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Wetlands Regulation in USA

Words: 8001 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63050849

Stress: Regulation of etlands in the United States

Regulation of etlands in the United States

Defining etlands and their Value

A wetland refers to a place where water covers the soil. A wetland is a saturated land that comprises of swamps or marshes. Lewis defines a wetland as, "an ecosystem that depends on constant or recurrent, shallow inundation or saturation at or near the surface of the substrate" (p.3). He further ascertains that the minimum necessary qualities of a wetland are sustained inundation, saturation or recurrent at or near the surface and the existence of chemical, biological and physical facets that reflect recurrent, saturation and sustained inundation (Lewis 3). The major diagnostic wetland features include hydrophytic vegetation and hydric soils. These characteristics present biotic, anthropogenic or physicochemical features apart from where the growth of these aspects has been blocked (Lewis 3). The wetlands are located near rivers, oceans, lakes or…… [Read More]

Work Cited

Beermann, Jack. Administrative law. Texas: Aspen Publishers Online, Jul 2, 2010

Connolly, Kim Diana, Johnson, Stephen, Williams, Douglas. Wetlands law and policy:

Understanding. New York: American Bar Association, Dec 30, 2005.

Gaddie, Ronald Keith, Regens, James. Regulating wetlands protection: Environmental federalism and the states. New York: SUNY Press, 2000.
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Confusion Trailer Hitches Facts The State of

Words: 1098 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47487511

Confusion: Trailer Hitches

Facts: The state of Confusion enacted a statute requiring all trucks and towing trailers that use its highways to use a B-type truck hitch, which is manufactured by only one manufacturer in confusion. As a result, truckers either have to avoid Confusion or have the hitch installed. The federal government has not attempted to regulate truck hitches on the nation's highways. Tanya Trucker, a trucking company owner in the state of Denial, intends to file suit against Confusion to overturn the statute.

What court has jurisdiction over the dispute? Is the Confusion state statute Constitutional?

easoning: Determining the court of original jurisdiction is a matter of examining the applicable statutes. Under 28 U.S.C.S. § 1332(a)(b), the federal courts have original jurisdiction over lawsuits where the parties are citizens of different states, if the amount in controversy is at least $75,000. Under 28 U.S.C.S. § 1331, the district…… [Read More]


28 U.S.C.S. § 1331

28 U.S.C.S. § 1332(a)(b).

Bosco, D. (2011 May 26). The six stages of a civil lawsuit. Retrieved November 17, 2011 from Bosco Law Firm, LLC website:

Southern Pacific Co. v. Arizona, 61 Ariz. 66, 145 P.2d 530 (1945).
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Georgia Law

Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 28488682

Federal and State Court Systems in George

The federal and state court system in the United States is tasked with providing timely adjudication of all cases within their jurisdiction. Each of the several states, including Georgia, is part of a larger federal system of district courts and courts of appeal, and their courts have their state-level counterparts, each of which is responsible for hearing cases of certain types. To determine which courts are responsible for what in the State of Georgia today, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings concerning the federal and state court systems in place in Georgia today in the conclusion.

eview and Analysis

The Federal Court Structure in the Southern District of Georgia

The U.S. Courts of Appeals for the Eleventh District for the Southern District form part of the overall adjudicative coverage of…… [Read More]


Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Federal Courts of Appeal. (2013). Georgia Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://www.

Georgia Small Claims Court. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved from: .
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Business Income Refers to Any Income Usually

Words: 2202 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64468481

Business income refers to any income usually realized for the execution or transaction of business activity. This indicates that business income is the aspect of earned income from the perspective of business transaction or activity. In order for the business income to apply to the aspect of the taxation system, it is essential to classify business income as ordinary income. Business income consists of business expenses, business losses, and business profits. It is the difference between revenues and expenses of the process of business transactions. This indicates that business income can be positive or negative within the financial year depending on the size of the expenses and revenues. Business income is received from the transactions or sales of products or services within the defined market.

Question Two

OECD model treaty defines a clear perspective in relation to the handling of the business income. This is through indicating that the income…… [Read More]


Ault, H.J., & Arnold, B.J. (2010). Comparative income taxation: A structural analysis. S.l:

Kluwer Law International.

Gustafson, C.H., & Pugh, R.C. (1993). International income taxation: Code & regulations, selected sections. Chicago, Ill: Commerce Clearing House.

Scha-fer, A. (2006). International company taxation in the era of information and communication technologies: Issues and options for reform. Wiesbaden: Deutscher Universita-ts-Verlag.
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Police Agencies Policing in the United States

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3436892

Police Agencies:

Policing in the United States has mainly been based and expanded on the ideas of English way of policing. The English way of policing has not only been used as the basis for American policing but it has also been used to commence an era of evolving police agencies. In its early years, policing in the United States was largely regarded as a civic duty or responsibility of community members. The appointed officers were neither trained nor paid for their services to community members. Consequently, the chosen Sheriffs were usually motivated by financial incentives and lost their focus on enforcement of the law, which contributed to the perception that policing was primarily reactive in nature. However, the nature and structure of policing changed significantly following the emergence of urbanization, industrialism, and the society, which resulted in increase in crime. This forced the police or law enforcement officers to…… [Read More]


"History and Structure of American Law Enforcement." (n.d.). Sample Chapter 5. Retrieved

December 19, 2013, from 

Parfaniuc, N. (n.d.). Historical Development of Police Agencies and Their Jurisdiction.

Retrieved December 19, 2013, from
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Conflict Within an Organization In

Words: 984 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17720522

The problem is that many people are simply not used to dealing with conflict in a reasonable manner. Instead, they believe that all conflict must be resolved in a competitive manner, and that there is always a loser in each conflict.

Conflict resolution should be taught and implemented at all possible points of conflict in an organization. These include, but are not limited to, interpersonal conflicts, conflicts in meetings, conflicts in negotiations, conflicts in resource allocation, conflicts in workload distribution, and the conflict inherent in any organizational change. If employees and managers know to anticipate conflict and are trained in how to resolve conflict, then most conflict should never reach the level of needing attention from H. Instead, H's emphasis on conflict can be on training.

3. Is it important or necessary in an organization, to understand these sources of conflict, as we have an autocratic structure that can impose…… [Read More]


Guttman, H.M. (2009). Conflict Management as a Core Competency for HR Professionals.

People and Strategy. New York: 2009. Vol. 32, Iss. 1; p. 32.

Schachar, M. (2011). Conflict Resolution Management (CRM) Textbook.

TUI University. (Unk.). NCM 501: Foundations of Conflict Resolution Module 2.
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Law Enforcement and Cyberstalking

Words: 895 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 16556885


Cyber-Crime in a New Age of Law Enforcement

ith the new introduction of the online sphere, law enforcement today faces unique challenges those previous generations could never even imagined. The internet allows the ability to create an online presence that has virtually no relevance to the real world character of the user. People can now create an online presence with the ability to construct a range of pseudonymity that was never before possible (Gyorgy, 2002). Therefore the person that you think you are communicating with may be a different person altogether.

Furthermore, people can set up a range of different personalities and have multiple identities online that they can use for a range of malicious activities. For example, it is possible for an elderly man who has perverted tendencies to portray himself as a young school girl on online chat forums. In these arenas there is seldom any verification…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gyorgy, P. (2002). The Tale of Cookies (Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde). Social Research, 239-245.

Jayakumar, A. (2014, March 13). Target looking into response to cybersecurity breach; retail sales rose in Feb. Retrieved from The Washington Post: 

TEDGlobal. (2010, July). Julian Assange: Why the world needs WikiLeaks. Retrieved from TED: 

TEDGlobal. (2012, July). Michael Anti: Behind the Great Firewall of China. Retrieved from TED:
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Criminal Justice Is the Coordination

Words: 2218 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 395032

Examples of offenses that are based on constitutional endowments of right contain tax evasion, possessing illegal substances and conspiring to violate civil rights. Courts have specified on the whole a wide explanation to the Commerce Clause authority, allowing Congress to create a federal offense of many widespread law crimes such as kidnapping or murder if state outline are fractious during commission of the crime and such as misappropriation and blackmail using instrumentalities of trade such as telephone lines or the U.S. post. Examples of offenses that are based on regions owned by or under the restricted power of the federal government contain crimes committed in the District of Columbia, in U.S. Territories, in U.S. National Parks, in federal courthouses and federal jails plus on board airplanes and ocean going ships. The United States armed force has its own immoral justice system applicable to its members, but civilians might be accused…… [Read More]


Wolfgang, Marvin (1990). Crime and Punishment in Renaissance Florence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Schmalleger, Frank (2001). Criminal Justice: A Brief Introduction. Prentice Hall. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Cornell University Law School. Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on January 11, 2008.

Nicholas J. Szabo. (2006). Jurisdiction as Property: Franchise Jurisdiction from Henry III to James I. Retrieved on January 11, 2008 at
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Second Circuit Should Affirm the

Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 94934016

The fact that, against completely diverse defendants, Woodrock and Jones could combine their claims to meet the amount in controversy is inconsequential, because the parties lack diversity of citizenship.

9. There are several factors that should be taken into consideration in deciding whether the District of Columbia can, for diversity purposes, be regarded as a state. The most important factor is whether the constitutional diversity requirement would have a substantive impact on the litigants seeking redress in a certain type of court. Because citizens of the District of Columbia are already entitled to bring suit in federal courts, allowing them to be considered citizens of a state for the purpose of establishing diversity jurisdiction does not allow them entry into a different court system. Even more important is the fact that the legislature enacted a law that permitted the District of Columbia and other U.S. territories to be treated as…… [Read More]

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Confusion Has Passed Legislation That

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65679167

Although here, there are not any federal statutes in place regarding truck hitches, the Supreme Court has consistently held that the language of the Commerce Clause contains a further, negative command prohibiting certain state regulation even when Congress has failed to legislate on the subject. his is evident in Quill Corp v. North Dakota [504 U.S. 298 (1992)] in which the Supreme Court determined that a tax levied on Quill Corp. violated the dormant commerce clause even though the subject matter was not federally pre-empted.

It is important to note that the 10th Amendment does give to the states all powers not delegated to the federal government by the Constitution, but the dormant commerce clause (which is a court given name, not an actual enumerated element of the commerce clause) limits the powers given to the states under the 10th Amendment. In United States v. Lopez [515 U.S. 549 (1995)]…… [Read More]

The commerce clause, under Article I § 8 of the U.S. Constitution, gives Congress the right to control commerce among the several states (The Constitution of the United States of America, Article I § 8). Although here, there are not any federal statutes in place regarding truck hitches, the Supreme Court has consistently held that the language of the Commerce Clause contains a further, negative command prohibiting certain state regulation even when Congress has failed to legislate on the subject. This is evident in Quill Corp v. North Dakota [504 U.S. 298 (1992)] in which the Supreme Court determined that a tax levied on Quill Corp. violated the dormant commerce clause even though the subject matter was not federally pre-empted.

It is important to note that the 10th Amendment does give to the states all powers not delegated to the federal government by the Constitution, but the dormant commerce clause (which is a court given name, not an actual enumerated element of the commerce clause) limits the powers given to the states under the 10th Amendment. In United States v. Lopez [515 U.S. 549 (1995)] the Supreme Court determined that state gun possession laws near school do not violate the dormant commerce clause because a state may regulate local aspects of interstate commerce as long as the local regulation does not conflict with, or is not pre-empted by, federal regulation and the regulation meets the following tests: (1) the regulation does not discriminate against out of state competition in order to benefit local economic interests, and (2) the incidental burden on interstate commerce does not outweigh the local benefits of the regulation.

The first determinant is whether Confusion's statute does affect interstate commerce. The Court in Wickard v. Filburn [317 U.S. 111(1942)] reasoned that state regulations of activities that on their face are not economic, if in their aggregate they have a substantial effect on interstate commerce, then they will have to pass the two part test listed above. Here, it can be argued that the statute is not economic on its face, but is instead based on state police power to protect the state highways. However, in aggregate, the effect of such regulation is that interstate truckers have to purchase a new hitch to go through Confusion, or must bear the extra gas expense of going around. Ultimately, the end-user will bear the extra cost expended by these truckers hauling products, by raised prices on those products. Thus the statute does have an economic effect. It is unclear whether the burden this substantial effect places on interstate commerce is outweighed by the benefit to Confusion's highways because this matter is a judgment call for the court. However, nonetheless,
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European Parliament and the European

Words: 3708 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81210362

For example, the EP has the right to bring an action for failure to act, and can also take action to have the ECJ review acts of the Council or the Commission.

Despite those protections, the ECJ determined that the legal remedies provided for in the Euratom Treaty and EEC treaty might be ineffective or uncertain.

For example, an action for failure to act cannot be used to challenge a measure that has already been adopted.

In addition, though the EP has the right to seek a preliminary ruling on the validity of such an action, such a ruling does not mean that anyone will actually bring an action for annulment.

In fact, even though the Commission is required to respect the EP's prerogatives, it is not obliged to adopt the EP's positions as its own.

As a result, the ECJ concluded that the legal remedies available to the EP…… [Read More]

Works Cited

"Article 230." Treaty of Nice. 2000. University College Cork. 25 Aug. 2009


Case 70/88, European Parliament v. Council of Ministers, Judgment of the ECJ of 22 March

1990, European Court Reports 1990, p. I-2041.
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Matching Terms Writ of Mandamus

Words: 1871 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 58268701

8. State the "law of the case" of each of the following: (10) a) Gonzales v. Raisch: ffirmed Oregon statute allowing doctors to prescribe controlled substances in assisted suicide and invalidated ttorney General's statutory interpretation that assisted suicide does not constitute practicing medicine..

b) First National Bank v. Bellotti: Invalidated Massachusetts law criminalizing corporate use of corporate funds to promote political agenda as a violation of corporations right to Free Speech under the 1st mendment..

c) Kelo v. New London: State power of eminent domain properly used even though taking of property inured to benefit of one private entity over another, because its effect was beneficial to the community..

d) darand v. Pina: Overturned Metro v FCC and decided that any type of racial classification used by any government agency triggers strict scrutiny.

e) Cole v. Burns International Security Systems: Employers may require employees to waive their right to litigate…… [Read More]

A b) Cole v. Burns International Security Company: D.C. District Court applies SCOTUS ruling in Gilmer, to uphold pre-employment arbitration agreements that meet the 5 elements of fairness articulated in Gilmer.

10. Respond to a colleague who asserts that we need to get rid of these liberal activist judges and replace them with conservative judges who interpret the law and do not make the law. (5)

The 2000 SCOTUS decision terminating the by-hand vote count then underway in Florida is a perfect example that "conservative" justices with no prior history of "liberal" statutory interpretation, in fact, make law, as evidenced in the way five "conservative" Republican justices effectively awarded the presidency to George W. Bush by their whim under the color of "judicial interpretation."
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Federal Question Refers to the Idea That

Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26911079

federal question refers to the idea that a case involves federal issues, and thus triggers federal jurisdiction. Federal questions include cases involving the U.S. Constitution, acts of Congress and other federal laws, and treaties. Other issues may also trigger federal jurisdiction, such as when litigants are in two different states, or when a litigant has filed suit against a state.

What is diversity jurisdiction?

Diversity jurisdiction refers to federal court jurisdiction based on the fact that the opposing parties come from different states. The amount in controversy must be $75,000 or more, and there are some exceptions to diversity jurisdiction.

What is standing?

Standing means that a party is sufficiently connected to and harmed by an action to file a lawsuit challenging that action. Standing requires that the party be injured, that the injury was causally connected to the action at the subject of the suit, and that the court…… [Read More]


Schulze, E., and Patterson, S. (2005). Introduction to the American legal system, 8th ed. Upper

Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
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International Development Law and Banking and Finance Law

Words: 9595 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 48754475

English Right of Set-Off and Combination in the Circumstance of Insolvency

The right of combination and set-off, as developed under English law offer a number of safeguards to banks and creditors in general. These rights were expanded under the principles that they were necessary to effect substantial justice and that they would stimulate economic growth and trade. In the following paper, I suggest that the judicial application of these rights has tended to unfairly favor banks at the expense of the individual customer, which may initially stimulate growth by encouraging banks to provide loans, but in the long-term may serve to deteriorate trade, particularly at the international level. Customers in other countries, particularly civil law countries, experience much more risk when they do business with an English bank, and hence may be better off refraining from bringing their enterprises there, or at any rate must be extremely careful in drawing…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Aldrich, George. The jurisprudence of the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal. New York: Oxford University Press (1996)

Collier, John & Lowe, Vaughn. The Settlement of Disputes in International Law: Institutions and Procedures. New York: Oxford University Press (1999)

Pritchard, Robert. ed. Economic Development, Foreign Investment and the Law: Issues of Private Sector Involvement, Foreign Investment and the Rule of Law in a New Era. Boston: Kluwer Law International, International Bar Association. (1996)

Jan Paulsson, Nigel Rawding, Lucy Reed, Eric Schwartz, The Freshfields Guide to Arbitration & ADR (2nd revised ed.), Boston: Kluwer Law International (1999)
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Private Property and the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Words: 1974 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75365249

Private Property & the Commons of 16th Century Spain

Private Property in 16th Century Spain

Historically, 16th-century Castile was considered to be fundamentally an urban society that depended on cities and towns for the articulation of its local and centralized administration (Elliott, 1991). Privilege was considered to be a matter of a priori rights founded on traditions associated with nobility and wealth. The lower social stratum was maintained in order to provide fiscal and military support for the crown. The qualities of separateness -- both cultural and logistical -- between the urban central and diffuse local jurisdictions engendered very different perspectives regarding authority. ather than arbitrating reasonable agreements, local authority worked to undermine what was considered to be overreaching by the crown. I contend that the autonomy of local jurisdictions worked against the crown's insistence on absolutism and a monarchy of estates that were grounded in medieval social concepts, however,…… [Read More]


Abercrombie, T.A. (). Colonial relandscaping of Andean social memory.. In Pathways of memory and power: Ethnography and history among an Andean people (pp. ). University of Wisconsin Press.

Abercrombie, T.A. (1996). Q'aqchas and la plebe in "rebellion" -- carnival vs. lent in 18th-century potosi. Journal of Latin American, 2(1), 62-111.

Alban, J.P.V. (1999). Introduction: The decline of propriety. In Propriety and permissiveness in Bourbon Mexico (pp. ). Wilmington, DE: Scholarly Resources, Inc.

Elliott, J.H. (1991, Autumn). Renaissance Quarterly, 44(3) A Review: Nader, H. (1990). Liberty in Absolutist Spain: The Habsburg Sale of Towns, 1516-1700. Baltimore and London, The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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Law Enforcement Levels

Words: 663 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59106282

branches within the law enforcement field. All these branches have a range of jurisdictions but have a common purpose of enforcing laws that have been passed by legislatures and the protection of the American citizens and those who live within the American borders. There are different law enforcement agents everywhere and they are interested in what one does, the particular agents present depend on ones location and what they are doing. This paper will look at three law enforcement branches; local, state and federal law enforcement. It will look at what thee three entail and how they differ in terms of jurisdiction and authority.

At the local enforcement agencies, the commonplace and frequently experienced law enforcement agency are municipal police officers. These police officers represent villages, towns and cities. A striking difference between these local officers and those found within state and federal level is that they offer the first…… [Read More]


Law Teacher. (2014). Local, State and Federal Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from 

Harkins, D. (2009). What are the Differences Between Federal, State and Local Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from
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Flags of Convenience and Mrs

Words: 2302 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 23671614

"When a court strikes a contract provision for unconscionability it is declaring that provision is so unfair or oppressive that the court will refuse to enforce it." (Gillespie, 2007). The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution provides that, "Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction." (U.S. Const. amend. XIII, 1). The contract that the parties signed purported to make Mrs. Lowell the property of Mr. Lowell. Because the Lowells are Americans and purchased their ticket in America, it is unlikely that an American court would recognize Mr. Lowell's ability to contract away his wife's right to be recognized as a legal individual in a contract dispute. Furthermore, the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees Mrs. Lowell the equal protection of the laws, (U.S. Const. amend. XIV, 1)…… [Read More]


Cruise Lines International Association. (2008). Personal safety and security. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Cruise Lines International Association

Web site: 

Fl. Stat. 731.301(b)(1).

Gillespie, D. (2007). Survey of Illinois law: contract law. Retrieved December 9, 2008 from Southern Illinois University School of Law
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Confusion the Case of Trucker

Words: 870 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 55979084

The discovery includes: depositions, answers to written interrogatories, production of documents and evidence, court-ordered examinations, and requests for admissions (Mann, R. & Roberts, B. 2009. p.53). The final step of the pretrial procedure is the pretrial conference between judge and the parties' attorneys which serves to "simplify the issues in dispute and encourage settlement of the dispute without trial" (Mann, R. & Roberts, B. 2009. p.53). Directly before a trial though either party may ask the court for a summary judgment which allows the judge to decide the case on matters of law without a jury trial.

f the trial phase has been reached then no settlement or summary judgment was present. The trial begins with jury selection which includes the voir dire (an examination of potential jurors. With a jury selected the trial begins with opening statements by the attorneys, the prosecutor's presentation of the case including direct examination…… [Read More]

If the trial phase has been reached then no settlement or summary judgment was present. The trial begins with jury selection which includes the voir dire (an examination of potential jurors. With a jury selected the trial begins with opening statements by the attorneys, the prosecutor's presentation of the case including direct examination questions of witnesses, and the defense cross examination. During the trial the judge will rule on matters of law which may be later used by attorneys for an appeal. At the close of the prosecution's case the defendant may present a case or ask for a directed verdict which allows the judge to decide on the case's merits without a jury. If no such request is made the case proceeds to closing arguments, jury instruction and deliberation, and ultimately the announcement of the verdict. A verdict may result in motions by the losing party for a new trial or a judgment notwithstanding the verdict. In absence of these motions the losing party may file an appeal which would be heard by a higher court (Mann, R. & Roberts, B. 2009. p.53). With this context in mind the examination of Trucker's case may begin.

Jurisdiction over the Suit

The first question to be determined is what court will hear the case? This question is answered through jurisdiction. "Jurisdiction means the power and authority of a court to hear and decide a given case" (Mann, R. & Roberts, B. 2009. p. 46). A court must have both subject matter jurisdiction and jurisdiction over the parties. In the Trucker case the analysis begins determinant of federal jurisdiction. Could a federal district court in Confusion hear the case? Not on the basis of exclusive federal jurisdiction which allows a federal court to hear disputes regarding: admiralty, bankruptcy, antitrust, patent, trademark, copyright cases, suits against the U.S., and cases arising under federal statute" (Mann, R. & Roberts, B. 2009. p.46). However, the federal district court
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Sweden's Current Justice System Overview

Words: 3924 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32355412

In 1993 there were 155,704 recorded crimes of burglary and of these 20,200 were residential burglaries. Since the mid-1970s the level of recorded burglaries has fluctuated around a level of 130,000 to 150,000 crimes per year although during the three last years, 1991 to 1993, the level has been close to 155,000. The number of recorded car thefts in 1993 was 61,141 and of these 18,300 were attempts. During the 1980s the number of recorded thefts of cars has doubled from 34,301 in 1980 to 69,003 in 1989. However, in the last three years this crime has decreased from roughly 70,000 in 1991 to roughly 61,000 in 1993.

Drug offenses. In 1993, 40,700 violations of the Narcotic Drugs Act were reported to the police. This figure is 40% higher than in 1990. Due to the method of counting drug offenses and the fact that this is a crime category highly…… [Read More]


An Introduction to the Sami Culture" (1996) Retrieved, January 28, at 

Criminal Matters" Swedish Government Offices Website Retrieved, January 28, at 

Malmstrm, C. "Diversity in the European Context" Retrieved, January 28, at 

Reiter, P.L. (2007), Comparative criminal justice systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall/Pearsons.
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Buffalo Creek Case

Words: 621 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 89736244

uffalo Creek Case centered around a dam that collapsed on February 26, 1972. The catastrophe was huge, as the dam collapsed and disappeared in a matter of minutes with no warning. The result was that 125 people were killed, and hundreds of individuals in the area were injured and left without residences. Many of the residences had had enough time to race to the hillside above the valley were the dam lay in order to survive the catastrophe and escape devastating injury, many people not only lost their homes, but also everything they owned. The communities surrounding the dam were totally wiped out (Smith 2004).

The coal company that owned this dam began to settle claims, but the claims were relatively small in comparison with the actual loss most of the people underwent. Therefore, the residents approached Arnold & Porter for help, a company that had recently helped win a…… [Read More]


Arnold and Porter Publications. 2002. "The Buffalo Creek Case." The Journal of Lawyers and Law: 453-479. In Lexis Nexus [database online]. 24 May 2011.

Smith, Bernard. 2004. "Analysis of Psycholocial Claims in Law. The Journal of Lawyers and Law: 43-49. In Lexis Nexus [database online]. 24 May 2011.
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Formulating a Disaster and Risk Management Plan

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35317636

Lynchburg Security

Formulating a disaster and risk management is necessary for this jurisdiction. This is based on the knowledge that risk management is a demanding initiative that requires an appropriate and responsive. Satellite units are professionally trained to meet global demands. The Lynchburg, Virginia security system has met federal requirements of quality, and as a result, the system has proved suitable to respond to various hazards experienced in this jurisdiction. This report will attempt to present the Homeland Security apparatus of this jurisdiction. The report will assess the current situation of possible hazards and actual preparedness whilst presenting the elements of disaster management at Lynchburg. This section is a critical analysis of how disaster is managed within this jurisdiction compared to the critical disaster management measures in the United Kingdom.

Homeland Security stakeholders

The Lynchburg Homeland Security system is comprised of stakeholders like administrators, first responders, and the local law…… [Read More]


Agostino, D.M., & Jenkins, W.O. (2011). Catastrophic planning: states participating in FEMA's pilot program made progress, but better guidance could enhance future pilot programs. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Govt. Accountability Office.

Brownstein, C. (2007). Report of the DHS national small vessel security summit managing the risk. Arlington, VA: Homeland Security Institute.

Davis, B.J. (2011, November 1). Interagency Logistics Education and Training: Building Homeland Defense and Civil Support Liaisons: Disasters within the United States

Edkins, J. (2011). Missing: Persons and Politics. Cornell University Press.
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analyzing two global'security organizations

Words: 1237 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27990757

A plethora of private firms around the world offer customized security and risk management services. TAL Global and the Wexford Group are two firms that offer some of the most comprehensive security and risk management services, strategies, and techniques, interfacing between public and private sector and wielding power in a wide range of jurisdictions. Wexford Group offers services including operational advising, law enforcement support, program management, risk assessment, operations and intelligence fusion, development and fielding, and also recruitment, assessment, selection, and training (RAST) support for government agencies and private industries. TAL Global offers airport and aviation security, emergency preparedness planning, executive protection, risk management, school safety and security, and a range of other security services within their organizational rubric. These two organizations have similar leadership structures, dividing their different duties into different departments, each with its own organizational sub-structures. Working within the laws and jurisdictions of any client context, TAL…… [Read More]

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Homeland Security Department of Homeland

Words: 890 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86762421

Breadth of Responsibilities

All of the DHS responsibilities relate back to the primary jurisdiction and mission responsibilities listed above. Information sharing and analysis, prevention and protection, preparedness and response, research, commerce and trade, travel security, and immigration all are functions of keeping our country safe from terrorists and responding to both manmade and natural disasters.

The auxiliary functions of the department such as the Secret Service, U.S. Coast Guard, FEMA, Immigration and Customs, the Transportation Security Administration, and the Office of the Inspector General (OIG) all add to the breadth of DHS functionality, and fall under the primary mission statement of the department. Even the OIG, which is responsible for auditing the internal functioning of DHS including fraud and abuse indirectly operates as a function of ensuring this primary mission is carried out effectively.

Is the DHS Effectively Organized?

After a couple of re-organizations over the years, yes, it is,…… [Read More]

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Interoffice Memorandum of Law Case Joe Lee

Words: 1373 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82812742

Interoffice Memorandum of Law

Case: Joe Lee Simmons, Appellant v. State of Texas, Appellee

Docket number: 01-07-00543-C

Office file number

e: Issue [1] was there evidence of possession of cocaine weighing four or more grams but less than 200 grams given the evidentiary requirements of TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 38.35(d)(1); [2] the validity of a motion to suppress based on the officer's failure to report all offenses committed in his jurisdiction to the magistrate, as required by TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 2.13(b)(3); and [3] the sufficiency of an indictment under TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 28.10.


The appellant contends that the trial court erred in admitting the testimony of the State's forensic chemist, who performed a chemical analysis on the controlled substance found in appellant's shirt pocket, because the chemical analysis was not accredited at the time of the analysis; appellant challenges the trial court's denial of…… [Read More]


TEX. JUR. 3d § 23 Sufficiency of Indictment (2006).

It is the appellant's responsibility to show error on appeal, and if the record fails to show error, then it should be assumed that the trial court acted correctly.

"It is generally presumed on appeal that the court ruled correctly and that the appellant must show error" (Hall v. State, 829 S.W. 2d 407, 410-411).

"It is appellant's burden to not only preserve the alleged error for review, but to present a record of the alleged error sufficient for us to review it and determine if it was error and if so whether the defendant was harmed" (Montoya v. State, 43 S.W.3d 568, 572).
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Court Services Management

Words: 1519 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86848592

Court Systems

The structure and platform on which the legal system is based upon is very important in understanding the total landscape of how justice is carried out within the confines of the government. The purpose of this essay is to explore the inner workings of both the federal and state court systems and highlight their similarities and differences. Also, this essay will investigate the roles of court administrators in the different types of functions that a court serves. A investigation into the state of Colorado and its court structure will also be presented to help give a practical example of the court system. Finally, the essay will address quasi-judicial bodies and their impact on the courts and legal system.

The Basis for Authority

The United States Courts Government Website (n.d.), details a comprehensive overview of the basis of America's court system. The United States Constitution is understood to be…… [Read More]


Cornell University Legal Information Institute (ND). "Quasi-judicial." Viewed 15 Oct 2013. Retrieved from 

Linhares, G. (2012). Role of the State Court Administrator. National Center for State Courts, Trends in Courts, 2012. Retrieved from 

The State Of Colorado. "Colorado State Court System." Viewed 15 Oct 2013. Retrieved from 

The United States Court (ND). "The Difference Between Federal and State Courts. Viewed 15 Oct 2013. Retrieved from  erencebetweenFederalAndStateCourts.aspx
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McArdie Estate vs Cox

Words: 2001 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97454799

Mcardie Estate v. Cox case, by providing a case summary, comparison of exclusive professional practice scope and right to health care professionals' title, and protections for healthcare workings abiding by practice standards.

Malpractice and neglect are perhaps the aspects most carefully covered by healthcare policymakers. Healthcare law may be considered distinctive in the legal sphere, as it is one subdivision that affords numerous scholarship approaches a chance to succeed (Jocelyn,, 2002). Healthcare law is an interdisciplinary and dynamic domain, with numerous legal, scientific, economic, social, political and philosophical grounds for its dynamism.

Case Summary

McArdie Estate v. Cox was an appellate court case. Gastroplasty reversal surgery was performed on the deceased patient on 26th June, 1995. Gastroplasty refers to a weight-loss tactic of stapling the stomach; the patient in question had two staple lines across her tummy. She was made aware of the fact that, in view of her…… [Read More]

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FINRA the Financial Industry Regulatory

Words: 545 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35444736

FINRA believes, however, in going beyond regulation. A stated mandate of FINRA is to improve investor education, because FINRA believes that "investor protection begins with education" (FINRA website, 2010). FINRA has set up an Investor Education Foundation, which in 2009 spend $46 million on improving investor education about the markets.

FINRA believes that the markets should be fair for all participants. The body feels that this will ensure investors have as many choices as possible for their money. In addition, FINRA believes in taking a proactive approach to regulatory issues, because this will enhance its mission of consumer protection (Ibid).

FINRA was set up by the two major exchanges in part because of the need to ensure that the markets are fair and are regulated efficiently and effectively. Stock markets today compete globally for capital and FINRA is a natural response to the need of U.S. markets to gain competitive…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

FINRA website, various pages. (2010).

Hansard, S. (2008). Brokers, advisers blast FINRA proposal. Investment News. Retrieved April 10, 2010 from
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Business Law Contract Analysis U-Haul

Words: 4590 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46964143

Independent dealers must sign a contract that sets forth the manner in which they will operate their rental centers. Often a small business owner will supplement their income be adding U-Hauls to their market mix. Independent contractors earn a commission on their sales.

Each division of AMERCO has it own president. All of them must report to a Board of Directors. The Chairman of the Board and overall President is Edward Shoen, descendent of the original founders of the company. Many members of the Shoen family still control much of the company (Google Finance). Little information is available about the company, aside from their financial statements. Although they have a Board of Directors, the company continues to operate as a family-style operation, with the family members occupying many positions in upper management. The company structure is simple and little is available beyond basic information.

Purchasing Contract Analysis and the UCC…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Ceh v. UHaul International, Inc., 11th district court of appeals, No. 04-10031.

A Accessed January 22.

Company News; U-Haul's Parent Seeks Bankruptcy Protection." June 21, 2003. New

York Times. . Accessed January 23, 2007.
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Organizational Conflict the Study Defines the Conflict

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 74110692

Organizational Conflict

The study defines the conflict that arises because of different functional and operational jurisdiction. In fact, a large part of conflict in the study can be considered functional that arises because each of Police Department has a different interpretation of the drug problems. Moreover, a large part of the conflicts stems from the autonomy of each of the Police Departments. For example, Milledgeville Police Department is the largest police department, while twenty-nine police departments are smaller in size and represent smaller communities, but none of the departments has the same view about the drug problem. Therefore, there are different and often opposite views about the use of 1-million dollar federal grant for drug enforcement efforts. Chief David Bascom thinks that Milledgeville Police Department should coordinate the efforts since a large part of the drug problem stems from his city. However, Chief Hayes believes that each of the Departments…… [Read More]


Axelrod, R. (1998). The evolution of cooperation. New York: Basic Books.
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Surgical Options for Post-Larengectomy Patients

Words: 2338 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37667429

In situations where outcome or decision control is ceded to a legitimate decision-maker, the available legal procedure may be judged according to whether it provides adequate 'voice' for the aggrieved, adequate process control, and/or the satisfaction of being respected and afforded an appropriate level of procedural justice as a litigant, defendant or citizen.

In any event, continued dialogue between lawyers and psychologists from both types of system is encouraging. To this end, van Koppen and Penrod (2003) have collected legal psychological analyses of American and European criminal justice procedure together in a recent volume allowing comparisons between adversarial and inquisitorial mentalities.(n10) If this type of work continues, we may better understand when each type of process works best and when people, be they socialised in Australia, America, England or continental Europe, react best to adversarial or inquisitorial systems of legal decision-making in particular contexts.

In many jurisdictions, the approaches of…… [Read More]


Balmford, R. 'The Life of the Administrative Appeals Tribunal: Logic or Experience' in R. Creyke (ed) Administrative Tribunals: Taking Stock (Canberra: Centre for International and Public Law, 1992) 50, 68-71

Bronitt, Simon; Mares, Henry. 2004. The history and theory of the Adversarial and Inquisitorial systems of law. (cover story). Legaldate (3): 1-3.

Lind EA et al. 1978. Reactions To Procedural Models For Adjudicative Conflict Resolution: A Cross-National Study. Journal of Conflict Resolution 22: 318.

Nolan, Mark. 2004. The Adversarial mentality vs. The Inquisitorial mentality. Legaldate 16 (3): 7.
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Homeland Defense Agency Identification In

Words: 4253 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 52563219

(Combating Terrorism: FEMA Continues to Make Progress in Coordinating Preparedness and esponse: Participation in Interagency and Intra-agency Groups and Committees)

CIMS: The Office of Emergency Management --OEM who has been collaborating with NYPD & FDNY and other City agencies to develop the CIMS, the adoption of which was declared by Mayor Bloomberg in March, 2004. CIMS makes a uniform incident management structure for every City agency that is broadly based on the Incident Command System model. The setting up of CIMS ensures a system for management of emergencies with a universal understanding of terminologies and roles and responsibilities among all agencies. CIMS makes use of the combined lead agency/unified operations section. In case of the majority of the incidents where multiple agencies are needed to act on several emergency situations, a unified operations post is made. The core competencies of the primary agencies will establish command of authority for immediate…… [Read More]


About FEMA" Available at . Accessed 7 September, 2005

About FEMA: FEMA History" Available at
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Hy Cite Corp Vs Badbusinessbureau the Court

Words: 612 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81472551

Hy Cite Corp. Vs. Badbusinessbureau

The court case Hy Cite Corp v is about a consumer protection firm that ran several websites (i.e. The IP off eport and Bad Business Bureau). They would post negative reviews about those companies who did not meet the expectations of their customers. This was accomplished through monitoring an excessive amount of reports they received. On one occasion, they posted an advisory about oyal Prestige Cookware. ("Hy Cite Corp v," 2005)

The parent company (Hy Cite Corp.) contacted the firm and asked them to cease with their activities. As the claims that they made about: the product and company were completely false. In response, the defendant offered to help the plaintiff solve these and future disputes for a fee of $50 thousand per month along with a $1,500.00 retainer. In response, Hy Cite Corp. sued claiming that the firm was in violation of…… [Read More]


Hy Cite Corp v (2005). Retrieved from:
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Fault An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based

Words: 30263 Length: 110 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 86754711

Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales

The United Kingdom

statistics regarding claims
























Works Cited



At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…… [Read More]

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Terms and Conditions

Words: 1665 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 68898619

Internet revolution has touched the lives of almost everyone on the world regardless of their nationality and geographical location. Anybody with a phone connection can access the entire network of the globe and stay connected with the rest of the world. The free service providers and the search engine providers play a great part in giving the much-needed services of free web-based mail and other services. Yahoo has been one of the pioneers in the area. While the Internet is accessible to anyone, the service provided by yahoo attracts both bona fide and male fide consumers. The terms of service under which Yahoo agrees to provide their help in the internet make it clear to all the honorable intentions with which they provide the service and require the consumers also to agree to these terms before embarking upon the use of the service. This is a paper on the terms…… [Read More]


Terms of Service, accessed 2003 and available at 

Yahoo Privacy policy accessed 2003 and available at 

Spam Policy, accessed 2003, and available at
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Misdemeanor a Felony Charge Detail Legal Terms

Words: 537 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9079828

misdemeanor a felony charge. Detail legal terms stare decisis legal precedent affect criminal prosecutions. Finally, provide a definition words, legal term, corpus delicti.

Misdemeanors are crimes that impose a penalty of twelve or less months in prison while felonies are crimes that carry a penalty of more than twelve months in prison. In many cases two acts that might seem similar are likely to require different penalties. For example, an attack that would only involve threats can be considered a misdemeanor while going through and physically attacking an individual can be considered a felony. The victim is also important in determining whether an act is a misdemeanor or a felony. Performing indecent exposure in front of a child is likely to qualify as a felony whereas doing so in front of an adult can be considered a misdemeanor.

The legal term stare decisis is extremely important in legal prosecutions, as…… [Read More]

Works cited:

Bacigal, R. (2008). "Criminal Law and Procedure: An Overview." (Cengage Learning)

Barkow, A.S. & Barkow, R.E. (2011). "Prosecutors in the Boardroom: Using Criminal Law to Regulate Corporate Conduct." NYU Press
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Siracusa Principles

Words: 966 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 21289165

Siracusa Principles Empowering Public Health

Siracusa Principles

Investing in public health is substantial for the prosperity of human rights. This is based on the knowledge that public health commitment is a collective focus attempting to minimize the gap between the rich and the poor in accessing health resources. As a result, public health policy formulation is possible through national and international legislations. A good example of this legislation is the Siracusa principles. This study examines the various roles played by Siracusa principles in improving public health administration both nationally and internationally. This discussion will present a critical analysis of the background that lead to the development of this legislation and the impact it has had on general human rights practice. This study also focuses on the impact of the Siracusa principles in facilitating public health administration whilst using the Medicaid as a close example of its influence (Grodin et al.,…… [Read More]


Burchill, R., Davidson, S., & Conte, A. (2013). Defining Civil and Political Rights: The Jurisprudence of the United Nations Human Rights Committee. New York: Ashgate Publishing

Grodin, M., Tarantola, D., Annas, G., & Gruskin, S. (2013). Human Rights in a Changing World. New York: Routledge

Olesker, R. (2007). The Value of Security Vs. The Security of Values: The Relationship Between the Rights of the Minority and the Security of the Majority in Israel. New York: ProQuest.
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Criminal Verdicts

Words: 1115 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92723214

Criminal Cases and Their esolutions

Discuss one (1) real-life criminal case, taken from current events, and identify the court that took jurisdiction. Explain why the court that took the case was the appropriate one for the particular circumstances. (Jodie Arias)

The Jodi Arias case is being tried in Maricopa County by the Maricopa Superior Court. The reason why that court took jurisdiction is because the crime was allegedly committed in Mesa Arizona. Mesa is located in Maricopa County. Part of the reason that the court was tried by the Superior Court was connected to the fact that the Arias was charged with murder in the first and because the state sought the death penalty. Thus, the stakes are high enough to warrant the use of the superior court. "The case has not yet been sent to the jury for their determination on whether Petitioner is not guilty or guilty of…… [Read More]


Doward, J. (2005). 'My home is now my prison cell'. Retrieved from 

Newcomb, A. (2013, Jan 27). Former Ms. Washington Takes Plea Bargain in Murder Case. Retrieved from 


Palta, R. (2012, June 13). Researchers say plea bargains actually send innocent defendants to jail. Retrieved from
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Investigative Task Force Include Information

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 31741672

(rookes, 2001)

Mobile surveillance is when officials are monitoring the cell phone communication of a suspect. A good example of this; is when federal agents are listening in on the cell phone conversations of suspected terrorist leaders. (rookes, 2001)

Camera surveillance is when video cameras are used to monitor what is occurring at a particular location. A good example would be when; surveillance cameras are used to monitor public infrastructure such as: the subway system for suspicious activity. (rookes, 2001)

Social networking analysis is when you are monitoring the overall activities of someone on the different social networking sites. During the course of a terrorist operation, this would be used to establish the overall personality of the suspect; and determine how they are connecting with the rest of the organization. (rookes, 2001)

iometric analysis is when you are using biological features to identify suspects, such as: finger prints or facial…… [Read More]


Multijurisdictional Drug Law Enforcement Strategies. (1993). Washington D.C.: U.S. Government Printing.

Brookes, P. (2001). Electronic Surveillance Devices. Woodburn, MA: Reid Educational and Publishing.

Dempsey, J. (2009). An Introduction to Policing. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar.

Schmid, a. (2006). Political Terrorism. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.
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Gestational Surrogacy Even Though it

Words: 2181 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56425393

A also consider that a proper legislation should protect the surrogate mother, in order to avoid situations in which her rights would not be respected. Therefore, she should be paid her medical expenses and, as a sort of benefit for her act, she should be granted a free medical insurance and the right to free medical analyses. Moreover, the legislation should stipulate that the surrogate mother should be of the same nationality - American in this case - as the future parents, in order to avoid situations as those which occurred in the Indian women case, who have thought to have been abused, a thing they have accepted because of their poor material status.

All in all, it seems that gestational surrogacy is not among the best surrogacy practice, and this is because of the ethnic, legal and cultural misunderstandings it might generate. In addition, I consider it should be…… [Read More]


Ciccarrelli, John K., and Janice C. Ciccarrelli. "The Legal Aspects of Parental Rights in Assisted." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 127-137. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.

Baker, Brenda M. "A Case for Permitting Altruistic Surrogacy." Hypatia. Bloomington 11.2 (1996): 34. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.  tId=28972&RQT=309&VName=PQD>.

Ciccarrelli, Janice C., and Linda J. Beckman. "Navigating Rough Waters: an Overview of Psychological Aspects of Surrogacy." Journal of Social Issues 61 (2005): 21-43. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007.

Douglas, Carol Anne. "Women as Wombs." Off Our Backs Jan. 1994: 12. Alt-Press Watch. Tufts Library. 17 Mar. 2007, at .
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Promoting Trust in E-Commerce An

Words: 3480 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 12837024

All these aspects of a B2B transaction, when consistently executed on, create a level of trust that becomes one of the strongest and most unassailable differentiators there are in a market.

Companies occupying the second highest layer, Collaborating, are using portals and other Internet-based tools to maximize information sharing and co-development of strategies and the co-sharing of communications tools and ultimately platforms. Security, DRM and digital signature strategies all aimed at increasing trust as a differentiator; apply equally across B2B and B2C selling strategies, with B2B-based approaches having the greatest long-term impact on eventually quantifying trust and leading to greater levels of synchronization across channel, supply chain, and selling partners.

Anticipating, the second highest level in the maturity model, is where the majority of companies are today from both a B2B and B2C perspective. The focus on making a strong correlation between making information flow optimized vs. striking a collaborative…… [Read More]

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Bjs Incarceration Rates in the

Words: 594 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 32918519

S. Census Bureau, as the collection agent, drew a sample of jail facilities (934) in 875 jurisdictions based on information from the 2005 Census of Jail Inmates. Local jail jurisdictions included counties (parishes in Louisiana) or municipal governments that administered one or more local jails. The 2009 ASJ sample included all jails with certainty that were operated jointly by two or more jurisdictions, or multi-jurisdictional jails." (p. 1)

In spite of the impression that reigns in discussions over prison overcrowding and the emphasis on incarceration in the United States administration of justice, recent patterns show incarceration rates are actually trending downward. According to a press release from Kara McCarthy (2011), "the U.S. local jail inmate population has declined for the second consecutive year, the Justice Department's Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) announced today. The jail population declined by 2.4% in the 12 months ending June 30, 2010." (McCarthy, p. 1)…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS). (2009). Annual Survey of Jails. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

McCarthy, K. (2011). U.S. Jail Population Continues to Decline. Bureau of Justice Statistics.

Minton, T.D. (2011). Jail Inmates at Midyear 2010 -- Statistical Table. Bureau of Justice Statistics.
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Tanya Trucker and Confusion Tanya Trucker and

Words: 1061 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74355755

Tanya Trucker and Confusion

Tanya Trucker and the State of Confusion

In the State of Confusion, trucks that travel through must use a B-type hitch on all trucks and towing trailers, however, Tanya Trucker, who lives in another state, Denial, but must have her trucks travel through Confusion, does not like the added expense the B-type hitch law requires. She wants to take the State of Confusion to court and challenge the law, especially since the federal government has made no such regulations involving the hitches on trucks. She feels that the extra regulation imposed by the State of Confusion is an undue burden on her business and wants the courts to stop Confusion from enforcing this law. There are many issues involved in this case, such as, the relationship between states and the federal government, which court will hear the case, is the regulation even Constitutional.

Since Tanya Trucker's…… [Read More]


Carroll, Michael. (2011). "The Supremacy Clause v. S.B. 1070..." Albany Government

Law Review. Retrieved from 

Radcliffe, Mark. Diane Brinson. "The U.S. Legal System." Retrieved from
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Lex Fori Approach the State

Words: 596 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 24530970

A finding that the "Smithville crossing is extremely hazardous" is a finding of fact. Anytime that a court is discussing a finding of fact, it cannot simply rely on stare decisis, but must examine whether the factual situation has remained the same since announcing the first rule. For example, the Smithville crossing could be extremely hazardous in rainy May weather, but not hazardous in dry December weather. In addition, the Regional Transit Authority may have placed appropriate warnings or safety devices, which would have changed the nature of the crossing. Therefore, the court may not accept the conclusion announced in the Walters case. However, if the factual conditions did not change between the two accidents, the court should recognize its own precedent and follow the Walters decision.

7. When a court makes its decision effective as precedent at a date in the future of its decision, it generally does so…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Should Sherriff's Be Elected Across

Words: 725 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22142042

Criminal Justice

Should Sherriff's be Elected?

Across the nation popular election is the almost standardized means of selection of the sheriff. Sheriffs are elected to four-year terms in forty one states, two-year terms in three states, a three-year term in one state and a six-year term in one state. The races are on a partisan ballot in forty states and on a non-partisan basis in six states. A small number of states do not have the office of sheriff. "There are no sheriffs in Alaska and that office was essentially abolished in the year 2000 in Connecticut. Hawaii does not have the position traditionally associated with the office of sheriff. In hode Island, the governor appoints the sheriff. In two Colorado counties and Dade County, Florida, sheriffs are appointed by the county executive" (Elected office of the sheriff, n.d.). Some jurisdictions have explored switching to a system of appointed sheriffs…… [Read More]


Dan Smith - Bell County Sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from

Elected office of the sheriff. (n.d.). Retreived from 


Killeen Police Department. (2012). Retreived from
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Terrorism What Is Involved in

Words: 1034 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15181921

In modern terminology, and for foreign policy, political science and international law, crimes against humanity are any atrocious act committed on a large scale. They can be prosecuted in most any Federal Court ystem, depending on where they occurred and which population was part of the criminal activity. The implication for international law is that crimes against humanity are subject to universal jurisdiction, which means that tates can exercise their own jurisdiction regardless of where the crime was committed, and that all tates also have the obligation and duty to assist each other in the defense of these sorts of activities. It is also important to note that no human, regardless of affiliation, is immune from prosecution, even heads of state, and on person can plead a defense as obeying orders.

Part 3 -- Is it legally justified to invade/occupy another country in the name of arresting/hitting terrorists? International cooperation…… [Read More]


Dyson, W. (2012). Terrorism: An Investigator's Handbook. Waltham, MA: Anderson


McCormack, W. (2007). Understanding the Law of Terrorism. New York: Lexis Nexis.

Title of agency, not plagiarized