The McWorld model is a threat to democracy because of the dominance of the economic system, wherein the large and dominant economic societies dictate social order and structure in terms of the capitalist objectives. As Barber countered in the article, "[a]ll national economices are now vulnerable to the inroads of larger, transnational markets..." This increased dependency of society on markets and economic societies result to greater dependence also on changes in the technology and policies regarding capitalist endeavors and free trade.
The McWorld model showed that the capitalist economic system, with its competitive nature, tended to threaten democracy because of its self-governing nature. As popularly contrasted against socialism, the McWorld model trivializes the role of government and society in the inner workings or operations of this kind of society.
The Jihad model, meanwhile, affects societies socio-politically as the McWorld model, but in a different manner. While the McWorld model called…… [Read More]
This is the mixed outcome of real and genuine political
disenfranchisment and the persuasive quality of propaganda on both sides
since the inception of the ar on Terror. This allows respective
governments to act on instincts of politic, power or personal vendetta all
in the name of Islamic jihad, often deeply bastardizing that which was
originally meant by struggling in the way of Allah. The public
presentation of information seeks to capitalize on images of western
brutality while simultaneously pushing home the need to act for Allah.
Beneath, however, leaders who have successfully indoctrinated their people
thusly, are free to vie for all of their wills and desires with the
staunchest buttresses of human tenacity. A growing interest in the
correlation between Islam and hatred for America is evidence that two
concepts have been inextricably linked by a heavily integrated, and by now
ingrained, canon of ideas.
Still, in no…… [Read More]
Who would say that "drinking the blood of the slain" is what God's people do.
The people of Midian together with Moab began to interact with the people of Israel. "Israel was staying in *****tim when the people began to behave immorally with the Moabite girls. [the girls] invited the people to their religious sacrifices, and the people ate, and worshipped the [Moabite] gods. "Numbers 25:1-2
For these transgressions, the Midianites were attacked by Moses and his followers (Num 31:1-54). When Moses learns that some Midianites have been spared (Num 31:15), he orders all males and non-virgin females killed, and all the virgin females to be taken captive (Num 31:17, 18). The virgins were divided among the priests and the people. (Num 31:32-35)
Leviticus 14:2-32 describes the regulations of ceremonial cleansing of a person who had had an infectious disease of skin. The priest is to take some of the…… [Read More]
First, the admonition to repent is given to the reader in the second person, demonstrating that the Koran is speaking directly to the believers -- it is not addressed to those who would not be reading it in the first place. In essence, this passage contains no commands for the non-believers, which would be fruitless anyway. Those who interpret this passage to mean they must convert non-believers by forcing them to repent through any mean -- even violence -- are making an argument similar to those Christians who hold up the Bible as "proof" of God's existence. It is circular logic; the argument depends upon its result to remain "true."
There is a more direct and less philosophically rigorous way to disprove the idea that this passage advocates violence on the part of Muslims against any non-believers. The second sentence tells the followers of Islam to "give glad tidings of…… [Read More]
This leads to the identification of the two primary cultural/social institutions that show a traditional and an extreme resistance to the development of homosexual rights in Muslim societies: the state and the family. Hegel identified a close relationship between these two institutions, as the family establishes both the internal and external (i.e. social and sexual) roles of its members in a way that creates the basic social structure of the state -- but influence works both ways. It is not merely that the family creates the state, then, but that the state also influences the formation and form of the family. In other words, "the family is a universal institution which performs certain specific functions essential to society's survival" (Shifting the Center p. 7). The Islamic religion and Muslim society are in danger from homosexuality, according to many state governments and the religious hierarchy, so the family is invoked as…… [Read More]
Furthermore, the Koran (2:194) requires that principles of "discrimination" and "proportionality" be observed in responding to acts of violent warfare, prohibiting responding in a worse or more harsh or destructive manner that is disproportionate to the type of violence, warfare, or harm inflicted upon Muslim.
In general, the Koran restricts the use of violent warfare to the responses to very egregious and prolonged direct persecution against Muslim and otherwise, (2:251) as a response to evil of such profound magnitude (Smith 1997) as to threaten to corrupt the entire earth. Contrary to popularized Western beliefs among many about Islam, the Koran does not promote the use of warfare to convert believers in false faiths to acceptance of Allah. In fact, the Koran very specifically provides (2:256) that religious faith is not a matter of "compulsion," that separate societies are destined to remain different in their beliefs (11:118), and that it is…… [Read More]
God is better than your god
Extremism has lead to numerous catastrophes throughout history and religion has sometimes served as a motive for extremists to act. hether one is Christian, Muslim, or whether he or she is affiliated with any other religious ideology, the respective person is likely to have a distorted understanding of society as long as he or she is bombarded with malicious information meant to turn them against a series of presumed enemies. Many are inclined to look at religious extremism as a whole, but the truth is that it would be wrong to do so. This topic is much more complex and one would have to concentrate on learning more about the background in each religion and the reason why particular individuals slowly but surely come to believe that it would be essential for them to perform extreme acts in order to prove their religiousness.
Body…… [Read More]
Islamic Jihad and Homeland Security
The United States of America is recognized as the world's only superpower. There is no other country, which can match its military might. The United States of America's history changed forever after the events of September 11, 2001. Two aircraft crashed into the world trade center in New York 3000 Americans were killed in the 9-11 attacks. No one expected an event of such a huge scale to take place in the United States of America.
This event stunned the entire world. America declared a war on terrorism and declared several measures to safeguard the country from further terrorist attacks. The FI had warned the president and his national security advisor about potential attacks. However the president and his NSA didn't take any action. A homeland security department was created to safeguard the American public from further attacks. All these attacks have been blamed on…… [Read More]
September 11 terrorist attacks in the United States did not happen in a vacuum and were not isolated events. On the contrary, those terrorist attacks were one of a string of similar events, signifying the growing jihad movement around the world. Although most media attention since September 11 has focused on major international groups based outside of the United States, the reports of investigative journalists have shown that Muslim extremism has been brewing for decades even in the United States. As early as 1974, Brian Jenkins was writing about international terrorism as a clear and present danger. Decades later, Jenkins continued to investigate the causes and repercussions of the September 11 terrorist attacks. In "Would-be Warriors," Jenkins (2010) documents dozens (46 to be exact) of only the publically reported cases of "domestic radicalization and recruitment" to jihad movements in America (iii). These recruitments are often voluntary, as individuals feel drawn…… [Read More]
edesigned World eligion Lesson Plan -- Understanding Islam
21st Century Skills & Standards
The study of world religions is an enormous, seemingly unmanageable undertaking for some students. Indeed at some point the learner certainly needs to understand the various approaches to the dogma practiced by the world's religions -- ignorance of global faiths and religious beliefs is unacceptable for today's well-educated student -- but taking an initial small bite out of this enormous religion-themed project (and chewing it thoroughly for proper digestion) is the aim of this modification. The ISTE-S changes in this plan transition the learner from the role of technology to number 4, "a" -- critical thinking and problem solving.
ather than a broad examination into all faiths, this revised plan focuses only on Islam from an objective Western perspective. Due to the never-ending violence that student learners may witness on television and in electronic media --…… [Read More]
jihad with reference to the practices and believes of the Muslims regarding the word "jihad." Further the paper will develop ethical/moral arguments regarding the stoppage of violence by both Ireland and Syria. Although one can name many countries with reference to jihad and practices of Muslims against the violence attacks, but this paper will limit the discussion to the violent attacks of Syria and Ireland.
It is an Arabic word the root of which is Jahada, which means to strive for a better way of life. Jihad is not a war to force the faith on others, as many people think of it. It should never be interpreted as a way of compulsion of the belief on others, since there is an explicit verse in the Qur'an that says: "There is no compulsion in religion" Al-Qur'an: Al-Baqarah (2:256)." http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/reference/glossary/term.JIHAD.html
The definition of Jihad states that it is a struggle, a…… [Read More]
Establishing better relations with Jordan and Saudi Arabia, where the core leaders of the terrorist organizations were reared, as well as attempting to target the nations where the terrorist threats to the est are based, is another vital 'leg' of the current anti-terrorist aspect of the larger 'war' on terror. Even establishing pro-peace and tolerance websites for Muslims, rather than allowing young Muslims to be attracted to militant websites that promote terror could be a positive strategy that the governments of the est could embark upon with community leaders.
Other anti-terrorism tactics consist of conducting litigation against terrorist actors, or supporters of terrorism, such as the current formal trial of Saddam Hussein, conducted according to the protocols of international law. Providing adequate protection for civilians working, living, or traveling in terrorist prone areas, such as Iraq, and ensuring that public places and areas that would be attractive to terrorists are…… [Read More]
Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…… [Read More]
The Israel government was not able to find the perpetrators, and the PIJ profited greatly from the event. On the Friday following the killing, "…hundreds of worshippers at Jerusalem's al-Aqsa mosque demonstrated their support for Islamic Jihad" for killing an innocent Israeli (Milton-Edwards, p. 140). The demonstrators (who were worshipping prior to being engaged in support for a cold-blooded killing) were chanting, "Allahu Akbar" -- and according to a local newspaper police in Jerusalem said the "tone of the demonstrators was more religious than political" (Milton-Edwards, p. 140).
Given that vocal support by citizens, and its more visible presence in Palestine, the Islamic Jihad carried out a far more bold and brazen attack, mentioned earlier in this paper, tossing live hand grenades into a military ceremony at Jerusalem's estern all. "Activists were willing to take significant risks," Milton-Edwards wrote (p. 140). Moreover, by killing the father of one recruit and…… [Read More]
It was generally a peaceful method of setting personal and social example of moral and caring behavior so others will join Islam because of its clear advantage for human desire for better, honest and non-violent life. But during history especially in the early days of Islam, Jihad by sword was an acceptable method, although never the only option. By its definition Jihad is therefore, global.
Yes there is a global Jihad that wishes to establish Islam every where in the world through acts of terrorism and religion imposition. The war is best understood as a global insurgency, initiated by a diffuse grouping of Islamist movements that seek to remake Islam role in the world order. They use terrorism as their primary but not as their sole tactic. Therefore they offer the best approach to defeating global jihad but in a single country.
David J. Kilcullen theory is devoted to counterinsurgency…… [Read More]
gathered: 1. The reading selection Barber -Benjamin Barber, "Jihad . McWorld," The Atlantic (Mar. 1992) http://www.theatlantic./magazine/archive/1992/03/jihad -- mcworld/3882 / 2.
The significance of coffee as a commodity
The globalization has produced in time some of the most interesting changes in the economy of the world. In the 16th, and 17h centuries, the trade with Indian spices or exotic condiments was seen as one of the most important aspects of trade in the world. Conquest wars have been fought for the control of these regions. In today's world, the market has become more specialized from the point-of-view of the commodities it nurtures. In this sense, coffee has become a true commodity in the sense of the globalized world.
The issue of globalization is by no means a new element for the study of international relations and that of international trade. It can be said that even the ancient omans and Greeks…… [Read More]
There is an obvious contradiction between what we think of Muslim women and their actual life. In order to better understand them and their social and civil life, we need to understand their religion and the way of thinking for both men and women.
In the introductory chapter of the book "The war of Muslim Minds, Islam and the West," Gilles Kepel talks about the online article "Knights under the Prophet's anner," published on the Internet in December 2001 by Ayman al-Zawahiri, Al Qaeda's most valued ideologue and Osama bin Laden's mentor.
According to his statements, the explanation for the attack of September 11 on the World Trade Centre is a simple and rather nationalistic one. Jihad activists came to face the disappointing conclusion that wherever they would go, Afghanistan, osnia or Saudi Arabia, jihad activist were unable to motivate and gather up the masses in order to fight…… [Read More]
Islam and Terrorism
Is Islam Somehow Correlated with Terrorism?
Background of Islam
Stereotypical Perceptions of Islam
Public Opinion Polls
Islam in the Media
There is a common stereotype that persists in the est that associates the Islamic faith with violence and terrorism. This mindset has been perpetuated through many individuals who base their opinions on past conflicts and influential events that have occurred in recent history. This perception has created tension between cultures that based on misunderstanding and should be corrected. Islam is the fastest growing beliefs systems in the world today and is known as one of the seven primary world religions. Yet, primarily due to violent extremist groups within the religion, Islam has been perceived by many to be a brutal religion that includes provisions for terrorism; specifically through its concept of "Jihad."
Yet the vast majority of Islamic practices are pacifist by nature. Thus it could be…… [Read More]
terrorist groups; besides Al Queda and Al Jihad that possess both the motive and capability to implement a terrorist attack on the United States and decide which of these two groups pose a greater threat. Examine both the likelihood and potential impact. It will also assess the likelihood of another terrorist attack by the Al Queda and the Al Jihad terrorist groups. Identify and provide examples of the most likely targets in a future terrorist attack.
It seems two of the most dangerous terrorist organizations facing America today are Hezbollah and the Abu Nidal Organization (ANO). These groups are particularly dangerous because they are well funded, and they consistently target the United States in their attacks. Perhaps most dangerous of these two is Hezbollah, also known as the Party of God, who are credited with numerous terrorist activities against Americans since the 1980s. These included kidnapping several Americans in the…… [Read More]
According to Purpura (2007), terrorism as a term does not have a fixed definition. This effectively means that its usage and application is largely hinged on a myriad of viewpoints, be they political or religious. In this text, I concern myself with terrorism; its justification, usage and application.
The Use of Terrorism by Powerful Governments to Delegitimize Less Powerful Governments
Though terrorism cannot be seen to be a wholly biased term formulated by powerful governments solely to delegitimize those states having insignificant political or economic clout, there are instances where governments at a national level utilize terror so as to advance a well defined agenda. It therefore follows that though in most cases it is the "non-state actors" who are blamed for terror, powerful governments also utilize terror to stifle dissent or further diplomatic efforts as well as state policies abroad.
Terrorism as "War by Other Means"
It…… [Read More]
1. The terroism eras before and after 9/11 are quite different with respect to the role that the Israel/Palestine conflict plays. Since 9/11, the majority of terrorist incidents in the United States are committed by domestic, right-wing terrorists (Neiwert, et al, 2017), and the majority of "jihadist" terrorists are domestic, not imported, there remains a threat from the Middle East. Within the segment of homegrown jihadist-inspired terrorists, there were some 20 attacks carried out by about 178 people since September 11th (Jenkins, 2017). Among foreign-born terrorists who committed or plotted attacks in the US, the largest number were from Pakistan, at 20, and the remainder were from 39 other different countries, mostly Muslim-majority (Jenkins, 2017). A study of documented jihadist ideology, featuring jihadists from around the world, highlighted three common features: idealistic commitment to a righteous cause, individualism in interpreting religion, and a conviction that Muslims today are engaged in…… [Read More]
The Aryan Nations Web site describes edfearin as "an individual of cunning mind, violent tendencies and radical outlook who aided in the evolution of the Aryan Nations worldview as the organization moved into a future which was very different than that perhaps originally envisioned by the Aryan activists of past generations."
Aryan Nations as a Terrorist Organization
Setbacks since the 1990s has largely left the Aryan Nations a "shadow of its former self," (Hoffman 2006, 110). However small its membership might be relative to the population as a whole, the Aryan Nations remains a formidable force. The organization's Web site indicates a slight ideological change, towards more radical and violent approaches to creating a constant state of "revolution" to dismantle the current social and political order (Aryan Nations). The Aryan Nations remains committed to racial purification but "it is prerequisite and indeed necessary that 'the System' be disrupted and broken…… [Read More]
The armed activities of resistance or assault committed in these contexts tends to drive a view of Islam as a radical force counterintuitive to the philosophical aims of western capitalism. As Malik (2004) contends on this point, "it is not surprising that islamophobic authors frequently resort to the concept of secularism which they say needs to be defended against an increasing influence of political Islam in Europe." (Malik, 148) It is under this very set of terms that we are given over to a proclivity where the Islamic identity of Bosnia is concerned. Specifically, the secular society in which this Islamic faith has achieved cultural dominance is belied by a brewing discontent in Bosnia.
A history of ethnic tension, a war still fresh in the memories of all inhabitants, and the new infusion of religious exploration produced by the withdrawal of communist authority are having the effect of diversifying and…… [Read More]
Bernie Krisher of American Assistance for Cambodia set her up in Phnom Penh twice more, but each time she ran away after a few days, desperate to get back to her meth supply" (Kristof and uDonn, p.39). hile I have not returned to Mexico and the carefree lifestyle I led there, I cannot deny having the desire to do so, on occasion. hile I know that the life I lived there was not the right life for me, I still long to return to it on occasion.
Of course, the differences in countries and cultures are, in many ways, becoming less apparent as the world becomes more global. This globalization has challenged the existing social structures in many countries, including those countries with castes or caste-like socioeconomic divisions. Discussing India, Kapur stated that, "ancient social structures are collapsing under the weight of new money. Bonds of caste and religion and…… [Read More]
Globalism and the Culture of American Consumption
The United States has long been a world leader on many fronts. The presidential administration of Theodore Roosevelt may have been the first to declare openly that Americans wanted to show that they were a global power, but the U.S. had long had interest in global politics. In the last decade of the eighteenth century, America fought land and sea battles in the Mediterranean against the Barbary pirates (Sassen 216). The Marine Hymn which talks of "the shores of Tripoli" is dedicated to that conflict in which U.S. Marines first fought on foreign soil. An intrepid spirit has caused the free men and women of America to create innovations in business, finance, war, agriculture, and other industries that have been the envy of the rest of the world. This has produced a certain amount of arrogance among the people and leaders of the…… [Read More]
Q2. From an American perspective, it is tempting to look out at the world and to assume that American culture now dominates and reigns over all, given the seeming ubiquity of American movies, television, and music. However, a cultural analysis of many regions of the world yields the finding that culture is far more regional and pluralistic in nature.
For example, in Mexico, soap operas known as telenovelas captivate almost the entire population. They often give voice to Mexican fantasies about transgressing economic borders. One such soap opera, Ugly Betty, has actually been appropriated by U.S. culture. Mexican culture has changed the U.S., as well as vice versa, despite the U.S.'s greater economic power in the region. And within India, Bollywood films are far more popular than Hollywood films because of the way they speak to unique Indian culture needs. Within this densely-populated and fantastically diverse nation, the fascination with…… [Read More]
(Harvey, 2003) the suspicion of the United States of the "Soviet Expansionist tendencies" had increased by the 1970s and Harvey states as well that "The pervasive mentality of Washington officials during these years was dominated by the communist domino theory which led many Washington politicians to believe that the Soviet Union sought to take over the entire world." (2003) the United States had always received a safeguard provided by the shah for their Middle East interest of oil and it was this that resulted in the United States perceiving the Soviet-Afghanistan relations as a "considerable threat...before 1979." (Harvey, 2003)
Harvey reports that while Department of State records from the early 1970s report that the United States was indifferent to the relationship that was developing between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan that the truth is that "...Recently declassified ntelligence reports also reveal that the "official history record is false."
 Contrary…… [Read More]
" This predictability is not and could never be a part of democracy; democracies must change with the will of the people, and so might have periods of instability. In fact, Berber notes, "Multinational corporations sometimes seem to prefer doing business with local oligarchs, inasmuch as they can take confidence from dealing with the boss on all crucial matters." Consistency and predictability are almost by definition easier to find in harsh dictatorships or oligarchies than democracies. The real danger I see in this is the possibility of a totalitarian state that looks like a democracy, such as the imagined by Aldous Huxley in Brave New World and which is every similar to the McWorld Barber sees us approaching. It might, in fact, already be happening, as warrant-less wiretapping becomes executive practice, and perhaps even more insidiously through the attempts of companies like Google to maintain huge databases of information about…… [Read More]
Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Next Terror: Assessment of How a Significant Terrorist WMD Attack Might e Conducted by a Non-State Actors Perpetrator and Why They Can't Stage an Attack
Weapons of Mass Destructions (WMD) have considerable effect to the economies of both developed and developing countries. In the modern world, most terror groups have resolved to use Weapons of Mass Destruction to harm their enemies. The entire syndicate comprises state actors and the terror group, which intends to destroy the target country. The state actors have direct links or channels of communication with such attackers, foreign allies, and several residential alliances with almost similar connections to the terror groups. Most of the terror groups lack essential materials that would aid in the making of some of the most dangerous weapons such as nuclear bombs. The various forms of attack involved when using lethal weapons include dispersion, dissemination, and…… [Read More]
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Nuclear terrorism or weapons of mass destruction (WMD) were labeled as the single most serious threat to the national security of the United States of America by President George W. Bush. When President Barack Obama came into office, he had the same sentiments about the growing terrorism in the Middle East. Our leaders and security experts see terrorist having access to WMD as nightmares when they sleep. The Japanese group Aum Shrinrikyo, Al Qaeda, Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Lashkar al Tayyib and Jemmah Islamiya are few of the terrorist groups who have been known to gain access to chemical, biological or nuclear weapons. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 5) Terrorist groups are present to spread terrorism all over the world as the name suggests. However, many would argue that these viscous people are only going to scare the world and not use any of them. However, seeing their statements and…… [Read More]
Islamic History In Russia and Central Asia
Approximately twenty million of the world's one billion Muslims live in Russia, even more in Eastern Europe. The media and academics alike are scurrying to react to this seemingly new wave of Islam in Russia, however attention is mainly focused on extremist activity. "Fundamentalism," "Wahhabism," "Islamism," and other such banner concepts are tainting our perception of Islam in Russia. The place of Islam in Russia is being assessed primarily as a factor of danger that threatens its national security and the interests of its citizens.
This current wave of Islamic activity in Eastern Europe is largely an extension of thousands of years of history. In Russia, Islam was the unfortunate foe of Communist politicians who challenged the very notion of religious freedom. Indeed, Islam has endured centuries of antagonistic regimes and related controversy. The following analysis will consider in what ways the demise…… [Read More]
Islamic movements come to dominate the political landscape of Iran and Saudi rabia in the last thirty years?
Why have democratic advances been so limited in these two countries? Is there any relationship between these two trends or are they independent of each other?
In both modern Iran and modern Saudi rabia, over the past thirty years, two fundamental forces have dominated the discourse of these nations -- that of Islamic Fundamentalism and a hatred of Western, specifically merican intrusions of 'modernity,' in cultural and political forms. In the absence of the ability to compete, technologically with the West, or culturally on a global level, these nations have turned inward, and some historians might say 'to their pasts' and attempted to create Islamic rather than secular renditions of modernity. However, because of the corresponding lack of democratic structures within these referenced traditional Islamic political modalities, and the association of the…… [Read More]
Table of Contents
III. Related Topics
VI. Essay Hook
VII. Thesis Statement
C. Sunni/Shia Split
D. Relationship between AL Qaeda and Isis
E. ISIS attacks on the United States
X. Works Cited
In this essay about ISIS attacks in America, we examine attacks by the terrorist organization ISIS, which have occurred on U.S. soil. Because of the structure of ISIS/ISIL, which operate in cells, it can be extremely difficult to determine whether a terrorist attack carried out by someone claiming to be working on behalf of ISIS was actually directed by ISIS. Therefore, for the purposes of this essay, we are working on the assumption that attacks by people who appear to be radicalized Muslims and claim a personal affiliation with ISIS are, indeed, ISIS attacks. This essay will give some…… [Read More]
Pat Proctor of Kansas State University was published in the peer-Reviewed Journal of Strategic Security in 2012.
The point of this article is not so much posing a question but presenting a proposal. The proposal is directed at the United States, suggesting in strong terms how the United States (and presumably its allies) could and should engage in "…mass politics" which Proctor calls "war without violence" (Proctor, 2012, 47). The theme of the article is the remarkable transformation that has taken place in Arab countries (called the "Arab Spring") such as Egypt, Tunisia, Syria, Libya and elsewhere in the Middle East.
The hypothesis / thesis and central argument is very clearly stated in this piece. The thesis is that the United States needs a new strategy for persuading the Muslim world "…to reject the salafist jihadism idea" without further exacerbating the tensions that already exist between the est and the…… [Read More]
Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.
Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…… [Read More]
Their fight, like dan Fodio's, was not against external forces or non-Muslims, but rather oriented towards those Muslims seen to be practicing their faith incorrectly or not enough, or else capitulating to the colonial and Christian leadership.
Of course, as the cited article mentions, this confrontation is not especially surprising considering that the time period during which northern Nigeria was ruled by colonial or Christian leaders is far overshadowed by the long history of Muslim rule. Thus, not only did Usman dan Fodio transform the entirety of the social, political, religious, and commercial structure of the region during his own lifetime, but the lasting effects of his actions, and particularly his famous jihad, are still being felt to this day. In fact, were it not for the destruction brought about by colonialism, the contemporary world would likely be even more influenced by dan Fodio's work, considering that almost independent of…… [Read More]
No doubt, such feelings are greatly exacerbated by the current hard-line policies of the U.S. government in the Middle East,
There is a general perception in the estern world that the religion of Islam is inherently incompatible with the ideals of democracy such as individual liberties and freedom of speech. The recent controversy over the cartoons of Prophet Muhammad, published by a Danish newspaper, and the violent reaction of Muslims has further solidified the impression. A deeper look at the basic Islamic beliefs and history indicates that such a perception may be misplaced. The apparent unbridgeable gulf between Islam and modern day democratic societies can be breached if the commonalities between the two instead of their differences are highlighted.
The Internal Jihad." BBC ebsite. 2006. November 12, 2006. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/beliefs/jihad_2.shtml
Is Islam Compatible with Democracy?" Oxford Analytica International. September 14, 2004. November 12, 2006. http://www.cmf.ch/transfert/_sCrans/press/INTERNATIONAL_%20Is%20Islam%20compatible%20with%20democracy_.pdf?PHPSESSID=a38d9661926c82c05cced11e8feee1a2
The Last ord:…… [Read More]
Social dynamics, meanwhile, look into the prevalent perception of JI's society and the international viewpoint on radical Islamism. Lastly, the political dynamics centers on the viewpoints supporting and opposing JI activities, specifically its linkage with Al-Qaeda.
Explicated earlier is the ultimate goal of JI in establishing itself as an Islamic militant group: to create an Islam-centered social order, starting specifically in Indonesia. Jones' (2005) analysis of the history of JI as a terrorist organization delved deeply into the events surrounding its early establishment in Indonesia, and its later development as one of the Muslim groups who subsisted to jihad to promote this main objective.
Jihad is an important concept in the lives of JI members, for this became the manner in which it succeeded in increasing its membership and strengthening its network of Muslim militant groups, both locally and internationally. Among the initial contacts that JI had in…… [Read More]
Religion plays the center part in Jemaah Islamiyah and the extremist religious interpretation is one of the methods of manipulation of the members. In fact, religious teaching is the first step in the recruiting process of almost all Muslim terrorist organizations. As it is the case of Jemaah Islamiyah, religious teachings organized for general audience represent the first stage of the recruitment process as it draws people that are easily manipulated by the extremist interpretation of religious beliefs and that soon become dedicated to jihad. The second stage of the recruitment process is identifying the ones that seem particularly interested in finding out more about the views presented by the teacher. oth of the founders of Jemaah were school teachers.
After identifying in religious education classes the ones that seemed more interested in learning more, the students are introduced to the organization and if they seem eager to be part…… [Read More]
Terrorist Organizations and the Media
Subsequent to the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the world did change. Prior to the attacks, the term 'terrorism' was not as frequently used by the media world over, the way we are used to it now. We have to bear in mind that it is the media that brings the world together, it is the Internet at best that allows us easy access to other areas of the globe, far from us -- and their peoples. Next, the television plays a chief role in spreading news, business reports, and propaganda.
Following the attacks on September 11 in New York City, the world got to learn of Al-Qaida, (the sole terrorist group) responsible with many other terrorist organizations to spread mischief across the globe. Osama Bin Laden was turned into a celebrity overnight because his videotapes detailing his agenda…… [Read More]
The document is remarkable for a couple of reasons, which more widely emphasizes on the importance of the internet for the jihadi terrorists. The first one is the component of collective initiative that the writer promotes; emphasizing the pace of communication and the prospective strength that spread jihadi sympathizers throughout the world could concentrate on a single project. Second relates to the competence for data storing that the internet entails, permitting quick reach not only to data of academic interest but also to sensitive forms of infrastructure details containing utilities, distribution as well as transport networks, along with the risk and susceptibility perceptions of such facilities -- that governments are presently providing at ever higher standards of transparency. (Ulph, 2006)
Activity over the web is not a current phenomenon and not limited to Islamic outfits- either moderate or extremist. Terrorist groups of several features i.e. racial, ideological or…… [Read More]
e. greed, lust and jealousy). To do this, Qutb advocated using a by any means necessary approach, in preventing the status quo from imposing its will upon everyone. This meant that there will be some kind of armed struggle against these forces.
What impacts has he had on Islamic thought?
The biggest impact of Qutb's ideas is in Islamic philosophy. What happened was Qutb, became involved in the Muslim Brotherhood when he returned to Egypt in 1952. During this time, he was actively involved in supporting governments and individuals that challenged Western policies. This led to him being arrested twice.
When he was in jail the first time, he wrote a number of pieces that discusses his radical ideas and how Muslims should stand up to this oppression. After being released in 1965 (for a brief period), is when he would publish these ideas. This led to his re-arrest and…… [Read More]
Of the six conflicts (within the fifty mentioned) that resulted in 200,000 or more deaths, three were between Muslims and non-Muslims, two were between Muslim cultures, and just one involved non-Muslims on both sides. The author references a New York Times investigative piece in which fifty-nine ethnic conflicts were reported in forty-eight locations in 1993. In "half these places Muslims were clashing with other Muslims or with non-Muslims"; in thirty-nine of the conflicts groups from different civilizations were engaged, and two-thirds of those were between "Muslims and others" (Huntington, 257).
Keeping in mind this book was published in 1996 -- and updated data employing Huntington's Muslim-violence theme is not immediately available -- it is worthy of note that of the twenty-nine wars (that involved 1,000 or more deaths in a year's time) in 1992, twelve were intercivilizational, and of those dozen, nine were between Muslims and non-Muslims (257). Huntington raised…… [Read More]
In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.
Men in Islam
As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.
The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…… [Read More]
While the main bases are still located in the Bangladesh area, there are branches in almost every country (Muktadhara, 2001).
Most of the crimes committed by the Jamaat were done in Bangladesh and surrounding areas. The actual locations vary between Shrines, local businesses, celebrations, airfields, and sporting events. As funding increases, both their crime locations and base of operations continues to increase (Muktadhara, 2001).
The Jamaat organization dislikes the United States and other Western cultures for two main reasons. First, they challenge the western methods to achieve social and industrial reform. According to the Jamaat, their method provides more opportunity for equality and change from within, rather than changing the industry, and leaving the citizens to starve. Secondly, the Jamaat dislikes the capitalistic ways of the Western world. They view the values and methods of the United States and other western nations as actions taken against Islam, and view those…… [Read More]
Saladin and the Christian Crusaders
Saladin, or Salah al-Din, or Selahedin, was a twelfth century Kurdish Muslim general and warrior from Tikrit, in what is currently northern Iraq. Saladin founded the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt. The Muslim leader was renowned in both the Muslim and Christian worlds because of his leadership and his military prowess. He was also seen as a chivalrous figure who showed mercy during his war against the Christian Crusaders. The image of Saladin developed in his lifetime and persisted long after so that he has remained a heroic figure much revered in both the Islamic world and the Christian world, the latter in spite of the fact that he opposed Western expansion into Islam and fought agasint the West in the Crusades. Still, he is idolized in literaure and art and is often the subject for Western writers as for Islamic writers, though the two groups…… [Read More]
There are many examples of God's love, but much violence as well. The Bible is full of stories of warring peoples, fighting to the death for their beliefs. Persecution of the Jews, seen on a massive scale as late as the 20th century's Holocaust, was fueled by the New Testament, as Jews were blamed for the crucifixion death of Jesus Christ. Even after World War II, Jews in the U.S. faced persecution through restricted access to certain colleges, clubs and organizations. The Ku Klux Klan, known for targeting African-Americans, has also targeted Jews.
The 20th century saw considerable violence in Northern Ireland, as Protestants and Catholics murdered each other in the name of their respective branches of Christianity. Like radical Muslims, a relatively small number of people believed that violence was the answer, and the only way to demonstrate their commitment to their God.
The Westboro Baptist Church has garnered…… [Read More]
Terrorist Groups Are Aligning to Conduct Global Terrorism.
Terrorism used to be a topic limited to only certain sectors of the world, such as the Middle East or South Africa. However, in recent years, it appears that no one is safe in any part of the world. A growing number of countries must take measures to protect citizens and visitors from the threat of terrorism. The Unites States is the latest addition to this list. It has become evident in recent years that terrorism is not a localized event any more, but has become an increasing global problem. It has also become obvious that terrorism requires a global solution as well. Evidence has been mounting that terrorist groups are beginning to connect and form alliances. This gives them greater strength and greater resources. It seems that they are finding common ground and are beginning to coordinate efforts. This will be…… [Read More]
Islamic Terrorism: The Radicalization of Religion
This essayfocuses on radical Islamic terrorism, from its roots in the Shia rebellion that led to the Iranian Revolution to the modern day terrorist group Daesh/ISIL/ISIS/IS. It discusses how 9-11 introduced many Westerners to the idea of radical Islamic terrorism and the self-proclaimed holy warriors who carry out these acts as a form of jihad. In order to help explain modern terrorism, the paper discusses the roots of the Sunni/Shia split and the lingering impact that split has on the modern geopolitical environment. The foundation of modern terrorist groups that can be traced to the radicalization of Sunni students is traced through Al Qaeda and back to the Taliban.
For people in the United States, radical Islamic terrorism became a real threat on 9-11, when terrorists from a group known as Al-Qaeda used box knives to take over airplanes and…… [Read More]
Richard Reid, better known as the "shoe bomber" has nearly eight charges held against him. He was arrested as a result of his efforts to demolish a commercial flight using bombs concealed in his shoes. Richard was born in London in 1973. He had a Jamaican father who was in prison for a majority of his childhood. The early separation of his parents reflects family dysfunctionality. Even though he had been educated in one of UK's better schools, the lack of proper family support subjected him to getting involved in several crimes. An interracial background might have resulted in adjustment problems in an environment dominated by whites. He was imprisoned several times, and accepted Islam while at Feltham young offender's institution. On his release Reid became a part in the London based, Brixton Mosque. He made an effort to get involved in mosque proceedings but ended up getting…… [Read More]
Prophet Mohammad understood the importance of implementing sharia and therefore as soon as any conquest was made, he and his companions would first focus on enforcing shariah. Shariah law was a way of uniting Muslims so they would all stand united under one system of law. There wouldn't be any difference in laws that existed in Iraq or in Spain.
Between about 800 and 900 the main trends of thought on legal matters hardened into schools or rather rites -- the latter word is preferable when referring to in practice rather than in theory. Some of these rites, such as the Zahirite which had a notable exponent in Spain, died out after a time. Among the Sunnites, or main body of Muslims, four rites came to be recognized as permissible variants -- the Hanafite, the Malikite, the Shafite and the Hanbalite. So far as al-Andalus is concerned the only one…… [Read More]
The ed Army lost numerous men and machinery, and ultimately, the cost was too much for the Soviets to bear. The Soviets finally began to withdraw troops in the spring of 1988, and removing all troops by early 1989. They left the country in political and personal chaos, with infighting between ethnic groups and religious sects. Author Esposito continues, "Within a brief period after the Soviet withdrawal, the great Islamic victory had collapsed into interethnic and sectarian warfare, fueled by foreign patrons. The net result was chaos and the devastation of Afghanistan as various warlords vied to set up their own fiefdoms."
The country disintegrated into Civil War, with some of the mujahidin factions of the Northern Alliance surviving to fight against the Taliban with U.S. forces in 2001. The Taliban took control of Afghanistan in 1996, controlling every aspect of life from dress to worship and commerce. The Taliban…… [Read More]
In contrast to Islam as religion, Islamism attempts to manifest itself via the violent power of Jihad.
oderate uslims, on the other hand, personalizes their religion towards an individual adherence to a set of rules and regulations particularly appropriate for their faith. In such a case, the concept of Jihad takes a more personal meaning: it is the personal struggle against wrongdoing and diverting from the path of Islam. oderate Islam is often referred to as a "peaceful" religion, and many moderate uslims are against the concept of Jihad as interpreted by Islamism.
oderate uslims are close in ideology to other religions: they make an attempt to follow the tenets of their faith without attempting to impose this upon others or indeed to eradicate the other religions of the world.
Pipes, Daniel. Distinguishing between Islam and Islamism. Center for Strategic and International Studies, June 30, 1998. http://www.danielpipes.org/article/954… [Read More]
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…… [Read More]
Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on December 12, 1985. Thesis: "The crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 flight on 12 December 1985 was caused by terrorists." (Gander, Newfoundland) Research concludes that this flight carrying soldiers from the 101st Airborne Division actually crashed due to terrorists act. Five sources are used. MLA.
The Crash of Arrow Airs DC-8 Flight December 12, 1985
It had been nearly two decades since an Arrow Airs DC-8 jet crashed just after taking off from a refueling stop in Gander, Newfoundland on December 12, 1985. The plane rose less than 1,000 ft., then crashed, tail first, into a small hill, disintegrating in flames about a half-mile from the end of the runway (Magnuson 22). It has been listed as the worst military air disaster, killing 248 American soldiers along with eight crew members. There is still much speculation as to the cause for the crash, although…… [Read More]
drives a person to terrorism?
As Hamid (2008) notes, the drive to become a terrorist can be part of a personal journey that has roots in personal beliefs. For Hamid, those beliefs were religious and rooted in his Islamic conviction. He believed in the words of Mohammed and though he liked Christians as a boy, he was warned against befriending them: "By restricting my contact with Christians, I felt that I was doing a great deed to satisfy Allah" (p. 3). Thus, by not mixing with Christian society, the terrorist-to-be was steeling himself to later inflict harm on a people that he did not really know. So part of what drives a person to be a terrorist might be ignorance. eal-life education on what others are like and why they are not bad could help to prevent people from moving towards terrorism -- but in the case of Hamid, it…… [Read More]
Putin reiterated that ussia does not consider Hamas a terrorist organization, and urged the global community to work with a Hamas-led Palestinian government.
"Hamas has arrived at the doors of power through legitimate elections," Putin said. "We must respect the Palestinian people and we have to look for solutions for the Palestinian people, for the international community, and also for Israel. Contacts with Hamas must continue," he added. (Hamas not a terror organization)
The leaders of Hamas have some chance to make an alliance with Israeli leaders that would allow them to gain an unencumbered claim to some territory and gain some support from Western leaders. There has been some attempt to do this. In 2008, former President Jimmy Carter worked with Hamas leader Khaled Meshal to reach an agreement that Hamas would agree to a truce with Israel if and when the Palestinian people agreed to a Palestinian…… [Read More]
The ultimate implication of the events of 9/11 is that Islam has become, as a result of American foreign policy, economic patterns and military endeavors, a hostile and radicalized culture. This is largely based on perceptions in the Islamic orld that the estern orld acts with favoritism toward Israel in diplomacy, demonstrates a tendency to exploit Arab states with military acts and pursues opportunistic relationships based on its dependence on Mid-East oil. One of the reasons that is most noted for anger with the estern orld by Muslim leaders of state and by the average Islamist residing in the Middle East, is the fact that the United States has so strongly supported Israeli statehood.
The Mamdani (2004) text captures this geopolitical disposition particularly well, indicating that the United States, the U.S.S.R. And other global powers helped to create the current Islamic cultural tendencies toward violence and armed resistance. Mamdani notes…… [Read More]
According to Hiro (2001), "During the Iran-Iraq ar it openly backed Baghdad, arguing that its defeat would lead to the spread of Islamic fundamentalism in the region which would hurt estern interests. It was the French corporations that were building two nuclear reactors near Baghdad which were bombed by Israel in June 1981" (75). Approximately 1,000 French companies were active in Iraq, and 6-7,000 French specialists were based there by 1983. As much as 40% of total French military exports were destined for Iraq. Military cooperation between the two states had developed to the extent that the French government decided to lease to Baghdad five Super-Etendard warplanes originally meant for use by the French air force. This raised the more immediate lucrative prospect of selling scores of expensive Exocet missiles to Iraq to be used by Super-Etendards to hit Iranian oil tankers in the Gulf. These missiles proved devastatingly effective.…… [Read More]
Still, embassy targeting is a very common practice used by terrorists as well. Despite the fact that they should be considered one of the most important institutions of a state abroad they are not exempted from threats such as terrorist acts. Moreover, the security level such a facility would imply does not detract terrorists and does not limit their actions.
Thirdly, it must be taken into account the fact that bombings are not the only means used by terrorists in their activities. Also, apart from attacking targets through bombs, they also use fire attacks, arms, and even kidnapping techniques to follow their goals. However, apart from these physical techniques, terrorists also use advanced technology to communicate and even inflict harm. They use different internet websites, such as various fundamentalist Islamic sites where proponents of terrorist action try to rally support for their cause against western civil and military targets. Also,…… [Read More]