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Journalism is a lot tougher than I thought it would be! What I initially believed to be simple "who, what, where, when, why, and how" has turned out to have a huge political dimension that I was not expecting. Even the questions I ask become politically charged, and I am at risk for revealing my bias as soon as I open my mouth (or my computer). Save for a few Associated Press reports, everything seems biased to me now that I've become more media literate. The obvious comedy news sites like the Colbert eport/Colbert Nation and the Daily Show are great diversions for me, and they satirize the mainstream media in ways that I appreciate now more than ever. I hope you get a chance to check those out.
Hey! Have you ever visited FoxNews.com? They advertise themselves as being "fair and balanced," but I'm starting to wonder…they're…
Thus, the media hunted for items, building a case against Hatfill, in essence creating news rather than reporting it. Better balanced could have been easily provided by giving Hatfill and the FBI investigators more voice.
In order to prevent this from happening again, guidelines could be put into place. The first guideline would be to conduct an independent investigation into all details, including those gleaned from other news outlets. It should not be assumed that other news outlets are providing coverage of the highest integrity. Indeed, this guideline flows from the code of ethics: "expose unethical practices of journalists and news media."
Another guideline that could be implemented is that the outlet should not "create" news by digging up items of conjecture regarding the subject, but should rather report the findings of official investigations. In this case, this would involve reporting the FBI's official announcements on the issue.
Code of Ethics. (1996) Society of Professional Journalists. Retrieved September 29, 2009 from http://www.spj.org/pdf/ethicscode.pdf
'Usually the first thing people say when they get in is 'Wow! Sh*& ! damn!' They can't believe how big it is on the inside."
Susan Smith, a thirty-two-year-old computer programmer living in Toronto, is bragging about her Smart car.
The Mercedes-made, Daimer-Chrystler-distributed fuel efficient mini car looks no bigger than a Harley-Davidson cruiser. In fact, the Smart car is only eight feet long, five feet high, and weighs considerably less than a ton.
It's also cute enough to make the Volkswagen Beetle look comparatively overweight and bloated. The Smart car's visual appeal is due to its being designed by Swatch, the Swiss company that makes funky plastic watches. Like the Swatch watches, the Smart cars come in a range of non-traditional and fun colors; they are inexpensive; and they are flexible.
Anyone who has recently visited Paris, London, and other major European capitals will already be familiar with…
Gartner, John (2005). "Smart Car Seeks Small Niche." Wired. Online at < http://www.wired.com/news/autotech/0,2554,67405,00.html >.
Llanos, Miguel (2004). "Europe's 'smart' cars coming to U.S. -- in 2 sizes." MSNBC. Online at < http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5217861 >.
Reed, Philip (2004). "The smart Invasion." Edmunds.com. Online at < http://www.edmunds.com/advice/specialreports/articles/101361/article.html>.
'Smart Cars Recalled." (2005). Red Herring. Online at < http://www.redherring.com/Article.aspx?a=12199& he'd=Smart+Cars+Recalled>.
"I knew this is what I was supposed to do when I grew up," Jaeger said, wiping a flyaway hair that fell from her habit (cited by Bane). Andrea Jaeger looks a far cry from her heyday as a teen tennis phenomenon. Her traditional nun's habit reveals nothing of the athlete she once was, and that's fine for Jaeger, now 43 years old. "Looking back, Jaeger believes she never should have inhabited this world as a minor," (Clarke). Jaeger is now Sister Andrea, a member of an Anglican Dominican order in southern Colorado. "It came to me in a dream," Sister Andrea stated, wistfully (Bane). The idea had been lingering long inside the recesses of my mind. It wasn't until I met Catherine of Siena, and she gave me a tour of the monastery, that I felt the shiver run down my spine. I knew this was what I…
Bane, V. (2006). Tennis star Andrea Jaeger's new life as a nun.
Clarke, L. (2009). For Jaeger, the point is Love.
James W. Carey has written a thought-provoking essay on what journalism has in, has become, and might be. His central thoughts involve journalism's roles within the university and within our larger democratic society. He focuses on what he calls the "three axioms" of journalism (as summarized by Wartella), " that journalism is a practice distinguished by its form; second, that as a social practice, journalism reporting and writing should not be confused with technologies of communication (e.g. broadcast, print) or the institutions in which such a practice occurs (e.g. newspapers, television stations); and third, that journalistic practice is an important institution for the maintenance of democracy."
he difficulty is that none of those axioms allow journalism to fit in neatly either in university life or in real life. In university life, journalism is the orphaned child of the English department, which he suggests happened at least partly in an…
The commentators are right. Journalism is not "Communications." Communications is public relations, sometimes mistaken for journalism by readers when newspapers reprint press releases without changing a single word, giving it an undeserved patina of news. Corporations within publishing have had a profound effect on how newspapers are presented to readers: journalists writing for USA TODAY are taught to write in pyramid form, so that each paragraph can be the last paragraph. The first paragraph is the tip of the pyramid, and technically, the paste up editor can just snip off the rest of the article after that first paragraph, and it would stand alone and seem complete. Each following paragraph would have that quality, so that the paste up editor can simply shorten any article with impunity to suit page layout.
The chilling part of that description is that it would seem complete. It might be argued that the best journalism digs below the surface, and perhaps what is found could not be presented in any kind of balanced or accurate way in paragraph/soundbites. Writing under such rules of constraint might arguably be viewed more as the domain of Communications than Journalism. It is Communications that addresses functional writing for a purpose-- not only public relations, but speeches and advertising.
Marshall McCluhan said back in the 1960's that "the media is the message." We see in 2004 that this is true. On television we hear sound bites, and it seems possible that one sound bite of Howard Dean, picked up by a highly directional microphone that exaggerated its impact, may have ruined his chances of a run for the Democratic nomination for pregnancy. That incident was communication, but not journalism.
Clearly there are concerns that come with allowing politicians into the often adversarial field of journalism; however, Shepherd fails to adequately recognize how this can be a beneficial practice as well.
It was Sun Tzu that said, "Know thy self; know thy enemy" ("Sun Tzu," 2010). If journalists are truly the watchdogs of politics, only by fully understanding the field can they effectively perform their duties as protectors of the American public. Experience as a politician, in a political campaign, or in a governmental agency allows journalists a new level of insight into the workings of American politics that outsiders simply don't have. When this insider knowledge is applied correctly, it can help facilitate a journalist's duties in reporting the news.
It is foolish to think that a journalist who hasn't acted as a political candidate or taken part in some form of political campaigning or governmental office has no…
Shepherd, a. (Jul/Aug 1997). "The revolving door." American Journalism Review. p. 19-21.
Sun Tzu quotes. (2010). Retrieved February 23, 2011, from http://thinkexist.com/quotation/know_thy_self-know_thy_enemy-a_thousand_battles-a/149702.html.
Asawa's sculptures literally depict wires shaped into various forms such as bells, cones, teardrops, spheres, and ruffles, thus making it a form of abstract art. Banner's work literally depicts written paragraphs about nudes set on dark canvases, which makes it a form of representational art.
While Asawa's sculptures do not explicitly represent anything, Banner's artwork is meant to represent female nudity. Banner tries to convey the message that nudity can be displayed verbally as well visually. Asawa employs symbolism to express harmony and interconnectedness. Asawa's artwork serves an artistic function under the context of beauty emanating from mundane objects. Banner's artwork also serves an artistic function under the context of displaying nudity through text instead of image.
Miles, C. (Dec. 31, 2006). "Sculptor of light and air" etrieved January 3, 2007 from Los Angeles Times Web site: http://www.calendarlive.com/galleriesandmuseums/cl-ca-asawa31dec31,0,1734043.story?coll=cl-home-more-channels
Ollman, L. (Dec. 15, 2006). "Paintings that will make motors run:…
Miles, C. (Dec. 31, 2006). "Sculptor of light and air" Retrieved January 3, 2007 from Los Angeles Times Web site: http://www.calendarlive.com/galleriesandmuseums/cl-ca-asawa31dec31,0,1734043.story?coll=cl-home-more-channels
Ollman, L. (Dec. 15, 2006). "Paintings that will make motors run: the word on presenting nudes." Retrieved January 3, 2007 from Los Angeles Times Web site: http://www.calendarlive.com/galleriesandmuseums/reviews/cl-et-galleries15dec15,0,3376072.story
0 framework. This framework is particularly relevant to journalism where the need for greater levels of interaction and collaboration with the reader were badly needed. The rapid ascent of blogs and their use for journalistic purposes, in addition to the exponential growth of video sites including YouTube continue to underscore how accurate the Web 2.0 framework is.
The initial generation of technologies that disrupted traditional journalism included blogs, knowledge-based wikis, and the rapid growth of micro-blogging sites including Twitter. The growth of podcasts during the first generation of Internet-based technology adoption in journalism also served to accelerate much-needed change in terms of connecting with readers more effectively (Loop, 1999). This first generation of these technologies were very effective in creating an easily learned publishing platform, one that was able to reach millions of readers within seconds of a journalist posting a story online (Adee, 2008). They however did not have…
Adee, B. (2008). Digging into social media to build a newspaper audience. Nieman Reports, 62(4), 52.
Bernoff, J., & Li, C. (2008). Harnessing the power of the oh-so-social web. MIT Sloan Management Review, 49(3), 36-42.
Hermes, J. (2006). Citizenship in the age of the internet. European Journal of Communication, 21(3), 295-309.
Loop, M. (1999). A journalist's guide to the internet: The net as reporting tool. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 76(2), 398-398.
Yellow Journalism is a term used for the use of negligent and flamboyant newspaper reporting, without regard to facts. With yellow journalism the truth is usually misrepresented or concealed, more often than not, there may be no truth to the story at all. In its infancy, the term yellow journalism was used to describe the writing tactics used by William Hearst's New York Journal and Joseph Pulitzer's New York World. These men used yellow journalism to exaggerate and misguide the American public on happenings in Cuba; such reporting may have even sparked the Spanish-American war. Yellow journalism is by no means a memory in America's distant past; even the most conservative newspapers still practice it in a refined form today. Tabloids such as the Star and the Inquirer are notorious for sensationalizing and even falsifying headlines. Additionally, every once in a while straight edged newspapers papers such as the Wall…
Andrews, Allen. How Yellow Is Today's Journalism? Retrieved May 8, 2002, from Website: http://www.toad.net/~andrews/yellow.html
Linnenman, William. Humorous Views of Yellow Journalism. Retrieved May 7, 2002, from Compedit.com Website: http://www.compedit.com/yellow_journalism.htm
Yellow Journalism Blues? Retrieved on May 5, 2002, from EPN Worldreporter.com Website: http://www.epnworld-reporter.com/news/fullstory.php/aid/191/Yellow_Journalism_Blues_.html
How the Press Covers the Most Important Events of Our Existence
The media of our society is a complex conglomerate. One can read newspapers and magazines with the click of a button, and access countless journals with unlimited information much the same way. Furthermore, there is that monster of an invention that feeds biased and, sometimes, useless information every single minute of every day: the television. If an observer saw the amount of information with which we are bombarded every day, he would surely marvel at our capacity to absorb anything at all, much less what is important. The way that the press covers important events, especially the written media, is vital to our understanding of the world. This paper will thus focus on what responsible journalism means, especially when related to humanitarian crises and other such life-changing events, but will also touch upon how the media covers…
A well-respected news outlet such as CNN should not focus its efforts wholeheartedly on a high speed chase, or a celebrity's arrest, but should rather update the society about what happens around the world and how international events can affect our society. However, seriousness without drama or debate is not considered good for the ratings, so many news outlet compromise their principles in order to offer politicized, interactive news, as entertainment, without much thought for anything other than ratings and profit. This kind of reporting and journalistic investigation is dangerous because it jeopardizes investigative journalism, according to a study. [4: Pyle, Christopher. "Irresponsible Journalists Are Jeopardizing Serious Investigations by the Press." The Chronicle of Higher Education. 7 Jan. 2010. Web. 25 Apr. 2011. < https://arch.library.nyu.edu/metasearch/record?group=003426&resultSet=019089&startRecord=3 >. ]
Reflections on Journalism
From all the analysis presented above, it almost seems like the media is infatuated with itself and is in a constant competition to have 24/7 information for the simplest facts. This makes the news overbearing, and sometimes it really is hard to watch. News has certainly become entertainment and has been politicized, especially due to the short attention span of today's generations. However, there are still journalists out there who strive to do their job, and be voices of fairness and reason, appealing to justice, in this world. Thus, even though the media is often biased and does not necessarily conduct its mission in a responsible way, such individuals do weigh upon the right principles for this profession and ought to be respected. I can only hope to become one such individual.
They're what journalists are supposed to explain. 'We'll focus on the issues' is the vow in virtually every newsroom in virtually every campaign. Ideally, it means producing comprehensive, thoughtful analyses of candidates' positions on economic growth, health care, education, defense, the environment, and so on."
There is, however, a story that became the political issue when Senator Berry's public life, for whatever, became entangled in the lives of not one, but five of his staff people; all women, and all with similar accounts of allegations of a criminal nature. It is not in discord with the ethics of professional journalism to report on this story. That the allegations involve a public officer, whose behavior is incompatible with that of a publicly elected official, and, if the charges are substantiated, are criminal in nature, in which case much more than the Senator's office would be at stake. It is the responsibility…
Reuters Fraud Photo: A Taxonomy of Fraud, found online at http://www.zombietime.com/reuters_photo_fraud/,retrieved3 March 2009.
Society of Professional Journalists, 'Code of Ethics, op. cit., online.
Seib, Philip, Campaigns and Conscience: The Ethics of Political Journalism, Praeger Publishers, 1994, p. 41.
This is important, because these individuals are taking their experience from the real world and they are using it, to help prepare students for the challenges they will face. Once this occurs, it means that many individuals will begin to have creativity and flexibility when it comes to their writing style (as this is often emphasized throughout the industry). At which point, they can be able to counter balance the effects of the more traditional schools. (Merrill, n.d.)
What Merrill concludes, is that the field is being overly influenced by academia. As there are a large number of schools and journalism departments that are following more structured formats. This takes away from the professionalism of the field, as it discourages creativity and flexibility. According Merrill, the only hope for any kind of professional standards, is for those who have worked in the industry to share their knowledge with others. This…
Merril, J. (n.d.). The Professionalization of Journalism.
For example, words could not convey the same meaning as pictures depicting police dogs attacking young African-American children. However, most Americans no longer get their news through newspapers, but through television. As a result, I feel that I have the greatest chance of impacting people, on small and grand scales, by pursuing a career in broadcast journalism.
In addition, Hurricane Katrina marked a tremendous change in how journalists approach tragedy. The only issue I had with pursuing a career in journalism was that it would require me to maintain objective distance in the face of unimaginable suffering. Therefore, seeing journalists get involved, to help end individual human suffering, gave me hope. Those journalists and their stories were not lessened by their involvement; instead, the stories were more poignant, moving, and informative because of such involvement.
Because I see it as a way to combine working for the greater good and…
Child labor laws, meatpacking regulations and limitations on working hours are but three examples of reform.
A turning point for reform occurred at the Triangle Shirtwaist Factory. On March 25, 1911, 146 immigrant employees died in a disastrous fire at the Triangle Shirtwaist Company in New York City. The impact of the tragedy resulted in great efforts by labor unions, the New York state legislature and various New York City departments to address the causes and failures that allowed the deaths to occur. (Shepherd)
The workers had been subjected to low wages, long hours and, when the fire erupted, an inability to escape since the owners had only one exit door unlocked. The New York City fire department could not completely extinguish the fire because their hoses were too short and rescue for those at the top of the building was also impossible since their ladders were also too short.…
Fieldstein, Mark. "A Muckraking Model: Investigative Reporting Cycles in American History." The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics 1st ser. 11.2 (2006). Gdw.edu/msmpa/faculty/documents/harvard.pdf. Web. March & April 2010. .
Mabry, Donald J. "Teddy Roosevelt and the Progressive Era, 1901-1908." The Historical Text Archive. Donald J. Mabry. Web. March & April 2010. .
"Muckraking." Spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk. Web. March & April 2010.
National Public Radio, prod. "The Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire." Interview with David Von Drehle. NPR, Sept. & Oct. 2003. Npr.org. National Public Radio. Web. 28 Feb. 2010.
Those planning newspaper or magazine careers usually specialize in news-editorial journalism. To create stories for online media, they need to learn to use computer software to combine online story text with audio and video elements and graphics ("News Analysts").
Tasks, Duties and esponsibilities:
The tasks, duties and responsibilities of a news anchor center on gathering information, preparing stories, and making broadcasts that inform the public about local, state, national, and international events. They may also present viewpoints on current issues. They investigate leads and news tips, research documents, observe events at the scene, and interview individuals. Part of their duties involve taking notes about what they've observed or learned, and they may be charged with taking photographs or shooting videos ("News Analysts").
Once they return to their office, a news anchor typically organizes their material and determines the focus or emphasis of the story. They then may write their stories…
News Analysts, Reporters, and Correspondents. 4 Aug. 2006. Bureau of Labor Statistics. December 9, 2006 http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos088.htm .
News Presenter. 6 December 2006. Wikipedia.org. December 9, 2006 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/News_anchor .
News Reporter. 3 October 2006. Journal Broadcasting Group. December 9, 2006 http://jobs.journalbroadcastgroup.com/TelevisionJobs/tabid/519/ctl/Detail/mid/1199/xmid/3481/xmfid/23/Default.aspx .
Reporter Training. 2005. Television News Center. December 9, 2006 http://www.televisionnewscenter.org/reporter_train.html.
A recent study conducted by researchers
at MIT which focused on the alleged conservative bias in the 'News'
promoted by the FOXNES network illustrated that, quite indeed, there are
great and applicable implications to the broadcasting of information which
is inherently biased as being news. This alters the content, context and
opinion promoted therein. And consequently, according to the study from
2007, there are observable social and political implications to these
distinctions. Indeed, a connection between the presence and success of
FOXNES in a selected market has been shown here to directly related to
voting trends. Accordingly, it has been found that "Fox News also affected
voter turnout and the Republican vote share in the Senate. Our estimates
imply that Fox News convinced 3 to 28 percent of its viewers to vote
Republican, depending on the audience measure." (Dellavigna et al, 1187)
By presenting itself as 'news' and yet levying…
108th Congress. (Mar. 11, 2004). Broadcast Decency Enforcement Act of
2004. United States Congress.
Adorno, T. (2001). The Culture Industry: Selected Essay on Mass Culture.
Bogart, Leo. (1995). Commercial Culture: The Media System and the Public
Up to this point, the media has generally been considered the arbiter of objective truth, with an obligation to "provide news and information that is accurate, fairly reported and untainted by diminished credibility" (Union-ribune 2004). But this doesn't sem to be what we are asking for in other arenas, and frankly there isn't any media outlet, whether in print or on television or the Internet, that is completely "untainted by diminished credibility" -- everything has funding from somewhere, and money gets the message out. If news is going to be slanted anyway, why not make it open and outright? John Leo notes that overt examples of mixing fact and fiction in "journalism" already exist, and also notes that "society has its own truth troubles," listing "docudramas" as the first of these (Leo). We as a culture are obsessed with things that we can believe as truth despite the obvious slant,…
Though Blair, Smith, and Glass might want the answer to be "yes," we must consider the ramifications of this option. Up to this point, the media has generally been considered the arbiter of objective truth, with an obligation to "provide news and information that is accurate, fairly reported and untainted by diminished credibility" (Union-Tribune 2004). But this doesn't sem to be what we are asking for in other arenas, and frankly there isn't any media outlet, whether in print or on television or the Internet, that is completely "untainted by diminished credibility" -- everything has funding from somewhere, and money gets the message out. If news is going to be slanted anyway, why not make it open and outright? John Leo notes that overt examples of mixing fact and fiction in "journalism" already exist, and also notes that "society has its own truth troubles," listing "docudramas" as the first of these (Leo). We as a culture are obsessed with things that we can believe as truth despite the obvious slant, so can we really expect our servants in the news media to behave any differently?
This question is made all the more relevant -- and ironic -- by the fact that Shattered Glass is itself a docudrama; a fictionalization of mostly true events told in a sensationalized version in order to make it more compelling. While cliched lines like "Look at me and say that again" might miss on the compelling mark, they certainly stand out as scripted rather than naturalistic (Ray 2003). There is no small amount of irony in the fact that this movie is so successful in getting its point about journalism and truth across by fictionalizing real events. The difference, of course, is that the movie does not purport to be complete fact, and any moviegoer with average intelligence should be able to deduce the fact that not everything happened in life as it did in the movie. Blair wrote a memoir of his lies and their effects, of which it was asked, "How much can we expect to learn from someone we know better than to trust?" (Braun 2004). The answer, according to Shattered Glass, is a lot -- as long as the story's powerful enough.
What's really at the heart of the question here is what we want out of our media. As a society, we have consistently turned away from boring truths in favor of sensationalist approximations -- reality TV shows, docudramas, etc. If our journalists have started to follow suit, we have only ourselves to blame. If we accept these circumstances, however, the notion of objective truth in our society will disappear altogether, and we will be left only with choices between various subjective stances. If we want more truth and credibility from our journalists, we have to demand better analysis and attention paid to the truth from ourselves. Society's ills do not excuse the acts of these individual journalists, but it is our job to hold them accountable.
She and her husband created the Arriba la Vida/Up with Life Foundation to promote AIDS education in the Latino community and to help other AIDS-related causes. She also serves on the National Council of the American Foundation for AIDS Research (Cristina Saralegui Biography, 2006).
For 12 years, Cristina's talk show has been the hottest thing on the United States' largest Spanish-language network, Univision. She's captivated some of the most popular Latino stars, along with millions of viewers in the Spanish-speaking world. Cristina is now famous around the world for doing in Spanish the same kind of provocative talk show Americans have grown to love. She gives her audience programs on cheating spouses, sexual abuse and of course interviews with well-known stars. Her show has been described as groundbreaking, empowering, raunchy, and soul-baring. Cristina says it as all of those things and more. She is often referred to as the Spanish…
Know Cristina." Cristina Saralegui Enterprises. 2008. 26 March 2009 http://www.cristinaonline.com/english/know_cristina/index.asp
Look out Oprah: Here Comes Cristina." 20/20 (ABC News). 2001. 26 March 2009 http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=123879&page=1
Cristina Saralegui Biography." a&E Television Networks. 2006. 26 March 2009 http://www.biography.com/search/article.do?id=189148
Cristina Saralegui." Sun Sentential.com. n.d. 26 March 2009 http://www.sun- sentinel.com/topic/entertainment/television/cristina-saralegui-PECLB004153.topic>
Video Games and Journalism
This past summer Rupert Murdoch, founder and CEO of News Corp., the world's second-largest media conglomerate, found himself in the midst of a controversy stemming from a phone-hacking scandal perpetrated by several reporters from his now-defunct New of the orld tabloid.
On July 19, 2011, before a group of British lawmakers, looking dejected and frail, the media icon confessed that his organization "had broken our trust with our readers" (Chu 2011)
hether or not Murdoch was genuinely sorry for the nefarious activity his reporters engaged in or just sorry they got caught can be debated, but what can't be debated is his successful way of dealing with exposed corruption within the ranks.
How did Murdoch handle the situation? The answer to this question can best be described in two words: isolation and ignore. Isolate the contagion and ignore the blowback.
In a sense what Murdoch did…
Chu, H. (2011, July 19). Rupert Murdoch testifies in phone hacking, is attacked. The Los Angeles Times. Retrieved http://articles.latimes.com/2011/jul/19/world/la -
Steinberg, S. (2010, Dec. 29). The 10 best video games of 2010. CNN Tech. Retrieved http://articles.cnn.com/2010-12-29/tech/best.games.2010_1_red-dead-redemption-
Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War On Journalism
A News Channel that labels itself "Fair and Balanced" should be unbiased in its coverage of news and events. After watching Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism, I became convinced that the concerned channel had over time failed to appropriately inform and educate its viewers. Before watching the documentary, I had been an avid fan of Fox News.
Receiving an endorsement (however veiled) from someone should be regarded an honor. However, when the said endorsement comes from someone whose view of the issue at hand should be balanced and neutral, there is a serious problem. By digging deeper into Fox News' psyche, Outfoxed: Rupert Murdoch's War on Journalism shows just how irresponsible journalism could get. For instance, in an attempt to discredit liberals, Fox News is accused of selecting liberals who appear weak and inarticulate to appear on it while at the same time…
The New York Times has beat writers that cover virtually every subject. For example, the White House correspondents for the Times are Maggie Haberman and Peter Baker. There are writers who cover the arts, living, business, health and so on. Haberman and Baker cover the White House beat for both print and online editions—but some writers just cover one or the other. The most-quoted sources for the White House writers often are “anonymous” because White House insiders have to speak off-the-record or anonymously in order to keep from getting into trouble with White House bosses. For sports stories, beat writers will rely on the AP or on athletes, coaches, administrators, such as GM’s, and so on. In sports, there is less need to be anonymous when news is breaking (no need for national security). The primary sources who reporters are relying upon for their stories will vary from subject to…
But, significantly, the category "politics and history" is the second most popular at 15 per cent" (Cohen, 2008).
Consensus vs. Credentials -- Scholarship implies a certain level of expertise on a given subject. The public must trust its sources, and those sources must be authoritative and peer reviewed. Most anyone can "read up" on a subject, but lack the rigorous academic analysis required in graduate school -- the pool that forms experts. Individuals may, or may not be, familiar with the latest in scholarship because they may or may not have access to the journals within a given field, or have the time to attend conferences to listen to the new directions and discoveries that academics are paid to pursue (Boyd, 2005).
eliability and Accuracy -- Without any general editors, fact checkers, or other controls, Wikipedia encourages those without verifiable credentials to present material on which no one knows if…
Ahrens, F. (July 9, 2006). "Death by Wikipedia: The Kenneth Lay Chronicles."
The Washington Post. Cited in:
Baker, N. (2008). "The Charms of Wikipedia." The New York Review of Books. 55(4):
multimedia comm. Plan Subject Area: Journalism & Mass Communications
Grade Level: College Senior
Lesson Title: The Understanding, Approaches, and Concepts to Multimedia Communications
Understand the meaning of multimedia communications and the different branches and what they do in today's society, understand the history of communications and how the internet and technology has changed the world and the way we communicate, the importance and the basic steps to how audio-video invention, photography, web page development, and graphic design all assist people in communicating online, learn the general concepts to computer circulation and construction and screen writing, the roles and skills needed in English composition and speech and its important part of multimedia communications
Materials/esources Needed: Multimedia & Communications textbook and/or eBook, Computer with internet and ability to have a certain bandwidth to participate in online classroom participation and assignments
Anticipatory Set: eview previous classroom knowledge and assignments, Openly discuss…
Keeler, C. (2006). Lesson plan templates: Retrieved from http://coe.nevada.edu/ckeeler/lessonplantemplates/hunter.html
The writer of this article, Victor David Hanson, states that since earlier times, this sort of disparity in power has been in evidence, and it is a fact that the others have been attempting to build up their innate strength and power by merely imitating the West. This is sometimes referred to as a type of 'military parasitism', wherein those who were weak would often try to steal or buy or clone those weapons of the West that they found to be powerful. One example of this phenomenon is that of Japan. This country had no munitions manufacturing unit, no organized naval fleet, yet she managed to defeat a ussian Armada during 1905. (Post-Modern War)
The main reason for this success was that Japan had been sending thousands of her students to foreign universities and to military academies to study, and this resulted in the gaining of certain knowledge in…
Best of Counter terrorism and Security" Counter Terrorism and Security International. Retrieved at http://www.iacsp.com/a4.html . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Clements, Kevin. (2002) "The War on Terrorism and its Aftermath" The Second eSymposium on Conflict Prevention Dialogue Session 2. February. Retrieved at http://www.dwcw.org/e-symposium/cgi/wwwbbs.cgi-Symposium_2&88Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Corera, Gordon. (2004). "War on Terror vanishes from agenda" 24 November. Retrieved at http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/4034833.stm . Accessed on 17 January, 2005
Hanson, Victor Davis. (2005) "Post-Modern War." Free Republic. 10 January. Retrieved at http://www.freerepublic.com/focus/f-news/1317714/postsAccessed on 17 January, 2005
His dedication and intelligence allowed him to eventually become not simply passable in his English speaking skills, but a lawyer, a U.S. Congressman, one of the best journalists of his era (and, according to some biographers, of any era), and an incredibly eloquent (if somewhat bombastic) speaker and letter writer -- not to mention one of the wealthiest men in the world, especially in the field of newspaper publishing (Brian; Seitz).
In 1878, not even fifteen years since his arrival in the country, Joseph Pulitzer bought his first newspaper company -- the St. Louis Dispatch. The paper was in disarray, but fate intervened in the form of the Evening Post and its owner, John Alvarez Dillon. The two papers were combined and began issuing a joint newspaper that very same day, with Pulitzer immediately taking over the editorial page, which he was quick to put to use then and after…
Boylan, James. Pulitzer's School: Columbia University's School of Journalism, 1903-2003. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Campbell, W. Joseph (a). The Year that Defined American Journalism. New York: Routledge, 2006.
Campbell, W. Joseph (b). Yellow Journalism: Puncturing the Myths, Defining the Legacies. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2001.
Douglas, George. The Golden Age of the Newspaper. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1999.
Parallels in Journalism Studies
Chapter 11 by Coleman et al. is primarily concerned with the importance and methods of agenda setting in mass media, communication, and journalism studies. Agenda setting is a set that should come very early on in the production process of media for critical reasons. Without an agenda, the media lacks direction. Without an agenda, it is nearly impossible to judge or evaluate the success of a piece of media. Agenda setting is like knowing one's audience: if a media producer or journalist does not know his/her audience and lacks a concise & clear agenda, then there really is no point in producing such a piece of media. It would be a waste of time and resources. According to this chapter, agenda setting did not begin in mass media specifically nor journalism. Methods and research into agenda setting in the United States began with several presidential…
Coleman, R., McCombs, M. & Shaw, D & Weaver, D. (2009). Agenda Setting. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 147-160). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 11)
Cottle, S. (2009). Journalism and Globalization. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 341-356). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 24)
Entman, R.M., Matthes, J. & P. Pellicano, L. (2009). Nature, Sources, and Effects of News Framing. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. (pp. 175-190). New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 13)
McNair, B. (2009). Journalism and Democracy. In K. Wahl-Jorgensen & T. Hanitzsch (Eds.), The Handbook of Journalism. 237 -- 249. New York, NY: Routledge. (chapter 17)
Communication Systems Put Wheels on Projects
Facilitation participation. Development Support Communication (DSC) is a system that facilitates the sharing of information about development agenda and associated actions (Adesida, 2001). The purpose of development support communication is the effective linking of the stakeholders in a development process (Adesida, 2001). The range of stakeholders who benefit from a development support communication system is broad, including the planners, the implementers, the donor community, and the beneficiaries of the development (Adesida, 2001). Good communication is critical to effective development planning and implementation (Adesida, 2001). By adhering to development communication system, planners and implementers can greatly enhance the quality of their communication, providing explicit and interpretable data (Adesida, 2001). The objective is provide clarity about the goals and objectives, to articulate the development roles, including the opportunities afforded beneficiaries to help shape the eventual development outcomes (Adesida, 2001). Beyond its impact on the quality and…
Adesida, O. (2001). Health Futures, WHO Africa region, Harare. Retrieved http://www.fao.org/docrep/005/y4338e/y4338e07.htm
Communication Planning for Development: An Operational Framework. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Hancock, A. (1981). Retrieved http://cpj.org/2012/02/attacks-on-the-press-in-2011-in-africa-a-return-of.php
Hancock, A. (1992). Communication Planning Revisited, A. Hancock. Paris, France: UNESCO.
Ed Gold Scholarship
As might be expected of the eldest child of two Nigerian immigrants, I possess an abiding entrepreneurial spirit and drive to succeed. I joined the New York Investment Banking Consulting team at FactSet Research Systems in September 2001 and was quickly promoted to Senior Consultant and Account Executive. I simultaneously enrolled in an evening statistics classes at NYU and joined Weichert Realtors as a real estate agent. These varied commitments forced me to learn how to multitask and set priorities. I fell in love with real estate and enrolled in the graduate program at Cornell.
The real estate program brought opportunities to travel to and study emerging real estate markets in Nigeria and China. During this time, I earned the title of second runner-up in the Miss Nigeria in America Beauty Pageant. I used my platform to raise awareness about Nigerian issues in America. In 2008, I…
Instead, however, the headline does follow the sequence of events as they happened to present a more chronological overview of the event while still maintaining a good inverted pyramid structure. For example, take the head line of the news story in Appendix A: 'Iranian election uproar tests U.S.', this headline without giving specifics of the actual election result implies that the results were not great overall because of the impact that it has on the relations between U.S. And Iran. Hence, whoever reads this headline and know even the slightest bit about the background of the U.S.-Iran relations will interpret the possible results without actually reading about them.
Similarly, when analyzing the headline in Appendix B, 'Regime Change Brewing in Iran?' another format of headline comes to mine. The headlines can also be used to exhibit the actual strategic breakdown of the news story in a single sentence. This simply…
Paragraphing is also a very important aspect in the language use of any news troy as it not only breaks down the news story into separate parts but also allows the journalist to use transitional words like meanwhile or furthermore that allows the story to have a flow and simultaneously allows the journalist to represent different emotions and importance of facts through difference in language use form one paragraph to the next (Ghadessy, 1988).
In the paper we have discussed how in the modern era the text of and the
However, in the way that it brings Murrow to life and pays tribute to something he did that has likely been forgotten, the film makes a case for redefining what constitutes a good political film. Because the events depicted so clearly mirror events in our own political world and life, yet are done so in a way that grippingly recreates a lost era of the 1950s, a viewer gains the sense of being 'transported' in a way that is the essence of cinema.
The film's theme raises a potentially provoking challenge to our own media obsession -- yes, it is easy to condemn McCarthy now, with the wisdom of hindsight, now that McCarthy has become a synonym for baseless slander and the Soviet Union is defunct. However, after 9/11, another threat to the nation, the Department of Homeland Security engaged in a number of questionable tactics, including surveying the library…
lens into the worlds of interesting people, movements, cultures, and practices. Three films, two of which are documentary, show how the presidents of the United States behaved and were involved in scandal. Although the films were effective in highlighting the lapses in judgment these former American presidents have, it did little to help the audience viewing the film understand why it was done and how it impacts the country. ith the exception of the atergate scandal, a lot of the information shown in these films was meant to drive entertainment values more than anything else. Sadly that is what the news is slowly becoming, something that is meant to grab ratings.
Unlike the news, documentaries have the ability to truly develop character and persona in their subjects of interest. There is a scene in the film, "Journey's with George" that discusses George Bush Jr.'s dietary habits. One of which is…
All the president's men. Dir. Alan Pakula. Perf. Robert Redford. Warner Bros., 1976. Film.
Downie, Leonard, and Robert G. Kaiser. The news about the news: American journalism in peril. New York: A.A. Knopf, 2002. Print.
Journeys with George. Dir. Alexandra Pelosi. Perf. George W. Bush. HBO Video, 2002. Film.
The War Room. Dir. Chris Hegedus. Perf. George Stephanopoulos. Chris Hegedus, D.A. Pennebaker, 1993. Film.
Arguably, the raw data at ikiLeaks is far more powerful than anything that can be found in traditional media or satire news. The audience here must also acquire the tools necessary to properly digest the information, as an audience accustomed to uncritical digestion of mainstream media will be challenged by the raw information presented devoid of spin and context.
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). ikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/ikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). hen news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Reilly, I. (2011). Satirical fake news and the politics of the fifth estate. University of Guelph. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:NR71829
Feldman, L. (2007). The news about comedy. Journalism. Vol 8 (4) 406-427.
Ludlow, P. (2010). WikiLeaks and hacktivist culture. The Nation. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/7669895/771113000/name/Wikileaks.pdf
McCue, D. (2009). When news breaks, "the Daily Show" fixes it: Exposing social values through satire. University of Nevada, Las Vegas. Retrieved November 27, 2011 from http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl%3furl_ver=Z39.88-2004%26res_dat=xri:pqdiss%26rft_val_fmt=info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:dissertation%26rft_dat=xri:pqdiss:1456354
Postman, N. & Power, S. (2008) How to watch TV news. Penguin Books.
Women in Mexican Media
It is all too easy to dismiss the importance of the press because so much of it is unimportant. There are endless videos of car chases on local news programs. Skinheads throwing chairs at the hosts of what are putatively news programs. Endless stories of alien kidnapping in the tabloids. And all-too-frequent blurrings between advertising policy and editorial content.
But the news is, of course, more than this. Or at least it can be. No democratic nation can be run without a free press because no society can be run without giving more power to some people than to others. Without a free press to ensure that those with substantial amounts of power are not being corrupted by it is to have watchdogs alert to what they are doing. This is the role that the press serves, as a proxy for the people.
Most citizens have…
Gans, H. (1979). Deciding what's news. New York: Vintage.
Govines, Valeria. (2003). Interview. http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0218/p01s03-woam.html
Shaw, David. (2003). Interview.
The presence of the web, which allows time-sensitive information to be blogged as it occurs, plus the dire nature of the threat tipped the scales in favor of not releasing the information. It was seen as akin to not releasing certain details about a victim, to enable the police to conduct a more effective investigation of what potential suspects did or did not know.
However, it must be remembered that the primary interest of the newspaper is to tell the truth, not to further a particular social objective, as defined by a government agency, whatever the agency's goals. In the case of the hostage-taking, individual officer's lives were at stake. However, it would not be ethical to refuse to release information about the treatment of inmates at the prison that lead to the riots, even if this information was inflammatory. The benefits of exposing such abuses are so great, when…
"FAQ about comments." The New York Times. December 13, 2009.
"What do you think of The New York Times' decision to withhold information regarding reporter
David Rohde's kidnapping?" Women on the Web. June 28, 2009. December 13, 2009.
4.0.1 Observing that they have to keep up with the evolution of news, many newspaper companies have focused on maintaining their name in the news industry through redistributing their operations with paper and printing toward digital settings and platforms.
4.0.2 The commercial aspect of newspapers is especially important when considering their ability to stay strong in the news industry. However, as people discovered the increased effectiveness of buying things through the internet, newspapers experienced a significant decline in sales. Mediums such as Ebay or Craiglist have made it possible for sellers and buyers to interact more effectively and to be able to get a better understanding of what they were selling/buying. The graph below provides information regarding the evolution of newspapers ads in comparison with the evolution of Craiglist revenue. Although newspapers continue to dominate the industry, their severe decline in sales in the recent years emphasizes the fact that…
Carlson, Nicholas and Angelova Kamelia, "Newspaper Billions Become Craigslist Millions," Retrieved October 11, 2011, from the Business Insider Website: http://articles.businessinsider.com/2009-06-12/tech/29979663_1_rocket-ship-inbox-revenues
Martin Shannon E. And Copeland, David A. eds., The Function of Newspapers in Society: A Global Perspective (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003).
Martin, Shannon E. And Hansen, Kathleen A. Newspapers of Record in a Digital Age: From Hot Type to Hot Link (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1998).
"Preserving news in the digital environment: mapping the newspaper industry in transition," Retrieved October 11, 2011, from the Center for Research Libraries Website: http://www.crl.edu/sites/default/files/attachments/pages/LCreport_final.pdf
This is also reflected in the view that there is a lot of difference between a high school senior and a college freshman. egarding the world of student journalism, the U.S. Court of Appeals has also agreed with this view. This is reflected in the campus newspaper theft which was not taking place till the beginning of the 1990s. This is now a regular source of trouble for college student media. (Trends in College Media)
At the same time, this has not reflected in the quality of college newspaper, and some of them are of excellent quality. Let us look at some college newspapers for this purpose. One of them, namely the Boston College Chronicle has worked on the recently concluded papal conclave and also tried to inform the audience about what the world can hope from the new Pope. Certainly this information when they appear in a college magazine…
Censorship of College Student Newspapers. Administrative Censorship of the College Press. Retrieved at http://www.collegefreedom.org/report5.htm . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
CSU, Northridge Newspaper Silenced. 11 May, 1989. Retrieved at http://www.totse.com/en/conspiracy/institutional_analysis/papcensr.html . Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Davisson, John. GSEU Strikers Return to the Classroom. 25 April, 2005. Retrieved from www.columbiaspectator.com/- 32k Accessed on 28 April, 2005
Glaser, Dale; Collins, King. Review of Eagle and the Controversy of 1996-1997. Retrieved from www.greenmac.com/eagle/Updates/Up2.html. Accessed on 28 April, 2005
British vs. American newspapers and journalistic styles
The popular stereotype that 'the British' are more erudite, well-spoken and intelligent than Americans persists, as can be seen in the tendency to bestow a British accent upon any characters who are intended to be perceived as cold, aloof, and intellectual in American sitcoms. In the world of newspapers, however, such stereotypes evaporate. The British possess some of the most widely-read newspapers in the world. However, it is often American papers like New York Times that are considered the superior newspapers of record, even more so than the London Times in the eyes of most British journalists. Despite the homogenization of the news due to the permeation of online media culture, British and American newspapers continue to have distinctly different characters. In Great Britain, newspapers are expected to be far more partisan and far less scrupulously fact-checked than their American counterparts.…
"American vs. British newspapers." Rhetorica. 19 Nov 2002. [8 Jul 2012]
"British vs. American Journalism." Britain and America. 1 Jun 2007. [8 Jul 2012]
Media in America as the Fourth Estate: From Watergate to the Present
During the 1970's, the role of the media changed from simply reporting the news to revealing serious political scandals (Waisbord, 2001). The media's role during Watergate was viewed as the mirror that reflected the most that journalism could offer to democracy: holding powers accountable for their actions. This became a trend in the American media and journalism had high credibility in the years that followed, and a great increase in journalism school enrollment followed.
However, during the 1980's and 1990's, this trend withered away. Investigative journalism is no longer rampant the firmament of American news. While the tone of the press was self-congratulatory in the post-Watergate years, the state of American journalism is currently viewed in a less positive light.
For the elite, the shift in journalism is welcomed. For example, according to John Dean, an American journalist,…
Altbach, Philip. (1995). International book publishing, and Encyclopedia. Fitzroy Dearborn.
Bagdikian, Ben. (1993). The Media Monopoly. Beacon Press.
Barton, C. Franklin, Jay B. (1994). The First Amendment and the Fourth Estate: the Law of Mass Media,6th ed. Foundation Press.
Coronel, Sheila. (July 31, 2000). Investigative Reporting: The Role of the Media in Uncovering Corruption. Southeast Asian Press Alliance.
), [he knows] that media companies are responsive to pressure when it is sustained, sophisticated and well executed," he fails to offer any concrete examples of this kind of pressure or how it might actually be applied (Schechter, 2003, p. 242). He does propose "a Media and Democracy Act, an omnibus bill that could be a way of showing how all of these issues are connected," but he does not provide any details of what might actually be included in this all-encompassing piece of hypothetical legislation (p. 242). Rather, he simply asserts that this potential legislation (that, if it actually included regulations to effectively combat the problems with American journalism would almost certainly never have passed at the time of his writing and would still be extremely unlikely now) could magically "create one easy to market and explain package of proposals that can forge a coalition with many stakeholders and…
Cognitive compression effect. In (2000). M. Danesi (Ed.), Encyclopedic dictionary of semiotics, media, and communications. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Frontani, M.R. (2004). Embedded: Weapons of mass deception-how the media failed to cover the war on iraq. Journalism History, 30(2), 111.
Gaither, T.K. (2007). Advertising's war on terrorism: The story of the U.S. state department's shared values initiative. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 84(4), 843-844.
Goodman, A., & Goodman, D. (2006). Static: Government liars, media cheerleaders, and the people who fight back. New York: Hyperion.
Mass Comm Final
One theme that is a constant throughout the study of contemporary mass communication is the function that mass communication holds in the democratic political process. Although the present-day concepts of "media" or "mass communication" would have been unknown at the time of the Bill of Rights, it is nonetheless clear that the First Amendment's guarantee of freedom of the press essentially enshrines in law the notion that an informed and intellectually engaged electorate is crucial for the health of the American political system. And certainly the drafters of the U.S. Constitution were familiar with the notion that clear reasoned argumentation that could reach a broad majority of citizens was necessary for the political system they envisioned: there would not be a U.S. Constitution if there had not been Thomas Paine's "Common Sense," a widely-reproduced pamphlet laying out the basic argument for American independence. However, in different ways,…
Baym, "The Daily Show and Political Journalism"
McChesney, "Policing the Unthinkable," "Response to Compaine"
Compaine, "Myths of Encroaching Global Media Ownership," "Response to McChesney"
Koch, "Cyber Citizen or Cyborg Citizen"
technology such as the internet has a negative impact on the news industry and how it is going down. This paper goes on to consider the how modern technology has effected the news industry and in what way and what is being said about this decline on the news by journalists, news companies by examining extant literature on journalists and how they are working with new technology, blogging, twitter and such kinds of technology. The advantages and disadvantages of using such technologies are also explored. The paper also explores how the news industry makes money from technology as well as how the technology might make them bankrupt. Their opinions are sort in this paper. Statistics on the decline of the news industry are also presented as well as the possible long-term effects of technology adoption on the news industry are also explored.
This paper is written within the context…
Berte, Katrien, DeBens, Elsa, "Newspapers go for advertising: challenges and opportunities in a changing media environment," Journalism Studies, Vol. 9 No.5, pp.692-704.2008
Bird, S.Elizabeth "The future of journalism in the digital environment," Journalism, Vol. 10 No.3, pp.293-5.June 2009
Currah, Andrew "What's happening to our news. An investigation into the likely impact of the digital revolution on the economics of news publishing in the UK," RISJ/Joseph Rowntree Reform Trust Report, Reuters Institute of Journalism, University of Oxford, Oxford, 1 Jan 2009
Deuze, Mark and Bruns, Axel and Neuberger, Christoph "Preparing for an age of participatory news," Journalism Practice, Vol. 1 No.3, pp.322-38. 19 Sep 2007
17). He is disgusted that news executives that direct what should be covered are less interested in "what's happening in Afghanistan" but more interested in "Michael Jackson and Laci Peterson" (Fenton, p. 20).
hat are the excuses TV executives, editors and producers give for focusing on scandal, sexual trysts, and embarrassing situations for celebrities? Fenton claims that those "gatekeepers of the news" will tell anyone listening that "the average [viewer] simply cannot absorb that much hard news, especially about events abroad" (p. 20). The CBS veteran insists that the media power brokers believe that "Americans are too broadly under-informed to digest nuggets of information that seem to contradict what they know of the world" (p. 20). That would seem to be a very condescending, elitist attitude on the part of the TV industry in particular.
Fenton (p. 22) asserts that because of the very real threats of terrorism on the…
Dorfman, Lori, Woodruff, Katie, Chavez, Vivian, and Wallack, Lawrence. "Youth and Violence
On Local Television News in California." American Journal of Public Health 87.8 (1997):
Downie, Leonard, and Schudson, Michael. "The Reconstruction of American Journalism."
Mitchelstein, E. nd Boczkowski, P.J. (2009). Between tradition and change: review of recent research on online news production. Journalism, Vol. 10. Retrieved from: http://irtvu.com/files/rticle/attach-bulletin-24-105.pdf
The article considers four aspects of change in basic journalistic practices to explain the current phenomenon of newsgathering practices across the Internet. These include modifications in editorial workflow, alterations in news-gathering practices, acceleration of temporal patterns of content production, and the convergence of print, broadcast, and online operations. This has dramatically changed the face of journalism and created the phenomenon of the "user as content producer." The finding is that this is a growing and dynamic phenomenon. The fluid nature of the new media should be subject to further study to come to an ultimate conclusion regarding its true contribution to the media.
Johnson, T.J., Kaye, B.K., Bichard, S.L. nd Wong, W.J. (2007). Every Blog has its day" Politically0interested Internet Users' perceptions of blog credibility. Retrieved…
And interesting dimension enters the blog using public when politics becomes the central phenomenon of interest. In addition to the increase prevalence of the online phenomenon, the authors find that those with political interests tend to be more trusting of other like-minded individuals who make use of the online platform to espouse their views. An online survey is used to determine the level of perceived credibility for blogs in the political arena. One possible reason for this perception of credibility is the single-minded stature of political blog use; where one view is generally favored over another.
Deuze, M. (2005, Dec). Participation, Remediation, Bricolage: Considering Principal Components of a Digital Culture. Indiana University. Retrieved from: https://scholarworks.iu.edu/dspace/bitstream/handle/2022/3200/Deuze%20Digital%20Culture%202006.pdf.txt?sequence=3
In the essay, the author considers components of digital culture as expressed in online journalism, weblogging, and Independent Media Centers. The analysis is based upon two key assumptions: that all aspects of daily life in industrialized societies are influenced by computerizations; and that contemporary social changes are highly influenced by globalization, post-nationalism, and individualization. As such, it is found that the evolution of the digital media is highly influenced by a new value system among a culture that has increasingly become defined by its use of and presence in the online media.
Media in America [...] How does mass media affect American values? American media is pervasive in nearly every aspect of society today. Newspapers, magazines, online Web sources, television, radio, and film all create a sense of commonality, and often a sense of how to behave, think, and react to social and societal situations.
Today, Americans rely on a variety of media for most of their news, information, and values, whether they know it or not. While this may seem like a recent occurrence, experts and researchers have been seeing this trend in media influence for decades. Two experts note, "Over a half century ago, Lippmann (1922) also noted this role of the news media in defining our world, not just the world of politics during and between elections, but almost all of our world beyond immediate personal and family concerns" (Bryant and Zillmann, 1994, p. 2). Thus, the media has…
Arant, M.D., & Meyer, P. (1998). Public journalism and traditional journalism: A shift in values? Journal of mass media ethics, 13(4), 205-218.
Brown, A. (1996). Economics, public service broadcasting, and social values. Journal of media economics, 9(1), 3-15.
Coleman, A.W. (2000). "Calvin and Hobbes": A critique of society's values. Journal of Mass Media Ethics, 15(1), 17-42.
Gomez, D.S. (2001, April). Sex, peers, media -- and family values: The NEA health information network's 'can we talk?' program helps thousands of parents talk with their kids, in English or Spanish. NEA today, 19, 29.
Career Profile: Investigative Reporter
hether it was reading my younger sister's diary or spying on my crazy neighbors whom I was convinced were axe murders, I have always had a natural calling for being a sleuth. In addition to my voyeuristic ways, I am also interested in current events and politics. As a result of these interests, I am interested in a career as an investigative reporter.
I interviewed Jilda Unruh, an Emmy winning investigative reporter at PLG Channel 10 in Miami, FL, for some inside information on her line of work. As for preparation for the field, she said, " A solid, diverse education is more important than any particular major. Investigative reporting covers such a broad spectrum of topics that one must be comfortable in a variety for subjects." Ms. Unruh did not major in journalism, but said the writing and fact-finding skills taught in most undergraduate programs…
"Career Profile: Journalism." The Princeton Review Online.
"The International Consortium of Investigative Reporters." The Center for Public Integrity Project.
As a profession, muckraking has gained a bad reputation ever since President Teddy Roosevelt compared certain journalists to the obsessive lad in the Pilgrim's Progress. In this 1906 speech, Roosevelt likened many journalists of his day to the man who stood in ooze, holding his garden tool and with his eyes fixed downward (Kiee 2001).
However, the "muckraking" techniques of these journalists have shined the light on many issues and practices that need to be addressed.
These exposes regarding corruption and unjust practices have led to public outcry and have spurred social change. After all, the reverse view would paint muckraking as a profession as a research and revelatory-based process that challenges the status quo. One person's muckraker is then another person's crusading journalist.
This paper looks at historic and modern examples of how muckraking has spurred important social changes in American history. The later part of the paper…
2001. Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America. New York: Metropolitan Books.
Goldberg, Jonah. 2001. "The Decline of Muckraking." The American Enterprise. June.
Jensen, Carl. 2003. Stories That Changed America: Muckrakers of the 20th Century. New York: Seven Stories Press.
In the scientific literature it is difficult to find a useful concept for the news craze. In Media Matters (1994) John Fiske uses the word 'media event'. These kinds of events have their own reality and their own patterns. "The term media event is an indication that in a postmodern world we can no longer rely on a stable relationship or clear distinction between a 'real' event and its mediated representation. A media event, then, is not mere a representation of what happened, but it has its own reality, which gathers up into itself the reality of the event that may or may not have preceded it." The media construct a 'hyperreality', in which a struggle is going on about the interpretation and meanings of what is going on in the world.
This kind 'hyperreality' applies to all forms of communication. According to an article in "
1. Daniel J. Boorstin, The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America, Harper Colophon Books (1964 edition).
2. Rothenberg, R. (1998).
Bye-Bye The Net's precision accountability will kill not only traditional advertising, but its parasite, Big Media. Sniff. Wired Magazine. Jan. 1998. Pp. 72-76.
3. John Fiske. Media Matters. 1994
The author of this report has been asked to write a brief essay about a career chosen from the journalism field. The questions that will be answered include why the career interests the author of this report, what training the job requires, what skills are necessary to do the job, what benefits exist within the career, what drawbacks exist within the career, where will a person have to live to have such a job, what kind of dangers (if any) exist for the job, what kind of salary exists for the career and what the job outlook is for the career. While the industry is starting to taper off, opportunities exist for people with the right talent and motivation, and perhaps looks.
The career position selected for this report was selected because it is the most visible and preeminent position within the journalism field. It is…
BLS.gov. (2015). Reporters, Correspondents, and Broadcast News Analysts:
Occupational Outlook Handbook:: U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. BLS.gov.
Retrieved 13 May 2015, from http://www.bls.gov/ooh/media-and-communication/reporters-correspondents-and-broadcast-news-analysts.htm
News stations have strict rules regarding the ethics of monetary compensation for stories (i.e. It isn't allowed), however, and this is likely an effort to bolster local sales by highlighting certain local businesses. This also provides a way for Denver news organizations to remain connected -- and appear connected -- to the community. internet advertising has found a fairly steady pattern, and the television stations that have news websites have employed the same types of banners, though often in more muted tones, that are found on most commercial websites.
What is the projected growth of the news broadcasting industry in the next 3-4 years in Denver?
Unfortunately, growth foes not seem very likely in the area of television news broadcasting in the Denver area for some time. Even assuming that the economic troubles end within the next year, the broadcast industry in the Denver area is largely saturated. Though there…
"Denver Colorado Local News Media." Accessed 30 June 2009. http://www.mondotimes.com/1/world/us/6/402
"Denver Population Growth Statistics." Accessed 30 June 2009. http://www.clrsearch.com/RSS/Demographics/CO/Denver/Population_And_Growth
Rocky Mountain Media Watch. Accessed 30 June 2009. www.bigmedia.org
people internet mobile media change ways news created received? How change power relationship traditional news organisations 'audiences'?hat benefits drawbacks developments?
Internet's Effect on the News Industry
The internet is responsible for having revolutionized virtually all domains, given that more and more individuals come to break away from conventionality and embrace the internet. The media and news devices in particular have been severely affected as a result of the fact that the internet has experienced progress in the recent years. It is very important for someone who wants to succeed in the contemporary society to be acquainted with the internet, as most of today's affairs occur on the internet. People in the present are inclined to surf the internet when they want to check out the latest news, as it provides them with the opportunity to select the exact news that they are interested in, without having them watch a whole…
Allan, Stuart, Online News: Journalism and the Internet (Maidenhead, England: Open University Press, 2006)
Lee, Angela M. "News Consumption Revisited," Retrieved May 21, 2011, from the University of Texas Website: http://online.journalism.utexas.edu/2010/papers/LeeCarpini10.pdf
MacDonald, Randall M. The Internet and the School Library Media Specialist: Transforming Traditional Services (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1997)
Mitchell, Bill, "The Internet Changes the Way News Is Gathered," Retrieved May 21, 2011, from the Poynter Website: http://www.poynter.org/uncategorized/9538/the-internet-changes-the-way-news-is-gathered/
Media and honesty in the media [...] Janet Cooke, the prize-winning journalist who made up a story about an inner-city young boy who was a heroin addict. Cooke's story shows the pressure many journalists face and why readers should not always believe everything they read in newspapers and magazines.
Janet Cooke was born in 1958, and little is known about her true background or education. She claimed to have graduated from Vassar College and attended the Sorbonne in Paris, but these were both fabrications, her only degree came from the University of Toledo in Ohio. In 1980, she joined the staff of The Washington Post as a reporter for the "Weeklies" section. In September of 1980, the Post published one of her stories, "Jimmy's World." It would prove to be a monumental mistake. Cooke resigned from the Post in 1981, and married a lawyer. They lived briefly in Paris, but…
Dutka, Elaine. "Fall of Janet Cooke Whets Hollywood's Appetite." NewStandard.com. 5 June 1996. 11 Dec. 2004.
Editors. "Janet Cooke." Wikipedia.org. 2 Dec. 2004. 11 Dec. 2004.
My broadcasting career began early, when I anchored for our high school's Hawk News Network (HNN). It was then that I realized for certain what I wanted to do for the rest of my life: to be of service to all people and leave a legacy through effective communication and journalism.
A plan to pursue broadcast journalism by taking rigorous courses that directly pertain in my field of interest. I also intend to stretch my boundaries and step outside of my comfort zone by taking challenging coursework in unrelated areas, areas that might expose and therefore strengthen my weaknesses. Another way I intend to pursue my academic interests is through clubs, organizations, and other extracurricular activities that relate to broadcast journalism. Just as I became actively involved in student-run television stations in high school and college, I will also involve myself deeply with such resources at USC (CHRISTINE: YOU MIGHT…
Stalemate to Crisis" and "he Imperial Republic."
Questions From "From Stalemate to Crisis" and "he Imperial Republic"
Brinkley, Alan. (2004) he Unfinished Nation: A Concise History of the American people. Volume II. 4th Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill.
What were the great social issues creating deep divisions in American life in the 1880s and 1890s? Discuss unionization of workers and the discontent felt by the farmers?
Political corruption, America's increasingly marked shift from an agrarian to an industrialist society, and the tariff questions surrounding the sale of American goods abroad, were all the important issues that served to tear the American nation apart during the latter half of the nineteenth century. he rise of agrarian discontent was manifested in the vocal Granger Movement, the formulation Farmers' Alliances, and the Populist movement that swept the American Midwest. Although agrarian discontent declined, after 1898, the origins, purposes, and effectiveness of the Interstate Commerce…
The taking of territories by the United States was hardly justified according to standards of either moral or formal international law, then or now. But the annexation "fever" of the late 1800s clearly benefited politicians wishing to create a greater sense of cohesive unity in an increasingly divided America, an America characterized by warring political and geographic interests and greater levels of economic stratification.
As you look at how the media dealt with the Spanish American War reflect on how the media today deals with both domestic and foreign affairs stories. What is their agenda in 2005 when reporting? Have they handled Afghanistan and Iraq in a similar fashion to the way the press reported the sinking of the battleship Maine? Is the media trustworthy in 2005? Please be more specific on this question.
The media's agenda in 2005, as during the Spanish-American War, is always to generate interest in the news and to sell consumption of papers, cable subscriptions, and advertising. However, the public has more media outlets it can use, and is more 'savvy' as to media bias and misrepresentation. Also, the media itself is more self-critical, after realizing that politicians are able to misrepresent the events of today for personal ends. The media seemed to show a sense of 'betrayal' of the truth and trust in the relationship between press and professional politicians, in the way that the threat of weapons of mass destruction was used to justify war in Iraq, as the ways that the White House vacillated on its knowledge of the terrorist threat level before 2001. This sense was not evident in the glorious trumpeting of U.S. justice during the sinking of the Maine. Still, domestic news coverage often has the same sensationalistic tone, specifically in crime reporting, as was common to ages past.
Journalists, Their Terminology and Terrorism
In the age of terrorism and in the age of the Internet, journalists are coming under more and more intensive scrutiny and are increasingly urged to act more sensitively to the power they have and the power which they can wield when it comes to reporting current events -- particularly those related to terrorism. As some scholars have illuminated, journalists are indeed arbitrators of rhetoric, and ones which have limited success: "Evidence of arbitration is seen in comparisons between how media personnel describe terrorist events and their perpetrators and how government officials make similar descriptions. Journalists serve as creators of rhetoric whenever they report terrorist events. The rhetorical tradition employed determines the nature of that rhetoric. The role of formats, the presentation conventions that are used to package information and determine the significance and the information that news packages carry, are also important" (Picard 1989).…
Ahramonline. (2013, August 14). Egypt police attack Muslim Brotherhood sit-ins in Cairo. Retrieved from ahramonline.com: http://english.ahram.org.eg/NewsContent/1/64/78982/Egypt/Politics-/UPDATED-Egypt-police-attack-Muslim-Brotherhood-sit.aspx
Ahramonline. (2013, August 14). Egypt police attack Muslim Brotherhood sit-ins in Cairo. Retrieved from Ahramonline:
Glasser's, Awad's, and Kim's study analyzes how four newspapers have written from different points-of-view relating to the same event. Two of the newspapers have written professionally, without attempting to influence the readers in any way. In contrast, the other two newspapers have written so that the public would get a wrong idea of the incident. Just as in the present case, it is normal for media services from within a local community to write differently than bigger, more specialized, media services. The journalists from the two newspapers which have distorted reality and have written the articles from their own points-of-view belong to the community involved in the incident discussed. The respective journalists have turned an ordinary conflict (between the officials and their community over the building of a mall) into a cry for help from a community presumably discriminated for years.
It is of no relevance whether or not the…
Glasser, T.L. & Awad I. & Kim J.W. (2009). The Claims of Multiculturalism and Journalism's Promise of Diversity. Journal of Communication, 59: 57-58.
Soon thereafter, she started working with CNN channel in handling their Washington bureau. For the forthcoming seven years, Couric was engaged with CNN bureaus across the nation as a producer and also as an on-air reporter. She returned to Washington in 1987 taking up job as a reporter at an NBC affiliate station. She rose from her ranks to hold the number two position as a reporter at the Pentagon for the Washington bureau of the NBC news. ("Katie Couric Biography," n. d.)
For the next three years she was in charge of covering the U.S. invasion of the Panama as also Persian Gulf War in her Pentagon position as also as a new post at the NBC's morning newspaper, Today. In the early part of 1991, she discharged her role as a co-anchor of Today. Her immense popularity with the viewers was because of her pleasant and charming demeanor…
Banting, Erninn. (2007) "Katie Couric"
Weigl Publishers Inc.
Clarke, Kristin. (2002) "First Among Equals: Barbara Walters on Leadership" Executive
Update, Retrieved 21 March, 2009 at http://www.asaecenter.org/PublicationsResources/articledetail.cfm?ItemNumber=13267
This column probably reflects her own accession in the world of journalism and her own struggles as a female coping with a male dominated environment.
The same cutting-edge, analytic journalism style can also be seen in the column entitled "Killing the Consumer." The case that Anna Quindlen makes here is against the cigarettes producers, who are now targeting younger smokers in order to increase their revenues. Further more, they are now customizing their brands to fit particular categories of individuals, like young women, for example.
Quindlen's stance is again targeting females as the representative individuals for her articles. While on one hand, she is hitting quite hard against smoking and the cigarettes producers in general, she is particularly edgy against new brands designed to attract women as new smokers and against the way cigarettes manufacturers run ads with different magazines to promote their new products.
Quindlen's style is easily recognizable…
1. Quindlen, Anna. Not Semi-Soldiers. Newsweek. November 12, 2007. On the Internet at http://www.newsweek.com/id/67917.Last retrieved on November 13, 2007
2. Quindlen, Anna. Killing the Consumer. Newsweek. October 01, 2007. On the Internet at http://www.newsweek.com/id/41699.Last retrieved on November 13, 2007 http://www.annaquindlen.com/.Last retrieved on November 13, 2007
Currently, Rupert Murdoch's empire includes nine satellite networks, 100 cable channels, 175 newspapers, etc. It reaches some 4.7 billion people, more than half of the world's population. Despite claims to the effect that the network was to "restore objectivity," this has clearly not been the case. However, when one considers Fox against the rest of the media world, there is little that could be called 'objective.' Even reality shows and talk shows bias their assertions and views according to a certain favored viewpoints, whether these are socially popular at any given time or not. Indeed, this is the core principle of the media -- to influence the public view according to the viewpoint it favors.
What this boils down to is that the "Outfoxed" piece could apply to any media network or effort in the world. No piece of media is ever unbiased or objective. However, what the film does…
Beam, Randal A.; Eunseong, Kim; andVoakes, Paul S. 2003. "Technology-induced stressors, job satisfaction and workplace exhaustion among journalism and mass communication faculty." Journalism & Mass Communication Educator. Winter.
The authors of this study looked at the effects of rapidly changing technology on college instructors who must keep up-to-date with these changed because they teach journalism students who must also keep up with the technology. In their literature search they found instances of other college professors who experienced significant stress trying to keep up with technological change, so it was no surprise to the authors that journalism and mass communication professors felt similar frustration.
The research has wider implications, however. The writers cited examples of the people they surveyed not getting enough technical support. The burden of keeping up-to-date was too much on them, they thought, with a lack of technical support available to them. It seems likely that many university…
But though she was the first journalist whose fairly innocent lack of responsibility started the domino effect of Marla's story in the media, Elizabeth Cohen was far from the worst transgressor in this area. The segment Bar-Lev shows of the television newsmagazine 60 Minutes' coverage of Marla's painting was even more inflammatory, and just as shoddily researched. The story quite blatantly suggest that Marla's parents might be fraudulently representing their daughter's talents, but there is no real evidence of this. They show a child psychologist -- not an art expert, it should be noted -- who is initially impressed with the quality of the paintings attributed to Marla, but is surprised to see on a video of Marla painting that she paints like any child her age. It is after this that the child psychologist begins to possibly detect a difference in the quality of the paintings attributed to Marla…