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Juvenile Detention Alternatives Initiative
Innumerable advancements and innovations have profoundly contributed to the betterment of the lives of the human race in the twenty first century. This trend of progression is surging ahead at a rapid pace; however, it is very unfortunate to declare that many of the social dilemmas also exist in this industrialized world that is making millions of residents suffer from its drastic outcomes. While taking the country of United States into consideration, the facts and figures statistical records apparently reveal the information that the nation is full of culturally diverse people that belong to different racial and ethnic groups (Holman & Ziedenberg, 2013).
In this diverse society, juvenile violence and crime has become one of widespread as well as prominent social issue with grave consequences. Due to the elevated crime rate (amongst the juveniles) within the country, detention is one of critical phases in the justice…
Armour, J. & Hammond, S. (2009). Minority Youth in the Juvenile Justice System - Disproportionate Minority Contact. National Conference of State Legislatures -- The Forum of America's Idea. Retrieved from: http://www.ncsl.org/print/cj/minoritiesinjj.pdf
Austin, J., Johnson, K.D. & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders. Juvenile Justice Bulletin. Retrieved from: https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/208804.pdf
Holman, B. & Ziedenberg, J. (2013). The Dangers of Detention: The Impact of Incarcerating Youth in Detention and Other Secure Facilities. Justice Policy Institute. Retrieved from: http://www.unicef.org/ceecis/REP-Danger_of_Detention_JJ.pdf
Roberts, A.R. (2004). Juvenile Justice Sourcebook: Past, Present, and Future: Past, Present, and Future. USA: Oxford University Press.
Following an investigations there were findings that certain violations were evident and specifically those relating to failure to protect confined juveniles from harm; failure to address incidences of youth violence due to inadequate supervision; failure to protect juveniles confined from participation in sexual activity; and excessive use of physical force, among other serious violations all clearly in violation of professional standards and conduct.
The interview in this work in combination with the literature reviewed highlight the importance of the role of the individual or agency responsible for ensuring that professional standards of conduct are met among those who work with the Juvenile Justice Affairs in a given county in any U.S. state.
Letter to Honorable Mitch Daniels, Governor, State of Indiana (2005) Investigation of the Correctional facility, Indiana. Online available at: http://www.justice.gov/crt/split/documents/split_indiana_plainfield_juv_findlet_9-9-05.pdf
Richie, rooke (2009) Department of Justice Finds Serious Constitutional Violations at State Juvenile Facilities. Examiner. 20…
Letter to Honorable Mitch Daniels, Governor, State of Indiana (2005) Investigation of the Correctional facility, Indiana. Online available at: http://www.justice.gov/crt/split/documents/split_indiana_plainfield_juv_findlet_9-9-05.pdf
Richie, Brooke (2009) Department of Justice Finds Serious Constitutional Violations at State Juvenile Facilities. Examiner. 20 Sept. 2009. Online available at: http://www.examiner.com/x-21171-NY-Public-Policy-Examiner~y2009m9d20-Department-of-Justice-finds-serious-constitutional-violations-at-State-juvenile-facilities
Mendocino County Government. Class Specification Class Title: Sheriff's Captain Class Code: 75226 Department: Sheriff Flsa Status: E. Reports To: Sheriff Date: 04/05. Prepared by Slavin Management Consultants for Mendocino County Government, 1999. Revised 4/05 Sheriff's Captain Class Specification Class Code: 75223-Page 2 Prepared by Slavin Management Consultants for Mendocino County Government, 1999. Revised 4/05. Online available at:
.co. http://www mendocino.ca.us/hr/cgi-bin/spec/75226_sheriffs_captain.pdf
Most boys stay fourteen days or less. Some are held while they are waiting for a bed in a treatment center. Some boys are bailed out by their parents and in other cases they are released by the judge. It depends on several factors, including the age of the offender, the level of crime, and whether it is a first or repeat offense. Eighty percent of cases do not go to trial; attorneys are usually able to work out a plea deal.
Offenses range from relatively minor, such as shoplifting, to felony offences such as home invasion, rape and even murder. Every youth is screened before coming to the unit. Low-level offenders who are non-violent, who are not sex offenders, who are not fire-setters, and not considered a flight risk are placed in foster homes. The boys can refuse to go to a foster home and come to the detention…
Juvenile Detention Standards
The article by Livers & Kehoe (2012) is quite contemporary and that is one of the main themes of the article. The subject of their research lies in the standards of juvenile detention centers and facilities. They focus upon the history of corrections, the history of juvenile corrections, and the history of the standards of juvenile corrections. In American history, the history of juvenile corrections begins in the first quarter of the 20th century. The American corrections system originated in the 19th century, seeing a great deal of change and evolution during its more than a century of history. Livers & Kehoe discuss the organizations and agencies that influenced the development and philosophy practiced in juvenile detention centers. They plot a clear timeline of juvenile corrections history and provide transparent explanations of the direct contributions made by advocacy & administrative groups to establish, maintain,…
Department of Justice: Office of the Federal Detention Trustee. (2011). Juvenile Federal Performance-Based Detention Standards Handbook. Department of Justice, Web, Available from: http://www.justice.gov/ofdt/juvenile.pdf. 2013 February 15.
Department of Justice: Office of Justice Programs -- Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2013). Correctional Facilities. Department of Justice, Web, Available from: http://www.ojjdp.gov/mpg/progTypesCorrectional.aspx . 2013 February 15.
Livers, M., & Kehoe, C.J. (2012). Juvenile Detention and Corrections Standards: Looking Back and Ahead. Corrections Today, 74(1), 35 -- 38.
And since those who are forced into detention are disproportionately African-American, the problems caused by the detention of juveniles is particularly acute in the African-American community. The effects of detention have been researched and discovered to be detrimental to the safety and mental health of the juvenile, as well as increase the chance of recidivism. Therefore, any solution to the problem of juvenile detention will be proportionately beneficial to the African-American community.
The most effective solution to the problem of juvenile delinquency seems to be the new alternative programs developed during the early part of the 21st century. Juvenile Drug Court Programs have given many juvenile offenders the help and support needed to become productive members of society. Programs like Detention Diversion Advocacy Program (DDAP), in which 56% of their juvenile clients were African-American, have evolved into an effective means by which juveniles can transform their delinquent lives into good,…
Austin, James, Kelly Dedel Johnson, and Ronald Weitzer. (2005). "Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders." U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/208804.pdf
Cooper, Caroline. (2001). "Juvenile Drug Court Programs." U.S. Department of Justice: Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grant Program. Retrieved from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf
"Core Values." (n.d.) St. Leo University Webpage. Retrieved from http://www.saintleo.edu/About-SLU/Florida-Catholic-University
"DDAP: Detention Diversion Advocacy Program." (n.d.) Center on Juvenile & Criminal
new juvenile detention center, if given unlimited financial resources. It first examines the main purpose, and location of the facility, and then turns to how the facility would deal with resident problems with socialization, education, and correctional components. Finally, budgeting and staff elements are examined, with a need to create measures for evaluation to later test facility efficiency.
Unfortunately, juvenile crime is becoming more and more of an issue here in the United States. As rates of juvenile crime continue to go up, the ability to house and rehabilitate these young offenders is becoming harder and harder. Current resources are strained and overpopulated, leading to the need for more facilities that are more efficient. hus, this is an examination of the creation of a brand new facility using the research as a catalyst for construction.
he main purpose oft his document is to provide a glimpse into the…
The most important element here is the security of the individuals and the staff within the facility. As such, a strong and successful security system must be in place to monitor the juvenile residents and alert the necessary staff when a situation arises before it gets out of hand. As such, direct supervision of residents by staff is crucial, and must be augmented with a state of the art security system with movable cameras that are placed in appropriate locations throughout the facility. This set up would be in a design with several 48 bed units, which help maximize space, but also make it easier to handle situations as they occur (Native American and Alaskan Technical Assistance Project 2001). Each unit of 48 residents will be broken down into rooms with 8 beds, and will include two other rooms with much less beds for individuals that have been known to cause trouble with their cellmates.
Hiring and Training
Staffing ratios must meet the individual codes of the location. For the state
, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.
The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…
Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.
Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028
County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved
Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.
Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…
Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.
Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.
Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.
Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.
Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…
Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf .
Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.
Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html .
Juveniles may commit crimes on the same level as adults do, but they are of a special case because of their age and relative psychological immaturity. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the minors and help them integrate better into the society. As research shows, police officers come into contact with different kinds of juveniles offenders. They may be mentally ill or handicapped. Some of them come from disorderly families, or are routinely abused physically and sexually by parents or other family members. Others may be simply neglected or have no family support when they are in need (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, pp. 101-2; Cole & Smith, 2007, p. 554). These unique circumstances make juveniles a special case.
As Lawrence and Hemmens (2008) write, police officers need to take special measures in treating juveniles during and after arrest especially because "young persons' views and attitudes toward…
Arundel, a. (2010) Arrest and Custody of Juveniles. Retrieved on February 17, 2011, from http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections17-19/1702JuvArrestCust.pdf
Bartollas, C., & Miller, S.J. (2008) Juvenile Justice in America (5th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.
Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2007) the American System of Criminal Justice (11th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
"Juvenile Arrest and Detention" (n.d.) Criminal Law Free Advice. Retrieved on February 18, 2011, from http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/juvenile_law/juvenile-detention.htm
According to Lawlor, Connecticut has "developed a flexible approach geared toward immediate intervention and proven results" (Lawlor). He explains that not every teenaged car thief with a record of several arrests should be sent to prison, just as not every 10-year-old first time truant needs to be simply sent home to his parents (Lawlor).
The state of Connecticut has sole responsibility for all probation, adult and juvenile, and all graduated sanctions programs are operated by the state or by private, non-profit organizations funded by the state (Lawlor). For more than twenty years, the term 'juvenile' in the state of Connecticut refers to only youths under the age of sixteen; youths who are sixteen years and older are treated as adults for all crimes (Lawlor). In 1995, before the graduated sanctions were implemented, the most serious violent juveniles were the focus of the juvenile court, and all other cases were for…
Bilchik, Shay. "Sentencing juveniles to adult facilities fails youths and society."
Corrections Today. April 1, 2003. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Feld, Barry C. "Abolish the juvenile court: youthfulness, criminal responsibility, and sentencing policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Grisso, Thomas. "The evolution of adolescence: a developmental perspective on juvenile justice reform. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes
Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.
This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.
With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…
Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.
Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.
Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Dugan: Should be on its own page.
Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.
Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…
Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529
Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107
Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012
Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
Juvenile Total Institutions
Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.
Bortner and Williams (1997)
define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.
argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…
ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.
Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.
Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.
Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims
The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.
On the other hand,…
Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html
Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann
Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,
Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.
The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…
Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from: http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53
Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina
Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
, 1914, p. 500).
Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. (Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al., explains on page 326). States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests (Siegel, 17). Approximately 150,000 under age youths (technically children) are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains (17). This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.
The U.S. Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974, which provides funds to make…
Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Del Carmen, Rolando V. (2010). Community-Based Corrections.
Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, and Hart, Albert Bushnell. (1914). Cyclopedia of American
Government, Volume 1. Emeryville, CA: D. Appleton and Company.
They must also determine what types of delinquent behavior and youth violence are causing the greatest concern in the community. (Medaris, 1996, para.# 5)
As can be seen from the above statement of the first step in implementing the SHOCAP program in any community, first look at statistics on juvenile crime and second ask the community what it is most afraid of with regard to juvenile crime. This intention seriously contradicts the intention of the juvenile justice system to demonstrate focus on individual cases of each juvenile offender and give it adequate time for understanding of all mitigating circumstances, rather than seeking to understand outside fear of crime. Many factors contribute to public opinion of crime and not all of those factors are realistically and truly connected to real crime occurrences and/or statistics. The "mitigating" factors of public crime fear are in dire need of reevaluation, starting with unrealistic and…
Cothern, L. (November 2000) "Juveniles and the Death Penalty," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Accessed July, 10, 2008
Medaris, M (August 1996) "Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program. (SHOCAP)" Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Factsheet Accessed July, 10, 2008, http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/shocap.txt
Finally, for the purposes of this research proposal we will refer to a third study that suggests education could be at the heart of reducing juvenile delinquency statistics but the conditions in which the child is raised impacts their ability to choose between right and wrong (Hindelang, 1981).
Method and design
The goal of this study is to add to the literature that demonstrates that there is a correlation between poverty and juvenile delinquency. This researcher will begin by reviewing the available statistics provided by the state judicial system related specifically to the number of juveniles currently incarcerated at state facilities as well as the youths' offenses. Once this information has been compiled the next step will be to chart the level of income brought in by the adults within each home as well as to determine if the families live rely on welfare or government assistance for their daily…
Hindelang, M; Measuring Deliquency. Sage Library of social research; Vol. 123.
Lewis, D; Violent Juvenile Delinquents: Psychiatric, Neurological, Psychological, and Abuse Factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. Vol 18, Issue 2
Loeber, R.; Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review. Vol. 10, p. 1-41. 1990.
List and explain the factors that affect a police officer's decision whether or not to arrest a juvenile.
One of the primary responsibilities of police officers is in the investigation of crime and the arrest of suspects. Taking a person into custody is always a serious matter and that is why officers must make sure that they have the right suspect before taking this drastic step. Even if a person is later found to be not guilty of a crime, the arrest will still impact them psychologically and sociologically, and may even follow them throughout the rest of their lives. Guilt or innocence and the punishment that a person is to receive are determined by the court system. The officer's job is to find the person responsible and to bring them in. From an emotional perspective, the responsibility can be burdensome and so every officer tries to make…
Davis, S. (1971). Justice for the juvenile: the decision to arrest and due process. Duke Law
Journal. (1971:5). 913-37.
O'Neil, R. (2010). Police policies on arresting juveniles. OLR Research Report.
Patterson, C. & Kaba, M. (2011). Arresting justice: a report about juvenile arrests in Chicago
EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY
Instrument to be used
Future use of study results
Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…
Aisha Sultan; And Holly Hacker; Of The Post-Dispatch, METRO EAST SUSPENSION RATE IS TWICE THE STATE AVERAGE: PARENTS ARE ALARMED, BUT ADMINISTRATORS SAY ORDER MUST BE MAINTAINED., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02-24-2002, pp C1.
Brian, Bumbarger. School Violence: Disciplinary Exclusion Prevention and Alternatives. Universties Children's Policy Partnership. 1999.
VOS Inger, Cambridge cuts suspensions., Waikato Times (New Zealand), 12-01-2001, pp 3.
Robert L. Morgan; Travis S. Loosli; Sebastian Striefel, REGULATING THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES IN SCHOOLS: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP SURVEY OF STATE DEPARTMENT STANDARDS. Vol. 30, Journal of Special Education, 01-15-1997.
Treating Juvenile Delinquency
Delinquency treatment program:
Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles
A brief description of your community
African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…
Black male dropouts lead nation in incarceration. (2012). PR News wire. Retrieved:
Drakeford, Will & Garfinkle, Lili Frank. (2000). Differential treatment of African-American
The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. Retrieved:
The problem of determining the right approach is compounded by the effects of the culture of violence to which many young offenders are exposed. In some cases, it is possible to reform their behavior but in other cases, juvenile offenders already take on the hardened attitude normally associated with adult offenders. As a result, some juveniles are too far gone to reach through non-punitive methods by the time they reach high school age.
In terms of the protections afforded by American due process principles, those principles are essential to the fair administration of criminal justice and they provide a much more fair judicial system than those of most other countries (Dershowitz 2002).
However, in terms of the distinction between due process with respect to suspending concepts of guilt in crimes perpetrated by juveniles, the strict application of punitive sentences for criminal conduct may sometimes be more appropriate. Certainly, there are…
Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.
Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.
Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Sep. 2007: 1-7.
Schmalleger, F. (2008) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Girlhood juvenile delinquents, Shanae Megan, Waxter Juvenile Facility Maryland. By end fil
There are a number of reasons for why Shanae was able to turn her life around whereas Megan was not. Most of these reasons were actually some of the primary themes in Liz Garbus' documentary Girlhood, which followes the lives of these young women for three years from the Waxter Juvenile Detention Center to the streets of Baltimore. Shanae had a substantially greater amount of support than Megan did. Shanae's family -- and her mother in particular -- repeatedly demonstrated that they loved her and wanted her to make a change for the better. Megan, however, was virtually abandoned by her mother and received little support from the rest of the family. Not surprisingly, by the end of the documentary she is living alone in Baltimore while Shanae was living with her family and doing well in high…
Kennedy, R., and Garbus, L. (2003). Girlhood.
While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).
Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.
viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…
Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon
Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas
Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.
The historic year of 1910, which was marked by South Africa's unification, saw an attempt to develop a national prison and punitive policy. This goal was encapsulated within the 13th Act of 1911 (Prisons and Reformatories Act) as well as within the establishment of a Prisons Department. The Act served to revoke, partially or completely, every penal system-related law in place within the country's four colonies prior to its unification (i.e., laws implemented between 1902 and 1910) (Singh, 2005). Nooshin Erfani-Ghadimi claims that prisons in the nation are often overpopulated, thereby overburdening their ventilation, sanitation, and healthcare facilities. Single cells may be used to house three inmates while the communal cells that are meant to house forty inmates may be packed with twice that amount of inmates, forcing them to sleep in triple or double bunks (Smith-Spark, 2014).
Brazil's Justice Ministry is in charge of the nation's prison system, whose…
However, the prosecutor is not the only person who can seek a transfer. Juvenile court judges can also begin transfer proceedings (Michon, 2012). Furthermore, in some states there are automatic transfer laws, which require that juveniles over a certain age be tried as adults when they commit specific crimes, usually violent crimes like rape or murder. In states without automatic transfer laws, the defendant is entitled to a hearing prior to being transferred. At this hearing, which is known as the waiver hearing, fitness hearing, or certification hearing, the prosecutor has to show probable cause that the defendant committed the crime (Michon, 2012).
Establishing probable cause is only the first step in the waiver process. Once probable cause is established, it becomes the court's duty to determine whether the juvenile is likely to be rehabilitated. This is the most difficult part of the determination because it involves predicting the future…
Applegate, B., King Davis, R., & Cullen, F. (2009). Reconsidering child saving: The extent and correlates of public support for excluding youths from the juvenile court. Crime & Delinquency, 55(1), 51-77.
Fristsch, E., Caeti, T., & Hemmens, C. (1996). Spare the needle but not the punishment: The
incarceration of waived youth in Texas prisons. Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 593-609.
Jordan, K., & Myers, D. (2007). The decertification of transferred youth: Examining the determinants of reverse waiver. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(2), 188-206.
In the past, there was no such term as “juvenile delinquent” or “juvenile delinquency” within the justice system. As frightening as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (Yale.edu, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle of parens patriae. This meant that instead of lawyers fighting to decide guilt or innocence, the court would act as a parent or guardian interested in protecting and helping the child” (yale.edu, 2000). These reforms were novel at the time, and helped to enact changes such as closed hearings for…
Criminal Justice: Juvenile Delinquency
Juvenile delinquency is described as the participation of minors, usually under the legal age of 18, in criminal activities. Cases of juvenile delinquency have increased at an alarming rate in recent years. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, OJJDP (2015), juveniles under the age of 18 are responsible for about 10% of all homicides. In the period between 1990 and 2003, violent crimes by juveniles declined significantly - but after 2003, the previous trend continued and about 30% of murder crimes were attributed to delinquency. Today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) incarcerates more than 33000 minors under the age of 18 for different criminal offenses (OJJDP, 2015). The fight against juvenile delinquency is often inconvenienced by recidivism. ecidivism occurs when juvenile offenders relapse back to their criminal ways after they are released from residential care. Majority of juvenile offenders are rearrested…
Burfeinf, J.W & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.
National Institute of Justice (2015). Formal System Processing for Juveniles. Crime solutions. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/PracticeDetails.aspx?ID=9
The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2015). Juvenile Justice System Structure and Process. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/index.html
Welsh, B. C & Siegel, L. J (2015). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
Juvenile Justice Compare
The author of this report has been asked to do a compare and contrast of the juvenile justice system of three different states. While all states have a juvenile justice framework, each state does things at least a little differently and thus these differences and outliers should be explored and explained. The three states that will be compared and contrasted are New York, California and Georgia. While these three states have stark similarities, they also have ways that are entirely different from each other for whatever reason.
New York has a decentralized framework when it comes to the handling and adjudication of criminal justice cases for juveniles. The detention and probation supervision of juveniles in New York is done by the Local/Executive branch of government. The Juvenile Corrections arm of law enforcement resides in the statehouse while after-care supervision is done by a combination of the state…
JJGPS. (2016). States - JJGPS - Juvenile Justice, Geography, Policy, Practice & Statistics. Jjgps.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.jjgps.org/states
NCJJ. (2005). State Juvenile Justice Profiles, 2005 (pp. 1-392). Pittsburgh, PA: NCJJ.
NCJJ. (2016). National Center for Juvenile Justice. NCJJ.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncjj.org
NCSC. (2016). CSP Introduction. Ncsc.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncsc.org/Sitecore/Content/Microsites/PopUp/Home/CSP/CSP_Intro
Juvenile Delinquency Is Associated With Parenting Factors Through Social Control Theory
Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offence in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social friends. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Therefore, lack of self-restraint…
Apel, R., & Kaukinen, C. (2008). On the relationship between family structure and antisocial behavior: Parental cohabitation and blended households. Criminology, 46, 35-70.
Asher, A. J. (2006). Exploring the relationship between parenting style and juvenile delinquency. Department of Social Studies and Family Work. Faculty of Miami University.
Baron, S. W. (2003). Self-control, social consequences, and criminal behavior: Street youth and the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(4), 403.
Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescence competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95.
Virginia Juvenile Justice Process
In 1800's the juvenile justice system was created to reform U.S.A. policies regarding youth offenders. United state's original intent of juvenile justice system has shifted due to a number of reforms aimed at both protecting the "due process of law" rights of youth, and creating an aversion towards jail among the young, these reforms has made the system more comparable to the adult system
History of Juvenile Competency Services in Virginia:
After a year long study conducted by the Virginia commission on youth the juvenile competency statutes were enacted. there were individuals from different groups that participated in the study, these individuals were from the Office of the Attorney General, juvenile court judges, prosecutors, public defenders, children's advocates, faculty from the University of Virginia and the University of ichmond, and senior administrative personnel from the state department of mental health, the state department of juvenile justice,…
Commonwealth of Virginia, (2011). Steps in the Virginia Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from:
Eisten Law, (2008). History of America's Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from http://www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/juvenile-law/history
Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice
The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.
Dixon, T.L., & Azocar, C.L. (2006). The representation of Juvenile Offenders by Race on Los Angeles Area Television News. The Howard Journal of Communication, 17,
Jordan, K.L., & Freiburger, T.L. (2011). Examining the Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Sentencing of Juveniles in the Adult Court. Criminal Justice Research Review,
Piquero, A.R. (2008). Disproportionate Minority Contact., 18( 2),
Rodriguez, M. (2007). Juvenile Court Context and Detention Decisions: Reconsidering the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Community Characteristics in Juvenile Court Process. Justice Quarterly, 24( 4),
In numerous states, specific laws which govern how juvenile offenders are treated in the court and prison systems are separate "from the criminal code used for adult offenders," a situation which can often be found in other state correctional systems. Of course, all those convicted of crimes against society "must be held accountable for their actions," yet when dealing with young offenders, most state courts seems to stress this idea to the maximum while also taking in account that "the basis of a sound juvenile justice system lies in getting to the root causes of delinquent and law-breaking behavior," meaning that early intervention is far more important for young offenders that it is for older offenders. Basically, much more emphasis is placed on treatment programs, education and "preparing juveniles to re-enter" society as responsible adults than in adult correctional systems ("Juvenile Services," 2007, Internet).
Also, there are a number of…
Juveniles in the Adult System." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at http://law.jrank.org/pages/1532/Juveniles-in-Adult-System-Youthfulness-proportional-punishment-death-penalty.html .
Juvenile Services: FAQ's about the Dallas Juvenile Department." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at http://www.dallascounty.org/department/juvenile/faqs.htm .
In July, 2001, a 14-year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona. The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in 100-degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Bush, 2001). When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud." Also, the staff "stomped on the boys' chests and arms with boots if they did not perform tasks required of them."
In Prince Georges County, Maryland, on May 14 of 2001, a 17-year-old boy died of asphyxia when a teacher cut off his airway "in the act of restraining him." The article's writer, Carol Bush, asks: "Is it not time for the medical and nursing professionals to speak out on behalf of troubled youth…
Bush, Carol. (2001). Youth at risk - in facilities that are supposed to help! Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14(4), 200.
Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2001). Juvenile Crime,
Juvenile Justice: Executive Summary. Retrieved February 26, 2005, from the National Academies Press. Web site: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309068428/html/index.html .
Mackenzie, Doris Layton, Gover, Angela R, Armstrong, Gaylene Styve, & Mitchell,
Future Directions of Juvenile Corrections
he Failing Juvenile Correction System in America
History, Statement of the Problem, and Proposed Solutions
One of society's most difficult problems to solve is that of crime, and juvenile crime is a particularly difficult situation. he current juvenile correction system has many failings, and it is not improving society or curbing crime. Juveniles are being abused emotionally, physically, and sexually in detention facilities. his report introduces readers to the situation, gives a historical overview of how juvenile corrections has evolved in America, and states the problems that currently plague the system. Proposed improvements for the system, as well as examples of current programs and initiatives being taken to improve juvenile corrections, are given as well.
ABLE OF CONENS
ii Abstract iii.able of Contents
v Historical Perspective
Statement of the Problem vii....Proposed Future Directions viii...Summary and Conclusion
Crime has existed since…
The first juvenile court was established in 1899, but previous to that time children and adolescents were always processed in the adult system. By 1945, every state in America had established a separate juvenile corrections system, most of them based on theories of rehabilitation. "The original goals of the juvenile court were to investigate, diagnose, and prescribe treatment for offenders, not to adjudicate guilt or fix blame." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Judges were given a lot of freedom to choose the best way to handle juvenile offenders, rather than having strict sentencing rules to follow as they do now. In an attempt to rehabilitate and protect youth offenders, they were usually placed in reform schools that were thought to be a more beneficial experience than prison. Unfortunately, these schools became dumping grounds for unwanted children; "Common problems included lack of medical care, rehabilitation programs, and even food. Some poor conditions persist even today." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Some judges turned instead to probation sentences. Between the 1940s and 1960s, some attempts were made at providing healthier alternatives, such as probation camps, but it is difficult to say if they were at all effective because they were not available to the worst juvenile offenders, who were still generally locked up. In the 1970s, more foster care situations were made available, and alternatives such as electronic monitoring of youths on probation became available, which is still available today as a much better alternative to prison time. As people began to question the nonformal structure of the juvenile court proceedings which allowed judges to make their own calls about punishment, the focus of the juvenile corrections system has turned away from rehabilitation and instead embraces scare tactics and punishment. Legislation in the 1980s and 1990s has been targeted at more serious punishment, allowing minors to be tried as adults, and minimum sentencing laws that eliminate discretion based on circumstances. "As a result of many changes, the building of more secure facilities and development of other options, such as juvenile boot camps, house arrest programs, day treatment centers, experimental wilderness camps, and enhanced probation sanctions occurred." (Smith & Meyers 1998)
VI. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
The juvenile corrections system originally had a goal to rehabilitate troubled youth, but even from the establishment of the early juvenile programs in America, the system has failed to help deter youth crime. Today, children are being specifically neglected and abused by the system, which is training them to become career criminals; "The U.S. is criminally negligent when it comes to children caught up in the nation's juvenile justice systems." (Califano 2005) One study found that four out of every five children and adolescents that are arrested are under the influence of drugs or alcohol, admit to having an addiction problem, or are arrested for a drug-related crime. However, only 3.6% of juvenile offenders that abuse or are addicted to drugs receive any treatment, and youth that go through the juvenile ...
acism and Mental Health Issues in Juvenile Justice Systems
It seems that, not only are juvenile justice systems deficient in mental health services, and not only is there a disparity between services for whites and African-American youths - but some juvenile facilities may even be contributing to the deterioration of kids' emotional and mental well-being. This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty.
ace: Chances of incarceration are far greater if you're a Black kid
Between the years 1985 and 1994, delinquency cases brought through the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) increased by 41%; but more disturbing is the fact that in that time period, delinquency cases involving blacks jumped 78% and cases involving other non-white youths skyrocketed by 94% (Lardiero, 1997). Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…
Bishop, Donna M., & Frazier, Charles E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice
Decision-making: finding of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86, 392-414.
Glasser, Jeff (2000, May 8). And Justice for Some. U.S. News & World Report.
Lardiero, Carl J. (1997). Of disproportionate minority confinement. Corrections Today. 59, 14-16.
limitation of detaining juveniles in short- and long-term secured facilities. Then analyze an ethical, legal, or diversity consideration related to confinement in a short- or long-term secured facility. Support your analysis by citing an academic journal article.
Strengths and limitations of secured facilities:
Characteristics of and services provided to youth in secure care facilities
The majority of the youths detained in secure facilities have issues other than delinquency with which they are dealing including academic problems; learning disabilities; behavioral issues; and mental health concerns (including substance abuse). While only 7.9% of students with disabilities in public schools on average were labeled as having emotional and behavioral disorders, 47.4% of students in detention with disabilities were identified as having these issues (Gagnon & Barber 2010). These students lack age-appropriate coping strategies to deal with anger and frustration, which frequently translates into delinquent behaviors. 60% of youth with mental disorders are co-morbid…
A further complication of incarcerating youths is providing adequate academic support. Academic difficulties are often interrelated with delinquency, and study after study consistently shows that juveniles who are delinquent have weaker academic skills than average. This may be because the lack of support in the child's life fosters conditions of delinquency and academic underperformance, although it could also be that learning disabilities create a sense of alienation and hopelessness about the future, and rather than finding social connections in a school setting, the student instead uses delinquency.
However, there is an argument that detaining juveniles in secure facilities removes the juvenile from the environment which triggered the delinquency and creates a fresh environment, enabling him to develop more positive strategies. New approaches to rehabilitation in institutional settings include CBT, which focuses less on punishment and more upon instilling rational coping mechanisms in offenders. CBT is useful for a wide variety of problems spanning from conduct disorders to substance abuse so using CBT as a general approach can be one effective, unifying way to deal with many of the co-morbidities suffered by juveniles without denying them needed treatment (Gagnon & Barber 2010). It is argued that the high rates of recidivism are not due to the fact that youths are confined in secure facilities, but the fact that such institutions rarely evaluate the efficacy of their behavioral and academic programs and do not periodically review the existing research on the topic of what approaches work and do not work. More effective approaches are required that have been proven to reduce the likelihood of re-offending.
There is also
The research shown to the Supreme Court suggests just the opposite about them (Liptak, 2005).
Third, evidence shows that many teens in jail for serious crimes have significant mental health problems. Representative Henry Waxman (D) of California noted that in his state, one of the most populous in the country, there is little competent psychiatric help for youthful offenders who are incarcerated. He and his staff found that hundreds of teens held in California services were not getting the mental health services they desperately needed (Author not stated, 2005). 70% made suicide attempts while incarcerated, and nearly 75% attacked others (Author not stated, 2005). In spite of such clear evidence of instability, nearly six out of ten California facilities lacked staff with mental health training. Youthful offenders, meanwhile, had a wide range of diagnoses including not only substance abuse but AD/HD, retardation and learning disabilities (Author not stated, 2005). These…
Author not stated. 2005. "Mentally ill California youth await treatment in detention." Child Protection Law Report, Feb. 11.
Liptak, Adam. 2005. "Too young to die?" New York Times, Feb. 14.
Yen, Hope. 2005. "Supreme Court strikes down death penalty for juveniles." AP Worldstream, March 1.
Caption: In re Gault et al., 387 U.S. 1; 87 S. Ct. 1428; 18 L. Ed. 2D 527; 1967 U.S. LEXIS 1478; 40 Ohio Op. 2D 378.
Facts: After allegedly making obscene phone calls to a neighbor, the appellants' son, a fifteen-year-old boy, was taken into custody by the Gila County sheriff. The detention occurred without notice to the parents. The boy was questioned without being advised of his right to silence and without his parents present. At no time were the boy or his parents advised that the boy had the right to counsel. When the mother went to the juvenile facility where her son was being detained, she was advised that he was being held because of obscene phone calls and that a hearing would occur the next day. At the hearing in the Juvenile Court, a petition was filed stating that the boy was a delinquent…
In re Gault et al., 387 U.S. 1; 87 S. Ct. 1428; 18 L. Ed. 2d 527; 1967 U.S. LEXIS 1478; 40 Ohio
Op. 2d 378.
business idea create a thrift store. Focuses employing boys girls juvenile detention center. The profits store invested housing education workers, children maintain store. The assignment: Clearly explaining idea reader Then focus briefly highlighting aspects idea: 1.
The modern day society is more and more pressured by changes in the behavior of people, but also by larger changes at the greater social level. A notable change is as such represented by an increasing gap within the population. While the efforts are focused towards increasing social and economic equality, fact remains that the gap between the rich and the poor continues to be impressive. In such a setting, some people possess large amounts of products, which have to be disposed off, and others are in need of various products, but do not afford them. The thrift store comes to answer the needs of both population categories, by collecting goods and…
Hatten, T.S. (2011). Small business management: entrepreneurship and beyond. Cengage Learning.
Katzmann, G.S., (2002). Securing our children's future: new approaches to juvenile justice and youth violence. Brookings Institution Press.
Longenecker, J.G.. Moore, C.W., Palich, L.E., Petty, W.J., (2006). Small business management: an entrepreneurial emphasis. Vol. 1. Cengage Learning.
Olson, G.E. (2010). Better green business: handbook for environmentally responsible and profitable business practices. Pearson Prentice Hall.
However, most chose to remain at the schools. Initially Lyman was an all boy's school. Eventually an all girls school was developed and several other reform schools developed throughout the state of Massachusetts. Miller explains that
"Though there was never much evidence that any of these nineteenth-century institutions was effective at its stated goals -- curing the mentally ill, humanely caring for the retarded, reforming the delinquent, or calming the recalcitrant -- all were highly successful at exiling the unmanageable, the unproductive, and the threatening. Their purpose was custodial, despite the gloss succeeding eras placed upon them (Miller,46)."
Miller also describes juvenile detention facilities as waiting rooms and warehouses. At certain times in state history the juvenile detention facilities were nothing more than waiting rooms where delinquents were kept. The author asserts that the juvenile homes in Massachusetts had the feel of waiting rooms because they were boring and the…
Miller, J.G. (1991) Last One Over the Wall: The Massachusetts experiment in Closing Reform schools. Ohio State University Press: Columbia
He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.
He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.
Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.
In the case of…
Where it all began: 14-year-old gets life (accessed 08-06-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/background.html )
Sons, family friend face life for murder (accessed 8-6-06) ( http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/background.html )
Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?
Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.
This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…
Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.
ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business
Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007:
Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention." The criminal justice issue selected is: juvenile detention reform. The article presents information of CCJTDC or the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center. Some things to highlight is the comparison to nationwide statistics stating 90% of detainees are male. Of the detainees in juvenile detention centers, the majority are racial/ethnic minority. Because the majority are non-white, the researchers looked for potential participants that fit within the strata. The range is ages 10-14, Hispanic males and females, African-American males and females, and non-Hispanic white males and females, however greater focused was placed on Hispanic and African-American youth.
One aspect of reform lies in changing the growth rate of transfers from juvenile court to adult criminal court. These kinds of transfers typically result from "judicial waiver on a case-by-case basis, automatic transfers based on the type of offense, criminal history, and age…
Abram, K., Zwecker, N., Welty, L., Hershfield, J., Dulcan, M., & Teplin, L. (2015). Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(1), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1375
R, O. (2015). President Obama for the prisoners. The Economist. Retrieved 9 June 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform
Shahidullah, S. (2008). Crime policy in America. Lanham: University Press of America.
Traditionally the rule is that anyone was under the age of 18 years old who commits a crime will be tried in the juvenile court system; however, under certain circumstances juveniles can be tried in criminal courts as adults. The designation of the age of the defendant defined as a juvenile or minor who could be tried as an adult is determined by state law, and this age varies from state to state. A study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) described data from over 40 of the major urban counties in the United States. The study found that prosecuting juveniles in criminal court (as adults) was generally performed only when serious crimes were committed such as murder, robbery, or aggravated assault (BJS, 2014). An interesting associated finding of the study, which was originally conducted in 1998, was that in the 40 counties studied juveniles were more…
Brink, D.O. (2004). Immaturity, normative competence, and juvenile transfer: How (not) to punish minors for major crimes. Bepress Legal Series, 120.
Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2014). Juvenile defendants. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=236 .
Fagan, J. (1996). The comparative advantage of juvenile vs. criminal court sanctions on recidivism among adolescent felony offenders. Law & Policy, 18(1-2), 77-114.
Fagan, A.A., & Mazerolle, P. (2011). Repeat offending and repeat victimization: Assessing similarities and differences in psychosocial risk factors. Crime & Delinquency, 57(5), 732-755.
The claim has been made that chocolate operates upon the brain in much the same way as an antidepressant drug. Generate specific predictions based on this general hypothesis and provide operational definitions of the variables involved.
Chocolate releases a unique neurotransmitter called phenylethylamine or chocolate amphetamine, which fluctuate the blood and sugar levels, causing euphoria and attentiveness. Unlike amphetamines, however, it doesn't cause addiction to the consumer, but it does act as an anti-depressant by lightening the mood of a person. According to Coveleskie (2004), phenylethylamine in chocolate gives you the same feeling you get when you're in love and therefore, it's also called a love drug.
Chocolate also releases the lipid anandamide, similar to the chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) which is found in the drug, marijuana. The THC as well as the lipid anandamide produce the neurotransmitter 'dopamine' which makes people happy and high. The chemical anandamide is already…
Bernard, T. J. (1991). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press
Coveleskie, K. (2004). Chocolate on the Brain. Serendib. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro04/web1/kcoveleskie.html on 26 May 2016
Flaherty, M. G. (1983). The national incidence of juvenile suicide in adult jails and juvenile detention centres. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, 13(2), 85-94.
Hlavaty, Joel R. (1983). Hypnosis in Our Legal System: The Status of its Acceptance in the Trial Setting, Akron Law Review: Vol. 16: Iss. 3, Article 6
Hate and Violence
Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.
In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…
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In real life criminal situation the same principles often apply especially when it comes to juvenile offenders. Programs like Big Brother and Big Sister are specifically designed for the purpose of thwarting would be young criminals (Haley). The strength and power of mentorship programs in the criminal justice system has been proven for years however it is sometimes difficult to locate enough adult mentors for the at risk and in trouble youth.
THE MOVIE FLAWS
While the movie seemed to remain on path with regard to an accurate portrayal of how the juvenile justice system works there were several areas in which the movie does not promote real life. One of the things the movie does for the sake of Hollywood is downplaying the seriousness of the crimes and offenses that the juveniles in the film committed. While the movie makes them out to be sensitive boys who only want…
esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…
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What are the main factors that determine high or low incarceration rates?
The last twenty years have witnessed a significant and historic shift with regards to the use of imprisonment within the United States. In 1980, less than half a million people were imprisoned in the jails and prisons of America. Today there are almost 2 million inmates and still rising. Annually, the U.S. is spending about $35 billion every year on correctional facilities while many other government departments such as transportation, health and human services and education do not have enough funds to fulfill their functions effectively. The most alarming fact about correctional services in the U.S. is that imprisonment is used mostly on African-American and Hispanic males. It was recently estimated by the Department of Justice that about a third of all African-American males will be incarcerated at least once in their lives. It is also…
Austin, J., Bruce, M.A., Carroll, L., McCall, P.L., & Richards, S.C. (2000). The Use of Incarceration in the United States. American Society of Criminology.
Lappi-Seppala, T. (n.d.). Causes of Prison Overcrowding. Finland: National Research Institute of Legal Policy.
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Road to Independence
Independent Living Programs for Juvenile Offenders
Juvenile crime is a major problem in contemporary America. Murder, rape, assault, and crimes against property are a part of everyday life for many teens. Incarceration can both punish and reeducate. The offender learns that antisocial behaviors have consequences. He also learns that there are other ways to deal with his problems, and other ways to make a living. Such attempts at reform are all well and good within the closed world of the juvenile detention center or the sheriff's boot camp, but the day must come when these youths are returned to society. Reintegration into the outside world can be both good and bad for the juvenile offender. For those who return to loving homes, the process can represent the completion of the reform process. However, many teens have no loving homes to which they can go, no caring parents…
Florida Department of Juvenile Justice. (2002). Intervention Program Models. Intervention Services Manual. URL: http://www.djj.state.fl.us /reference/manuals/intervention/ch-model-5.htm
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Internet: Privacy for High School Students
An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today
In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…
Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.
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Youth Behind Bars - Let's Rehabilitate Kids, Not Punish Them" published in the San Francisco Chronicle on February 27 of this year argues in his article that the California system for dealing with juvenile delinquents is a failure but that it must be repaired instead of being dismantled. He describes terrible abuses inflicted on the youth and opportunities to rehabilitate them ignored. Adachi makes sense. Because the youth of today are tomorrow's future, we must do everything we can to help those who have started off on the wrong path to turn their lives around.
It is easy to argue that people who commit crimes should be punished, As a society we do not accept that murder, rape or theft are ever acceptable. However, most young students start out performing relatively smaller crimes. If they can change their ways while they are young, they will spend the rest of their…
Accordingly, your task will be to identify a topic of interest, and write a paper on your ideas for reforming it for the better. Examples of topics include (but are not limited to): Foster Care, Child abuse prevention, school safety, community safety for juveniles, Programs for Violent juveniles, juvenile detention, State or Federal statutes, etc.Job and skills training are two of the most important elements that require emphasis within the criminal justice reform system. American society is predicated on a system of capitalism whereby individual citizens are rewarded based on the skills they can provide to others. Those with skills that are rare and in high demand can command higher salaries as companies compete to utilize their skills. Math, science, and technology positions typically leverage this concept as their skills are highly specialized and are therefore highly demanded within growing industries. This is in stark contrast to the fast-food industry,…
door to the county jail shut behind me with a loud clang. Involuntarily jumping from the sound and the sudden silence that followed, I shadowed the public defender down the dismal hallway. A fluorescent light bulb flickered overhead. My heart started to pound and I earnestly wondered if I had made the right choice for what must have been the fifth time that day. At that moment, I still had the opportunity to run away, to tell the attorney that I was not yet ready for this kind of responsibility, and that I appreciated his consideration anyway. I was too afraid to be weak to say anything, though, and instead I just remembered the mindfulness technique my counselor taught me and started to breathe. Just. A. Little. Slower. We reached the doorway, and through the long, skinny window I could see inside the classroom filled with the young inmates. I…
A in millions)
Current in millions)
Provided by Federal ureau of Investigation as of September 18, 2006. www.whitehouse.gov/goodbye/3ae6b1ac94aa97e6650780f280890a7c81100e47.html"
CHART: National Correctional Populations
National Correctional Populations
The number of adults in correctional population has been increasing.
A in millions)
Current million in millions)
Provided by ureau of Justice Statistics as of November 30, 2006. (Social Statistics riefing Room, 2006)
Violence in the Media
Huston and colleagues have estimated that the average 18-year-old will have viewed 200,000 acts of violence on television (Huston, a.C., Donnerstein, E., Fairchild, H. et al. ig World, Small Screen: The Role of Television in American Society. Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 1992.)
41% percent of American households have three or more televisions (Nielsen Media Research, 2000).
56% of children ages 8-16 have a television in their rooms (Annenberg Public Policy Center, 2000. Media in the Home 2000)
Percentage of television-time children ages 2-7 spend…
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Community corrections are an integral component of any law enforcement correctional program. Community corrections staff, develop, and administer contracts for community-based correctional programs and serve as the Bureau of Prisons (BOP)'s local liaison with the federal courts, the U.S. Marshals Service, state and local corrections, and a variety of community groups. Through the community corrections program, the BOP has developed agreements with state and local governments to house juveniles and prisoners of non-violent crimes (Federal Bureau of Prisons, 2011).
The BOP contracts with residential reentry centers to provide assistance to inmates who have been found to be non-violent offenders. The community centers also include those inmates nearing release at the end of their determined term of incarceration. esidential reentry centers are always under supervision; in addition, they provide employment counseling, job placement, financial management assistance, and other programs and services. C's help inmates gradually re-enter the community and facilitate supervising…
Akhila, K. (2010) Foreign Prison Conditions Improvement Act of 2010. http://akhilak.com/blog/2010/10/17/foreign-prison-conditions-improvement-act-of-2010 / Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Federal Bureau of Prisons (2011) Community Corrections. http://www.bop.gov/locations/cc/index.jsp Last accessed January 11, 2013.
Public Safety Performance Project (2007) What Works in Community Corrections. www.pewpublicsafety.org Last accessed January 11, 2013.
America's private prison system has led to drastic changes in the criminal justice system. Beginning in the early 1980's profiting from running prisons first started with the Corrections Corporation of America. They pictured inmates like selling real estate, hamburgers, and cars (Aviram, 2015). While corporate-run prisons only account for eight percent of the American inmate population, it has generated a significant change in how criminals are prosecuted and handled in the criminal justice system. It all began with the founder of the world's first private prison company, Corrections Corporation of America.
Founders T. Don Hutto and Thomas Beasley introduce Corrections Corporation of America in 1983. A year later the company operated a Tennessee-based juvenile detention center and county jail. CCA then opens a Houston-based privately owned facility that held immigration detainees. In 1985 CCA tried a $250 million offer to lease Tennessee's entire prison system for 99 years. They were…
Allen, J. & Sawhney, R. (2014). Administration and Management in Criminal Justice. SAGE Publications.
Aviram, H. (2015). Cheap on Crime: Recession-Era Politics and the Transformation of American Punishment. Univ of California Press.
BJS,. (2016). Total Correction Population. BJS. Retrieved 7 October 2016, from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=11
e. In instances where the students have already demonstrated a diversity of learning styles (DeCastro-Ambrosetti & Cho, 2005). The use of authentic assessments includes greater student directive-ness and increased empowerment and self-guidance and -reliance in the learning process.
Self-assessment is seen by many to be the culmination of the individualization of learning assessment, but when this occurs solely for the purposes of accountability, learning is far from guaranteed (Gaytan & McEwen, 2007). This is partially due to the difference students and instructors, at least in the study conducted by Gaytan and McEwen (2007), perceive in the purpose of self-assessment tests; students viewed them primarily as a way to receive feedback as to their progress and achievement, while instructors saw them more as a way to make sure students understood the material (Gaytan and McEwen, 2007). Both views underline the usefulness of self-assessments, but perhaps they can be best applied by…
Commons, P. "The contribution of inspection, self-assessment, investors in people...: an initial exploration." Journal of further & higher education, vol. 27, issue 1 (Feb 2003), pp. 27-47
DeCastro-Ambrosetti, D. & Cho, G. "Synergism in learning: A critical reflection of authentic assessment." High school journal, vol. 89, issue 1(Oct/Nov 2005), pp. 57-62
Feinstein, S. "Performance assessment in Juvenile Correction education programs." Journal of correctional education, vol. 53. Issue 1 (Mar 2002), pp. 9-12
Gaytan, J. & McEwen, B. "Effective online instructional and assessment strategies." American journal of distance education. Vol. 21 issue 3 (Sep 2007), pp. 117-32