(Jonathan Swift's eligious Beliefs)
Nowhere did Jonathan Swift show his capacity for satire than in his work, 'A Modest Proposal', for preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland from Being a Burden to their Parents or Country, and for making them Beneficial to the Public. Jonathan mentions within this work, "the streets, the roads, the cabin doors, crowded with beggars of the female sex, followed by there, four, or sic children," and these children, he stated, would all be dressed in rags, and, being hungry and starving, beg for food to fill their stomachs. Their mothers, too, would be forced to stroll through the streets, in search of alms, so that they may feed their infants and children. These poor deprived children would, inevitably, become thieves as they became older, for want of any other work. Otherwise, Jonathan says, they would leave their dear native country, and then have…… [Read More]
Swift's Gulliver's Travels
'My Reconcilement to the Yahoo-kind in general might not be so difficult, if they would be content with those Vices and Follies only which Nature hath entitled them," (Chapter 12). The narrator's words illustrate a universal aspect of human nature: the creation of an "us vs. them" mentality that at its worst leads to racism. In fact, Gulliver's voyage to the land of the Houyhnhnms contains elements of racial tension and ethnic identity. The Houyhnhnms are the dominant race; although they do exhibit positive qualities to aspire to, such as altruism, intelligence, and rationality, they nevertheless persecute the Yahoos and even suggest castrating them to kill of their race. While the Houyhnhnms are admirable in many respects, Gulliver fails to notice their faults and failings. For instance, the Houyhnhnms are excessively rational and in some ways symbolize an exaggeration of human reason. Nevertheless, Gulliver wishes to remain…… [Read More]
The primary reason for this is the fact that people like Swift's projector and various politicians like him are far too successful in manipulating language to their own advantage. hile Orwell did not live in our day, he was truly a visionary and he is not far off the mark when it comes to politics and the power of persuasion. Swift reinforces this notion with his proposal, which is anything but modest. Swift's projector proves Orwell's theory that we can manipulate language and, as a result, language becomes a major factor in human thought. Thought, in turn, influences language, and together, these manipulations can mean nothing but trouble. If we allow such atrocities to occur, we will surely live with nothing but a world of deceivers in a few decades. ords mean things and it is important to keep language free from negative influence of humanity whenever we can. In…… [Read More]
'The Lady's Dressing Room" is an offhanded ode to women by Jonathan Swift and narrated by the Queen of Love. The poem basically describes the dressing room of Celia, seen through the spying eyes of her lover Strephon. Strephon has so idealized his beloved -- and all other women -- that when he realizes that she is a mere human being, he wretches. Finally he realizes, "Oh! Celia, Celia, Celia shits!" Swift's poem is not, as a casual reading would suggest, disparaging toward women. Rather, Swift points out that while Celia may be vain and self-conscious, obsessed with her appearance, she is nevertheless a human being. Strephon has failed to acknowledge Celia's humanity and so when he sees stains on her stockings and smells her bodily discharges, he is turned off to all women. The Queen of Love laments Strephon's attitude in the final stanza of the poem: "I…… [Read More]
Jonathan Swift's use of satire in his story "Gulliver's Travels" is not only a useful employment of its best purposes but perhaps also the only way to craft this type of critical argument. Critical thought towards society and its class structure has always been art's most powerful trait. Swift's literature is used in this manner in his famous story. The purpose of this essay is to examine Swift's use of satire in his attempts to socially comment on his environment. This essay will give several examples of this approach in the story and relate these instances into the larger theme of the author's style and approach.
Example 1: Gulliver's First Discovery
Swift's 1726 story, Gulliver's Travels was written from the standpoint of a naval shipping surgeon or doctor named Lemuel Gulliver. Gulliver is an eager and open minded middle class English gentlemen married without any children. The story…… [Read More]
Thus, in 1714, Swift returned to Ireland, "to die like a poisoned rat in a hole," as he reported (Hunting 22).
Yet Swift slowly reconciled himself to his life in Ireland and the 1720's proved to be an incredibly creative time for him, including his famous "Gulliver's Travels" in 1726 (Hunting 23). In his seventieth year he wrote that walking though the streets of Dublin, he received "a thousand hats and blessings" (Hunting 24).
Swift was a great Irish patriot and became a popular hero and legend in his own lifetime and achieved all the fame he had so passionately desired when young (Rowse 215). After his death he became a figure of folklore, and all around Ireland, there are spots associated with him such as Laracor, ood Park Kilroot and Gosford (Rowse 215). In the Deanery at St. Patrick's his skull ornamented the sideboard in the dining-room, a secular…… [Read More]
ollstonecraft calls for equality among men, rather than inequality based on money, privilege and being wellborn. Again the duality of power and oppression is spoken of with zeal as ollstonecraft goes on to pick apart all of the institutions that so many hold dear by virtue of false assumptions and tradition.
There is really no conflict that has been more detailed and railed against than the duality of power and oppression and yet this duality reinvents itself over and over in the culture of man, with the powerful claiming superior knowledge and the oppressed being taught the rhetoric that supports it. In Swift's comical economic writing about the need to find an economic solution for a human problem as well as in ollstonecraft's assassination of faulty and self-aggrandizing power mongering there is clear demonstration of this duality as it appears in their context and by their observations. Each of these…… [Read More]
Jonathan Swift wrote “A Modest Proposal” in 1729 as piece of political satire, or as Cody (2000) puts it, a “disgusted parody” and a “savage indictment,” (p. 1). As it falls within the genre of satire, there is a healthy dose of humor embedded in the text but also rich political commentary as well. As both the course text and Cody (2000) point out, Swift was concerned about issues like class conflict and discrimination against the Irish. Swift recognized that the English were systematically exploiting the Irish. “A Modest Proposal” makes an outlandish case for eating children as the solution to poverty.
Swift writes “A Modest Proposal” in first person, effectively making it seem that he truly believes in what he is saying. The approach can be considered ironic, in that what Swift states on the surface is not precisely what he means. The entire substantive content, and not just…… [Read More]
Jonathan Swift's "A Modest Proposal" is quite an unusual work of literature, and one which certainly has a surprise ending. The only allusions to the wild solution that the author will offer to the very real problem plaguing the streets of Ireland -- that of the unfortunate beggar children and their mothers of Irish distinction -- is the fact that it is quite obvious that this essay is a satire. All satires create humor around human folly; that which is made laughable time and again throughout this narrative is the lack of concern on the part of the English for the plight of the Irish. It is due to this lack of concern that Swift quite facetiously, and more than a little bit sarcastically, advocates eating the misfortunate children, which is the surprise ending of this essay -- as well as the fact that the author, after advocating this stance,…… [Read More]
" For example, of the materialism and penchant for "conspicuous consumption" among Romans of the time, Juvenal observes:
in Rome we must toe the line of fashion, spending beyond our means, and often non-borrowed credit.
It's a universal failing: here we all live in pretentious poverty. To cut a long story short, there's a price-tag on everything in Rome. hat does it cost to greet Cossus, or extract one tight-lipped nod from Veiento the honors-broker? (180-5).
Criticizing the inflated costs of everything in Rome, Juvenal also states:
inflation swells the rent of your miserable flat, inflation hits the keep of your hungry slaves, your own humble dinner. (166-7)
Moreover, within the declining Roman society described by Juvenal's Third Satire, wealth is so revered for its own sake that, when, for instance, a rich man's house burns to the ground, his house and all his belongings will soon be replaced by…… [Read More]
Pope and Swift: Satirists of Their Day
In Swift's Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift and Pope's An Epistle to Arbuthnot, the authors seem to vindicate their use of satire, while satirizing others. Alexander Pope, in his preface to An Epistle to Arbuthnot, identifies the motivation of the poem as a response to attacks on his "Person, Morals, and Family" and to give "truer information" of himself (Pope 1733). Pope warns readers that many would recognize allusions to them in it, "but I have, for the most part spar'd their Names, and they may escape being laugh'd at" (Pope 1733). In 1731, shortly before Pope wrote his Epistle, Pope's friend Jonathan Swift completed Verses on the Death of Dr. Swift and published it almost a decade later in 1739. After his friend Esther Johnson died, the theme of death "became a frequent feature in Swift's life" (Wikipedia, 2012). Swift…… [Read More]
Here we have another example of how Swift uses his setting as a perfect weapon for his argument. Not all people are respected and soome are treated badly. These statements are morbid but they are true and that is why this essay succeeds.
Swift's satire has a greter impact because he opens his argument up for debate. Any argument is allowable as long as it is "equally innocent, cheap, easy, and effectual" (2180). Furthermore, he writes to anyone that believes they have a better solution to the problems to:
ask the parents of these mortals, whether they would not at this day think it a great happiness to have been sold for food at a year old, in the manner I prescribe, and thereby have avoided such a perpetual scene of misfortunes, as they have since gone through, by the oppression of landlords, the impossibility of paying rent without…… [Read More]
Reason in the faith and satire of Dryden and Swift
The neoclassical age in which both John Dryden and Jonathan Swift penned their most noteworthy prose is often also called 'The Age of Reason.' However, although this valorization of reason and rationality may be a fair characterization of much of the Age of human Enlightenment, Dryden and Swift do not deploy nor valorize reason in the same fashion. For Dryden, reason is the key to humanity's connection with the divine and political freedom. In Swift's social and religious satires, however, human confidence in its rationality is just as absurd as overconfidence in human religious political and social institutions to create just and fair societies.
Dryden's religious poem "Religio Laici" begins with a definition of reason as the most perfect mode of the ultimate human understanding of the divine. Dryden writes, "as the borrow'd beams of moon and stars./To lonely, weary,…… [Read More]
Jonathan Swift (1667-1745)
Satire and Irony in Dublin
LIFE OF JONATHAN SWIFT
Jonathan Swift is widely regarded as the greatest writer of satire in English literature. Yet it is crucial for understanding Swift's satire to know that he was not really English. Swift was born in Dublin in 1667, to a family that originally had emigrated from England -- for this reason, he is generally described as "Anglo-Irish." Swift did his university studies in Dublin at Trinity College, graduating in 1686. From here he became the personal secretary to a politician and writer, Sir William Temple, and moved to England. Political machinations, however, hampered Swift's advancement in a political career -- instead he would end up taking a position in the Protestant Church of Ireland, ultimately rising to the position of Dean at Saint Patrick's Cathedral in Dublin.
Swift's career encompassed both literature and politics. As a wit and satirist,…… [Read More]
He suggests that investment in a certain relationship before that relationship occurs, providing that the customer does eventually bring more revenue than costs to the company, is warranted. In order to shed more light on this situation, Blolos decided to determine "if and how the costs of managing existing and potential relationships are assessed" (92). Interviewing managers in 20 firms in four countries, the author found that the managers had difficulty grasping a definition for "relationship marketing," although they were aware of the concept of theory. They also had "cynical" views of relationships with other firms, although they identified relationship marketing as a positive practice. Further, Blols found that "a measurement problem exits," meaning it was difficult for managers to find a way to determine which relationships with which clients were worth pursuing (98). Although managers tended to believe that they had formed successful relationships, they could not measure that…… [Read More]
Modern capitalist philosophy has been advanced in a way that has little to do with what Smith really thought and taught. Smith believed that the invisible hand operated in a societal context. The reason Smith had such a positive philosophy of freedom was that he believed that human beings, would behave best if not compelled to merely serve the personal interests of a sovereign. Humans had a right to self-determination and to serve their own interests. However, when competition was threatened -- for example, when individuals by fair means or foul gained too much market power and created monopolies -- then it was appropriate for the government to step in. Smith believed that self-interest could prove to be beneficial to others but he did not believe that selfishness was an end in and of itself.
Justice and democracy are necessary for capitalism to function, but the rampant selfishness and lack…… [Read More]
Jonathan Swift's satirical work A Modest Proposal is particularly successful at lambasting careless attitudes towards the poor because Swift's proposal that poor children be sold as food for the upper classes is rendered in the language of pseudo-scientific argument and economics. hen deployed elsewhere, this combination of tone, appeals to authority, and abrogation of evidence is precisely the kind of language used to support various misguided, outdated, or bigoted ideologies, such as any number of various "scientific" works purporting to demonstrate the superiority of whites over blacks, or men over women, for example. In Swift's case, however, the tone he adopts and the logical fallacies he engages in function precisely to reveal themselves, so that Swift's use of these common tactics is a means of pointing them out and revealing that they are in fact tactics, or rhetorical methods used to support an otherwise insupportable argument. By performing…… [Read More]
Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift are two of the greatest satirists in literature because they capture elements of truth that force us to look at ourselves as a society. hile both authors reflect on political and economic conditions of the eighteenth century, their work is timeless because their topics ultimately return to humanity. Their achievements lie in the fact that they depict man in circumstances that are both thought provoking and amusing. Pope's "The Rape of the Lock" and "The Dunciad," along with Swift's "A Modest Proposal" and Gulliver's Travels demonstrate how satire takes its best form when its target is human nature.
The satirist is quite lucky in that he has many varieties of subjects when it comes to human nature M.H. Abrams observes that in most instances the satirist considers "prevalent evils and generally observable human types, not with particular individuals" (Abrams 2211). This is certainly true with…… [Read More]
Gulliver's Travels" by Jonathan Swift, and "Frankenstein: Or the Modern Prometheus" by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelly. Specifically, it will discuss family ties -- Gulliver's neglect of his family compared to Victor's neglect of his. During the Enlightenment, many issues of life and society were considered important to the very necessity and enjoyment of life. Both authors create characters that are far from normal and neglect their families in chaotic and unbelievable worlds. They abandon their families for their own selfish pleasures and wants. The authors view family as important to society, and so, they create characters that are opposite to point to their beliefs about man, society, and what is natural in relationships.
Both of these works use family ties, and the lack of them, to perpetuate their own distinct views on the Enlightenment movement, an intellectual movement prevalent in the 18th century, when both of these writers were working and…… [Read More]
Thisclearly implies that this sort of perception was more of a weakness than an advantage.
Samuel Johnson's "The Vanity of Human ishes"
In this poem, the author demonstrates to the audience the reality of struggle in life. The author, just like, he mentions in the poem's title demonstrates how human wishes are, in many cases egoistic and useless. According to Meyers (p 1), Johnson had his reflection long years of human struggle, unavoidable fates, and theerroneous hopes. The author demonstrates some of the common situations that ordinary human being experience under the authority of certain political powers, which seem to have a hand in the sealing of their destinies. The author, in exploring this demonstrates how cruel, humiliating, and unwarranted such treatments are. The actions that the persona witnesses in the society make life to him more of a tragedy than anything else does. He in fact states that the…… [Read More]
How does one describe the nature of comedy? Comedy is both simple and complicated. How comedy works is simple, but what is funny is complicated. Comedy describes the nature of the universe in universal terms. Every culture has a sense of humor. Every culture across the global and across time values humor. There are figures in literature and culture such as "the fool," and "the jester." These kinds of figures in literature and history and culture are valuable. The voice of comedy is often one that is able to cross social boundaries/construction, class, institutions, etc. The Shakespearean fool gets to speak the truth when often many other characters cannot. As Shakespeare wrote in "Hamlet," "Much truth is said in jest." Comedy as a psychological expression or function is also very interesting. The ways people use comedy say a lot about who they are and what they think. Comedic…… [Read More]
history Mercy International Centre Dublin Catherine McAuley . ( http://www.mercyinternational. ) A history significance Jonathan Swift St. Patricks Cathedral Dublin ( http://www.stpatrickscathedral. ) A synopsis Kilmainham Jail, years functioning description peat bogs Ireland, (significance) The Famine Memorial Dublin ~ established built? Connemara marble churches Ireland? A explanation current political system Ireland .
The Mercy International Centre in Dublin is the hallmark of the mercy mission and its background is essential in providing people with a better understanding of the principles that help build this type of ideology. The building's architecture is not necessarily special, but it compensates through its history and through the intense feelings that numerous people coming here experienced. hile being acquainted with its history a person is very probable to look at it very different from how he or she would have been inclined to perceive it in the beginning.
The building came to function as a…… [Read More]
omen and Commodities
In both Jonathan Swift's "The Lady's Dressing Room" and Christina Rossetti's "Goblin Market," women are presented both in a world of commerce and as commodities themselves, but only Rossetti's text is critical of this formulation. In both poems, the value of a woman is dictated by her physical appearance, but whereas Swift seems to be arguing that the value produced by a beautiful woman outweighs any of the undesirable or otherwise unattractive elements which go into maintaining that beauty, Rossetti suggests that the woman who allows herself to be tricked into believing that a woman's value comes from her physical appearance will ultimately be doomed to waste away and die. By examining the conclusion of Swift's poem in conjunction with certain relevant scenes from "Goblin Market," one may see how the former serves to reinforce the notion that women are essentially semi-autonomous commodities, existing solely for visual…… [Read More]
Eighteenth Century was a time of profound change and upheaval in the western world. Alexander Pope, Samuel Pepys, Jonathan Swift were among the most prominent of 18th century writers, and each left his mark on literature. Importantly, the 1800s were characterized by the impact of social stratification on all aspects of life, including food, fashion, society, furnishings, and even literature.
Society and Culture
In 18th century Europe, the dominant powers were Russia, Prussia, France, Austria, and Britain. As such, any discussion of the 18th century usually focuses upon life in these leading nations. At the time, America was embroiled deeply in the development of a new nation, the shaking off of the shackles of slavery, and lessening English control in the American colonies. The United States Declaration of Independence was only signed late in the eighteenth century, in 1776 (ikipeda).
Lasting from 1701-1800, the 18th century is often synonymous with…… [Read More]
Descartes' Discourse Method (Part IV). Descartes begins problem prove existence ends argument proving existence God. Read Discourse Method located http://www.earlymoderntexts.
Swift's "A Modest Proposal"
Jonathan Swift's satirical essay "A Modest Proposal" is meant to stand as criticism regarding how upper class individuals in Ireland had a tendency to harshly discriminate people belonging to lower classes. The fact that the writer provides a very complex description about how the upper classes need to behave is likely to influence most readers in believing that he was actually interested in putting across truthful opinions and that he was really determined to assist wealthy individuals. Moreover, Swift provides a number of calculations with the purpose of having people acknowledge the financial benefits associated with his plans. It is not until the last passages of the essay that readers are probable to understand that it is actually meant to be satirical and that the writer's…… [Read More]
Gulliver's Travels," "Tartuffe," "Madame Bovary," "The Death of Ivan Ilyich," & "Things Fall Apart"
The purpose of this paper is to introduce, discuss, and compare how the theme(s) of "Things Fall Apart" by Achebe relate to the theme and/or storylines of "Gulliver's Travels," by Swift, "Tartuffe," by Moliere, "Madame Bovary," by Flaubert, and "The Death of Ivan Ilyich" by Tolstoy. All these authors use their works to "expose and alter the fundamental moral codes that determine political systems and social mores" (Levine 136).
POLITICAL SYSTEMS AND SOCIAL MORES
Things Fall Apart," by Chinua Achebe is a novel about an African family named Okonkwo, who try to fit in to the white man's society. However, their own society was balanced, happy, and complete, and they did not really need to fit in with the white man. hen they did, it ultimately destroyed their society, and way of life.
Gulliver's Travels," by…… [Read More]
Montanism / Theology
Like many early heresies, Montanism has not left behind much in the way of written testimony: only one Montanist writer, Tertullian, has works that survive, and it is primarily in his work that the statements of the Montanist movement (Montanus, Prisca and Maximilia) survive in quotation. Gonzales notes that, among many differing interpretations of Montanism, one view sees them as something like "an early Pentecostal group." [footnoteRef:0] It is clear from accounts of Montanism that it included the emphasis on the Holy Spirit, including manifestations of glossolalia, that are seen in contemporary Pentecostals. ut overall, Montanus seems to have combined several contradictory impulses into his schismatic movement. The first hinged upon greater involvement of women in ministry: the heresy of Montanus is seldom mentioned without reference to "those demented women Prisca and Maximilia," as Saint Jerome calls them in his letter to Marcella refuting the Montanist heresy.[footnoteRef:1]…… [Read More]
Fanny Hill, or Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure, written by ohn Cleland in 1749 while in debtor's prison, has been called the first pornographic novel. Cleland demonstrated an artful ability to use the writing style of the day, use of irony, and a superficial story of virtue that triumphs over sin to make pornography acceptable enough to be read widely.
The story is written in an autobiographical tone and consists of letters Fanny Hill writes to a friend. Her story begins at age 15 when she is orphaned. She moves to London, and has to find a way to support herself. The path she takes, of moving into a brothel, may have been a common solution for young women without means or relatives during that time. While she is in the brothel she meets a man called Charles and falls in love with him, but after they have lived…… [Read More]
Claude Rawson is best known as a scholar of Jonathan Swift and the eighteenth century, but Rawson's has also used the savage irony of Swift's modest proposal for a series of essays which consider Swift's invocation of cannibalism in light of a longer tradition (in Anglo-Irish relations) of imputing cannibalism literally to the native Irish as a way of demonizing their "savagery" or else to implying a metaphorical cannibalism to describe the British Imperial exploitation of those native Irish. Rawson reapproaches these Swiftian subjects in a more recent essay entitled "Killing the Poor: An Anglo-Irish Theme" which examines what Rawson calls the "velleities of extermination" in a text like Swift's "Modest Proposal" (Rawson, 300). Rawson examines how Swift's ironic solution of what to do with the poor of Ireland (eat them as food) undergoes, in various later iterations by Anglo-Irish writers including Shaw and ilde, transformation into a…… [Read More]
Instead, it uses mock heroic allusions and meter in the style of Pope's translation of Homeric epic to make the mores and morals of the aristocracy seem absurd. In detailing the efforts of Belinda preparing herself for a party, Pope makes her sound like she is preparing to do battle, with her attendants, little, godlike beings that are pale shadows of great Zeus and Athena:
"Do thou, Crispissa, tend her fav'rite Lock;
Ariel himself shall be the Guard of Shock.
hen Belinda plays a card game with the Baron who will eventually deprive her of her hair, the trivial game is portrayed like a conquest of Troy:
The Knave of Diamonds now tries his wily Arts,
And wins (oh shameful Chance!) the Queen of Hearts.
At this, the Blood the Virgin's Cheek forsook,
A livid Paleness spreads o'er all her Look;
Unlike Johnson's satire, instead of directly telling the reader…… [Read More]
Suggestion for Changes to the Proposal:
While the underlying concept of generating revenue by selling unwanted babies to families who wish to adopt them may be a good idea in many respects, there is no real necessity to structure it as an auction. The association with online auctions would only magnify the intensity of the knee-jerk reaction among many people who object to any notion of selling babies for profit. The publicity associated with the program would only be that much worse with headline like "Baby Ebay." A simple sales-based approach would still encounter significant opposition and moral condemnation, but it would probably be perceived somewhat more open-mindedly than the spectacle of last second bidding in the manner of other online auctions. Furthermore, the suggested changes to the format would also allow the program to consider the relative income of the prospective parents and require higher participation fees based on…… [Read More]
The book even goes beyond this assertion because in Oceania Big Brother even controlled the thoughts of the people. This made it impossible for people to rebel because rebellion cannot be carried out without ideas and the cooperation of many people.
The novel also focuses the reader to consider the power of their thoughts. In the book a government believed that though was so powerful that it created a system in which free though was discourages and even punishable unto death. Big Brother understands that thoughts lead to action and rebellious actions could threaten the authority of the government. In addition, punishing people for thinking the wrong way was designed to deter others from having thoughts that were not sanctioned by the government. This was a fear tactic used to maintain control.
Interestingly enough Orwell had great difficulty publishing many of his novels because of the thoughts that he expresses.…… [Read More]
n terms of the definition for prejudice being a preconceived idea, that was indeed the case. Men, in that day and age, were far more protective of their property, in this instance their brides, than U.S. citizens are today. That's exactly right; men considered their wives as property. Women more than willingly presumed the role. The occupants of the United States, as opposed to these has-been literary stars or playwrights, right along with any human alive advocating an activist pro-feminist stance, portray the odd-man-out or nonconformist in consideration to nearly every other nation in the world.
n regard to the females in Shakespeare's plays, however, in spite of the fact that Shakespeare sketched female characters into his plays (i.e., Lady Macbeth from Macbeth; Desdemona of Othello), male actors portrayed the female characters. Actresses were not in Shakespearean plays because they were protected by fathers or husbands. At this day and…… [Read More]
Notes de Madariaga, "It is hard to argue that Catherine's regime was intellectually oppressive, as many of her detractors have done, in the face of such a clear example of her confidence in the response of society to her rule." (97). A lax censorship and publishing permission epitomized Catherine's personal outlook of encouragement of enterprise in as many fields as possible rather than state control.
Catherine, herself, was a prolific writer. Thousands of sheets of paper covered in her journals have survived. The most noteworthy of all was her 1767 Great Instruction, published to present before the elected representatives of nobles, townspeople, Cossacks, tribesmen and state peasants, not serfs, the general principles through which the assembly should codify laws. The 650 articles of the Instruction defined the functions of social estates and described the means of establishing rule of law and citizen welfare. Catherine was influenced by German and French…… [Read More]
Nonexistent Knight is a character driven narrative and, therefore, should be summarized within the framework of those characters and their exploits throughout the novella. The titular character, the nonexistent knight, Agilulf, who exists not in the flesh but in a suit of armor, seeks to restore his honor by confirming that his good deed that earned him his knighthood, saving the virginity of a young royal woman from the lecherous ways of two brutes, did indeed happen per his recollection. The youth, Raimbaut, is a young knight in the making who falls in love with a dastardly lady knight. The lady knight, Bradamante, falls in love with the chivalric and impeccably noble ways of the nonexistent knight and sets up a love triangle of sorts. Then there's Torrismund, another knight, who ends up falling in love with a woman that was at one point thought to be his mother. Lastly,…… [Read More]
Dispersed Knowledge Within Markets and Companies
As the world has penetrated into the age of advancements and innovations, it has given rise to increased globalization, which has resulted in intense and fierce competition in the marketplace on a universal platform. Companies and firms on a broad spectrum are now confronting numerous new challenges because of the competition that has rapidly grown within the marketplace. Therefore, it has become significant for the companies to be vigilant so that they can develop and implement the systems that meet the requirement of innovation of the current market and have the potential to act promptly in response to the new changes (itzer 2011).
A general perception has been developed that multinational corporations were the widespread firms that extensively practiced the dispersed knowledge. The globally dispersed locations of the firms confronted a need to assimilate geographically dispersed knowledge in order to create value to the…… [Read More]
Ulysses by James Joyce is written in epic style and thus is not easy to grasp in terms of its scope and meaning. The novel can be read in different contexts; sometimes it appears to be nothing more than a commentary on society and social evils. At others it reads like a commentary of various types of human relationships and yet at other, it seems to be experimenting with different and rather androgynous characterization. But Ulysses in its entirely is all of these things and more.
It is actually a brave and bold attempt to present relationships in unconventional light. We must understand the underneath all its comic sexual innuendoes and sometimes offensive actions, the novel is trying to convey a message which seeks to invent new social definitions of relationships of every kind. The story may at times appear tragic with Bloom aspiring to win her wife back…… [Read More]
Product Life Cycle Analysis
Products, like living creatures, have a specific life cycle. A product is born, it grows up, and eventually it dies. A product's birth is its creation -- the first moment that a brand new device or invention rolls off the assembly line and is made available to consumers. In the case of a color television, its life cycle would commence at the time a brand model first appears in the stores. If it is a well-designed product, and represents an improvement over previous versions, it will no doubt do well as it will appeal to consumers. The period during which a television "grow up" can be described as the interval of time between its initial appearance, and the time it takes for that product to "catch on," or establish itself. hen Sony introduces a new color television, that new television is like a newborn baby. The…… [Read More]
Religion was an important preoccupation for 18th century poets, and Christian symbolism, imagery, diction, and themes make their way into the poetry of this era. In many situations, the references to religion are as overt as a painting of Christ. Many poems dealing with religious imagery, themes, and iconography also deal with existential issues and in particular, death and mortality. For example, in "The Dying Christian to his Soul," Alexander Pope writes from the perspective of a dying man who begs God for release: "Vital spark of heav'nly flame! / Quit, O quite this mortal frame," (lines 1-2). This poem speaks to the Christian view on death being the gateway to the afterlife. In Isaac Watts' "Day of Judgment," the poet specifically mentions the "Lofty Judge," and his "flood of vengeance," referring to the Old Testament God (Stanza 6). The speaker in Watts' poem later urges the sinful to "arise…… [Read More]
Ferguson's Argument and Evidence
In Eugene Ferguson Engineering and the Mind's Eye, he makes the case that the existing privileging of science and math over the nonverbal and visual in engineering education is mutually a dangerous practice and a historical abnormality. y applying a well-demonstrated chronicle of engineering strategy, Ferguson claims that not all engineering complications can be resolved by analysis in mathematical; short of the ability to envisage machines, environment, and the structures. He goes on to explain the fact that engineers, a lot of the time, make poor judgment calls. These weak calls lead to crushing disappointments in nuclear power plants, bridges, refrigerators, and other machinery. The book holds a generous variety of old drawings and sketches and presents well-chosen themes, as well as a foretaste into the history of engineering, from its earlier stages to its status, scattered with the essential part played by the mind's eye.…… [Read More]
Political satire has long been a standard method of political and social commentary. Jonathan Swift's essay "A Modest Proposal" is a prime example of how satire is a powerful vehicle for raising awareness about critical social and political issues, but doing so in a relatively nonthreatening and accessible way. In the United States, political cartoons have long been the bastion of political satire. Howeve, r as allachy puts it, "American satire has changed a great deal since Benjamin Franklin's 'Join or Die' cartoon," (1). Technology is one reason why political satire in America has changed its approach. Both Jesse atters and Samantha Bee have traditional television shows on the one hand, but both also benefit from new media both to find fodder for their discussions but also to propagate their ideas. However, there are critical differences between these two political humor shows. The most glaring difference is that Bee offers…… [Read More]
He also loses his robe in the process; this increases his pathetic quality and allows for a mantle to be passed on to someone with twice the art.
Swift's Gulliver's Travels
5) Based on what you've read, is this really a work for children? What is going on here that might fly right over the heads of most young children? This book satirizes almost every institution of Swift's day, from the government to the Church. The fact the Lilliputians and Blefuscuans are fighting over which end of the egg to eat first is funy to children, but has deeper and somewhat sadder implications for adults.
6) Describe the narrator. What kind of character is he? What observational details does he choose to focus on? What, if anything, do these observations tell us about his own preoccupations or obsessions? Te things Gulliver notices seem to shift with each new country and…… [Read More]
Gulliver wants more than anything to be accepted as a Houyhnhnm, a species he believes is perfect. Swift reveals irony through the fragility of the human condition. Gulliver is heavily influenced by the Houyhnhnms and he begins to admire them far too much. In fact, it is safe to say that he idolized them. Their opinions "opened my eyes and enlarged my understanding, that I began to view the actions and passions of man in a very different light" (250). He worships them and slowly begins to despise anything that is not of the Houyhnhnms, including his very own kind. Gulliver wants to fit into the Houyhnhnm circle and simply forget everything else. The Yahoos are the "most unteachable of all brutes" (227). To say such a thing not only insults others but also insults oneself but Gulliver is so drunk with adoration, he cannot think straight. He believes he…… [Read More]
As this meme passed down through generations, it became more pervasive and it also became more complete. When slavery in the New World began, both blacks and whites were enslaved, black slaves could gain freedom, and slavery was not a condition of birth. However, as that changed, the memes surrounding African-Americans also changed. Not only were blacks seen as not equal to whites, but they were seen as incapable of becoming equal to whites. Therefore, when Jim Crow segregation was first challenged under the Fourteenth Amendment, the Supreme Court determined that separate facilities were not inherently unequal, despite overwhelming evidence that the facilities provided for African-Americans were factually inferior to those provided for whites. While this meme has been challenged by newer ideas and has, generally, not stood up to scientific, moral, and religious challenges, vestiges of it remain in almost every American person. As a result, many Americans, of…… [Read More]
ussia that had once been a major power in Europe was significantly weakened in the middle of the 19th century and "From the end of the Crimean war in 1856 to the end of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871, the question of which of the Great Powers would take its place was wide open" (Sperber, p. 6). The question was finally answered by the outcome of Franco-Prussian war.
The Franco-Prussian war brought the fragmented German nationality into a solid mould. It helped in achieving the national coherence that Germany had been looking for. Instead of being divided into various blocs, German people were finally united under one union and this had a huge impact on power and dominance of Germany on the world scene. "Close political union with Austria meant close political union with that section of German nationality within Austria. Complete political unity of the German nationality had been…… [Read More]
Such agreements can effect retail internationalization positively, as inter-state agreements can facilitate internationalization into participating countries (Dupuis and Prime, 1996); however, firms must still consider state and local political stability, policy and legislative issues (Evans and Mavondo). Political stability is particularly important for international retailers; further, differences in regulation can have substantial consequences for achieving economies of scale and scope (Evans and Mavondo).
Sources: As indicated.
While trust and the political and legal environment were shown to be of critical importance for successful cross-cultural investment outcomes, it would seem reasonable to assert that these elements are less important than the mutual perception of commitment on the part of the companies involved. Trust, for example, can be balanced by existing legal alternatives that can provide remedies of a last resort, and the adverse effects of the legal and political climate of a country can be minimized through various strategies as well.…… [Read More]
Tactical and Sustainment 1/8 ABCT Operations
Development and Analysis of Doctrinal Solutions to Tactical Problems
As an 1/8 ABCT Commander, Our core mission is to use the maneuver and fire to destroy the enemy forces and repel their attacks by close combat, fire, and counterattacks. Our mission statement is to defeat the enemy based on the northern flank in order to protect the main body of the division. Moreover, we should dedicate in seizing the OBJ BAVO, which is a city 80 Kilometers from the west of BIDGEPOT. As an important division of a decisive operation, our mission is to seize the OBJ BAVO to protect the II Corps. The 1/8 ABCT's decisive operation is to seize the OBJ BAVO to protect the main effort of the II Corps. The 1/8 ABCT will also advance as a division to achieve a decisive operation. Our mission is to exercise…… [Read More]
Sustainment and Tactical 1/8 ACT Operations
The objective of this military operation is to use the decisive force to defeat the enemy on our northern flank in order to protect our division's main body. The intent of the operation is to dedicate our forces to seize the OJ RAVO, a city situated 80 kilometers west of RIDGEPORT. The important decisive operation of our division is to liberate and protect the II Corps by seizing the OJ RAVO.
Analysis and Development of Doctrinal Solutions to OJ Tactical Problems
Our core mission is to use fire as well as using the maneuvering tactic to repel the attack and destroy the enemy's forces. We will also develop our force using a unified action plan. We will exercise the authority and direction for our unified land operation, and integrate all the military functions for our mission accomplishment. Our effective approach is to…… [Read More]
Dell, HP, Microsoft, Exxon Mobil and Wal-Mart has emerged as the strong candidates in the international market, which has been possible only because the companies have avoided and curtailed the possible security risk either through strategy in which the focus has been to aver the security concerns either through provisions for the social welfare of the people in the region, or through relocation (Erik, 2004). The United States has therefore maintained its lead in the war of trade in the field of globalization with the weapons of research, technological advancement and services fully active and supportive.
It is proposed that the country should devise a strong security monitoring system which should be compatible to the economic and trade system and linkages of other countries, the government of the United States should not design its economic policies as per the security concerns prevalent in the certain regions, rather areas of…… [Read More]
submitted, the Ivory Coast is set to swear in Alassane Ouattara as the country's new president (CNN, 2011, 1), ending over six months of internal turmoil that threatened to lead the country into outright civil war, and challenged the international community's ability and willingness to respond. Ouattara had been unable to take the presidency despite winning last November because losing incumbent Laurent Gbagbo refused to cede power (Ibid). On April 11th, 2011, pro-Ouattara forces arrested Gbagbo after an assault on his residence in the capital Abidjan with the assistance of French forces (Harding, 2011).
The standoff was challenging for the international community. The issue was domestic in nature, but stability both in the country and the region has been difficult to achieve. The prospect of a prolonged civil war was real, and this would not only have destroyed the Ivory Coast but would also have had a debilitating effect on…… [Read More]
management function organizing meet goals businesses today. Write a paper considers strategic role human resource management driving organizational performance.
General Motors: Case assignment
Over the course of the recent economic downturn, General Motors has had to fundamentally alter its way of doing business and its managerial structure. In the past, despite occasional efforts to reconfigure its outdated organizational operations, "the inability or unwillingness of management to recognize and respond to the core drivers of systemic change" doomed the company, and the federal government was forced to 'bail GM out' to insure its future solvency (MacDonald 2009). During its early years, the company's initial success lulled the management of GM into a sense of entitlement. "For most of the 20th century General Motors was the most dominant industrial company in the United States, if not the world. At one point, no other single company contributed more to America's GDP than did…… [Read More]
(Catwoman: Catholic News Service)
Capital: The movie Director, Pitof has put in $100 million unceremoniously in the newest attempt at cinematic comic book franchisedom which is an ample proof that a bad idea at Hollywood must be containing nine lives like that of a cat. Hally Berry gave her performance closely an unbearable as the one she gave accepting her Oscar award, assumes the role of Patience Philips, a graphic artist for a cosmetics company managed by George Hedare and his wife who is a model Laurel played by Sharon Stone. Instilled with the mystical cat Mojo, Patience does not just takes the features of a cat- consuming cans of tuna fish, climbing up the furniture, hissing at dogs but also gains new strength, confidence and also love, in the form of Tom Lone played by Benjamin Bratt. Nearly as perplexing as the motives of Pitof what really…… [Read More]
Suddenly I receive a Titian to hang on my wall -- a Greek bas-relief to stick over my chimney-piece." (James in: Phelan-Cox, 2004)
Through the analogies of alph, the reader is able to view the manner in which "male pleasure in spectatorship with interconnected with Western aesthetics generally." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) it is the argument of Laura Mulvey that the film of Hollywood is structured around "the voyeurism and scopopophilia of the male gaze by denying the existence of other viewing positions." (Phelan-Cox, 2004) James veritably denied other ways to view through his description of the scene "by consciously omitting Isabel's own perception of herself in that setting or any objective description of the scene that might include observations about alph." (Phelan-Cox, 2004)
VII. Portrait and the Implications
The title of this story is even misleading as noted by Phelan-Cox the word 'portrait' "implies that the novel is to be a…… [Read More]
Exegesis of Psalm 91:1
Hayes and Holladay (2007) state that exegetical works are an exercise in "leading" readers of Scripture, in the sense that they act as interpretive signposts designed to assist readers in comprehending the Word of God (p. 1). This paper provides an exegetical analysis of Psalm 91:1-16 and discusses how the writer of the Psalm shows that God favors those who show complete faith in His ability to look after His faithful sons.
The Book of Psalms is a poetic collection of songs written by David, the shepherd boy who grew up to be a king, chosen by God to rule over His chosen people. The psalms are hymns expressing a range of thoughts, prayers, joys, pains, gladness and wonder. David's life was filled with such range -- from his slaying of Goliath, to his persecution by his family and friends, to his triumphant guidance…… [Read More]
Type A Project:
Team of 3-4 students will study a manufacturing or service company operation; the objective is to improve the equality of their final product. This could be done through improving any task in product realization process (Design, raw material, manufacturing, packaging, after sale …). The subject of the improvement has to be directly related to quality. The team will use quality analysis and improvement methods / techniques we learn in this course (six sigma methodologies in recommended).
Ideal project will focus on problems doable during time span of the course (i.e. not to much complex, also not trivial) and demonstrate the use of quality improvement tools on solving the problem at hand.
• Full description of your company,
• It’s quality management system.
• Quality improvement opportunities
• Implementation of quality improvement tool
• Final outcomes
• Conclusion "
Each of these aspects of the instructions…… [Read More]
Fly by Traffic
This phenomenon is found everywhere. It exists in every major metropolitan city, and somehow is able to make its way to residential communities, suburban areas, and even to rural locations from time to time, especially when it may be feeding time. There are a number of curative measures that have been employed by various municipalities that include rhetoric designed to 'spare the air', or by legislation regarding certain lane assignments or numbers of passengers allowed in a vehicle to partake in a certain lane on the freeway. Yet and still, the phenomenon of traffic still persists, doggedly stalling people during morning and evening rush hour commutes. Not satisfied with plaguing the working lives of people who must earn their bread every day, traffic can even be found on weekends, on holidays, and may even show up intermittently during non-rush hour time periods on freeways, city streets, and…… [Read More]
ability to study of Human Genome is an important scientific discovery that posed major threats to the great ideals of human dignity, privacy and confidentially of one's medical history when it first made headlines in 1998. To fully exploit the scope of this discovery, Human Genome Project was launched that again had few supporters and numerous opponents. The general public, not aware of the deeper scientific reasons behind launching of this project, staunchly opposed it and yet there were some big names in the field who not only backed the program but also tried to raise awareness regarding its numerous benefits. One such person is James D. Watson, whose impressive credentials and long list of services in the field put him in an enviable position to carry put the task. His essay "The Human Genome Project: A Personal View" was one of the first few steps he took to gain…… [Read More]
murkiness of love tenderness can lead?" "How many times we will kill for love." "The rare thing herself felt in her breast a warmth that might be called love. She loved that sallow explorer. If she could have talked and had told him that she loved him, he would have been puffed up with vanity." All these settings represent different definition of "love."
The Smallest Woman in the World provides a poetic, at times poignant, perspective of love. Looking closely at the first quotation where the lady felt such perverse tenderness for the smallest of the African women claiming that an ounce of prevention being worth a pound of cure. She was upset all day, almost as if she were missing something. Here, the woman seemed to have been concerned about the vulnerability of the Little Flower. Her words points at the need for companionship for the Little Flower, and…… [Read More]