Juvenile Justice Essays (Examples)

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Juvenile Corrections

Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 10711731

Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).

Background

During the 19th century,…… [Read More]

References

Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.

Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.

Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.
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Juvenile Delinquents

Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 54718429

Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…… [Read More]

References

Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

2010. http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/strickland205.htm
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Juvenile Court Juvenile Criminal Justice System Has

Words: 1312 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64626816

Juvenile Court

Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals. This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this aspect, several crimes have taken place in USA marking the statistics in the country by 32% of the total juvenile crime statistics (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this essay, a case study of one of the most fierce juvenile crime acts have been presented which explains a situation where the juvenile criminal was at first ordered to be treated as an adult for the sentence purposes due to committing first degree of the crime. However, later due to his…… [Read More]

References

Bell, S.J. (2011). Young Offenders and Youth Justice: A Century After the Fact. Toronto: Cengage Learning .

Jones, B. (2012, April 13).  http://www.usatoday.com /news. Retrieved from
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Juvenile Injustice How the Juvenile

Words: 1841 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47448693

, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.

Conclusion

The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…… [Read More]

References

Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.

Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website: http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028

County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved

from http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/courts/jdr/jdrDelinquency.htm
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Juvenile Rights at the Time

Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 42268713

Juveniles may commit crimes on the same level as adults do, but they are of a special case because of their age and relative psychological immaturity. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the minors and help them integrate better into the society. As research shows, police officers come into contact with different kinds of juveniles offenders. They may be mentally ill or handicapped. Some of them come from disorderly families, or are routinely abused physically and sexually by parents or other family members. Others may be simply neglected or have no family support when they are in need (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, pp. 101-2; Cole & Smith, 2007, p. 554). These unique circumstances make juveniles a special case.

As Lawrence and Hemmens (2008) write, police officers need to take special measures in treating juveniles during and after arrest especially because "young persons' views and attitudes toward…… [Read More]

References

Arundel, a. (2010) Arrest and Custody of Juveniles. Retrieved on February 17, 2011, from http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections17-19/1702JuvArrestCust.pdf

Bartollas, C., & Miller, S.J. (2008) Juvenile Justice in America (5th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2007) the American System of Criminal Justice (11th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

"Juvenile Arrest and Detention" (n.d.) Criminal Law Free Advice. Retrieved on February 18, 2011, from http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/juvenile_law/juvenile-detention.htm
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Justice System Juvi Death Penalty

Words: 858 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 60064487

(Streib online)

Regardless of the source of the ethical view there is rising tides that express the evolving attitude that the death penalty, in any case is not a deterrent and is ethically wrong, regardless of the crime or the circumstances of it. The ethical implications of this ruling clearly create issues surrounding age of consent, as the determining factor of the decision, if an individual is not of the age to consent to vote, joint the military, or even buy alcohol, cigarettes or even a lottery ticket in most states they should therefore not be of the age to consent to an understanding of or a level of lethal responsibility for their violent actions.

The ruling clearly demonstrates an adherence with the historical juvenile justice system's stand on juvenile crime, as the system is structured to develop the idea that crimes, and sometimes even violent ones committed by individuals…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Calabresi, Steven G., and Stephanie Dotson Zimdahl. "The Supreme Court and Foreign Sources of Law: Two Hundred Years of Practice and the Juvenile Death Penalty Decision." William and Mary Law Review 47.3 (2005): 743.

Streib, Victor, L. The Juvenile Death Penalty Today: Death Sentences and Executions for Juvenile Crimes January 1, 1973-June 30, 2003. online at http://www.law.onu.edu/faculty/streib/juvdeath.htm. July 1, 2003.

Tanenhaus, David S. Juvenile Justice in the Making. New York: Oxford University Press, 2004.
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Justice as Retribution

Words: 3724 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50803222

Justice as Retribution

Every individual in the globe has a perception towards crime, justice, criminals, and many other aspects in relation to criminals. On hearing the term "criminal," every individual reacts differently. There are those who feel that a criminal deserves to die, others feel they should rot in prison and many other divergent views. However, does it ever occur that a criminal can be a criminal, through a legal process although they did not take part in the crime? This is a serious issue, which requires critical reasoning before going around judging or calling other people criminals. To the main point, retribution is the main topic or the subject matter for this paper. In the criminal context, the term retribution suggests revenge. This revenge, which the court delivers, is unseen by the common people. However, a critical scrutiny suggests that the legal process is also a tool to deliver…… [Read More]

Works cited

Allen, Rob, "Justice Reinvestment: Making sense of the costs of imprisonment." Criminal

Justice Matters, 71.1 (2008): 41-42.Print

Antony, A Vass. Alternatives to Prison: Punishment, Custody and the Community. London:

Sage, 1990. Print.
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Juvenile Sentencing the Issue of

Words: 2091 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 61382395

According to Lawlor, Connecticut has "developed a flexible approach geared toward immediate intervention and proven results" (Lawlor). He explains that not every teenaged car thief with a record of several arrests should be sent to prison, just as not every 10-year-old first time truant needs to be simply sent home to his parents (Lawlor).

The state of Connecticut has sole responsibility for all probation, adult and juvenile, and all graduated sanctions programs are operated by the state or by private, non-profit organizations funded by the state (Lawlor). For more than twenty years, the term 'juvenile' in the state of Connecticut refers to only youths under the age of sixteen; youths who are sixteen years and older are treated as adults for all crimes (Lawlor). In 1995, before the graduated sanctions were implemented, the most serious violent juveniles were the focus of the juvenile court, and all other cases were for…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bilchik, Shay. "Sentencing juveniles to adult facilities fails youths and society."

Corrections Today. April 1, 2003. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Feld, Barry C. "Abolish the juvenile court: youthfulness, criminal responsibility, and sentencing policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Grisso, Thomas. "The evolution of adolescence: a developmental perspective on juvenile justice reform. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.
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Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails

Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440

Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…… [Read More]

References

ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).
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Juvenile Delinquency and Urban Areas

Words: 2898 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 91314490

Juvenile Delincency in Urban Areas

Juvenile delinquency is a contemporary term for an old problem. One of the oldest relevant studies of the phenomenon was 'social disorganization' theory, which was developed by the Chicago school of sociology in the 1920's. This theory posits that there exist areas in a city in which traditional institutions have little or no control. This was studied in Chicago using a system of 'Concentric Zones' which demonstrated that most of the crime in the city occurs within certain areas that are typically associated with poverty. According to studies conducted by Shaw and McKay in the 1940's, "a preponderance of the delinquent boys lived either in areas adjacent to the central business and industrial district or along the two forks of the Chicago River, ack of the Yards, or in South Chicago, with relatively few in other outlying areas." (Jacoby, 13)

Shaw and McKay discovered a…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Carlin Wong. Clifford R. Shaw and Henry D. McKay: The Social Disorganization Theory. Center for Spacially Oriented Social Science. 2002.

Terence Morris. The Criminal Area: A Study in Social Ecology Routledge & Paul, 1966

Robert C. Trojanowicz, Merry Morash, and Pamela Schram. Juvenile Delinquency Concepts and Control, 6th Edition. Prentice Hall: 2000.

Walter B. Miller. The Growth of Youth Gang Problems in the United States: 1970-98. U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. April, 2001.
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Juvenile Offenders and Recividism

Words: 1280 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 45219755

Juvenile delinquency has been an ever-evolving issue in the United States. From aims focused on prevention and rehabilitation that resulted in the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974; to a reverse trend beginning in the mid-1970's, the present has brought on a more prevalent tendency to try juveniles as adults. No more have courts taken to giving juveniles delinquents a second chance through rehabilitation (Schmalleger, 2016). In recent years, juveniles have faced life sentences without parole like an adult would. If the trend continues, will the number of juveniles tried as adults grow? Is it the responsibility of the juvenile justice system to prevent crime by enacting harsh penalties on the troubled youth of the country? From a Judeo-Christian perspective, everyone in one way or another, sins. It is up to the government and the community to help sinners see their wrongs and allow them a chance for…… [Read More]

References

Casey, S., & Day, A. (2015). Accountability in Juvenile Justice: A Framework to Assess Client Outcomes. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(14), 1645-1668. doi:10.1177/0306624x15586767

Kretschmar, J. M., Butcher, F., Flannery, D. J., & Singer, M. I. (2016). Diverting Juvenile Justice-Involved Youth With Behavioral Health Issues From Detention. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 27(3), 302-325. doi:10.1177/0887403414560885

Mody, S. (2008). Juvenile Justice. Childhood Education, 1-3.

Schmalleger, F. (2016). Criminal justice today: An introductory text for the twenty-first century (14th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education.
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Juvenile Gangs Have Been Thorns on the

Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89349132

Juvenile Gangs

Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…… [Read More]

References List

Defleur, L.B. (1967). Delinquent Gangs in Cross-Cultural Perspective: the Case of Cordoba.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4(1), 132-141.

Flores, J.R. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Retrieved from http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495786.pdf

Klein, M. (2001). The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. And Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
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Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion

Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 51190359



Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.

Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…… [Read More]

Reference List

Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.

Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.
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Juvenile Court Philosophy the Office

Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24143843

They must also determine what types of delinquent behavior and youth violence are causing the greatest concern in the community. (Medaris, 1996, para.# 5)

As can be seen from the above statement of the first step in implementing the SHOCAP program in any community, first look at statistics on juvenile crime and second ask the community what it is most afraid of with regard to juvenile crime. This intention seriously contradicts the intention of the juvenile justice system to demonstrate focus on individual cases of each juvenile offender and give it adequate time for understanding of all mitigating circumstances, rather than seeking to understand outside fear of crime. Many factors contribute to public opinion of crime and not all of those factors are realistically and truly connected to real crime occurrences and/or statistics. The "mitigating" factors of public crime fear are in dire need of reevaluation, starting with unrealistic and…… [Read More]

Resources

Cothern, L. (November 2000) "Juveniles and the Death Penalty," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Accessed July, 10, 2008

http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184748.pdf

Medaris, M (August 1996) "Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program. (SHOCAP)" Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Factsheet Accessed July, 10, 2008, http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/shocap.txt
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Juveniles and Delinquency Youths Are

Words: 4772 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58533879



Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).

Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point

It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.

Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org. http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm.

Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]

http://www.*****/essays/legal/870.shtml

Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004. http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html
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Juvenile Drug Abusers

Words: 2362 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 56135135

e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.

Prevention Programs:

Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.

Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…… [Read More]

References

Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf.

Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html.
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Juvenile Diversion in the Juvenile

Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38269181

The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of 2000, approved by the California Board of Corrections. This was a multi-year evaluation research project and was divided into five distinct areas to evaluate programs approved by the Board of Corrections, these being the Community-Based Probation Diversion, Youth Accountability Teams, the Gang Prevention-Project BIDGE, and the Family Violence Prevention Program-P.A.C.T., Youth Accountability Boards, and Youth Courts. The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per 100,000; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply. Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program (iverside…… [Read More]

References

Johnson, J.E. (1979, April 6). "The Impact of Juvenile Diversion: An Assessment Using Multiple Archival Perspectives."

Retrieved May 24, 2007 at http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED177411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED177411.

Nadell-Hayes, S. & Macallair, D. (1995) Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the Legislature. Retrieved May 24, 2007 at http://www.cjcj.org/pdf/restructuring.pdf.

Riverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (a.B. 1913) Projects (2007). Retrieved May 25, 2007 at http://ccjr.csusb.edu/ProgEvalRiversideProjects.htm.
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Juvenile System vs Adult Justice

Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89874029



The actual court proceedings in a juvenile court consist of the arrest procedure, search and seizure, and custodial interrogation (Calderon 2006). The concept has been that the delinquent is a child rather than a criminal. Hence, rehabilitation rather than punishment is the court and the system's goal. ut the major aspects of the juvenile justice system continue to hound its supporters. One is the cause of serious juvenile crime. Another is that young offenders need to be rehabilitated under a surrogate entity of the parens patriae concept. Another is a recent redefinition of young violent offenders as adults and their transfer to adult courts and the criminal or adult justice system. There has been increasing belief that they pose a serious and genuine threat to the safety of other young people and the community as a whole. An increase in serious juvenile crimes warrants more severe punishment. ut moving them…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Calderon, M (2006). A reflective comparison of the juvenile criminal justice system vs. The adult criminal justice system. 23 web pages. Anai Rhoads. Retrieved on April 29, 2008 at http://www.anairhoads.org/calderon/juvadult.shtml

Colquitt, J. (2002). American Criminal Justice System. Retrieved on April 30, 2008 from http://www.law.ua.edu/conquitt/crimmain/crimmisc/crime.htm

Hopson, R. K and Obidah, J.E. (2002). When getting tough means getting tougher.

21 pages. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University
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Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Delinquents in

Words: 1672 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 67903924

Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency (oberts, 2005). Like Kim and Kim (2008) point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth. This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers (oberts, 2005).

Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents. In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…… [Read More]

References

Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2006). Discriminative Factor Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in South Korea. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 36(8), 1315-1323.

Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. New York: Nova.

Library of Congress (2009). A Country Study: South Korea. Retrieved August 18, 2009,

from the Library of Congress Web Site: http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html
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Juveniles Since Biblical Times Children Have Been

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 9544807

Juveniles

Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…… [Read More]

References:

 http://law.jrank.org/pages/12069/Juvenile-Justice-Changing-social-attitudes-toward-children.html 

Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from:  http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53 

Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
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Juveniles & Justice Is it

Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38463361

, 1914, p. 500).

Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. (Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al., explains on page 326). States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests (Siegel, 17). Approximately 150,000 under age youths (technically children) are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains (17). This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.

The U.S. Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974, which provides funds to make…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Del Carmen, Rolando V. (2010). Community-Based Corrections.

Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, and Hart, Albert Bushnell. (1914). Cyclopedia of American

Government, Volume 1. Emeryville, CA: D. Appleton and Company.
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Juveniles in Adult Incarceration Facilities

Words: 1568 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95514071

In addition, the threat of being placed in an adult facility not only doesn't lower crime rates among juveniles, but increases their chances of recidivism and violent behavior (Elikann, 1999). As one critic of the current laws stated: "This country's laws recognize that juveniles are too young to drink alcohol, vote, engage in legal contracts and enter into marriage, all because they are still developing mentally and emotionally" (Bilchik, 2003). Yet today, approximately 200,000 young offenders are funneled directly into the adult court system, "the majority for property crimes and drug-related offenses" (Bilchik, 2003). Sadly, while there are situations in which even an adolescent is a "lost cause" and must be kept locked away, the great majority of cases in which juveniles are tried as adults are unnecessary and unwise (Elikann, 1999). Granted, the juvenile justice system is overloaded and needs to change, but channeling children into the adult system…… [Read More]

References

Biden, J. (2). Attacking Youth Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics, 17 (1), 1998.

Bilchik, S. (2003). Sentencing Juveniles to Adult Facilities Fails Youths and Society. Corrections Today, 65 (2), 21.

Elikann, P. (1999). Superpredators: The Demonization of Our Children by the Law. Reading, MA: Perseus.

Feld, B. (1997). Abolish the Juvenile Court: Youthfulness, Criminal Responsibility, and Sentencing Policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88 (1), 68-136.
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Juvenile Delinquency Has Long Plagued

Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29069253

In this form of punishment, authorities find infractions, encourage compliance and reward or punish and take away rights depending on the individual's response. In 1957, Fritz edl and David Wineman (as cited in Vander Ven, 2009) wrote about another approach in their book, the Aggressive Child, which proved to be much more successful at their juvenile residence Pioneer House. However, for various reasons, their methodology never received much of a following (Vander Ven, 2009).

Now, residential institutions are revisiting edl and Wineman's approach, which has greater credibility due to insights in the behavioral sciences over the past several decades. The distinction between typical youth and those who hate and are filled with anger, say edl and Wineman, is that while neither always behave perfectly, typical children will respond to interventions that remind them of what is good behavior. However, even these "normal" children under certain types of stress may not…… [Read More]

References

Edmondson, V.C. (2009) a new business: redirecting Black youth from the illegal economy

Reclaiming Children and Youth 18(3), 16-21 Hide details

Edwards, D.M. (2002). From illegal to legitimate professions: Alternatives to low-wage employment. UAB McNair Chronicle 3, 42-47.

Peterson, S.B. (2009) Made in America: the Global Youth Justice Movement: with more than 1,200 local youth and teen court programs in America -- Europe, Australia, Asia, and Canada are now implementing this model to harness the positive peer influence of youth volunteers to reduce juvenile crime. Reclaiming Children and Youth 18 (2), 48-53
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Juvenile Offenders and Rehabilitation

Words: 4448 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35811849

Juvenile offenders have grown to become a serious problem in many countries, especially the United States. Like adult offenders, juvenile offenders are more likely to reoffend, especially without the proper guidance and assistance they need in order to live a law abiding life. esearch within the last five years has led to identification of specific program models as well theory-based intervention approaches that not only assist juvenile offenders in leading productive lives but also keeps them from potentially re-offending. This paper will focus on rehabilitation programs for juvenile offenders and prevention programs that help in lessening the number of potential juvenile offenders by proposing alternative means of coping with hardship and stress.

Farrington's Integrated Cognitive Antisocial Potential Theory will be examined within the context of juvenile offenders and how this framework may be applied to understanding Juvenile motivations for engaging in criminal activities Importance of rehabilitation will be emphasized because…… [Read More]

References

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012

Barnes, A., Campbell, N., Anderson, V., Campbell, C., Onifade, E., & Davidson, W. (2015). Validity of initial, exit, and dynamic juvenile risk assessment: An examination across gender and race/ethnicity. Journal Of Offender Rehabilitation, 55(1), 21-38. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10509674.2015.1107004

Borduin, C., Dopp, A., & Taylor, E. (2013). Evidence-Based Interventions for Serious and Violent Juvenile Offenders. An Evidence-Based Approach To Assessment And Treatment, 192-210. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/9781118320655.ch11

Brooks, M., & Khan, R. (2015). Psychosocial influences that motivate young offenders to engage in a non-custodial community intervention. The Journal Of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, 26(3), 351-367. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14789949.2015.1013973
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Juvenile Drug Courts

Words: 3028 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8841439

Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…… [Read More]

References

Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165-183.

Cooper, C.S. (2001). Juvenile Drug Court Programs. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf

Office of Justice Programs. (2003). Juvenile Drug Courts: Strategies in Practice. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/197866.pdf

United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. (2015). BRIDGE Program: Mission Statement and Policies. United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from http://www.scp.uscourts.gov/Downloads/BRIDGEProgramMissionPolicies.pdf
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Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Sexual Offending

Words: 2403 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50250193

Moreover, if an adolescent who has reached 18 commits sexual offending is considered an adult sex offender, "what does this mean for young adults who engaged in sexually abusive behavior prior to age 18?" (p. 433). ecause of this blurry line, Rich suggests, it is imperative that adolescents of older age must especially be provided with comprehensive treatment programs to prevent them from developing fixed sexualized abusive interests.

ecause of the complicated nature of the problem of juvenile sex offending, Rich offers a holistic treatment for curing juvenile sex offenders. The holistic model, grounded on the principle that the 'whole' of the person needs to be taken into consideration, must look into the nature of the individual "whose emotions, cognitions, behaviors and relationships are driven by multiple factors, many of which are unique to that individual" (p. 444). In other words, the approach should first and foremost focus on learning…… [Read More]

Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2): 222-226.

Rich, P (2009) Understanding the Complexities and Needs of Adolescent Sex Offenders in Beech, a.R., Craig, B.A., & Browne, K.D. (Eds.) Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders. West Sussex, UK: Whiley-Blackwell.

Rightland, S., & Welch, C (2001) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature. A report to the U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Ryan, G., Leversee, T., & Lane, Sandy (2010) Juvenile Sexual Offending: Causes, Consequences, and Correction. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.

Smallbone, S., Marshall, W.L., & Wortley, R. (2008) Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Evidence, Policy and Practice. Portland: Willan Publishing.
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Juvenile Delinquency Wrong Turn Predisposing

Words: 1470 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19484770

, 2008). Respondents to the study were 250 persons, aged 19-24, recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984 and pregnant women in four clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio. The pregnant women lived in areas with high concentrations of older-type of lead-contaminated dwellings (Wright et al.). Commendable efforts have been expended to reduce exposures to tobacco and environmental lead at this time. ut millions of young people continue to be exposed to them in levels sufficient to put them at risk of persistent violent and criminal behaviors (raun et al.).

Trauma

Studies conducted with a wide range of age groups, populations and types of trauma showed that traumatized children and adolescents face a high risk of developing different behavioral, psychological and neurobiological problems (Caffo et al., 2005). Early traumatic experiences can have strong and lasting behavioral and psychological consequences in the young. These include Post Traumatic Stress Disorder or PTSD, depression, anxiety…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Bartlett, R., et al. (2007). Problem behaviors in adolescents. 33 (1): 13-18 Pediatric

Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc. Retrieved on February 15, 2010 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/555209

Braun, J.M., et al. (2008). Association of environmental toxicants and conduct disorder in U.S. children. 116 (7): 956-962 Environmental Health Perspectives: National Institute

of Environmental Health Sciences. Retrieved on February 15, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/577047
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Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69171380

Juvenile and Adult Justice

Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Similarities and differences: Juvenile and adult criminal justice systems

The goals of the juvenile justice and the adult criminal justice systems are fundamentally distinct. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and to provide aid and assistance to the juvenile, enabling him or her to become a more productive adult (La Mance 2010). In contrast, the purpose of the adult system is one of fact-finding, and is designed to see 'justice' done on a societal level: in the case of a guilty offender, this usually means him or her 'paying a debt' to society in the form of some kind of punishment. However, the adult system still does offer many rehabilitative programs for the majority of convicts, including educational and vocational training. And, depending on the state, if the severity of the crime is deemed significant…… [Read More]

References

Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structures and processes. (1999). Juvenilia Offenders and Victims: National Report. Retrieved:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter4.pdf 

Juvenile law: status offenses. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved:

 http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/juvenile-law-status-offenses-32227.html 

Komisaruk, Kami. 92007). Differences between juvenile and adult court. Just Law Collective.