The raid itself was an act deemed a form of terrorism, a term not then used but one that has been applied to Brown since. In some ways, the term fits, for he attacked in order to provoke an incident and to create fear in order to generate support for a wider war. Like many terrorists, he had a strong moral conviction and a belief in the rightness of his actions, though that in itself does not mean they were right. For those who believe that Brown helped spur the Civil ar, his actions might be considered justified, while for those who see his attack as an aberration that had little real effect on subsequent events, his crusade was misdirected and foolish. hat is certainly clear is that assessments of Brown do not exist in a vacuum and that how one views the man may depend on how one views…… [Read More]
Many of the historians will suggest that the John Brown's raid over Harper Lee and his quick execution leaded to the inevitable civil war.
Why would the South turn almost permanently to secession after 1859?
Despite of all the support John Brown gains from the Northern abolitionist writers, his actions were violent, terroristic and heinous. Even Abraham Lincoln who was trying to assuage Southern and Northern parts to solve out the issue of abolishing slavery in a peaceful manner mentioned John Brown as a misguide fanatic (eynolds 2005, John Brown, Abolitionist: The Man Who Killed Slavery, Sparked the Civil War, and Seeded Civil ights).
One can compare the violent and brutal raid by John Brown on Harper Lee with the September Eleven attack on Twin Towers in 2001. A terrorist attack, irrespective of the motives behind it cannot be tolerated, it should not be tolerated. The rift between Southern and…… [Read More]
John Brown: Was he a murderer or a martyr?
The actions of John Brown raise many uncomfortable questions about how we view terrorism in modern society. It is often said that 'one man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter' and that expression certainly holds true with John Brown in his raid on Harper's Ferry. Even before the Harper's Ferry raid, Brown was a "leader of antislavery guerillas" in Kansas and "fought [against] a proslavery attack against the antislavery town of Lawrence. The following year, in retribution for another attack, Brown went to a proslavery town and brutally killed five of its settlers. Brown and his sons would continue to fight in the territory and in Missouri for the rest of the year" ("John Brown," 1998). Brown was not above killing civilians and regarded brutality inflicted upon African-Americans as an evil that could be eradicated only with violence. On one hand,…… [Read More]
ith Brown's plans found at the location, it had been clear that the rebellion had been premeditated. This meant that Brown had committed a capital offense, making it impossible for him to be charged with murder in second degree. It did not take more than an hour for the jury to find Brown guilty, sentencing him to death by hanging in December 2, 1859.
John Brown did not live to see his dream of a Union in which freedom reigned, and, most of his contemporaries considered him and his actions to be purely fanatical. However, his struggle later paid off, with abolitionists having been influenced by his actions to pursue their principles, even if it meant to start the American Civil ar.
It would be difficult to say whether or not John Brown's actions had been right, as some would tend to believe that it is always right to fight…… [Read More]
John Brown's Harper's Ferry raid on the abolition of slavery. Brown has variously been referred to as a madman, terrorist, and murderer; others have called him a saint, hero, and a martyr. Regardless of one's opinion of Brown the human being, his place in history and his impact on ending slavery cannot be denied. Deranged or no, Brown was a driven man who lived the courage of his convictions.
There can be little doubt that Brown's raid advanced the cause of abolition by escalating the debate over slavery that was already taking place in a polarized nation. Anti-slavery arguments ran the gamut from the political to the economic to the religious. At one time considered a fringe movement, by the mid-1800s abolition had taken center stage in American politics. A number of anti-slavery organizations had existed in America for years, but it was not until the 1840s that such organizations…… [Read More]
John Brown's Raid lead to the Civil ar?
In 1859, John Brown led an attack on a federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry in Virginia with the hope of arming slaves for a revolt against their masters. The plot failed and Brown was captured and hanged. Northern abolitionists such as illiam Lloyd Garrison,
Horace Greeley, and Frederick Douglas hailed Brown as a martyr, but Southerners viewed him as a crazed lunatic. The fanatical and probably mentally unstable Brown confirmed the South's worst fears of radical abolitionism when he made this attempt to galvanize a slave uprising. This was the most noted attempt at a genuine slave revolt since Nat Turner's revolt of 1831. This "act of war" enraged the South. Newspapers throughout the South were crying for John Brown's death. The Mobile Register wrote,
The ark of covenent has been desecrated. For the first time the soil of the South has…… [Read More]
Ralph aldo Emerson famously declared that John Brown's execution would "make the gallows as glorious as the cross." (Quoted by Reynolds 127) Other historians have opined that Brown's martyrdom was the single most important event that "sparked the Civil ar" and ultimately ended slavery. During his lifetime, Brown's uncompromising, radical ideas were often considered dangerous even by such anti-slavery politicians as Abraham Lincoln. In death, Brown became a symbol of courageous opposition to slavery. Union soldiers during the Civil ar marched to the tune of the song, "John Brown's Body," and its heady chorus about Brown "mouldering in the grave" while "his soul keeps marching on." (Reynolds, 136). Some scholars, rather exaggeratedly, have even expanded the scope of his influence to the civil rights movement in the 20th century.
John Brown's political contribution has a negative side too. He has often been depicted as a forerunner of anarchists,…… [Read More]
Overall, it can be concluded that John Brown was and remains a controversial figure in the history of the United States. His personality has been the subject of debate, as well as his intentions to incite the American people to rebellion against the system. However, probably the most important question his existence raised was over the actual legitimacy of the use of violence in attaining one's goals, no matter their moral justification.
Buchanan, Patrick J. "One man's terrorist is another man's freedom fighter." Information Clearing House. April 2004. 13 Nov. 2007. http://www.informationclearinghouse.info/article5873.htm
Chowder, Ken. "The father of American terrorism." The American Heritage. Mar. 2000, vol. 51, issue 1. 13 Nov. 2007. http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/2000/1/2000_1_81.shtml
Davis, John. "John Brown: Terrorist or martyr?" The Dailey.. 25 May, 2005. http://www.decaturdaily.com/decaturdaily/books/050529/book1.shtml
Fleming, Thomas. "Verdicts of History: The Trial of John Brown." American Heritage. Online. 1967. Vol 18, issue 5. 11 Nov.2007 http://www.americanheritage.com/articles/magazine/ah/1967/5/1967_5_28.shtml
Jenkins, P. A…… [Read More]
John Brown's Raid On Harper's Ferry
John Brown and his raid at Harper's Ferry have a symbolic importance, as he himself was well aware, to suggest that not all white people counted themselves complicit in the persistence of slavery within the antebellum United States. In other words, Brown was engaged in what old-style Marxist revolutionaries used to refer to as "propaganda of the deed." His letters from prison were consciously intended as propaganda, as he asked for them to be circulated (and indeed published): "Please let all our friends read my letters when you can; & ask them to accept of it as in part for them."(Earle 98). And although his stated intention at Harper's Ferry -- to seize the weaponry there, arm the slaves of western Virginia, and thus begin Spartacus-style uprising -- failed, Brown craved martyrdom as justification, claiming: "I have now no doubt but that our seeming…… [Read More]
John F. Kennedy
In contemporary times, John F. Kennedy is known for many things; winning a Pulitzer Prize, however, is not one of them (Coleman). Kennedy's awarding of the Pulitzer in 1957 -- a full four years before he was elected president of the United States -- for the biographical Profiles in Courage was one of his few achievements that he made prior to his election that did not directly involve his equally famous and influential family, including two brothers who also ran for president (Miller Center). Such a statement in no way detracts from Kennedy's prowess as a politician or as a leader. Yet it is highly difficult to extract his success as president from the intrinsic relationship between his family and his political life. In fact, there is a good deal of evidence that indicates that Kennedy's ensuing success as the commander-in-chief (for which he, of course, is…… [Read More]
John Updike & Nathaniel Hawthorne
John Updike and Nathaniel Hawthorne are two of the most well-known writers to have contributed to the body of American Literature. Updike, the more recent writer of the two, has been considered one of America's most prestigious writers, often honored by collegiate bodies and authoritative figures. Likewise, Nathaniel Hawthorne in his time was recognized and respected, having come from a background commanding some respect. Both authors however, during their life struggled with negative issues; Updike for example struggled with separation and health problems that plagued him since he was a child. Hawthorne struggled with his ancestry who embodied a rigid Puritanical belief system, and also struggled with the poverty of his family that he was never quite able to overcome during his lifetime.
The works of both Updike and Hawthorne tend to have some autobiographical notes. Each author draws from experiences within their own lives.…… [Read More]
Gnostics believed that they belonged to the "true church" of an elect few who were worthy; the orthodox Christians would not be saved because they were blind to the truth.
Part E -- Content - if we then combine the historical outline of the "reason" for John's writings with the overall message, we can conclude that there are at least five major paradigms present that are important in a contextual analysis of John.
John 5:13 - I write these things to you who believe in the name of the Son of God so that you may know that you have eternal life. This seems to point that John saw a clear difference between those who believed in Jesus as the Son of God, but were unsure about eternal life. However, if we look back at other parts of his Gospel, we do find repetition of this theme. In John 1:5-7,…… [Read More]
As Spong has closed his career as a formal minister, retiring from the bishop position in 2000 have has become even more controversial than ever before:
Spong believes in a transcending reality at "the very heart of life" that presses toward life and wholeness. He describes God as the "Ground of Being" and "universal presence" that undergirds all life and is present in all that is. He regards heaven as a symbol standing for "the limitlessness of Being itself," describes Jesus as "a God presence" whose burning awareness of God made him a doorway to divine reality, and believes that the divine source of life calls human beings to live fully, love wastefully, and have the courage to be. Spong describes his project in classic liberal terms -- walking the "razor's edge between orthodox overbelief and losing the 'Christ experience'..."I do so not because I reject the church, but because…… [Read More]
These conditions were evident in a letter to his wife, where inthrop described wintertime as "weather being cold and the waters perilous," and the difficulty of finding logs to burn for warmth.
The Puritan colonies survived, due in large part to inthrop's efforts at both instilling this culture of discipline, and in addressing any growing factionalism within the ranks. Such actions have indeed been a double-edged sword, for they planted the seeds for suffering, they also ensured that the colony endured and later, flourished. In this way, inthrop played a largely forgotten role in the founding of this country.
Bremer, Francis J. 2003. John inthrop: America's Forgotten Founding Father. New York: Oxford University Press.
Morgan, Edmund S. 1958. The Puritan Dilemma: The Story of John inthrop. New York: Little, Brown and Company.
inthrop, John. 1630, "A Model for Christian Charity." Hanover Historical Text Project. Available online at http://history.hanover.edu/texts/winthmod.html…… [Read More]
John and the Synoptic Gospels
Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
All Biblical text presents its own set of challenges in understanding and relating to modern day incidences. hen examining the Bible, it is interesting to still see major differences that can complicate a modern interpretation of the Bible and Jesus' message. The major differences between the Synoptic Gospels and the Gospel of John show obvious differences that further complicate our understanding of the figure of Jesus.
The Synoptic Gospels are made up of the texts of Matthew, Mark, and Luke with Mark being thought to have been the first out of the three written. They all share incredible similarities in the themes and events described within their cannon. Essentially, they follow Jesus during a very similar point in his life and travels, and thus parallel each other in terms of content and the underlying message they wish to…… [Read More]
John ommel Case Study
Why would John be considered a deviant? What social foundations of deviance appear to be evident in this case study?
Deviance is defined as the recognized violation of cultural norms. Social deviance is defined as any behavior that violates the social norms within a culture or greater community. This behavior can be criminal but does not necessarily need to violate a law to qualify. Criminal acts such as theft or assault are common types of social deviance, but so are incidental behaviors like lying, excessive drinking, or nose picking. The theory of social deviance is the foundation of the study of criminology and splinters into three classes of deviant behavior: conflict, structural functionalism, and symbolic interactionism.
2.Examine the three theoretical foundations of deviance (structural-functional, symbolic-interaction, and social-conflict). Determine which foundation applied to John's situation, and why. Give specific examples.
British sociologist A.. adcliffe-Brown developed the structural-functionalism…… [Read More]
John Pierpont Morgan (1837 -- 1931) is one of the more controversial figures in the history of America and the world of finance. Described as a sui generis, a colossus (McCallum, p. 2), "the organizer" (Miller, 2003), "banker of last resort" (Andrews, 1999), and "the man of the hour" (Corey, p. 348), John Pierpont Morgan has also been called a "robber baron" (Andrews, 1999). Thus, it is evident that J.P. Morgan was a man who was as much praised for his actions in saving the American economy during the 1895 and 1907 crises, as he was criticized and derided for what was seen as his calculated control of the financial world and American business. Viewed from the lens of financial history, however, there can be little doubt that no person, either before or since, has left "upon the great art of money getting so important an influence." (Flynn, p. 452)…… [Read More]
There are several incidents contained within the various Gospels in which Jesus performs a miracle and cures someone; and John 5:1-9 recounts one of these stories. The incident happens on an unnamed holy day in the city of Jerusalem, which also corresponds to the Sabbath. The place is a pool with five pillars, or colonnades, near a spot commonly known as the "sheep market," sometimes the "sheep gate," or "Bethesda" in Hebrew, and it is here that Jesus cures a man who had been infirmed for thirty-eight years. The pool was famous for curing the first person to enter after it had been disturbed by an angel who occasionally entered the pool. But because the man had no one to help him enter the pool, he never had been the first to enter, and thus never cured. After asking the man "would thou be whole?," Jesus instructs the…… [Read More]
Brown v. Board of Education
On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional, meaning that soon afterward white and black students would attend public schools side by side, with no administrative restrictions remaining on black students. The title of the Brown court case was Oliver L. Brown et al. v. The Board of Education of Topeka (Kansas) et.al., which was filed in federal district court in Kansas on Feb. 28, 1951, by Charles Bledsoe/NAACP of Topeka (Clark, Chein and Cook 497).
The number of plaintiffs affected by the U.S. Supreme Court ruling were 13 parents on behalf of 20 children. In summary, a black male, Oliver Brown, sued a Kansas school board on behalf of his daughter Linda who was in third grade, on the basis of racial discrimination in her schooling. Mr. Brown was…… [Read More]
While the Gospel of John bears some similarities to the Synoptic Gospels, as Barrett (1974) points out, it also sets itself apart in several unique ways by focusing on the mystical nature of Christ and the importance of the Church. Even the Synoptic Gospels offer differing details of the life and teachings of Christ, and in many instances, John agrees or is more in line with Mark, while Mark differs from Matthew and Luke. Still, Barrett (1974) affirms that “John’s aim was not literal accuracy, and he therefore cannot be expected to show detailed respect for the wording of any source” (p. 228). John’s aim, rather, was to illustrate the divine nature of Christ in a way that showed how the Son of God was infinitely unique in the history of the world—and how that uniqueness was to stay with the world through the sacraments of the Church.
The…… [Read More]
John Martin pulled the plug on Black Sparrow Press. The fact that one more small press bit the dust wouldn't be big news, but for those who believe in the power of symbols and metaphors, Black Sparrow Press going flat-line means the end of an era in the world of publishing. Another literary device that one can attach to its passing is irony, for Black Sparrow, considered one of the leading purveyors of fine writing is now in the hands of Random House which itself long past the days when Bennett Cerf made that Random House synonymous with great literature, is now owned by the kingpin of the sensationalistic media, Rupert Murdoch. For most small presses to be bought out by a big fish like Random House would be a dream come true, but for those who know American literature, the acquisition was nothing short of sacrilege, akin to say…… [Read More]
Both Elisa Allen and Goodman Brown suggest that sexual tension might be at the root of their conflict.
Allen arguably deals with her pain more constructively than Brown does. Brown becomes bitter as a result of the conflict he perceives in his heart. Moreover, Brown fails to ground himself in reality. Questioning whether or not the forest vision was real, Brown neglects to contemplate its value even as a dream. Learning that he does have longings to break free from the social conventions tying him down to the rigid and conformist Puritan society would have helped Brown come to terms with the Faith he does genuinely seek. Elisa cries but deep down knows that a simple dinner out with her husband is as much freedom as she can have while still savoring the joy of…… [Read More]
Eggleston, W. (1961). The Queen's Choice. Ottawa, Ontario: The National Capital Commission.
The city of St. John's can also borrow a leaf from the City of Ottawa's Greenbelt that was put in place to avoid urban sprawl and provide open space for future development of natural areas. According to Eggleston (1961), the Greenbelt currently covers forests, wetland, and fields used for recreation conservation, farming, research, and forestry. The greenbelt has a variety of wildlife that fall under the category of mammals, birds, insects, reptiles and amphibians. Wildlife is a source of revenue especially when tourists come to watch them. The revenue earned from such activities can be used in bettering service delivery to the city residents. This is an economic benefit that the authorities of the City of St. John's stand to benefit from if they put in place nature and wildlife reserves within the city's vicinity. The…… [Read More]
" (Y-Jesus, 2007) in fact approximately one-fourth of women during that time were named Mary and Joseph was a common name also. One of every ten men were named Jesua. The work entitled: "Mona Lisa's Smirk: The Truth ehind the Da Vinci Conspiracy" states that the Da Vinci code states: "Nobody is saying Christ was a fraud, or denying that he walked the earth and inspired millions to better lives. All we are saying is that Constantine took advantage of Christ's substantial influence and so, he shaped the face of Christianity we know today." (Y-Jesus, 2007)
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
The fact is -- quite simply that no one is absolutely sure of the facts concerning the life of Jesus as the ible documents Jesus until age 12 and then little is known about Jesus until the time that he begins his ministry. It is certainly conceivable that Jesus could well…… [Read More]
It gives the government the ability to enforce its own cultural and legal norms on others without public objection. This is the key argument that Brown makes throughout the body of the work. Tolerance protects the beliefs and ideas of others, yet at the same times distances them from the norms of the mainstream. Cultural differences are not rationalized, they are simply accepted as the way a society is. Minority cultures are to be respected, but not necessarily adopted by the mainstream.
The separation of private and public life has been a tool to achieve tolerance. Those differences that make each culture unique are not allowed to enter into public life, but must remain an area that is private. Brown argues that to relegate culture and belief to the private realm is to rob it of its communal nature. One's culture becomes a matter of personal preference, not an idea…… [Read More]
Grasso last year, contending that the $139.5 million payout that Mr. Grasso received in the summer of 2003 was exorbitant and in violation of New York's not-for-profit law, which states that executives at not-for-profit organizations, like the exchange, receive "reasonable" compensation. Mr. Spitzer has said he will seek more than $100 million back from Mr. Grasso. In his complaint, Mr. Spitzer cited the Webb report as crucial to his investigation. But until yesterday it remained confidential. The document describes some of the crucial points made in the complaint, among them that the board was misled about the size of Mr. Grasso's bonuses and that $13 million of his $139.5 million payment was vested when in fact it was not (THOMAS and Anderson 2005).
The antitrust authorities should permit Microsoft to merge with Yahoo because it will be more profitable in the end. This is due to the fact that…… [Read More]
Plus-size should not be neglected.
The colors palette should include a large number of colors, in order to satisfy as many customers as possible. An analysis on the most attractive swimwear models should be performed, in order to cover this segment.
Bikinis should be priced between 28 and 60 pounds, swimsuits should be priced between 28 and 90 pounds, cover ups should be priced between 30 and 100 pounds, and flip flops should be priced between 15 and 40 pounds.
The prices are rather high in comparison with competitors' prices.
The products will be distributed in each John Lewis outlet. Also, the products can be viewed and purchased online. The company should ensure discounts for online purchases.
The company should develop and implement an aggressive advertising campaign, especially in fashion magazines that the targeted customers read. In addition to this, the collection must be…… [Read More]
Dr. Brown write comparison contrast slavery enslaved men women antebellum period. My thesis -- I feel slavery antebellum period hard women sold family, raise master-s children, serve concubine. In addition sources listed, students utilize 2 books 3 scholarly journal articles inform research.
There is much controversy regarding slavery and how it affected men and women during the antebellum period. hile slaves were generally discriminated on account of their race, women were particularly targeted as victims as a consequence of the fact that society supported gender differentiation at the time. In addition to imposing norms that discriminated against African-Americans, slave owners also installed legislations that provided black women with harsh treatment. Their gender played an essential role in having women take on roles that African-American men could not do. omen were thus separated from their families at a young age, forced to raise children belonging to their masters, and even had…… [Read More]
....Jesus learn from John the Baptist? How is the movement of Jesus different from John's?
According to Rausch, John the Baptist is "clearly a historical figure" who was not necessarily preaching anything new or revelatory (p. 1). John the Baptist works within the prophetic tradition and his teachings were rooted in Jewish Old Testament philosophy, eschatology, and theology. When Jesus went to see and meet with John the Baptist, the event "changed his life," according to Rausch (p. 4). John the Baptist may have so strongly influenced and impacted the young Jesus because of the content of his teachings: the emphasis on impending judgment and/or doom for a sinful and unrepentant humanity. Rausch also claims that there is historical and textual evidence linking Jesus's own ministry with the teachings of John. There are five main similarities between the core elements of John's teachings and Jesus's preaching, according to Rausch. The…… [Read More]
Sears goes as far as claiming that without John Hancock, the outcome of the American Revolution might have been different.
John Hancock was an extraordinary personality who became involved on the fight for freedom and who risked everything for this cause. He was a bright businessman and a clever politician who enjoyed the privileges of being one of the wealthiest men in Massachusetts, but who was also deeply involved in his community's life and profoundly interested in the fate of his fellow countrymen. "Though reared in the lap of luxury, he had been rocked in the cradle of liberty and prized the cause of the colonists too high to abandon it for an oppressive monarchy"(Musick, 1898).
One of the lessons John Hancock taught to the American people was that one has to pay his debts to his motherland. Clever business men, bright artists, sportsmen who worked hard and went through…… [Read More]
Minority Rights Revolution
The Civil Rights movement of the 1960s brought about several concordant social changes in the United States. What began as primarily an attempt to liberate African-Americans from continued systematic oppression in the form of school segregation Jim Crow laws turned out to be as much of a boon to American women and minority groups other than blacks, especially Latinos. Among the issues shared in common by all oppressed groups include voting rights, equal access to education, and equal employment opportunities. Creating social programs and institutions to provide especially for the needs of all minority groups was a logical extension of the Civil Rights movement, which appealed to women and Latinos as well as to African-Americans. The design of blanket-institutions and legislation was definitely a step in the right direction, as oppressed groups do suffer from similar forms and consequences of discrimination. However as John D. Skrentny points…… [Read More]
ith a career spanning several decades, and an influence spanning several continents, Miles Davis has arguably had a bigger influence on jazz music than any other musician. In the 1991 obituary in The New York Times, Miles Davis was described as an "an elusive touchstone of jazz," and someone who "defined cool," (Pareles). Davis' album The Birth of the Cool makes his name not just symbolically associated with the quality of coolness, but actually a synonym of the birth of cool jazz -- a specific genre of jazz that originally and bravely broke from established big band and be-bop traditions to enter the realm of the avant-garde via improvisation and experimentation. Jazz was forever transformed via Miles Davis' contributions and his musical legacy as composer and trumpet master.
Davis was born in Alton, Illinois on May 26, 1926. His upbringing was "middle class," and he was exposed to…… [Read More]
John rown's Raid And The Secession Crisis
The American Civil War is considered as an event that was the culmination of several confrontations regarding the institution of slavery. The series of confrontations involved several people including John rown and Abraham Lincoln. John rown was an abolitionist who led a group of 21 men to capture the federal armory of Harpers Ferry (which is currently known as West Virginia). Together with these men, rown's ultimate plan was to provoke an uprising against slavery across the nation. During the planning stage, rown and his group disguised themselves as farmers and collected weapons. The group of 21 men comprised fugitive slaves, factory workers, farmers, and rown's family members or relatives.
Even though rown and his men ultimately seized the guard on the bridge to this town, the event was relatively unsuccessful. This is largely because the raid didn't last long as several raiders…… [Read More]
Religious beliefs were the sustaining platform for the positions on slavery of both Robert E. Lee and John Brown, although both men were compelled in disparate directions as a result of their faith. John Brown's Calvinist background shaped his perceptions about the sinfulness of slavery and his strict upbringing led him to believe that the sinful practice slavery would only be won through relentless battle. Robert E. Lee was raised an Episcopalian, a variable that supported his belief that slavery would exist until God ended the practice.
The nineteenth century male, as he might be characterized in a reductionist fashion, was the officially ordained head of his household, who was most likely to be spending considerable time away from the home -- in the corrupt realm of public enterprise. Decision-making was the purview of males, which naturally included standards for commerce, politics, civic roles, and home life. Life…… [Read More]
Socrates and Thoreau are similar through the fact that both of them lobbied for a just world where slavery would not be present concomitantly with taking advantage of the institution of slavery. Socrates would thus identify with Thoreau, given that each of these two men lived in a time when their opinions were worthless when compared to those of the masses. Thoreau and Socrates were well aware that violence would be pointless in times when slavery was still considered to be normal by the majority. Socrates would however feel that Thoreau's perspective in regard to Brown's decision to use violence as a means to achieve justice is erroneous. This is because Socrates lived in a period when slavery was highly esteemed and when it was virtually impossible for someone to rise against the state with the purpose of abolishing it. In contrast, Thoreau, his abolitionist contemporaries, and society in general…… [Read More]
Black Africans helped the Portuguese and the Spanish when they were on their exploration of the America. During the 16th century, some of the explorers who were of black origin went ahead to settle within the Valley of Mississippi as well as in areas that came to be known as New Mexico and South Carolina. However, Esteban was the most celebrated black explorer of the, who followed the Southwest route in the 1530s. Blacks in the United State and their uninterrupted history can be traced from 1619; this was after 20 Africans were landed within the English colony of Virginia. Though these blacks were by then not slaves, they served as servants who were bound to an employer for a limited number of years as it was to most of the white settlers. By 1660s bigger numbers of Africans were taken to the English colonies. By 1790, the…… [Read More]
It might be said that, had Lincoln not been elected, the war might have been put off by a few years, and then a solution might perhaps have been reached. However, as has been demonstrated, the country was moving inexorably toward war and no other solution would work. If the war had been put off by a few years, the result would more than likely have been even more terrible and bloody than it was. General Grant was of the opinion that the war was inevitable. "The Southern rebellion was largely the outgrowth of the Mexican war," he wrote in his Personal Memoirs, in accord with his belief that the Mexican-American War was the result of the South's attempts to extend slavery into Mexican-controlled Texas, "Nations, like individuals, are punished for their transgressions. We got our punishment in the most sanguinary and expensive war in modern times." Grant would then…… [Read More]
Although slavery is widely regarded as one of the greatest evils in human history today, this was not as obvious during the early days, when abolitionists of this evil were in the minority. Indeed, many considered slavery as one of the essential factors of the American economy, and particularly so in the South where cotton and other plantations provided economic well-being to many landowners and business people across the country. Increasingly, however, the abolitionist movement gained momentum, with a rising number of people believing that slavery was a gross violation of human rights for economic gain. Increasingly, many became abolitionists, including Douglass, Garrison, Lovejoy, and Brown. While some offered subtle resistance in the form of harboring fugitive slaves and boycotting the trade in goods supported by slavery, others offered more direct and violent opposition, often losing their lives in the process.
Both Garrison and Douglass offer strong arguments against…… [Read More]
Antebellum Period: Different Perspectives
Woman in a White Slaveholding Family in Virginia
My name is Matilda Baldwin originally of the Richmond Portmans that being my maiden name. I was born and raised outside of Richmond on my poppy's tobacco plantation. My husband's land is not very far away. I spend most of my summer afternoons with Mama. We sit fanning ourselves sipping mint-iced teas wondering if my baby sister will have a successful introduction into Richmond Society. Three years prior, my own debutante ball was glorious. It was where I met Robert Baldwin and many other suitors. He was clearly smitten with me from the start for the next day he asked Poppy for my hand in marriage. My father appreciates fine things in life; a good hand rolled cigar, two fingers of French Brandy and a man who knows what he wants but is not afraid of getting it.…… [Read More]
John Brown applied for a job as a grounds worker at a federal facility and was denied employment because of his sexual orientation. He asks you to explain the law relevant to his situation. What if the same thing happened at Boston University?
Unfortunately title VII does not prohibit discrimination because of an individual's sexual orientation. Though Title VII prohibits discrimination because of sex, the word sex is interpreted gender. However, the Employment Non-Discrimination Act (ENDA), is a proposed U.S. federal law that would prohibit discrimination against employees on the basis of sexual orientation. If it happened at Boston University, the University would pursue affirmative action and adherence to state and federal laws.
Six months after Harry was hired as a part-time retail clerk, twenty hours a week, he called in sick on a Wednesday morning..At first, his mother told the store manager that Harry had the flu and would…… [Read More]
The Gospel of Luke, as has been mentioned here, is very similar to that of Mark in its narrative and in describing Jesus, the man. This is an element of the Gospels about which authors Nickle and Brown agree. There is, too, a strong belief that the Gospel of Luke was written by a "missionary colleague of the Apostle Paul (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The Book of Luke is the most extensive and detailed account of the life of the historical Jesus of any other book in the Bible. "hen this Gospel is joined by its companion volume, Acts and Apostles, they together make up about twenty-seven percent of the New Testament (Nickle, 1980, p. 125)." The most distinctive characteristic of the Book of Luke, is that it is sequenced with Acts and Apostles (Nickle, 1980). Luke is unique in that his book goes beyond the life of Jesus, into…… [Read More]
American History 1600-1877
In the period from 1600 to 1877, it could be argued that the United States was only basically establishing itself as an independent nation in its own right -- the period in question builds up to the climax of the Civil War, in which the contradictions inherent in the national identity would finally reach armed conflict. Who, then, could be nominated as the best of the American enterprise in that time period? For different reasons, I would nominate Benjamin Franklin, Walt Whitman, and Frederick Douglass.
Franklin is an easy choice: he established America's credibility in the eyes of Europe. Regardless of the military issues involved in the American Revolution, it was Franklin alone who showed Europe that there was a viable independent nation across the Atlantic. This is in recognition of his various accomplishments, which were scientific, technical, literary, and philanthropical (in his endowment of universities and…… [Read More]
Town That Started the Civil War
In the years prior to the American Civil War there were many incidents of conflict between the Abolitionists, or the anti-slavery forces, and the pro-slavery forces throughout the country. While everyone has heard of "Bleeding Kansas" and John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry, not many have heard of the other incidents which led up to the Civil War. Nat Brown, in his book The Town That Started The Civil War described in detail one of these events, the Oberlin-Wellington rescue of a fugitive slave. In this incident, a fugitive slave had been recaptured in accordance with the federal Fugitive Slave Act, but the residents of Oberlin and Wellington Ohio rose up and rescued the former slave from the clutches of the "slave catchers." As a result, dozens of the citizens of these citizens were arrested and indicted while two were actually put on trial…… [Read More]
Robert Hayden, one of the most important black poets of the 20th Century, was born in Detroit, Michigan in 1913 and grew up in extreme poverty in a racially mixed neighborhood. His parents divorced when he was a child and he was raised by their neighbors, illiam and Sue Ellen Hayden, and not until he was in his forties did he learn that Asa Sheffey and Gladys Finn were his biological parents. During the Great Depression he was employed for two years by the Federal riter's Project, and published his first volume of poetry Heart-Shape in the Dust in 1940. He taught English at Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee for twenty-three years, and then at the University of Michigan from 1969 until his death in 1980. Among his other works were The Lion and the Archer (1948), Figure of Time (1955), A Ballad of Remembrance (1962), orks in Mourning Time…… [Read More]
Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects
hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).
There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…… [Read More]
S. responded to the Great Depression by electing FDR, who brought out his Alphabet Programs which were supposed to put the nation back to work with public works projects. When that failed to restore the economy, the world elected to start with a new war: WWII. Germany had been buried by the Western powers following WWI -- and now the country threatened to assert itself once more. Russia was in the middle of its own revolution: Stalin was liquidating the kulaks and rounding others up and shipping them off to the Gulag. That did not help Russia's economy any more than FDR's Alphabet program -- but it did not matter: war was on the horizon. Japan was being strangled by Western powers: the American military-industrial-congressional complex essentially forced Japan to attack -- and then sat back and let it happen when Japan finally decided to bomb Pearl Harbor. Thus, America…… [Read More]
South and the North of the 19th Century
As I write this, I can hear faint yells and cheers through my window. Somewhere, the city of Charleston still celebrates. You'll have heard why by the time my letter arrives. Secession. It was no secret that it would happen when Lincoln, that great ape, was elected. As many years as we've been on the receiving end of Yankee insults and "compromises," I wonder why we took so long.
You and I have talked about our peculiar institution, and I know you disapprove, but then, you have not been around Negroes. They are not our equals. They need us to care for them and direct them, and we need them to work the fields and keep our farms and plantations running. There is no immorality, no terrible sin. Merely an advantageous arrangement for both sides. But the Yankees don't see…… [Read More]
Brown, and commit that "best efforts" will be exerted to ensure that his request will be addressed and resolved (whether this would be a positive or negative outcome). These tactics would help me establish my objective, which is to ensure the success of the agreement while ensuring also that Gov. Brown does not feel that his concerns were not addressed and there was not even an attempt to help him resolve the matter.
The agreement template has helped me evaluate the flow of the negotiation process that happened in this particular case. Taking into account the structure and elements of the agreement template, I was able to identify that the negotiations in this case lacked the 'renegotiation' component, which takes into account the possibility of another negotiation during or after agreement has been reached. Through the agreement template, I was able to determine this weakness and consequently, develop the tactics…… [Read More]
Civil War Tensions
The American Civil War was not the culmination of one specific issue, which tore North and South, but rather the culmination of a perfect storm of issues and incidents that formed together to make war between the states "inevitable" (Foote, 1958, p. 29). The issues were various and complex: among them was the primacy of "states' rights" in the Constitution, and the usurpation of those rights (so it was felt by many a Southerner) by the Central government. This feeling was directly tied to the outcome of the Mexican-American War, which resulted in the annexing of large territories to the West. Would they be slave states or free states? If one followed the Missouri Compromise line, there should be no question. Slave states were below, free above. But with John Brown's raid on Harper's Ferry and the frenzy of the abolitionist caused at fever pitch, the issue…… [Read More]
Racism and the American Ideals
Racial divisions in 19th century American culture excluded African-Americans and Native Americans from the American ideals of liberty and inclusion on a fundamental level. The pushing off the land (and slaughtering) of the Native American tribes by the U.S. government was an exercise in Manifest Destiny (O'Sullivan 5), which later came to be expressed in terms of New Expansionism once the borders of the frontier were at their natural limits. And as for African-Americans -- they may have been freed by Lincoln in order to help the North win the war against the South, but inclusion was never really on the table: Jim Crow laws sprang up in the South and racism continued to be expressed in terms of segregation and mob violence. Liberty was for the ASPs (hite Anglo-Saxon Protestants), the ruling elite of the political, economical and social establishment. No amount of noble…… [Read More]
African-Americans and Western Expansion
Prior to the 1960s and 1970s, very little was written about black participation in Western expansion from the colonial period to the 19th Century, much less about black and Native American cooperation against slavery. This history was not so much forbidden or censored as never written at all, or simply ignored when it was written. In reality, blacks participated in all facets of Western expansion, from the fur trade and cattle ranching to mining and agriculture. There were black cowboys and black participants in the Indian Wars -- on both sides, in fact. Indeed, the argument over slavery in the Western territories was one of the key factors in breaking up the Union in the 1850s and leading to the election of Abraham Lincoln in 1860. In the past thirty years, much of the previously unwritten and unrecorded history of the Americas since 1492 has been…… [Read More]
Overall, the classes were uneven in their approach. In part of the class, they were very traditional and used lecture style. In other parts of the class, they freely allowed participation among students. For example, one teacher, despite the fact that he is more disciplined with the students, uses comparisons when explaining the concepts and refers to book when giving examples on the board. The class is quiet during a short lecture. Afterwards, the notes are left on the board and the students are asked to take notes. A special student lays head on desk and asks no questions and takes no notes. However, the teacher does the first part of the homework together with the students, which is a quasi-Vygotsky approach. He does ask the students in this class more questions individually than the other class and helps this class a lot more on homework, which is also a…… [Read More]
That Frederick is indeed emotionally unavailable is highlighted at every turn. He doesn't do "little things" for Anna, nor whisper sweet words to Ottilie. In his speeches, he thanks neither woman for the help they have given him. "Who helped more than me?" Anna thinks as she hears her husband's first speech. "How come Freddy didn't mention me?" Later Ottilie, listening to Douglass speak years later, reflects, "I'd heard Douglass give this speech numerous times and each time I felt outrage. He'd never thanked me. Never mentioned me."
Anna and Ottilie eventually make a wary kind of peace as each comes to realize that Frederick cannot give her the love she wants. In their final meeting, Anna asks Ottilie if Frederick loves her, and Ottilie has to admit she doesn't know. Laughing bitterly, Anna admits that she never knew if Frederick really loved her either. "I thought he choose you…… [Read More]
Alexander Hamilton carried on an affair with the wife of "a notorious political schemer," Maria Reynolds. Andrew Jackson married Rachel Jackson before her divorce from Lewis Robards was finalized and therefore was accused of marrying a married woman. Jackson's opponent in 1828, John Quincy Adams, was in turn accused of "corrupt bargaining" during his term. Jackson also championed Margaret O'Neill Timberlake, who married his secretary of war, John Eaton. "Peggy O'Neill" was considered a woman of "questionable virtue," and as a result Martin Van Buren became Jackson's successor in the presidency. After the death of Jackson and Eaton, Peggy married a 19-year-old dance teacher (which raised eyebrows, as she was 59), who embezzled her money and ran off to Europe with her 17-year-old granddaughter.
Other scandals concerned Richard Mentor Johnson, who ran for vice president in 1836 with Martin Van Buren. He supposedly shot Tecumseh during the ar of 1812,…… [Read More]
social work beyond U.. Borders?
Whilst it is true that each country and region may have its own concept of justice and ways of doing things, and that the Western concepts of justice and its norms, are inapplicable to a different country, nevertheless there are some human rights issues that transcend countries and boundaries. These human rights issues can only be recognized if one takes a transcendental stance compared to a narrow stance. It is by recognizing existence of these human rights issues that America can transcend its national limited perspective and involve itself too in a social work pose that effects international concerns and involves itself with concerns and obligations that transcend borders.
In another way, also, the U.. is never separate from social work issues that occur outside its perimeters. Immigrants from other countries seek refuge in the U.. On a continuous basis. Even immigrants who do not…… [Read More]
Washington, H. (2008). Profitable wonders. From Medical Apartheid. New York: Harlem Moon.
Many of the horrors of slavery, such as whipping and beating, are well-known to contemporary readers. However, according to Harriet Washington in her essay "Profitable wonders" from her book Medical Apartheid, there is an equally ugly yet less-publicized side of the American Southern plantation system, namely the use of black slaves in medical experimentation. oday, we think of medical experimentation on persons deemed to be of inferior races as something common in Nazi society, not our own. However, as "Profitable wonders" makes clear, anytime a race is demonized, it is liable to be used in inhumane ways, much in the same way that animals are used in medical experimentation. he disparities today between African-American's state of physical health and whites are often commented upon and the article makes clear that such inequities have its roots far,…… [Read More]
updated June 1, 2002. April 23, 2009. http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
Leidner, Gordon. "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer." Great American History.
April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
Litwak, Leon. "Results of the Civil ar." Funk & agnalls® New Encyclopedia. 2005 orld
Almanac Education Group. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Bleeding Kansas." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: Dred Scott." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise." The Civil ar. April 23, 2009.
John B. Gordon, "Causes of the Civil ar," Reminiscences of the Civil ar, page updated June 1, 2002, April 23, 2009, http://www.civilwarhome.com/gordoncauses.htm
"Causes of the Civil ar," KET, 2009, April 23, 2009, http://www.ket.org/civilwar/causes.html
Gordon Leidner, "Causes of the Civil ar: A Balanced Answer," Great American History. April 23, 2009. http://www.greatamericanhistory.net/causes.htm
"The Secession Crisis: The Missouri Compromise," The Civil ar, April 23, 2009, http://civilwar.bluegrass.net/secessioncrisis/200303.html
"The…… [Read More]
The slaveholder was the "father" who needed to take care of his slaves spiritual and material needs, and to protect him or her.
Early in the nineteenth century, slaveholders began to view their slaves as property that needed protecting. Conditions improved slightly and slaves were given better food, clothing and housing. This was not done out of kindness, but because of a need to protect their property. Eventually laws were passed in southern states that limited the physical punishment that slaveholders could inflict upon slaves, and set the age at which slaves could be separated from their mothers.
Slavery needed to be protected from capitalism and democracy because these forces were inherently in opposition to slavery. Democracy declared all men equal before the law, but Paternalism provided the basis for a justification by saying these were not men, but some inferior being that needed to be ruled by whites. Slavery…… [Read More]
PUPOSE OF THE STUDY
The focus of this research on international marketing and its applicability in an international context is the main contribution of this study. The addition to the literature is using the cultural framework of proportion of immigrants in the society to understand how cultural differences affect the applicability of international marketing. That is, the paper will expand on other international marketing papers to present a wider look at how international marketing differs form other countries. The study also refines the analytical framework by exploring firms in Dublin, Ireland in the business sector -- the sample as chosen from this population to get the unique perspective of these firms. How are modern business strategies that use direct marketing tools and new technological processes affecting specific sectors in the society? Also, what is the role of firms in Dublin, Ireland as it relates to the immigrant population? These are…… [Read More]
This is why Lytle and Davidson use first-hand narratives as only one piece of evidence. They are always quick contextualize personal narratives with hard, cold facts, like the evident death toll of the early colony, which they attribute to a failure to plant crops like corn for food. Settlers were foolishly determined to leave land and time open to cultivate the cash crop of tobacco. Laws forcing men to plant food suggest, according to the historians, that the settlers lacked a sense of what was necessary to survive times of scarcity during the winter -- and 3,000 of them died as a result. Statistics and primary source documents such as laws, records of immigration and even botanical information about the labor-intensive nature of farming tobacco vs. corn are required to fully flesh out a picture of what life was like and to solve the mystery of why the death toll…… [Read More]