Juvenile Detention Essays (Examples)

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Juvenile Injustice How the Juvenile

Words: 1841 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47448693

, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.

Conclusion

The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…… [Read More]

References

Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.

Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028

County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved

from http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/courts/jdr/jdrDelinquency.htm
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Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51190359



Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.

Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…… [Read More]

Reference List

Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.

Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Juvenile Drug Abusers

Words: 2362 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56135135

e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.

Prevention Programs:

Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.

Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…… [Read More]

References

Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf.

Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html.
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Juvenile Rights at the Time

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42268713

Juveniles may commit crimes on the same level as adults do, but they are of a special case because of their age and relative psychological immaturity. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the minors and help them integrate better into the society. As research shows, police officers come into contact with different kinds of juveniles offenders. They may be mentally ill or handicapped. Some of them come from disorderly families, or are routinely abused physically and sexually by parents or other family members. Others may be simply neglected or have no family support when they are in need (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, pp. 101-2; Cole & Smith, 2007, p. 554). These unique circumstances make juveniles a special case.

As Lawrence and Hemmens (2008) write, police officers need to take special measures in treating juveniles during and after arrest especially because "young persons' views and attitudes toward…… [Read More]

References

Arundel, a. (2010) Arrest and Custody of Juveniles. Retrieved on February 17, 2011, from http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections17-19/1702JuvArrestCust.pdf

Bartollas, C., & Miller, S.J. (2008) Juvenile Justice in America (5th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2007) the American System of Criminal Justice (11th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

"Juvenile Arrest and Detention" (n.d.) Criminal Law Free Advice. Retrieved on February 18, 2011, from http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/juvenile_law/juvenile-detention.htm
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Juvenile Sentencing the Issue of

Words: 2091 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61382395

According to Lawlor, Connecticut has "developed a flexible approach geared toward immediate intervention and proven results" (Lawlor). He explains that not every teenaged car thief with a record of several arrests should be sent to prison, just as not every 10-year-old first time truant needs to be simply sent home to his parents (Lawlor).

The state of Connecticut has sole responsibility for all probation, adult and juvenile, and all graduated sanctions programs are operated by the state or by private, non-profit organizations funded by the state (Lawlor). For more than twenty years, the term 'juvenile' in the state of Connecticut refers to only youths under the age of sixteen; youths who are sixteen years and older are treated as adults for all crimes (Lawlor). In 1995, before the graduated sanctions were implemented, the most serious violent juveniles were the focus of the juvenile court, and all other cases were for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bilchik, Shay. "Sentencing juveniles to adult facilities fails youths and society."

Corrections Today. April 1, 2003. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Feld, Barry C. "Abolish the juvenile court: youthfulness, criminal responsibility, and sentencing policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Grisso, Thomas. "The evolution of adolescence: a developmental perspective on juvenile justice reform. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Juvenile Delinquency Crime Statistics From Chicago Illinois

Words: 2934 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37388382

Juvenile Delinquency

Crime statistics from Chicago, Illinois testify to the increasing number of youth offenders. In 1989, the Chicago police reported that 64% of 274,000 their crimes were committed by individuals under the age of 25; 40% of these crimes were committed by teenagers under 18." (Malmgren, Abbott, & Hawkins, 1999)

The recent headlines show that more and more kids are being expelled from schools for carrying guns, knives and for getting into fistfights. These antisocial acts have become quite common. Not to mention, inner city minority kids used to be the only kids exposed to gang violence or open gang recruiting. But the best 'Gangsta apper' today is white. Eminem is targeting suburban America with his Slim Shady message. And the gangs and the gangsta lifestyle seem to be in vogue. In the wake of the Columbine High School shootings a few years ago where two juvenile delinquents terrorized…… [Read More]

References

Balousek, Marv (1995). Human Touch Key To Saving Juveniles - Experts: Punishment Not Sole Solution. Wisconsin State Journal.

Day, David M. & Hunt, Ann C. (04-01-1996). A Multivariate Assessment Of A Risk Model For Juvenile Delinquency With An 'Under 12 Offender'. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders. Vol. 4, pg. 66.

Edwards, Willie J. (1996). A Measurement Of Delinquency Differences Between A Delinquent And Nondelinquent Sample: What Are The Implications?. Adolescence. Vol. 31, pg. 973(17).

Maag, John W. & Irvin, Deborah M. (1994). Prevalence and predictors of substance use: A comparison between adolescents with and without... Journal of Learning Disabilities,.
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Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes

Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69293543

Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.

Introduction

With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
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Juvenile Treatment Program Evaluate the Best Practices

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 74547920

juvenile treatment program. Evaluate the "best practices" it exhibits and note which areas of the program might need improvement. In addition to this week's Learning Resources, support your evaluation by citing an academic journal article.

Juvenile treatment programs: Useful programs

According to Mincey (et al. 2008) as well as supportive family members and positive strategies, rehabilitative programs that are successful also enhance the connection of offenders to their school environment. his sets the stage for positive future interactions with academic authority figures and gives young offenders a positive outlook upon the future. Effective school relationships also support vocational advancement in the near and far future. Juvenile offenders on average read at a fourth grade level (the median age of juvenile detainees is fifteen and 1/3 read below the 4th grade level) Learning disabilities and conduct disorder compound their problems and without appropriate academic support, reintegrating into a law-abiding community and…… [Read More]

To build more positive connections between youth and university environments, Evergreen State College has fostered a program called Gateways for Incarcerated Youth with the juvenile detention centers at Green Hill and Maple Lane. Evergreen students work as co-learners and learning assistants with the juveniles. They discuss college-level texts, assist the juveniles in writing assignments, and act as mentors (Gateway, 2011, Prison Studies Project). What is so noteworthy about this program is the positive mutual relationships it fosters, ones which are social as well as academic. Academic aspirations are nurtured and fostered with positive peer role modeling. For juveniles with longstanding negative issues in their relationship with adults, the program is particularly valuable. Rather than acting in a judgmental way, the program conveys to the juvenile detainees that they can have a future if they work hard and commit to their education. It also shows the juveniles that they can lead a different way of life, demonstrating to them that college is a very real possibility, and 'real people' go to college.

The unconditional positive regard conveyed by the program is designed to also rehabilitate the self-esteem of the juvenile offenders. Rather than breaking them down, the program seeks to build up the offenders' sense of positive self-worth. Although the appropriate emphasis of juvenile programs will vary in terms of the type of offenders the programs focuses upon, overall the aim of the juvenile justice system is rehabilitation not punishment. Concentrating upon education and worthwhile activities is a critical component of honoring the rehabilitative aspect of juvenile detention. However, this rehabilitation is not without some demands upon the incarcerated students. They are asked to study, to devote themselves to their classes and are held to high standards in terms of their achievement and efforts. The high expectations communicate the need for and the possibility of change; the educational environment creates a new community for the juveniles and enables them to envision a world beyond the one which they currently inhabit. It also connects them to an environment outside of the prison walls -- m any of the incarcerated juveniles keep up the friendship with the Evergreen students even after they have been released.

Making positive demands upon students and encouraging them to change rather than punishing students
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Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis

Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 40811758

Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…… [Read More]

References

Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378. http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.
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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]

References

ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
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Juvenile Delinquents

Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54718429

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…… [Read More]

References

Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

2010. http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/strickland205.htm
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Juveniles Since Biblical Times Children Have Been

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9544807

Juveniles

Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…… [Read More]

References:

 http://law.jrank.org/pages/12069/Juvenile-Justice-Changing-social-attitudes-toward-children.html 

Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from:  http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53 

Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Juveniles & Justice Is it

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38463361

, 1914, p. 500).

Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. (Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al., explains on page 326). States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests (Siegel, 17). Approximately 150,000 under age youths (technically children) are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains (17). This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.

The U.S. Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974, which provides funds to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Del Carmen, Rolando V. (2010). Community-Based Corrections.

Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, and Hart, Albert Bushnell. (1914). Cyclopedia of American

Government, Volume 1. Emeryville, CA: D. Appleton and Company.
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Juvenile Court Philosophy the Office

Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24143843

They must also determine what types of delinquent behavior and youth violence are causing the greatest concern in the community. (Medaris, 1996, para.# 5)

As can be seen from the above statement of the first step in implementing the SHOCAP program in any community, first look at statistics on juvenile crime and second ask the community what it is most afraid of with regard to juvenile crime. This intention seriously contradicts the intention of the juvenile justice system to demonstrate focus on individual cases of each juvenile offender and give it adequate time for understanding of all mitigating circumstances, rather than seeking to understand outside fear of crime. Many factors contribute to public opinion of crime and not all of those factors are realistically and truly connected to real crime occurrences and/or statistics. The "mitigating" factors of public crime fear are in dire need of reevaluation, starting with unrealistic and…… [Read More]

Resources

Cothern, L. (November 2000) "Juveniles and the Death Penalty," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Accessed July, 10, 2008

http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184748.pdf

Medaris, M (August 1996) "Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program. (SHOCAP)" Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Factsheet Accessed July, 10, 2008, http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/shocap.txt
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Juvenile Delinquency the Phenomenon of

Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7843045



Finally, for the purposes of this research proposal we will refer to a third study that suggests education could be at the heart of reducing juvenile delinquency statistics but the conditions in which the child is raised impacts their ability to choose between right and wrong (Hindelang, 1981).

Method and design

The goal of this study is to add to the literature that demonstrates that there is a correlation between poverty and juvenile delinquency. This researcher will begin by reviewing the available statistics provided by the state judicial system related specifically to the number of juveniles currently incarcerated at state facilities as well as the youths' offenses. Once this information has been compiled the next step will be to chart the level of income brought in by the adults within each home as well as to determine if the families live rely on welfare or government assistance for their daily…… [Read More]

References

Hindelang, M; Measuring Deliquency. Sage Library of social research; Vol. 123.

Lewis, D; Violent Juvenile Delinquents: Psychiatric, Neurological, Psychological, and Abuse Factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. Vol 18, Issue 2

Loeber, R.; Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review. Vol. 10, p. 1-41. 1990.
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Juvenile Arrest List and Explain the Factors

Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97624148

Juvenile Arrest

List and explain the factors that affect a police officer's decision whether or not to arrest a juvenile.

One of the primary responsibilities of police officers is in the investigation of crime and the arrest of suspects. Taking a person into custody is always a serious matter and that is why officers must make sure that they have the right suspect before taking this drastic step. Even if a person is later found to be not guilty of a crime, the arrest will still impact them psychologically and sociologically, and may even follow them throughout the rest of their lives. Guilt or innocence and the punishment that a person is to receive are determined by the court system. The officer's job is to find the person responsible and to bring them in. From an emotional perspective, the responsibility can be burdensome and so every officer tries to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Davis, S. (1971). Justice for the juvenile: the decision to arrest and due process. Duke Law

Journal. (1971:5). 913-37.

O'Neil, R. (2010). Police policies on arresting juveniles. OLR Research Report.

Patterson, C. & Kaba, M. (2011). Arresting justice: a report about juvenile arrests in Chicago
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Detention Suspension and Expulsion Effect of Disciplinary Policy in Public School

Words: 4451 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12423838

Detention, Suspension,

AND EXPULSION:

EFFECT OF DISCIPLINAY POLICY

Instrument to be used

Participants

Future use of study results

Over the last few decades the institution of education has undergone many changes. One of the most scrutinized areas of education currently is the area of discipline. The recent rash of violence across the nation at high school has caused the focus to turn to discipline. The Columbine killings among other violent school events have caused experts to begin looking at bullies, violence, at risk students and others to discover what the key is to turning them around in their school career. One discipline method that has been used for years is removal of the offending student from the general student population. The student who is removed is done so either through suspension or expulsion. Suspension and expulsion are used in many situations as discipline. When students break zero tolerance policies, or…… [Read More]

References

Aisha Sultan; And Holly Hacker; Of The Post-Dispatch, METRO EAST SUSPENSION RATE IS TWICE THE STATE AVERAGE: PARENTS ARE ALARMED, BUT ADMINISTRATORS SAY ORDER MUST BE MAINTAINED., St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 02-24-2002, pp C1.

Brian, Bumbarger. School Violence: Disciplinary Exclusion Prevention and Alternatives. Universties Children's Policy Partnership. 1999.

VOS Inger, Cambridge cuts suspensions., Waikato Times (New Zealand), 12-01-2001, pp 3.

Robert L. Morgan; Travis S. Loosli; Sebastian Striefel, REGULATING THE USE OF BEHAVIORAL PROCEDURES IN SCHOOLS: A FIVE-YEAR FOLLOW-UP SURVEY OF STATE DEPARTMENT STANDARDS. Vol. 30, Journal of Special Education, 01-15-1997.
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Juvenile Offenders and Recividism

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45219755

Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States. From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid-1970's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2016). In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would. If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More]

References

Casey, S., & Day, A. (2015). Accountability in Juvenile Justice: A Framework to Assess Client Outcomes. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(14), 1645-1668. doi:10.1177/0306624x15586767

Kretschmar, J. M., Butcher, F., Flannery, D. J., & Singer, M. I. (2016). Diverting Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth With Behavioral Health Issues From Detention. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 27(3), 302-325. doi:10.1177/0887403414560885

Mody, S. (2008). Juvenile Justice. Childhood Education, 1-3.

Schmalleger, F. (2016). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.
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Juvenile Offenders and Rehabilitation

Words: 4448 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35811849

Juvenile offenders have grown to become a serious problem in many countries, especially the United States. Like adult offenders, juvenile offenders are more likely to reoffend, especially without the proper guidance and assistance they need in order to live a law abiding life. esearch within the last five years has led to identification of specific program models as well theory-based intervention approaches that not only assist juvenile offenders in leading productive lives but also keeps them from potentially re-offending. This paper will focus on rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders and prevention programs that help in lessening the number of potential juvenile offenders by proposing alternative means of coping with hardship and stress.

Farrington's Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory will be examined within the context of juvenile offenders and how this framework may be applied to understanding Juvenile motivations for engaging in criminal activities Importance of rehabilitation will be emphasized because…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Barnes, A., Campbell, N., Anderson, V., Campbell, C., Onifade, E., & Davidson, W. (2015). Validity of initial, exit, and dynamic juvenile risk assessment: An examination across gender and race/ethnicity. Journal Of Offender Rehabilitation, 55(1), 21-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2015.1107004

Borduin, C., Dopp, A., & Taylor, E. (2013). Evidence-Based Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. An Evidence-Based Approach To Assessment And Treatment, 192-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118320655.ch11

Brooks, M., & Khan, R. (2015). Psychosocial influences that motivate young offenders to engage in a non-custodial community intervention. The Journal Of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(3), 351-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789949.2015.1013973
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Treating Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Justice Delinquency Treatment

Words: 2908 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7511071

Treating Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile Justice

Delinquency treatment program:

Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles

A brief description of your community

African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…… [Read More]

References

Black male dropouts lead nation in incarceration. (2012). PR News wire. Retrieved:

 http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/black-male-dropouts-lead-nation-in-incarceration-63870242.html 

Drakeford, Will & Garfinkle, Lili Frank. (2000). Differential treatment of African-American

The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. Retrieved:
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Criminal Justice - Juvenile Justice

Words: 1947 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61302876



The problem of determining the right approach is compounded by the effects of the culture of violence to which many young offenders are exposed. In some cases, it is possible to reform their behavior but in other cases, juvenile offenders already take on the hardened attitude normally associated with adult offenders. As a result, some juveniles are too far gone to reach through non-punitive methods by the time they reach high school age.

In terms of the protections afforded by American due process principles, those principles are essential to the fair administration of criminal justice and they provide a much more fair judicial system than those of most other countries (Dershowitz 2002).

However, in terms of the distinction between due process with respect to suspending concepts of guilt in crimes perpetrated by juveniles, the strict application of punitive sentences for criminal conduct may sometimes be more appropriate. Certainly, there are…… [Read More]

References

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Sep. 2007: 1-7.

Schmalleger, F. (2008) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Girlhood Juvenile Delinquents Shanae Megan Waxter Juvenile

Words: 652 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37849445

Girlhood juvenile delinquents, Shanae Megan, Waxter Juvenile Facility Maryland. By end fil

There are a number of reasons for why Shanae was able to turn her life around whereas Megan was not. Most of these reasons were actually some of the primary themes in Liz Garbus' documentary Girlhood, which followes the lives of these young women for three years from the Waxter Juvenile Detention Center to the streets of Baltimore. Shanae had a substantially greater amount of support than Megan did. Shanae's family -- and her mother in particular -- repeatedly demonstrated that they loved her and wanted her to make a change for the better. Megan, however, was virtually abandoned by her mother and received little support from the rest of the family. Not surprisingly, by the end of the documentary she is living alone in Baltimore while Shanae was living with her family and doing well in high…… [Read More]

References

Kennedy, R., and Garbus, L. (2003). Girlhood.
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Criminal Justice - Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 866 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61146822

While the subject's rationale for blaming his most recent victim for dressing provocatively may reflect "normal" (Macionis 2002) social conditioning (particularly among adolescent males), his complete lack of empathy (as distinct from responsibility or fault) is more consistent with pathological indifference and lack of empathy often observed in serial rapists and other sociopaths who display a clinical indifference to their victims (Gerrig & Zimbardo 2005).

Subsequent analysis will distinguish whether the subject's relative immature statements about the connection between video game violence and the real world are the result of low intelligence and delayed cognitive skills in the area of logical reasoning and responsibility or functions of repressed rage directed at all females.

Intervention Strategy:

viable intervention strategy must emphasize intensive psychological counseling to address the subject's past sexual victimization, the rage associated with it, and the direction of his anger at all females. Behavioral psychotherapy will be necessary to…… [Read More]

REFERENCES

Gerrig, R., Zimbardo, P. (2005) Psychology and Life 17th Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon

Innes, B. (2007) Serial Killers: The Stories of History's Most Evil Murderers. London: Quercas

Macionis, J.J. (2002) Sociology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Packer, Herbert, L. (1968) the Limits of the Criminal Sanction. Stanford University Press.
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Juveniles as Adults When a

Words: 3421 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94721016

However, the prosecutor is not the only person who can seek a transfer. Juvenile court judges can also begin transfer proceedings (Michon, 2012). Furthermore, in some states there are automatic transfer laws, which require that juveniles over a certain age be tried as adults when they commit specific crimes, usually violent crimes like rape or murder. In states without automatic transfer laws, the defendant is entitled to a hearing prior to being transferred. At this hearing, which is known as the waiver hearing, fitness hearing, or certification hearing, the prosecutor has to show probable cause that the defendant committed the crime (Michon, 2012).

Establishing probable cause is only the first step in the waiver process. Once probable cause is established, it becomes the court's duty to determine whether the juvenile is likely to be rehabilitated. This is the most difficult part of the determination because it involves predicting the future…… [Read More]

References

Applegate, B., King Davis, R., & Cullen, F. (2009). Reconsidering child saving: The extent and correlates of public support for excluding youths from the juvenile court. Crime & Delinquency, 55(1), 51-77.

Fristsch, E., Caeti, T., & Hemmens, C. (1996). Spare the needle but not the punishment: The

incarceration of waived youth in Texas prisons. Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 593-609.

Jordan, K., & Myers, D. (2007). The decertification of transferred youth: Examining the determinants of reverse waiver. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(2), 188-206.
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Juvenile Offenders and Reoffending

Words: 11154 Length: 37 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46175369

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are an important problem facing the United States criminal justice system. For more than one hundred years, states held the belief that the juvenile justice system acted as a vehicle to safeguard the public via offering a structure that enables the rehabilitation of children growing into adulthood. States identified the difference of children committing crimes versus adult offenders (Loeber & Farrington, 2012). For example, the states saw them as less blameworthy with a higher capacity for longstanding, true change. Therefore, states have founded a distinct court system especially for the handling and rehabilitation of juvenile offenders along with a separate and different youth-based service delivery system that offers additional aid not found in the adult justice system.

The juvenile justice system offers the study of criminal justice an important area to develop proper rehabilitation techniques that will help juvenile offenders and reoffenders find a means…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Burfeind, J. & Bartusch, D. (2015). Juvenile delinquency (p. 158). Routledge.

Cale, J., Smallbone, S., Rayment-Mchugh, S., & Dowling, C. (2015). Offense Trajectories, the Unfolding of Sexual and Non-Sexual Criminal Activity, and Sex Offense Characteristics of Adolescent Sex Offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal Of Research And Treatment. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1079063215580968
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Juvenile Delinquency Criminal Justice

Words: 1380 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15443616

Criminal Justice: Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency is described as the participation of minors, usually under the legal age of 18, in criminal activities. Cases of juvenile delinquency have increased at an alarming rate in recent years. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, OJJDP (2015), juveniles under the age of 18 are responsible for about 10% of all homicides. In the period between 1990 and 2003, violent crimes by juveniles declined significantly - but after 2003, the previous trend continued and about 30% of murder crimes were attributed to delinquency. Today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) incarcerates more than 33000 minors under the age of 18 for different criminal offenses (OJJDP, 2015). The fight against juvenile delinquency is often inconvenienced by recidivism. ecidivism occurs when juvenile offenders relapse back to their criminal ways after they are released from residential care. Majority of juvenile offenders are rearrested…… [Read More]

References

Burfeinf, J.W & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.

National Institute of Justice (2015). Formal System Processing for Juveniles. Crime solutions. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from https://www.crimesolutions.gov/PracticeDetails.aspx?ID=9

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2015). Juvenile Justice System Structure and Process. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/index.html

Welsh, B. C & Siegel, L. J (2015). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.
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Statistics for Juvenile Justice

Words: 1320 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 66361911

Juvenile Justice Compare

The author of this report has been asked to do a compare and contrast of the juvenile justice system of three different states. While all states have a juvenile justice framework, each state does things at least a little differently and thus these differences and outliers should be explored and explained. The three states that will be compared and contrasted are New York, California and Georgia. While these three states have stark similarities, they also have ways that are entirely different from each other for whatever reason.

New York has a decentralized framework when it comes to the handling and adjudication of criminal justice cases for juveniles. The detention and probation supervision of juveniles in New York is done by the Local/Executive branch of government. The Juvenile Corrections arm of law enforcement resides in the statehouse while after-care supervision is done by a combination of the state…… [Read More]

References

JJGPS. (2016). States - JJGPS - Juvenile Justice, Geography, Policy, Practice & Statistics. Jjgps.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.jjgps.org/states

NCJJ. (2005). State Juvenile Justice Profiles, 2005 (pp. 1-392). Pittsburgh, PA: NCJJ.

NCJJ. (2016). National Center for Juvenile Justice. NCJJ.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncjj.org

NCSC. (2016). CSP Introduction. Ncsc.org. Retrieved 25 February 2016, from http://www.ncsc.org/Sitecore/Content/Microsites/PopUp/Home/CSP/CSP_Intro
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Analyzing and Assessing Juvenile Delinquency

Words: 2695 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19710979

Juvenile Delinquency Is Associated With Parenting Factors Through Social Control Theory

Interventions that involve life-course unrelenting offenders should place emphasis on remedial social abilities, for them to have a chance to decrease their frequency of offence in future, and to tackle conduct disorder problems. Interventions involving teenage-onset offenders should, wherever applicable, tackle issues relating to parenting, alcohol/drug misuse, and anti-social friends. Keane, Krull and Phythian (2008) define self-control as the extent to which a person is susceptible to temptation. According to them, lack of self-restraint or self-control is a fairly universal and stable characteristic, accounting for individual discrepancies in deviant, reckless, and criminal conduct. Youngsters' parents are usually blamed for their kids' delinquent behavior. Some courts go as far as penalizing parents for their kids' antisocial actions. It is believed that weak self-control develops during early childhood, when one's family is the most central socializing agent. Therefore, lack of self-restraint…… [Read More]

References

Apel, R., & Kaukinen, C. (2008). On the relationship between family structure and antisocial behavior: Parental cohabitation and blended households. Criminology, 46, 35-70.

Asher, A. J. (2006). Exploring the relationship between parenting style and juvenile delinquency. Department of Social Studies and Family Work. Faculty of Miami University.

Baron, S. W. (2003). Self-control, social consequences, and criminal behavior: Street youth and the general theory of crime. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 40(4), 403.

Baumrind, D. (1991). The influence of parenting style on adolescence competence and substance use. Journal of Early Adolescence, 11, 56-95.
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Disposing of Repeat Juvenile Offenders in Cook County

Words: 1112 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95097854

Juvenile Justice

Xander, an Illinois Juvenile Criminal Justice Case Study

The Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority (ICJIA, 2012) operates under a statutory mandate to improve the administration of the criminal justice system in the State of Illinois. In order to perform this function the agency must be aware of all the operational details related to the Illinois juvenile criminal justice system (ICJIA, n.d.). The Illinois juvenile criminal justice system consists of 102 county systems that operate semi-independently from state agency oversight; therefore, the procedures of probation, detention, and corrections are the responsibility of the county juvenile systems. A distinct juvenile criminal justice system (JCS) in Illinois is relatively new, having been created in 2005 by the state legislature to separate adults from juvenile offenders within prisons and jails. A few years earlier (1998), legislation was passed that mandated a criminal justice policy of balanced and restorative justice.

According to the…… [Read More]

References

Bostwick, L. (2010). Policies and Procedures of the Illinois Juvenile Justice System. Chicago, IL: Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from  http://www.bwla.org/Uploads/1/docs/1-17%20Roundtable%20Policies%20and%20Procedures%20of%20the%20Juvenile%20Justice%20System_2010.pdf .

Cook County Juvenile Court. (2009). Juvenile Justice in Cook County. Report of the Cook County Juvenile Court. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from  http://www.cookcountyjustice.org/sites/www.cookcountyjustice.org/files/assets/JJ%20Annual%20Report_Final_Printer.pdf .

ICJIA. (n.d.). Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/pdf/TI%202008/Juvenile%20justice.pdf.

ICJIA. (2012). Welcome to the Illinois Criminal Justice Information Authority. Retrieved 1 Apr. 2014 from http://www.icjia.state.il.us/public/.
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Virginia Juvenile Justice Process

Words: 798 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97388011

Virginia Juvenile Justice Process

In 1800's the juvenile justice system was created to reform U.S.A. policies regarding youth offenders. United state's original intent of juvenile justice system has shifted due to a number of reforms aimed at both protecting the "due process of law" rights of youth, and creating an aversion towards jail among the young, these reforms has made the system more comparable to the adult system

History of Juvenile Competency Services in Virginia:

After a year long study conducted by the Virginia commission on youth the juvenile competency statutes were enacted. there were individuals from different groups that participated in the study, these individuals were from the Office of the Attorney General, juvenile court judges, prosecutors, public defenders, children's advocates, faculty from the University of Virginia and the University of ichmond, and senior administrative personnel from the state department of mental health, the state department of juvenile justice,…… [Read More]

Reference

Commonwealth of Virginia, (2011). Steps in the Virginia Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from:

http://www.djj.virginia.gov/about_us/juvenileprocess.aspx

Eisten Law, (2008). History of America's Juvenile Justice System. Retrieved September 9, 2011 from  http://www.lawyershop.com/practice-areas/criminal-law/juvenile-law/history
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Race Juvenile Family Community and Racial Trends

Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 118348

ace Juvenile

Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice

The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.

ace,…… [Read More]

References

Dixon, T.L., & Azocar, C.L. (2006). The representation of Juvenile Offenders by Race on Los Angeles Area Television News. The Howard Journal of Communication, 17,

Jordan, K.L., & Freiburger, T.L. (2011). Examining the Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Sentencing of Juveniles in the Adult Court. Criminal Justice Research Review,

Piquero, A.R. (2008). Disproportionate Minority Contact., 18( 2),

Rodriguez, M. (2007). Juvenile Court Context and Detention Decisions: Reconsidering the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Community Characteristics in Juvenile Court Process. Justice Quarterly, 24( 4),
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Correctional Systems Juvenile and Adult

Words: 618 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85851862



In numerous states, specific laws which govern how juvenile offenders are treated in the court and prison systems are separate "from the criminal code used for adult offenders," a situation which can often be found in other state correctional systems. Of course, all those convicted of crimes against society "must be held accountable for their actions," yet when dealing with young offenders, most state courts seems to stress this idea to the maximum while also taking in account that "the basis of a sound juvenile justice system lies in getting to the root causes of delinquent and law-breaking behavior," meaning that early intervention is far more important for young offenders that it is for older offenders. Basically, much more emphasis is placed on treatment programs, education and "preparing juveniles to re-enter" society as responsible adults than in adult correctional systems ("Juvenile Services," 2007, Internet).

Also, there are a number of…… [Read More]

References

Juveniles in the Adult System." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1532/Juveniles-in-Adult-System-Youthfulness-proportional-punishment-death-penalty.html .

Juvenile Services: FAQ's about the Dallas Juvenile Department." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at http://www.dallascounty.org/department/juvenile/faqs.htm.
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Boot Camps Effective Juvenile Justice

Words: 1631 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26922530

In July, 2001, a 14-year-old boy died following the brutal treatment he was subjected to at the Fountain Hills facility in Arizona. The staff had forced him to "stand in the Arizona sun" in 100-degree temperatures, wearing black sweat pants, according to an article in the Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (Bush, 2001). When he - or any of the other inmates - asked for water or food, he was "forced to eat mud." Also, the staff "stomped on the boys' chests and arms with boots if they did not perform tasks required of them."

In Prince Georges County, Maryland, on May 14 of 2001, a 17-year-old boy died of asphyxia when a teacher cut off his airway "in the act of restraining him." The article's writer, Carol Bush, asks: "Is it not time for the medical and nursing professionals to speak out on behalf of troubled youth…… [Read More]

References

Bush, Carol. (2001). Youth at risk - in facilities that are supposed to help! Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing, 14(4), 200.

Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education (2001). Juvenile Crime,

Juvenile Justice: Executive Summary. Retrieved February 26, 2005, from the National Academies Press. Web site: http://www.nap.edu/openbook/0309068428/html/index.html.

Mackenzie, Doris Layton, Gover, Angela R, Armstrong, Gaylene Styve, & Mitchell,
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My Views on What I Consider to Be Appropriate Future Directions of Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1673 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 73213460

Future Directions of Juvenile Corrections

he Failing Juvenile Correction System in America

History, Statement of the Problem, and Proposed Solutions

One of society's most difficult problems to solve is that of crime, and juvenile crime is a particularly difficult situation. he current juvenile correction system has many failings, and it is not improving society or curbing crime. Juveniles are being abused emotionally, physically, and sexually in detention facilities. his report introduces readers to the situation, gives a historical overview of how juvenile corrections has evolved in America, and states the problems that currently plague the system. Proposed improvements for the system, as well as examples of current programs and initiatives being taken to improve juvenile corrections, are given as well.

ABLE OF CONENS

ii Abstract iii.able of Contents

iv Introduction

v Historical Perspective

Statement of the Problem vii....Proposed Future Directions viii...Summary and Conclusion

ix.References

IV: INRODUCION

Crime has existed since…… [Read More]

The first juvenile court was established in 1899, but previous to that time children and adolescents were always processed in the adult system. By 1945, every state in America had established a separate juvenile corrections system, most of them based on theories of rehabilitation. "The original goals of the juvenile court were to investigate, diagnose, and prescribe treatment for offenders, not to adjudicate guilt or fix blame." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Judges were given a lot of freedom to choose the best way to handle juvenile offenders, rather than having strict sentencing rules to follow as they do now. In an attempt to rehabilitate and protect youth offenders, they were usually placed in reform schools that were thought to be a more beneficial experience than prison. Unfortunately, these schools became dumping grounds for unwanted children; "Common problems included lack of medical care, rehabilitation programs, and even food. Some poor conditions persist even today." (Smith & Meyers 1998) Some judges turned instead to probation sentences. Between the 1940s and 1960s, some attempts were made at providing healthier alternatives, such as probation camps, but it is difficult to say if they were at all effective because they were not available to the worst juvenile offenders, who were still generally locked up. In the 1970s, more foster care situations were made available, and alternatives such as electronic monitoring of youths on probation became available, which is still available today as a much better alternative to prison time. As people began to question the nonformal structure of the juvenile court proceedings which allowed judges to make their own calls about punishment, the focus of the juvenile corrections system has turned away from rehabilitation and instead embraces scare tactics and punishment. Legislation in the 1980s and 1990s has been targeted at more serious punishment, allowing minors to be tried as adults, and minimum sentencing laws that eliminate discretion based on circumstances. "As a result of many changes, the building of more secure facilities and development of other options, such as juvenile boot camps, house arrest programs, day treatment centers, experimental wilderness camps, and enhanced probation sanctions occurred." (Smith & Meyers 1998)

VI. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

The juvenile corrections system originally had a goal to rehabilitate troubled youth, but even from the establishment of the early juvenile programs in America, the system has failed to help deter youth crime. Today, children are being specifically neglected and abused by the system, which is training them to become career criminals; "The U.S. is criminally negligent when it comes to children caught up in the nation's juvenile justice systems." (Califano 2005) One study found that four out of every five children and adolescents that are arrested are under the influence of drugs or alcohol, admit to having an addiction problem, or are arrested for a drug-related crime. However, only 3.6% of juvenile offenders that abuse or are addicted to drugs receive any treatment, and youth that go through the juvenile ...
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Racism Mental Health in the Juvenile Justice System

Words: 1781 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 70684099

acism and Mental Health Issues in Juvenile Justice Systems

It seems that, not only are juvenile justice systems deficient in mental health services, and not only is there a disparity between services for whites and African-American youths - but some juvenile facilities may even be contributing to the deterioration of kids' emotional and mental well-being. This paper looks at racial prejudice in the administration of juvenile justice from the point-of-view of who gets locked up, what happens once they're in, and the built-in system cruelty.

ace: Chances of incarceration are far greater if you're a Black kid

Between the years 1985 and 1994, delinquency cases brought through the Juvenile Justice System (JJS) increased by 41%; but more disturbing is the fact that in that time period, delinquency cases involving blacks jumped 78% and cases involving other non-white youths skyrocketed by 94% (Lardiero, 1997). Another key fact illustrating the institutional bias…… [Read More]

References

Bishop, Donna M., & Frazier, Charles E. (1996). Race effects in juvenile justice

Decision-making: finding of a statewide analysis. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. 86, 392-414.

Glasser, Jeff (2000, May 8). And Justice for Some. U.S. News & World Report.

Lardiero, Carl J. (1997). Of disproportionate minority confinement. Corrections Today. 59, 14-16.
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Limitation of Detaining Juveniles in Short- and

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65391680

limitation of detaining juveniles in short- and long-term secured facilities. Then analyze an ethical, legal, or diversity consideration related to confinement in a short- or long-term secured facility. Support your analysis by citing an academic journal article.

Strengths and limitations of secured facilities:

Characteristics of and services provided to youth in secure care facilities

The majority of the youths detained in secure facilities have issues other than delinquency with which they are dealing including academic problems; learning disabilities; behavioral issues; and mental health concerns (including substance abuse). While only 7.9% of students with disabilities in public schools on average were labeled as having emotional and behavioral disorders, 47.4% of students in detention with disabilities were identified as having these issues (Gagnon & Barber 2010). These students lack age-appropriate coping strategies to deal with anger and frustration, which frequently translates into delinquent behaviors. 60% of youth with mental disorders are co-morbid…… [Read More]

A further complication of incarcerating youths is providing adequate academic support. Academic difficulties are often interrelated with delinquency, and study after study consistently shows that juveniles who are delinquent have weaker academic skills than average. This may be because the lack of support in the child's life fosters conditions of delinquency and academic underperformance, although it could also be that learning disabilities create a sense of alienation and hopelessness about the future, and rather than finding social connections in a school setting, the student instead uses delinquency.

However, there is an argument that detaining juveniles in secure facilities removes the juvenile from the environment which triggered the delinquency and creates a fresh environment, enabling him to develop more positive strategies. New approaches to rehabilitation in institutional settings include CBT, which focuses less on punishment and more upon instilling rational coping mechanisms in offenders. CBT is useful for a wide variety of problems spanning from conduct disorders to substance abuse so using CBT as a general approach can be one effective, unifying way to deal with many of the co-morbidities suffered by juveniles without denying them needed treatment (Gagnon & Barber 2010). It is argued that the high rates of recidivism are not due to the fact that youths are confined in secure facilities, but the fact that such institutions rarely evaluate the efficacy of their behavioral and academic programs and do not periodically review the existing research on the topic of what approaches work and do not work. More effective approaches are required that have been proven to reduce the likelihood of re-offending.

There is also
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Death Penalty for Juveniles the

Words: 710 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59507716

The research shown to the Supreme Court suggests just the opposite about them (Liptak, 2005).

Third, evidence shows that many teens in jail for serious crimes have significant mental health problems. Representative Henry Waxman (D) of California noted that in his state, one of the most populous in the country, there is little competent psychiatric help for youthful offenders who are incarcerated. He and his staff found that hundreds of teens held in California services were not getting the mental health services they desperately needed (Author not stated, 2005). 70% made suicide attempts while incarcerated, and nearly 75% attacked others (Author not stated, 2005). In spite of such clear evidence of instability, nearly six out of ten California facilities lacked staff with mental health training. Youthful offenders, meanwhile, had a wide range of diagnoses including not only substance abuse but AD/HD, retardation and learning disabilities (Author not stated, 2005). These…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Author not stated. 2005. "Mentally ill California youth await treatment in detention." Child Protection Law Report, Feb. 11.

Liptak, Adam. 2005. "Too young to die?" New York Times, Feb. 14.

Yen, Hope. 2005. "Supreme Court strikes down death penalty for juveniles." AP Worldstream, March 1.
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Case Brief Delinquent Minor

Words: 960 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41729206

Gault

Caption: In re Gault et al., 387 U.S. 1; 87 S. Ct. 1428; 18 L. Ed. 2D 527; 1967 U.S. LEXIS 1478; 40 Ohio Op. 2D 378.

Facts: After allegedly making obscene phone calls to a neighbor, the appellants' son, a fifteen-year-old boy, was taken into custody by the Gila County sheriff. The detention occurred without notice to the parents. The boy was questioned without being advised of his right to silence and without his parents present. At no time were the boy or his parents advised that the boy had the right to counsel. When the mother went to the juvenile facility where her son was being detained, she was advised that he was being held because of obscene phone calls and that a hearing would occur the next day. At the hearing in the Juvenile Court, a petition was filed stating that the boy was a delinquent…… [Read More]

References

In re Gault et al., 387 U.S. 1; 87 S. Ct. 1428; 18 L. Ed. 2d 527; 1967 U.S. LEXIS 1478; 40 Ohio

Op. 2d 378.
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Business Idea Create a Thrift Store Focuses

Words: 1814 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9463568

business idea create a thrift store. Focuses employing boys girls juvenile detention center. The profits store invested housing education workers, children maintain store. The assignment: Clearly explaining idea reader Then focus briefly highlighting aspects idea: 1.

Thrift store

The modern day society is more and more pressured by changes in the behavior of people, but also by larger changes at the greater social level. A notable change is as such represented by an increasing gap within the population. While the efforts are focused towards increasing social and economic equality, fact remains that the gap between the rich and the poor continues to be impressive. In such a setting, some people possess large amounts of products, which have to be disposed off, and others are in need of various products, but do not afford them. The thrift store comes to answer the needs of both population categories, by collecting goods and…… [Read More]

References:

Hatten, T.S. (2011). Small business management: entrepreneurship and beyond. Cengage Learning.

Katzmann, G.S., (2002). Securing our children's future: new approaches to juvenile justice and youth violence. Brookings Institution Press.

Longenecker, J.G.. Moore, C.W., Palich, L.E., Petty, W.J., (2006). Small business management: an entrepreneurial emphasis. Vol. 1. Cengage Learning.

Olson, G.E. (2010). Better green business: handbook for environmentally responsible and profitable business practices. Pearson Prentice Hall.
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Miller Jerome G Miller's Book

Words: 1225 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46001711

However, most chose to remain at the schools. Initially Lyman was an all boy's school. Eventually an all girls school was developed and several other reform schools developed throughout the state of Massachusetts. Miller explains that

"Though there was never much evidence that any of these nineteenth-century institutions was effective at its stated goals -- curing the mentally ill, humanely caring for the retarded, reforming the delinquent, or calming the recalcitrant -- all were highly successful at exiling the unmanageable, the unproductive, and the threatening. Their purpose was custodial, despite the gloss succeeding eras placed upon them (Miller,46)."

Miller also describes juvenile detention facilities as waiting rooms and warehouses. At certain times in state history the juvenile detention facilities were nothing more than waiting rooms where delinquents were kept. The author asserts that the juvenile homes in Massachusetts had the feel of waiting rooms because they were boring and the…… [Read More]

References

Miller, J.G. (1991) Last One Over the Wall: The Massachusetts experiment in Closing Reform schools. Ohio State University Press: Columbia
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Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments 10-Year Critical

Words: 14685 Length: 53 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28105173

Adolescent Substance Use Screening Instruments: 10-Year Critical eview of the esearch Literature

Over ten million teenagers in the United States admit in a national survey that they drink alcohol, although it is illegal under the age of 21 in all states. In some studies, nearly one-quarter of school-age children both smoked cigarettes and drank alcohol. Over four thousand adolescents every day try marijuana for the first time. The dangers of use, abuse and dependency on each of these substances have been established. When we also consider that these three substances are considered gateway drugs, that is, drugs whose use is likely to lead to experimentation with "hard" drugs, the potential problem of such widespread use is even more severe. Additionally, use of these substances is known to co-occur with a number of other psychiatric conditions as well as health issues such as the incidence of sexually-transmitted diseases, unwanted pregnancies and…… [Read More]

References

Aarons, Gregory A.; Brown, Sandra A.; Hough, Richard L.; Garland, Ann F.; Wood, Patricia A. Prevalence of Adolescent Substance Use Disorders Across Five Sectors of Care (Statistical Data Included). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, April 2001 v40 i4 p419

Adger, Hoover Jr.; Werner, Mark J. The pediatrician (role in treatment of alcohol-related disorders). Alcohol Health and Research World, Spring 1994 v18 n2 p121 (6)

Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Symptoms of Adolescents. National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence of the San Fernando Valley, Inc. [Online]. Retrieved January 20, 2003 from http:/ / www.ncadd-sfv.org/symptoms/teen_symptoms.html

Alcohol use and abuse: a pediatric concern (American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Substance Abuse). Pediatrics, March 1995 v95 n3 p439 (4)
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High Profile Murder Cases The

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83484004

He admits that he killed her but he states that it was an accident. In an event in which the result is death the defense of involuntary manslaughter is available if the defense can show that it was not an intentional killing.

He also used a partial wrestling defense. He was not allowed to use a complete wrestling defense because the professional wrestlers who were asked to testify to the moves that Tate had seen on television and how they were done refused to testify. The judge did not order them to testify but did allow tapes to be shown of the moves that Tate said he performed on his friend.

Tate's attorneys could have also used a manslaughter defense. Manslaughter can be used when a death occurred, the defendant knew that his or her actions might cause injury but they were not anticipating a death.

In the case of…… [Read More]

References

Where it all began: 14-year-old gets life (accessed 08-06-06) (http://www.courttv.com/trials/wrestling/background.html)

Sons, family friend face life for murder (accessed 8-6-06) (http://www.courttv.com/trials/king/background.html)
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Criminal Justice Substantive vs Procedural

Words: 1473 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99639515



Patterns Juvenile Delinquency Throughout the World/How Determine Who Juvenile?

Patterns in juvenile delinquency also vary throughout the world, as do the way countries define "delinquency" among juveniles. The Japanese according to Platt (2005) have taken on a much more philosophical approach to juvenile delinquency, supporting a Confucian style structure of education and support, one that works toward educating children to become part of the larger social collective (p. 965). In this environment, children are encouraged to become more socially aware and to self-regulate, often given the opportunity to reform before they are punished for wrongdoings.

This conflicts sharply with juvenile delinquency programs and structures elsewhere in the world. In Australia, juvenile delinquency is often associated with being a member of a juvenile gang, which is defined as "youth hanging out on the streets with gang activity" or street activity that has the potential to lead to mischievous behaviors (Duffy &…… [Read More]

References

Duffy, M.P. & Gillig, S. (2004). Teen gangs: A global view. Westport: Greenwood Press.

ICMBA. (2007). American Legal System. Internet Center for Management and Business

Administration, Inc. QuickMBA.com. Retrieved 22, May, 2007:

 http://www.quickmba.com/law/sys/
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President Obama and Criminal Control Policy

Words: 993 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81596150

Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention." The criminal justice issue selected is: juvenile detention reform. The article presents information of CCJTDC or the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center. Some things to highlight is the comparison to nationwide statistics stating 90% of detainees are male. Of the detainees in juvenile detention centers, the majority are racial/ethnic minority. Because the majority are non-white, the researchers looked for potential participants that fit within the strata. The range is ages 10-14, Hispanic males and females, African-American males and females, and non-Hispanic white males and females, however greater focused was placed on Hispanic and African-American youth.

One aspect of reform lies in changing the growth rate of transfers from juvenile court to adult criminal court. These kinds of transfers typically result from "judicial waiver on a case-by-case basis, automatic transfers based on the type of offense, criminal history, and age…… [Read More]

References

Abram, K., Zwecker, N., Welty, L., Hershfield, J., Dulcan, M., & Teplin, L. (2015). Comorbidity and Continuity of Psychiatric Disorders in Youth After Detention. JAMA Psychiatry, 72(1), 1-11. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapsychiatry.2014.1375

R, O. (2015). President Obama for the prisoners. The Economist. Retrieved 9 June 2016, from http://www.economist.com/blogs/democracyinamerica/2015/07/criminal-justice-reform

Shahidullah, S. (2008). Crime policy in America. Lanham: University Press of America.
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Analyzing Research Methods and Statistics

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 68446823

Statistics

The claim has been made that chocolate operates upon the brain in much the same way as an antidepressant drug. Generate specific predictions based on this general hypothesis and provide operational definitions of the variables involved.

Chocolate releases a unique neurotransmitter called phenylethylamine or chocolate amphetamine, which fluctuate the blood and sugar levels, causing euphoria and attentiveness. Unlike amphetamines, however, it doesn't cause addiction to the consumer, but it does act as an anti-depressant by lightening the mood of a person. According to Coveleskie (2004), phenylethylamine in chocolate gives you the same feeling you get when you're in love and therefore, it's also called a love drug.

Chocolate also releases the lipid anandamide, similar to the chemical THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) which is found in the drug, marijuana. The THC as well as the lipid anandamide produce the neurotransmitter 'dopamine' which makes people happy and high. The chemical anandamide is already…… [Read More]

Resources

Bernard, T. J. (1991). The cycle of juvenile justice. New York, NY: Oxford University Press

Coveleskie, K. (2004). Chocolate on the Brain. Serendib. Retrieved from http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/bb/neuro/neuro04/web1/kcoveleskie.html on 26 May 2016

Flaherty, M. G. (1983). The national incidence of juvenile suicide in adult jails and juvenile detention centres. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behaviour, 13(2), 85-94.

Hlavaty, Joel R. (1983). Hypnosis in Our Legal System: The Status of its Acceptance in the Trial Setting, Akron Law Review: Vol. 16: Iss. 3, Article 6
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Pros and Cons of Trying Minors as Adults

Words: 3206 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 22018655

Violent Minors

Traditionally the rule is that anyone was under the age of 18 years old who commits a crime will be tried in the juvenile court system; however, under certain circumstances juveniles can be tried in criminal courts as adults. The designation of the age of the defendant defined as a juvenile or minor who could be tried as an adult is determined by state law, and this age varies from state to state. A study by the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) described data from over 40 of the major urban counties in the United States. The study found that prosecuting juveniles in criminal court (as adults) was generally performed only when serious crimes were committed such as murder, robbery, or aggravated assault (BJS, 2014). An interesting associated finding of the study, which was originally conducted in 1998, was that in the 40 counties studied juveniles were more…… [Read More]

References

Brink, D.O. (2004). Immaturity, normative competence, and juvenile transfer: How (not) to punish minors for major crimes. Bepress Legal Series, 120.

Bureau of Justice Statistics. (2014). Juvenile defendants. Retrieved on May 3, 2014 from http://www.bjs.gov/index.cfm?ty=tp&tid=236.

Fagan, J. (1996). The comparative advantage of juvenile vs. criminal court sanctions on recidivism among adolescent felony offenders. Law & Policy, 18(1-2), 77-114.

Fagan, A.A., & Mazerolle, P. (2011). Repeat offending and repeat victimization: Assessing similarities and differences in psychosocial risk factors. Crime & Delinquency, 57(5), 732-755.
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What Can We Do to Reduce Hate and Violence in Ourselves and Our Society

Words: 1027 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30410340

Hate and Violence

Perhaps one of the greatest challenges we face in the United States today is the need to reduce hate and violence in ourselves and our society. As a teacher in a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled with ways to teach children nonviolent approaches to conflict, and the importance of tolerance and respect for others. This paper will describe student responses to a movie program designed to teach core values of non-violence and tolerance, and discuss these findings in the larger context of the juvenile criminal justice system and society.

In my last eight years as a teacher at a juvenile detention facility, I have struggled to find meaningful ways to reach my students. Students are often highly resistant to both authority and advice from sources that they initiated a Friday afternoon movie program at the juvenile detention facility as a way to encourage nonviolence as a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Monk, Richard C. 2000. Taking Sides: Clashing Views on Controversial Issues in Crime and Criminology, 6th ed. McGraw-Hill/Dushkin.

QuoteGarden. Quotations about Books & Reading. 27 May 2004.  http://www.quotegarden.com/books.html 

Walker, Samuel. 1997. Sense and Nonsense About Crime and Drugs: A Policy Guide (Contemporary Issues in Crime and Justice Series). Wadsworth Publishing.
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Criminal Justice Through the Comparison

Words: 1655 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19506426



In real life criminal situation the same principles often apply especially when it comes to juvenile offenders. Programs like Big Brother and Big Sister are specifically designed for the purpose of thwarting would be young criminals (Haley). The strength and power of mentorship programs in the criminal justice system has been proven for years however it is sometimes difficult to locate enough adult mentors for the at risk and in trouble youth.

THE MOVIE FLAWS

While the movie seemed to remain on path with regard to an accurate portrayal of how the juvenile justice system works there were several areas in which the movie does not promote real life. One of the things the movie does for the sake of Hollywood is downplaying the seriousness of the crimes and offenses that the juveniles in the film committed. While the movie makes them out to be sensitive boys who only want…… [Read More]

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Ethics in Justice System-How We

Words: 4207 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46525136

esearch also showed that offenders tend to be part of or return to communities with high concentrations of offenders. The concentration of offenders in these neighborhoods affects the community negatively by increasing the stigma associated with the community and also saddling the community with additional problems without providing added resources needed for restoring or maintaining order. The ultimate consequence is the that the criminal justice system destabilizes informal networks of social control and increases poor attitudes towards formal social controls, both of which have been shown to contribute to increases in crime and disorder in the communities. Churning results in unnecessary pressure being put on the other residents of the communities who are law-abiding in disadvantaged communities. The removal of men from the community through incarceration has the chilling effect of changing the family's socio-economic structure. The families of incarcerated members, especially men, of the community also face stigma and…… [Read More]

References

Burke, K. And Leben, S. (2007). Procedural Fairness: A key Ingredient in Public Satisfaction.

Court Review: The Journal of the American Judges Association. 44 (1), 4-25.

Davis, A.J. (2008). Racial Fairness in the Criminal Justice System: The Role of the Prosecutor. Colombia Human Rights Law Review. 202 (39), 202-32.

Hurwitz, J and Peffley, M. (2001). Racial Polarization on Criminal Justice Issues:
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Factors Trends of Various Justice Issues in the US

Words: 1624 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11693947

Justice Systems

What are the main factors that determine high or low incarceration rates?

The last twenty years have witnessed a significant and historic shift with regards to the use of imprisonment within the United States. In 1980, less than half a million people were imprisoned in the jails and prisons of America. Today there are almost 2 million inmates and still rising. Annually, the U.S. is spending about $35 billion every year on correctional facilities while many other government departments such as transportation, health and human services and education do not have enough funds to fulfill their functions effectively. The most alarming fact about correctional services in the U.S. is that imprisonment is used mostly on African-American and Hispanic males. It was recently estimated by the Department of Justice that about a third of all African-American males will be incarcerated at least once in their lives. It is also…… [Read More]

References

Austin, J., Bruce, M.A., Carroll, L., McCall, P.L., & Richards, S.C. (2000). The Use of Incarceration in the United States. American Society of Criminology.

Lappi-Seppala, T. (n.d.). Causes of Prison Overcrowding. Finland: National Research Institute of Legal Policy.

Mauer, M. (2003). Comparative International Rates of Incarceration: An Examination of Causes and Trends. Washington, DC.

political Research Associates. (2005, May). The United States vs. The World. Retrieved July 15, 2015, from Political Research Associates: www.defendingjustice.org/factsheets
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Adolescent Influences and Adjustments What

Words: 6386 Length: 20 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72263638

The key years during which experimentation occurs - between 13 and 16.

Kobus discusses influences that launch an adolescent's smoking habit from several perspectives. First, the "social learning theory": relationships that are "more intimate" and that are developed "earlier in the youth's experiences" and thought to be more important; and youths are more likely to "imitate the smoking habits" (or non-smoking habits) of those with whom they have the closes and most frequent contact. Second, the "primary socialization theory" takes into consideration influences of the family, schools, and peer clusters; this theory also gives consideration to an adolescent's "individual personality traits" like self-esteem, anxiety, "sensation seeking and psychopathology" that are "direct influences on drug use and deviance," Kobus writes. hen the bonds a youth has with family and school are "weak," the role of peer clusters is "heightened"; and of course if the individual has low self-esteem, the peer cluster…… [Read More]

Works Cited

American School Board Journal. (2007). Violent video games poison the teenage brain:

Study. National School Boards Association.

Crosby, Richard; Voisin, Dexter; Salazar, Laura F.; DiClement, Ralph J.; Yarber, William L.;

Caliendo, Angela M. (2006). Family Influences and biologically Confirmed Sexually
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Is the War on African-American Criminals Misguided No It

Words: 1629 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58897934

Road to Independence

Independent Living Programs for Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile crime is a major problem in contemporary America. Murder, rape, assault, and crimes against property are a part of everyday life for many teens. Incarceration can both punish and reeducate. The offender learns that antisocial behaviors have consequences. He also learns that there are other ways to deal with his problems, and other ways to make a living. Such attempts at reform are all well and good within the closed world of the juvenile detention center or the sheriff's boot camp, but the day must come when these youths are returned to society. Reintegration into the outside world can be both good and bad for the juvenile offender. For those who return to loving homes, the process can represent the completion of the reform process. However, many teens have no loving homes to which they can go, no caring parents…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Florida Department of Juvenile Justice. (2002). Intervention Program Models. Intervention Services Manual. URL:  http://www.djj.state.fl.us /reference/manuals/intervention/ch-model-5.htm

2. HomeBase. (March 23, 2001). Homeless Youth and the Connection to Foster Care.

Homeless Youth. URL:

http://www.homebaseccc.org/brief032301_5.htm
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Privacy for High School Students

Words: 12892 Length: 40 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 13864282

Internet: Privacy for High School Students

An Analysis of Privacy Issues and High School Students in the United States Today

In the Age of Information, the issue of invasion of privacy continues to dominate the headlines. More and more people, it seems, are becoming victims of identity theft, one of the major forms of privacy invasion, and personal information on just about everyone in the world is available at the click of a mouse. In this environment, can anyone, especially high school students, reasonably expect to have any degree of privacy? High school students, after all, are not protected by many of the same constitutional guarantees as adults, but their needs for privacy may be as great, or greater, than their adult counterparts. To determine what measure of privacy, if any, high schools students can expect at home and school today, this paper provides an overview of the issue of…… [Read More]

References

Alarming Number of Teens Addicted to the Internet. (2001, February 1). Korea Times, 3.

Albanes, R., Armitay, O., Fischer, B., & Warner, J. (1998). Marijuana, Juveniles, and the Police: What High-School Students Believe about Detection and Enforcement.

Canadian Journal of Criminology, 40(4), 401-20.

Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
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Social Control of Girls --

Words: 1099 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76918043

(Sheldon 2004: 3). In other words, girls are penalized for transgressing societal norms such as the idea that girls should stay at home, or the fear that a loitering girl might be soliciting sexual activity. "Part of the explanation of why girls become involved in activities that are likely to land them in the juvenile justice system, but at a rate substantially lower than for boys, is that girls undergo a childhood and adolescence that is heavily colored by their gender," and they are discouraged rather than encouraged to act out in violent actions (Sheldon 2004: 4). However, the obsession with curtailing teenage female sexuality remains in the form of status offenses. As in Victorian times, making female sexuality criminal, and morally reforming female offenders becomes a way of socially engineering the population as a whole, and making it more 'moral' by encouraging or forcing girls to be chaste.

Furthermore,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bronte, Charlotte. (1966). Jane Eyre. New York: Penguin Classics.

Fessler, Anne. (2006). The Girls who Went Away. New York. Penguin Press.

Mumm, Susan. (1996, Spring). "Not worse than other girls: the convent-based rehabilitation of fallen women in Victorian Britain."

Journal of Social History. Retrieved 10 Oct 2007 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2005/is_n3_v29/ai_18498207/pg_2