the War on Terrorism. Journal of Strategic Security, 5.2, 47-64.
Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.
Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…
Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.
Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.
Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
Their fight, like dan Fodio's, was not against external forces or non-Muslims, but rather oriented towards those Muslims seen to be practicing their faith incorrectly or not enough, or else capitulating to the colonial and Christian leadership.
Of course, as the cited article mentions, this confrontation is not especially surprising considering that the time period during which northern Nigeria was ruled by colonial or Christian leaders is far overshadowed by the long history of Muslim rule. Thus, not only did Usman dan Fodio transform the entirety of the social, political, religious, and commercial structure of the region during his own lifetime, but the lasting effects of his actions, and particularly his famous jihad, are still being felt to this day. In fact, were it not for the destruction brought about by colonialism, the contemporary world would likely be even more influenced by dan Fodio's work, considering that almost independent of…
Blench, Roger. "The Expansion and Adaptation of Fulbe Pastoralism to Subhumid and Humid
Conditions in Nigeria ."Cahiers d'Etudes Africaines . 34.133/135 (1994): 197-212. Print.
Casey, Conerly. "Marginal Muslims": Politics and the Perceptual Bounds of Islamic
Authenticity in Northern Nigeria." Africa Today. 54.3 (2008): 67-92. Print.
No doubt, such feelings are greatly exacerbated by the current hard-line policies of the U.S. government in the Middle East,
There is a general perception in the estern world that the religion of Islam is inherently incompatible with the ideals of democracy such as individual liberties and freedom of speech. The recent controversy over the cartoons of Prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper, and the violent reaction of Muslims has further solidified the impression. A deeper look at the basic Islamic beliefs and history indicates that such a perception may be misplaced. The apparent unbridgeable gulf between Islam and modern day democratic societies can be breached if the commonalities between the two instead of their differences are highlighted.
The Internal Jihad." BBC ebsite. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml
Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2
The Last ord:…
The Internal Jihad." BBC Website. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml
Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2
The Last Word: Flemming Rose." Newsweek International. February 13, 2006 issue. November 12, 2006. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/11179140/site/newsweek/
Mcnern, Ethan. "Holocaust Cartoons." The Scotsman. February 09, 2006. November 12, 2006. http://news.scotsman.com/international.cfm?id=204162006
Social dynamics, meanwhile, look into the prevalent perception of JI's society and the international viewpoint on radical Islamism. Lastly, the political dynamics centers on the viewpoints supporting and opposing JI activities, specifically its linkage with Al-Qaeda.
Explicated earlier is the ultimate goal of JI in establishing itself as an Islamic militant group: to create an Islam-centered social order, starting specifically in Indonesia. Jones' (2005) analysis of the history of JI as a terrorist organization delved deeply into the events surrounding its early establishment in Indonesia, and its later development as one of the Muslim groups who subsisted to jihad to promote this main objective.
Jihad is an important concept in the lives of JI members, for this became the manner in which it succeeded in increasing its membership and strengthening its network of Muslim militant groups, both locally and internationally. Among the initial contacts that JI had in…
9/11." (2006). Foreign Policy, Issue 156.
Chehab, Z. (2006). "Al-Qaeda: Still a step ahead." New Statesman, Vol. 135, Issue 4799.
Jones, S. (2005). "The changing nature of Jemaah Islamiyah." Australian Journal of International Affairs, Vol. 59, Issue 2.
Kaplan, D. (2003). "The shadow over the summit." U.S. News & World Report, Vol. 135, Issue 13.
Religion plays the center part in Jemaah Islamiyah and the extremist religious interpretation is one of the methods of manipulation of the members. In fact, religious teaching is the first step in the recruiting process of almost all Muslim terrorist organizations. As it is the case of Jemaah Islamiyah, religious teachings organized for general audience represent the first stage of the recruitment process as it draws people that are easily manipulated by the extremist interpretation of religious beliefs and that soon become dedicated to jihad. The second stage of the recruitment process is identifying the ones that seem particularly interested in finding out more about the views presented by the teacher. oth of the founders of Jemaah were school teachers.
After identifying in religious education classes the ones that seemed more interested in learning more, the students are introduced to the organization and if they seem eager to be part…
Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jemaah_Islamiyah ;
Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/para/ji.htm ;
Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=3613;
Jemaah Islamiyah, available at http://www.rotten.com/library/history/terrorist-organizations/jemaah-islamiah/;
The document is remarkable for a couple of reasons, which more widely emphasizes on the importance of the internet for the jihadi terrorists. The first one is the component of collective initiative that the writer promotes; emphasizing the pace of communication and the prospective strength that spread jihadi sympathizers throughout the world could concentrate on a single project. Second relates to the competence for data storing that the internet entails, permitting quick reach not only to data of academic interest but also to sensitive forms of infrastructure details containing utilities, distribution as well as transport networks, along with the risk and susceptibility perceptions of such facilities -- that governments are presently providing at ever higher standards of transparency. (Ulph, 2006)
Activity over the web is not a current phenomenon and not limited to Islamic outfits- either moderate or extremist. Terrorist groups of several features i.e. racial, ideological or…
e. greed, lust and jealousy). To do this, Qutb advocated using a by any means necessary approach, in preventing the status quo from imposing its will upon everyone. This meant that there will be some kind of armed struggle against these forces.
What impacts has he had on Islamic thought?
The biggest impact of Qutb's ideas is in Islamic philosophy. What happened was Qutb, became involved in the Muslim Brotherhood when he returned to Egypt in 1952. During this time, he was actively involved in supporting governments and individuals that challenged Western policies. This led to him being arrested twice.
When he was in jail the first time, he wrote a number of pieces that discusses his radical ideas and how Muslims should stand up to this oppression. After being released in 1965 (for a brief period), is when he would publish these ideas. This led to his re-arrest and…
"Sayyid Qutb Milestones."Gems of Islamism. Last modified 2005. http://gemsofislamism.tripod.com/milestones_qutb.html
Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2001.
Euben, Roxanne. Enemy in the Mirror. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1999.
Khatab, Sayed. The Political Thought of Sayyid Qutb. New York: Taylor and Francis, 2006.
Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).
Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…
Arendt, Hannah. (1969). On Violence. New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, Inc.
Blitzer, Wolf. (2011). Cheney refuses to admit any mistakes as vice president. CNN.com
Retrieved September 7, 2011, from http://situationroom.blogs.cnn.com .
Dougherty, James E, and Pfaltzgraff, Robert L. (1997). Contending Theories of International
In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.
Men in Islam
As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.
The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…
Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Knapp, Michael G. "The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 82+.
Tell, Carol. "The Women of Afghanistan." Social Education 66.1 (2002): 8+.
What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does it Matter? http://hnn.us/articles/934.html
While the main bases are still located in the Bangladesh area, there are branches in almost every country (Muktadhara, 2001).
Most of the crimes committed by the Jamaat were done in Bangladesh and surrounding areas. The actual locations vary between Shrines, local businesses, celebrations, airfields, and sporting events. As funding increases, both their crime locations and base of operations continues to increase (Muktadhara, 2001).
The Jamaat organization dislikes the United States and other Western cultures for two main reasons. First, they challenge the western methods to achieve social and industrial reform. According to the Jamaat, their method provides more opportunity for equality and change from within, rather than changing the industry, and leaving the citizens to starve. Secondly, the Jamaat dislikes the capitalistic ways of the Western world. They view the values and methods of the United States and other western nations as actions taken against Islam, and view those…
Jamaat e-Islami Organization. (2002). Vision and Commitment. About Jamaat. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Jamaat e-Islami. Web site: http://www.jamaat-e-islami.org/about/visioncommitment.html .
Jamaat e-Islami Organization. (2002b). Objectives, goals, and approach. Organization. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Jamaat e-Islami. Web site: http://www.jamaat-e-islami.org/about/objectivesgoalsapproach.html .
Kidwai, R. (Feb 2, 2004). Moderates wait for echo from the majority. The Telegraph, p. C2.
Muktadhara. (2001). Jamat e-Islam. Obtained October 24, 2004 from Muktadhara.net, maintained by the Institute for Humanist Studies, Bangladesh. Web site: http://muktadhara.net/page80.html.
Saladin and the Christian Crusaders
Saladin, or Salah al-Din, or Selahedin, was a twelfth century Kurdish Muslim general and warrior from Tikrit, in what is currently northern Iraq. Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt. The Muslim leader was renowned in both the Muslim and Christian worlds because of his leadership and his military prowess. He was also seen as a chivalrous figure who showed mercy during his war against the Christian Crusaders. The image of Saladin developed in his lifetime and persisted long after so that he has remained a heroic figure much revered in both the Islamic world and the Christian world, the latter in spite of the fact that he opposed Western expansion into Islam and fought agasint the West in the Crusades. Still, he is idolized in literaure and art and is often the subject for Western writers as for Islamic writers, though the two groups…
Esposito, John L. Islam: The Straight Path. New York: Oxford University Press, 1991.
Firestone, Reuven. Jihad: The Origin of Holy War in Islam. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Franzius, Enno. History of the Byzantine Empire. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, 1967.
Lane-Poole, Stanley. Saladin and the Fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1898.
There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.
The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.
The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…
Jonsson, P. (2010). Why is the Westboro Baptist Church picketing Elizabeth Edwards' funeral?
Christian Science Monitor 12/11/10.
Khan, D. (2008). The five pillars of Islam. Faces 24(6), pp. 12-13.
Rid, T. (2010). Cracks in the Jihad. Wilson Quarterly 34(1).
Terrorist Groups Are Aligning to Conduct Global Terrorism.
Terrorism used to be a topic limited to only certain sectors of the world, such as the Middle East or South Africa. However, in recent years, it appears that no one is safe in any part of the world. A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the threat of terrorism. The Unites States is the latest addition to this list. It has become evident in recent years that terrorism is not a localized event any more, but has become an increasing global problem. It has also become obvious that terrorism requires a global solution as well. Evidence has been mounting that terrorist groups are beginning to connect and form alliances. This gives them greater strength and greater resources. It seems that they are finding common ground and are beginning to coordinate efforts. This will be…
Office of the Secretary Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (OSOCC) U.S. Department Of State. 1994 April: Patterns Of Global Terrorism, 1993. Department of State Publication 10136. 1994. http://www.state.gov/s/ct/rls/pgtrpt/2000/2441.htm . Accessed December 2002
U.S. State Department (USSD) (1996) State-Sponsored Terrorism. 1995 Patterns of Global Terrorism. April, 1996. USIA Electronic Journal, Vol. 2, No. 1, February 1997. Retrieved at http://usinfo.state.gov/journals/itgic/0297/ijge/gj-9.htm. Accessed December, 2002.
United Stated Department of State (USDS) (1996a). Patterns of Global Terrorism: 1995. The Year in Review Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism. Department of State Publication. Embassy of the United States of America. Dag Hammarskjlds V g 31, SE-115 89 Stockholm. Released April 1996. Retrieved at http://www.usis.usemb.se/terror/ rpt1995/year.htm' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Islamic Terrorism: The Radicalization of Religion
This essayfocuses on radical Islamic terrorism, from its roots in the Shia rebellion that led to the Iranian Revolution to the modern day terrorist group Daesh/ISIL/ISIS/IS. It discusses how 9-11 introduced many Westerners to the idea of radical Islamic terrorism and the self-proclaimed holy warriors who carry out these acts as a form of jihad. In order to help explain modern terrorism, the paper discusses the roots of the Sunni/Shia split and the lingering impact that split has on the modern geopolitical environment. The foundation of modern terrorist groups that can be traced to the radicalization of Sunni students is traced through Al Qaeda and back to the Taliban.
For people in the United States, radical Islamic terrorism became a real threat on 9-11, when terrorists from a group known as Al-Qaeda used box knives to take over airplanes and…
Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…
Bajoria, Jayshree. "al-Qaeda (a.k.a. al-Qaida, al-Qa'ida)," cfr.org Web. 30 Dec. 2009. Web. 4 Dec. 2010.
Gillespie, Thomas W. "Finding Osama bin Laden:an Application of Biogeographic Theories and Satellite Imagery." MIT International Review. 17 Feb. 2009
Laden, Omar Bin."Chapter 4: Born the Son of Osama Bin Laden"
"Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri: Idol of the National Unity." The NEFA FOundation. Dec 14, 2009
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…
W. Montgomery Watt, a History of Islamic Spain (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1965)
Charles Reginald Haines. Christianity and Islam in Spain (756-1031) LONDON
KEGAN PAUL, TRENCH & CO., PATERNOSTER SQUARE 1889
The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."
The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…
Editors. 2007. The Soviet-Afghan War. Lawrence, KS: University of Kansas Press. Online. Available from Internet: http://www.kansaspress.ku.edu/grasov.html , accessed 11 June 2007.
Esposito, John L. 2003. Unholy War: Terror in the Name of Islam. New York: Oxford University Press.
Joes, Anthony James. 1996. Guerrilla Warfare: A Historical, Biographical, and Bibliographical Sourcebook. Edited by Robin Higham. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Strmecki, Marin. 1986. Can the Afghan Rebels Win?. National Review, 4 July, 32+.
In contrast to Islam as religion, Islamism attempts to manifest itself via the violent power of Jihad.
oderate uslims, on the other hand, personalizes their religion towards an individual adherence to a set of rules and regulations particularly appropriate for their faith. In such a case, the concept of Jihad takes a more personal meaning: it is the personal struggle against wrongdoing and diverting from the path of Islam. oderate Islam is often referred to as a "peaceful" religion, and many moderate uslims are against the concept of Jihad as interpreted by Islamism.
oderate uslims are close in ideology to other religions: they make an attempt to follow the tenets of their faith without attempting to impose this upon others or indeed to eradicate the other religions of the world.
Pipes, Daniel. Distinguishing between Islam and Islamism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 30, 1998. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/954
Moderate Muslims are close in ideology to other religions: they make an attempt to follow the tenets of their faith without attempting to impose this upon others or indeed to eradicate the other religions of the world.
Pipes, Daniel. Distinguishing between Islam and Islamism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 30, 1998. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/954
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…
Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.
Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press
Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on December 12, 1985. Thesis: "The crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on 12 December 1985 was caused by terrorists." (Gander, Newfoundland) Research concludes that this flight carrying soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division actually crashed due to terrorists act. Five sources are used. MLA.
The Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 Flight December 12, 1985
It had been nearly two decades since an Arrow Airs DC-8 jet crashed just after taking off from a refueling stop in Gander, Newfoundland on December 12, 1985. The plane rose less than 1,000 ft., then crashed, tail first, into a small hill, disintegrating in flames about a half-mile from the end of the runway (Magnuson 22). It has been listed as the worst military air disaster, killing 248 American soldiers along with eight crew members. There is still much speculation as to the cause for the crash, although…
Cox, Matthew. "Decade Later, Crash Debated." Newsday. August 25, 1996; pp A16.
http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Newsday&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~www.newsday.com&[email protected]:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Matthew+Cox&title=Decade+Later%2C+Crash+Debated++&date=08%2D25%2D1996&query=The+Crash+of+Arrow+Airs+DC%2D8+Flight+December+12%2C+1985&maxdoc=6&idx=5. (accessed 09-26-2002).
Magnuson, Ed. "NATION: THE FALL OF THE SCREAMING EAGLES A charter-jet crash kills 248 members of a famed Airborne unit." Time. December 23, 1985; pp 22.
http://ask.elibrary.com/getdoc.asp?pubname=Time&puburl=http~C~~S~~S~pathfinder.com~S~time&[email protected]:bigchalk:U.S.;Lib&dtype=0~0&dinst=0&author=Ed+Magnuson%2E+Reported+by+Peter+Stoler%2FGander%2C+with+other+bureaus&title=NATION%3A+THE+FALL+OF+THE+SCREAMING+EAGLES+A+charter%2Djet+crash+kills+248+members+of+a+famed+Airborne+unit++&date=12%2D23%2D1985&query=gander+crash&maxdoc=8&idx=6. (accessed 09-26-2002).
drives a person to terrorism?
As Hamid (2008) notes, the drive to become a terrorist can be part of a personal journey that has roots in personal beliefs. For Hamid, those beliefs were religious and rooted in his Islamic conviction. He believed in the words of Mohammed and though he liked Christians as a boy, he was warned against befriending them: "By restricting my contact with Christians, I felt that I was doing a great deed to satisfy Allah" (p. 3). Thus, by not mixing with Christian society, the terrorist-to-be was steeling himself to later inflict harm on a people that he did not really know. So part of what drives a person to be a terrorist might be ignorance. eal-life education on what others are like and why they are not bad could help to prevent people from moving towards terrorism -- but in the case of Hamid, it…
Engdahl, W. (2015). Interview 1112 with James Corbett. Corbett Report. Retrieved from https://www.corbettreport.com/interview-1012-william-engdahl-explains-the-context-of-the-paris-attacks/
Escobar, P. (2015). Say Hello to My Cruise Missiles. Asia Times. Retrieved from http://atimes.com/2015/10/say-hello-to-my-cruise-missiles-escobar/
Foreword. (2015). Dabiq, 12: 2-3.
Froese, P., Mencken, F. (2009). A U.S. Holy War? The effects of religion on Iraq War policy attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 90(1): 103-116.
Putin reiterated that ussia does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization, and urged the global community to work with a Hamas-led Palestinian government.
"Hamas has arrived at the doors of power through legitimate elections," Putin said. "We must respect the Palestinian people and we have to look for solutions for the Palestinian people, for the international community, and also for Israel. Contacts with Hamas must continue," he added. (Hamas not a terror organization)
The leaders of Hamas have some chance to make an alliance with Israeli leaders that would allow them to gain an unencumbered claim to some territory and gain some support from Western leaders. There has been some attempt to do this. In 2008, former President Jimmy Carter worked with Hamas leader Khaled Meshal to reach an agreement that Hamas would agree to a truce with Israel if and when the Palestinian people agreed to a Palestinian…
Ayyash, M. (2010). Hamas and the Israeli state: A 'violent dialogue'. European journal of international relations 16 (1): 103-123.
Carter Says Hamas and Syria Are Open for Peace. (22 April 2008). New York times.
Hamas covenant. Retrieved 15 March 2010 from http://www.mideastweb.org/hamas.htm
Hamas is not a terrorist organization. Retrieved 16 March 2010 from http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3213707,00.html
The ultimate implication of the events of 9/11 is that Islam has become, as a result of American foreign policy, economic patterns and military endeavors, a hostile and radicalized culture. This is largely based on perceptions in the Islamic orld that the estern orld acts with favoritism toward Israel in diplomacy, demonstrates a tendency to exploit Arab states with military acts and pursues opportunistic relationships based on its dependence on Mid-East oil. One of the reasons that is most noted for anger with the estern orld by Muslim leaders of state and by the average Islamist residing in the Middle East, is the fact that the United States has so strongly supported Israeli statehood.
The Mamdani (2004) text captures this geopolitical disposition particularly well, indicating that the United States, the U.S.S.R. And other global powers helped to create the current Islamic cultural tendencies toward violence and armed resistance. Mamdani notes…
Gottschalk, P. & Greenberg, G. (?). Islamophobia. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Husain, E. (2007). The Islamist: Why I Joined Radical Islam in Britain, What I Saw Inside and Why I Left. Penguin.
Leiken, R.S. (2005). Europe's Angry Muslims. Foreign Affairs, 84(4).
Mamdani, M. (2004). Good Muslim, Bad Muslim. Random House.
According to Hiro (2001), "During the Iran-Iraq ar it openly backed Baghdad, arguing that its defeat would lead to the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the region which would hurt estern interests. It was the French corporations that were building two nuclear reactors near Baghdad which were bombed by Israel in June 1981" (75). Approximately 1,000 French companies were active in Iraq, and 6-7,000 French specialists were based there by 1983. As much as 40% of total French military exports were destined for Iraq. Military cooperation between the two states had developed to the extent that the French government decided to lease to Baghdad five Super-Etendard warplanes originally meant for use by the French air force. This raised the more immediate lucrative prospect of selling scores of expensive Exocet missiles to Iraq to be used by Super-Etendards to hit Iranian oil tankers in the Gulf. These missiles proved devastatingly effective.…
Abdulla, Abdulkhaleq. 1994. "Gulf War: The Socio-Political Background." Arab Studies
Quarterly 16(3): 1-3.
Aydin, Mustafa and Damla Aras. 2005. "Political Conditionality of Economic Relations between
Paternalist States: Turkey's Interaction with Iran, Iraq, and Syria." Arab Studies
Still, embassy targeting is a very common practice used by terrorists as well. Despite the fact that they should be considered one of the most important institutions of a state abroad they are not exempted from threats such as terrorist acts. Moreover, the security level such a facility would imply does not detract terrorists and does not limit their actions.
Thirdly, it must be taken into account the fact that bombings are not the only means used by terrorists in their activities. Also, apart from attacking targets through bombs, they also use fire attacks, arms, and even kidnapping techniques to follow their goals. However, apart from these physical techniques, terrorists also use advanced technology to communicate and even inflict harm. They use different internet websites, such as various fundamentalist Islamic sites where proponents of terrorist action try to rally support for their cause against western civil and military targets. Also,…
American Memorial site. Two Days of Infamy - We Must Never Forget. 2008. Accessed 11 January 2008, available from http://americanmemorialsite.com/beirutembassy.html
American National Security Policy. Terrorism, threats and trends. N.d. Accessed 11 January 2008, available at http://myoops.org/twocw/mit/NR/rdonlyres/Political-Science/17-471American-National-Security-PolicyFall2002/B8E0BAB9-0DEA-42D1-8E95-076CB37E65FF/0/1747102InternationalTerrorism.ppt
BBC, Toll climbs in Egyptian attacks. 23 July 2005. Accessed 11 January 2008, available at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/middle_east/4709491.stm
Department of State. Bombings in Nairobi, Kenya and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bureau of Public Affairs August 7, 1998.
It was their right and duty as loyal followers, a way they could prove their faith and their commitment to God. This mindset is one reason the Muslims under Mohammed's leadership during his conquests were so successful, as described below.
Reasons for Success
Mohammed and his followers defeated migrants and other raiding parties in part because they decided to attack and defend their holy place during the holy month of Ramadan, something that was unexpected. Among those the Muslims following Mohammed opposed included a group named the Quraysh. During the infamous battle at adr Walls, Mohammed said to his followers about to engage in battle, that "no man will be slain this day fighting against them with steadfast courage, advancing and not retreating, but God will cause him to enter Paradise." Many Muslims following the messenger Mohammed believed that God sent to them 3,000 angels the day of the conquest…
Akbar, M.J. The Shade of Swords: Jihad and the Conflict between Islam and Christianity.
London: Routledge, 2002.
Ali, Ameer. The Spirit of Islam: A History of the Evolution and Ideals of Islam with a Life of the Prophet. London: Christophers. 1922.
Bainbridge, William Sims and Stark, Rodney. "The Rise of a New World Religion."