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Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong
Words: 1770 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 62195901
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Crime

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

Juvenile Offenders

Juvenile Offender in Hong Kong

The increase in juvenile delinquency has become a world-wide phenomenon, especially in many developed countries. This trend is also evident in cities like Hong Kong and can be seen in a recent report which asserts that the age of juvenile offenders in Kong is getting younger. This study by Pang (2008) states that, "Some juvenile delinquents are now as young as 10 and 11..." (Pang, 2008).

According to the Hong Kong Federation of Youth Groups, another disturbing indication of the increase in youth crime was the number of crimes committed by young females, which increased in 2006. "The young girls, mostly aged 13 to 14, usually like to commit crimes with their friends, like stealing accessories or cosmetics"..." ( Pang, 2008). Furthermore, this study notes that there was a thirteen percent increase in crimes committed by children…

References

Broadhurst R. ( 2000). Crime Trends in Hong Kong. Retrieved from  http://www.crime.hku.hk/rb-crimetrends.htm 

Cagape E. ( 2008). Why I think juvenile offenders are getting younger. Retrieved from  http://asiancorrespondent.com/17054/why-i-think-juvenile-offenders-are-getting-younger/ 

Edwin H. Sutherland: Differential Association Theory. Florida State University.

Retrieved from http://criminology.fsu.edu/crimtheory/sutherland.html

Juvenile Offender Case You Selected From News
Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79670834
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juvenile offender case you selected from news reports in your own community. Synthesize how your state's (or locale's) juvenile laws and codes would apply to your selected case. Be specific and cite your state's (or locale's) relevant laws and codes.

Juvenile justice in Indiana: Trying juveniles as adults

One of the most controversial issues in juvenile justice is the question of when a juvenile can and should be tried as an adult. In the state of Indiana, children as young as age ten can be tried in adult court. "That's younger than many states, but then some states have no age limit" (King 2012). One of the most controversial, recent examples of this phenomenon in Indiana is the case of Paul Henry Gingerich, who was convicted of murder when he was only twelve years old. Paul "pleaded guilty to conspiracy to commit murder after he and a friend fired four…

Juvenile Corrections Before the Expansion
Words: 2458 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51190359
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Juvenile facilities provide intensive and specialized therapeutic programs with brilliant results. The juvenile placed in juveniles' corrections enjoy an education-centered curriculum and trained staff that functions exclusively with the juvenile offenders' population. On the contrary, those juvenile held in adult jails and prisons do not enjoy these services (Siegel 2009, 671). Understanding that juveniles hold different emotional, safety, social and physical requirements from adult offenders, guidelines requiring certified juveniles to get placements in divergent setting other than adult prisons and jails is paramount. More than sixteen states in America hold certified juveniles in juvenile corrections and not in adult prison until these offenders reach eighteen years.

Six states hold juvenile in juvenile facilities until they attain the age of 21. Pennsylvania and Virginia passed the laws requiring that juveniles, regardless of their crime, get placement in juvenile correction facilities and not in adult jails (Dietch 2011, p.11). This is because…

Reference List

Deitch, M 2011. Juveniles in the adult criminal justice system in Texas. The University of Texas at Austin, school of Public Affairs.pp.1-44.

Elrod, P., Ryder, C 2011. Juvenile justice: A social, historical and legal perspective. Michigan: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Roberts, a., Springer, D 2007. Social work in juvenile and criminal justice settings. Texas: Charles C. Thomas Publisher.

Siegel, L 2009. Introduction to criminal justice. New York: Cengage Learning.

Juvenile Corrections
Words: 1407 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 10711731
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Juvenile Corrections

Juvenile delinquency is a common phenomenon in the globe today. Owing to the severe crimes, committed, different states handle the matter differently. On one hand, some states utilize the "punitive approach" that prioritizes crime control, punishment, and incarceration; on another, the restorative model, which stresses human rights, youth development research, and restoring the community. In the United States, the law does not tolerate juvenile delinquency; this explains the utilization of the "punitive approach" when handling juveniles. In addition, policies in the U.S. are becoming more punitive; therefore, juveniles have found themselves tried in the adult legal system. However, in the recent past, the U.S. has re-considered the death and life without parole sentences for juveniles, which it has termed as unconstitutional. Apparently, the state is gradually applying some human rights principles in relation to juvenile justice policy, a positive move, indeed (Caldwell, 2011).

Background

During the 19th century,…

References

Abrams, L.S., Kim, K., & Anderson-Nathe, B. (2005). Paradoxes of treatment in the juvenile corrections. Child and youth car form, 34(1), 7-25.

Caldwell, B. (2011). Punishment vs. restoration: A comparative analysis of juvenile delinquency law in the United States and Mexico.

Hirth, D. (2001). Early intensive help for high-risk juveniles. Corrections today, 80-83.

Perlin, M. (2013). Collaborative justice. Criminology and Law Enforcement, 1-3.

Juvenile Gangs Have Been Thorns on the
Words: 1041 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89349132
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Juvenile Gangs

Gangs have been thorns on the flesh of the citizens of the United States no wonder they have occupied a prominent position in American criminological literature. Gang wars between the Crips and the Bloods in Los Angeles are testament to the gang culture among certain communities in the United States. As opposed to the Dutch youth who are interested in music and romance of the West Side Story, especially the video clips and compact disc with gangster rap, the Americans juveniles appear to have negative associations (Klein, 2001). The language of the youngsters perceived to be engaging in juvenile gang activities is characterized by hyperbole and contains refers to competition and violence. The youth style personified by rappers like Tupac Shakur and Notorious B.I.G. who appeared to talk about the hard life in their neighborhoods referred to juvenile gangs. This research paper seeks to review literature on criminal…

References List

Defleur, L.B. (1967). Delinquent Gangs in Cross-Cultural Perspective: the Case of Cordoba.

Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency 4(1), 132-141.

Flores, J.R. (2006). Juvenile Offenders and Victims: 2006 National Report. Retrieved from  http://www.eric.ed.gov/PDFS/ED495786.pdf 

Klein, M. (2001). The Eurogang Paradox: Street Gangs and Youth Groups in the U.S. And Europe. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Juvenile Injustice How the Juvenile
Words: 1841 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 47448693
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, 2009). While there are schools in the juvenile system, some of these Hispanic children may come in so behind in their educations that they will requires special services to bring them current in their educations. Therefore, educational and mental health concerns are highlighted for Hispanic youth entering into the juvenile justice system.

Conclusion

The juvenile justice system in the United States is out-of-control. While Fairfax County, Virginia's juvenile justice system is not experiencing the same problems as other areas, it would be erroneous to assume that its system is still the best way of dealing with juvenile offenders. Fairfax County has a large Hispanic population, and Hispanic youth are overrepresented in its juvenile justice system. One must assume that a lack of cultural sensitivity has helped contribute to this problem. Ensuring that Hispanic youth and their families have access to the same quality of non-penal services as other youth…

References

Chambers, B. (2009, June 11). Latino youth in the juvenile justice system -- key facts.

Retrieved October 11, 2011 from Reclaiming Futures website:  http://www.reclaimingfutures.org/blog/node/1028 

County of Fairfax Virginia. (2011). Delinquency (juvenile criminal cases). Retrieved

from  http://www.fairfaxcounty.gov/courts/jdr/jdrDelinquency.htm

Juvenile Total Institutions Total Institutions Prisons Jails
Words: 1797 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 65920440
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Juvenile Total Institutions

Total Institutions ( prisons/jails) juveniles. A. Discuss history B. Goals C. programming youth held . D. Issues/Problems Present facilities Below Guideline paper. 1. Students expected draw information class material scholarly sources journal articles, government websites, NPO websites.

Bortner and Williams (1997)

define a total institution as a physical location such as a prison or a reformatory where all the total needs of the residents are met. The needs of the individuals are mostly physical such as health, clothing, nutrition, shelter, etc. For juveniles, total institutions must be able to meet their educational and psychological needs as the youth. For an institution to quality as a total institution, the totality of the care that is provided in the institutions must be reflected in the round the clock confinement of the residents including holidays and weekends Shoemaker, 2009.

Goffman (1961)

argues that in many different ways, correctional institutions also…

References

ABA Division for Public Education. The History of Juvenile Justice. In ABA Division for Public Education (Ed.), Dialogue on Youth and Justice (pp. 1-8). Chicago, IL: American bar association.

Austin, J., Johnson, K.D., & Weitzer, R. (2005). Alternatives to the Secure Detention and Confinement of Juvenile Offenders (pp. 41). Rockville, MD: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, U.S. Dept of Justice.

Bortner, M.A., & Williams, L. (1997). Youth in Prison. New York: Rutledge.

Commonwealth v. Fisher, No. 213 48 (1905).

Juvenile Delinquents
Words: 2220 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 54718429
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Juvenile Justice

Juvenile delinquents

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

Juvenile justice:

Shifting to a restorative model, acknowledging the needs of victims

The adult justice system in America has long focused upon retribution and community restoration as well as rehabilitation of offenders. Victims must be 'made whole,' not just offenders within the adult system. However, the juvenile justice system has had a far less clear focus upon the restoration of justice to the community than that of its adult counterpart. This is partially due to the oft-expressed view that juveniles are less morally responsible than adults. Juvenile records are usually 'wiped clean' after the adolescents have served their time in probation or prison. The focus of the juvenile justice system is always on the improvement of the life of the juvenile and to reduce the likelihood of recidivism, rather than outright punishment.

On the other hand,…

References

Balanced and restorative justice. (2010). OJJDP report: Guide for implementing the balanced and restorative justice model. Retrieved July 4, 2010. http://www.ojjdp.ncjrs.gov/pubs/implementing/balanced.html

Giacomazzi, Andrew L. (2005, February). Review of Restorative justice by Ruth Ann

Strickland. (New York, NY: Peter Lang, 2004). LPBR. 15.2: 139-142. Retrieved July 4,

2010.  http://www.bsos.umd.edu/gvpt/lpbr/subpages/reviews/strickland205.htm

Juvenile Rights Comparisons of Protections
Words: 994 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 23604736
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In the United States of American court systems, juvenile courts still proposes juvenile delinquents in aspects that are more paternal other than diagnostic. The adult counterparts cannot access such diagnostic processing as juveniles do. Adults are treated separately unlike juveniles within the jury and the constitutional accordance that assures the difference has been assured to the individuals.

The IV Amendment Search and Seizure Clause

The Fourth Amendment is one of the most prolific archives of constitution litigation in the United States of America. The application to the state through the process of Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment is unique and comprehensive to the American court systems dealing with juveniles. This amendment is depicted by issuance of connotation that protected individuals from unnecessary seizures and searches while in court proceedings. The amendment has much respect to juveniles and juvenile courts since most juveniles do not have to be apprehended…

References

Bueren, G.V. (1998). The international law on the rights of the child. Dordrecht [u.a.: Nijhoff.

Detrick, S. (1999). A commentary on the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. The Hague [u.a.: Nijhoff Pub.

Kumar, a. (2006). Human rights and sustainable development. New Delhi: Sarup & Sons.

Siegel, L.J., & Welsh, B. (2012). Juvenile delinquency: Theory, practice, and law. Australia: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.

Offender Re-Entry Program Proposal
Words: 1780 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 65355003
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Offender Reentry Program Proposal

The concept of offender "reentry" is beginning to take the corrections world by storm -- a much overdue storm. Reentry is the process of prisoners reentering society after a period of incarceration in a prison, jail, or detention facility. But it doesn't signify just "letting them go." It connotes that offenders are "prepared" to be released. It means that they are much better off at the time of release than at the time of their admission. (Anderson, S)

It suggests that their period of community supervision will contribute to their crime-free lifestyle. An estimated 100,000 youth are released from secure and residential facilities every year and because the length of incarceration for juveniles is shorter than for adults, a relatively greater percentage of juveniles return to the community each year. In addition, research indicates that a small percentage of juvenile offenders commit the overwhelming majority of…

Wilkinson, R. (1998). The impact of community service work on adult state prisoners using a restorative justice framework. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati.

Wilkinson, R. (2000). Sex offender risk reduction center. In R. Wilkinson (Ed.), Correctional best practices. Directors' perspectives. Middleton, CT: The Association of State Correctional Administrators.

Wilson, D., Gallagher, C., & MacKenzie, D. (2000). A meta-analysis of corrections-based education vocation, and work programs for adult offenders. Journal of Research in Crime and Delinquency, 37, 347-368.

Juvenile Sentencing the Issue of
Words: 2091 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 61382395
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According to Lawlor, Connecticut has "developed a flexible approach geared toward immediate intervention and proven results" (Lawlor). He explains that not every teenaged car thief with a record of several arrests should be sent to prison, just as not every 10-year-old first time truant needs to be simply sent home to his parents (Lawlor).

The state of Connecticut has sole responsibility for all probation, adult and juvenile, and all graduated sanctions programs are operated by the state or by private, non-profit organizations funded by the state (Lawlor). For more than twenty years, the term 'juvenile' in the state of Connecticut refers to only youths under the age of sixteen; youths who are sixteen years and older are treated as adults for all crimes (Lawlor). In 1995, before the graduated sanctions were implemented, the most serious violent juveniles were the focus of the juvenile court, and all other cases were for…

Works Cited

Bilchik, Shay. "Sentencing juveniles to adult facilities fails youths and society."

Corrections Today. April 1, 2003. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Feld, Barry C. "Abolish the juvenile court: youthfulness, criminal responsibility, and sentencing policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Grisso, Thomas. "The evolution of adolescence: a developmental perspective on juvenile justice reform. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology. September 22, 1997. Retrieved November 30, 2006 from HighBeam Research Library.

Juvenile Drug Abusers
Words: 2362 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 56135135
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e. school, religious activities, sports, family involvement)." ("Juvenile detention," 2005, p. 11-12). These negative affects of increased usage not only directly affect juvenile drug abusers with increased occurrence of detention, but also make less effective rehabilitation programs needed for these young offenders.

Prevention Programs:

Over the last two decades, there have been a plethora of clinical trial research that have identified effective adolescent substance use prevention programs.

Sadly, funding for drug use prevention services has decreased over recent years, partly due to the increased need for drug user treatment for young people. As an example, in 2002, Congress reduced funding for community drug prevention studies at the U.S. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention (CSAP), by $50 million, in order to increase drug user treatment studies at the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment. With reduced funding, it is of even greater importance that prevention programs are as effective as possible. Kumpfer,…

References

Bilchik, S. (1997). From the administrator. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at  http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/167251.pdf .

Juvenile detention as a disposition. (2005). Journal of Juvenile Justice Services, 20(2). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Kumpfer, K., Alvarado, R., & Whiteside, H. (Jul 2003). Family-based interventions for substance use and misuse prevention. Substance Use & Misuse, 38(11-13). Retrieved September 21, 2007, from Academic Search Premier database.

Lexcen, F. & Redding, R. (2000). Substance abuse and dependence in juvenile offenders. Retrieved September 21, 2007, at  http://www.ilppp.virginia.edu/Juvenile_Forensic_Fact_Sheets/SubAbuse.html .

Juveniles in Adult Incarceration Facilities
Words: 1568 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95514071
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In addition, the threat of being placed in an adult facility not only doesn't lower crime rates among juveniles, but increases their chances of recidivism and violent behavior (Elikann, 1999). As one critic of the current laws stated: "This country's laws recognize that juveniles are too young to drink alcohol, vote, engage in legal contracts and enter into marriage, all because they are still developing mentally and emotionally" (Bilchik, 2003). Yet today, approximately 200,000 young offenders are funneled directly into the adult court system, "the majority for property crimes and drug-related offenses" (Bilchik, 2003). Sadly, while there are situations in which even an adolescent is a "lost cause" and must be kept locked away, the great majority of cases in which juveniles are tried as adults are unnecessary and unwise (Elikann, 1999). Granted, the juvenile justice system is overloaded and needs to change, but channeling children into the adult system…

References

Biden, J. (2). Attacking Youth Violence. Criminal Justice Ethics, 17 (1), 1998.

Bilchik, S. (2003). Sentencing Juveniles to Adult Facilities Fails Youths and Society. Corrections Today, 65 (2), 21.

Elikann, P. (1999). Superpredators: The Demonization of Our Children by the Law. Reading, MA: Perseus.

Feld, B. (1997). Abolish the Juvenile Court: Youthfulness, Criminal Responsibility, and Sentencing Policy. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 88 (1), 68-136.

Juvenile Rights at the Time
Words: 800 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 42268713
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Juveniles may commit crimes on the same level as adults do, but they are of a special case because of their age and relative psychological immaturity. The purpose of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the minors and help them integrate better into the society. As research shows, police officers come into contact with different kinds of juveniles offenders. They may be mentally ill or handicapped. Some of them come from disorderly families, or are routinely abused physically and sexually by parents or other family members. Others may be simply neglected or have no family support when they are in need (Bartollas & Miller, 2008, pp. 101-2; Cole & Smith, 2007, p. 554). These unique circumstances make juveniles a special case.

As Lawrence and Hemmens (2008) write, police officers need to take special measures in treating juveniles during and after arrest especially because "young persons' views and attitudes toward…

References

Arundel, a. (2010) Arrest and Custody of Juveniles. Retrieved on February 17, 2011, from  http://www.aacounty.org/Police/RulesRegs/Sections17-19/1702JuvArrestCust.pdf 

Bartollas, C., & Miller, S.J. (2008) Juvenile Justice in America (5th edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson/Prentice Hall.

Cole, G.F., & Smith, C.E. (2007) the American System of Criminal Justice (11th edition). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.

"Juvenile Arrest and Detention" (n.d.) Criminal Law Free Advice. Retrieved on February 18, 2011, from  http://criminal-law.freeadvice.com/juvenile_law/juvenile-detention.htm

Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Delinquents in
Words: 1672 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 67903924
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Economic conditions that have forced both parents to work and have caused teenaged unemployment have also been associated with delinquency, as children are not only unsupervised, but also unoccupied. In addition to this, children who face undue hardships, such as physical and sexual abuse, as well as failure to perform academically, also often turn to delinquency (oberts, 2005). Like Kim and Kim (2008) point out for South Korean children, stress is a likely culprit for the fact that dealing with difficult situations turns into delinquency in youth. This problem is further compounded if the youth has not had instruction in making good choices from parents and teachers (oberts, 2005).

Thus, although they are on separate sides of the world, the United States and South Korea face many of the same problems when it comes to juvenile delinquents. In both countries, the lack of a definite role for criminal justice personnel…

References

Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2006). Discriminative Factor Analysis of Juvenile Delinquency in South Korea. Taehan Kanho Hakhoe chi, 36(8), 1315-1323.

Kim, H. & Kim, H. (2008). Juvenile Delinquency and Youth Crime. New York: Nova.

Library of Congress (2009). A Country Study: South Korea. Retrieved August 18, 2009,

from the Library of Congress Web Site:  http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/krtoc.html

Juvenile System vs Adult Justice
Words: 2540 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 89874029
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The actual court proceedings in a juvenile court consist of the arrest procedure, search and seizure, and custodial interrogation (Calderon 2006). The concept has been that the delinquent is a child rather than a criminal. Hence, rehabilitation rather than punishment is the court and the system's goal. ut the major aspects of the juvenile justice system continue to hound its supporters. One is the cause of serious juvenile crime. Another is that young offenders need to be rehabilitated under a surrogate entity of the parens patriae concept. Another is a recent redefinition of young violent offenders as adults and their transfer to adult courts and the criminal or adult justice system. There has been increasing belief that they pose a serious and genuine threat to the safety of other young people and the community as a whole. An increase in serious juvenile crimes warrants more severe punishment. ut moving them…

Bibliography

Calderon, M (2006). A reflective comparison of the juvenile criminal justice system vs. The adult criminal justice system. 23 web pages. Anai Rhoads. Retrieved on April 29, 2008 at  http://www.anairhoads.org/calderon/juvadult.shtml 

Colquitt, J. (2002). American Criminal Justice System. Retrieved on April 30, 2008 from  http://www.law.ua.edu/conquitt/crimmain/crimmisc/crime.htm 

Hopson, R. K and Obidah, J.E. (2002). When getting tough means getting tougher.

21 pages. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University

Juvenile Court Philosophy the Office
Words: 1751 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 24143843
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They must also determine what types of delinquent behavior and youth violence are causing the greatest concern in the community. (Medaris, 1996, para.# 5)

As can be seen from the above statement of the first step in implementing the SHOCAP program in any community, first look at statistics on juvenile crime and second ask the community what it is most afraid of with regard to juvenile crime. This intention seriously contradicts the intention of the juvenile justice system to demonstrate focus on individual cases of each juvenile offender and give it adequate time for understanding of all mitigating circumstances, rather than seeking to understand outside fear of crime. Many factors contribute to public opinion of crime and not all of those factors are realistically and truly connected to real crime occurrences and/or statistics. The "mitigating" factors of public crime fear are in dire need of reevaluation, starting with unrealistic and…

Resources

Cothern, L. (November 2000) "Juveniles and the Death Penalty," Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Accessed July, 10, 2008

 http://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184748.pdf 

Medaris, M (August 1996) "Serious Habitual Offender Comprehensive Action Program. (SHOCAP)" Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) Factsheet Accessed July, 10, 2008,  http://www.ncjrs.gov/txtfiles/shocap.txt

Juvenile Competency the Author of
Words: 657 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 19660564
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The forensic psychology sphere can use the competency of juvenile discussion in a number of ways. First, any competency hearing of a juvenile needs to take into account that the offender's mind is still forming and finalizing and it is not the same thing as assessing a person who is, for example forty years old. That being said, younger offenders do typically know right from wrong and it is possible in a clinical sense to determine whether the offender is able to defend himself or herself. The rub is that it has to be done in a specific way and in a way that is tangibly different than with typical adult offenders. After all, though, there is not a huge difference between assessing a 17-year-old and a 18-year-old and one of those two offenders is legally and criminally an adult.

Another dimension that is going to be prevalent in a…

References

CBS Sacramento. (2012, July 31). Xbox Chat Leads To Violent Attack In Oakley -- CBS Sacramento. CBS Sacramento. Retrieved August 12, 2013, from  http://sacramento.cbslocal.com/2012/07/31/xbox-chat-leads-to-violent-attack-in-oakley/ 

Harvey, A. (2011). Juvenile Courts and Competency to Stand Trial. Sociology Compass, 5(6), 439-451. doi:10.1111/j.1751-9020.2011.00377.x

Juvenile Delinquency Is One of the Most
Words: 311 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27379594
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Juvenile delinquency is one of the most serious social concerns facing the American society today. In 2010, for instance, juvenile offenders accounted for approximately 8% of all reported homicides. For a society that still considers itself conservative, this figure is relatively high. It is these statistics that spur the researcher's interest in investigating the reasons why juveniles engage in crime, particularly juvenile crime. Past studies have shown that most juvenile crimes are committed between 3 p.m and 7 p.m., the period when a child has left school and is primarily under the care of the parent. The current study thus focuses on showing, using the social control and social disorganization theories of crime, that the lack of social support in the home environment…

References

Burfeind, J.W. & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Crime Solutions. (n.d.). Juveniles. Crime Solutions. Retrieved 5 February 2015 from  http://www.crimesolutions.gov/TopicDetails.aspx?ID=5 

Heide, K.M. (1999). Young Killers: The Challenge of Juvenile Homicide. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Sandra, W. (2007). Understanding Criminology: Current Theoretical Debates (3rd ed.). Berkshire, England: McGraw Hill.

Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Sexual Offending
Words: 2403 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 50250193
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Moreover, if an adolescent who has reached 18 commits sexual offending is considered an adult sex offender, "what does this mean for young adults who engaged in sexually abusive behavior prior to age 18?" (p. 433). ecause of this blurry line, Rich suggests, it is imperative that adolescents of older age must especially be provided with comprehensive treatment programs to prevent them from developing fixed sexualized abusive interests.

ecause of the complicated nature of the problem of juvenile sex offending, Rich offers a holistic treatment for curing juvenile sex offenders. The holistic model, grounded on the principle that the 'whole' of the person needs to be taken into consideration, must look into the nature of the individual "whose emotions, cognitions, behaviors and relationships are driven by multiple factors, many of which are unique to that individual" (p. 444). In other words, the approach should first and foremost focus on learning…

Bibliography of Scholarly References, 1970-1992. Family Relations, 42(2): 222-226.

Rich, P (2009) Understanding the Complexities and Needs of Adolescent Sex Offenders in Beech, a.R., Craig, B.A., & Browne, K.D. (Eds.) Assessment and Treatment of Sex Offenders. West Sussex, UK: Whiley-Blackwell.

Rightland, S., & Welch, C (2001) Juveniles Who Have Sexually Offended: A Review of the Professional Literature. A report to the U.S. Department of Justice: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Ryan, G., Leversee, T., & Lane, Sandy (2010) Juvenile Sexual Offending: Causes, Consequences, and Correction. New Jersey: Wiley & Sons.

Smallbone, S., Marshall, W.L., & Wortley, R. (2008) Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Evidence, Policy and Practice. Portland: Willan Publishing.

Juvenile Diversion in the Juvenile
Words: 1398 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38269181
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The juvenile diversion system was established with funding from the iverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act of 2000, approved by the California Board of Corrections. This was a multi-year evaluation research project and was divided into five distinct areas to evaluate programs approved by the Board of Corrections, these being the Community-Based Probation Diversion, Youth Accountability Teams, the Gang Prevention-Project BIDGE, and the Family Violence Prevention Program-P.A.C.T., Youth Accountability Boards, and Youth Courts. The evaluation was meant to collect baseline data and follow-up data to measure the success of each program, with the data including juvenile arrest rates per 100,000; arrest rates for program participants; incarceration rats; rate of completion of probation; probation violation rate; rate of completion of restitution; rate of completion of community service; and rates of truancy and family violence for those to which these apply. Performance benchmarks were to be developed for each program (iverside…

References

Johnson, J.E. (1979, April 6). "The Impact of Juvenile Diversion: An Assessment Using Multiple Archival Perspectives."

Retrieved May 24, 2007 at  http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED177411&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED177411 .

Nadell-Hayes, S. & Macallair, D. (1995) Restructuring Juvenile Corrections in California: A Report to the Legislature. Retrieved May 24, 2007 at  http://www.cjcj.org/pdf/restructuring.pdf .

Riverside County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (a.B. 1913) Projects (2007). Retrieved May 25, 2007 at  http://ccjr.csusb.edu/ProgEvalRiversideProjects.htm .

Juvenile Drug Courts
Words: 3028 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 8841439
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Juvenile drug courts are among the most recent innovations in the treatment of substance-involved adolescents in the justice system. Their emergence in the 1990s was driven by the rising rates of substance abuse among adolescents -- a 2000 report by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, for instance, showed that substance usage among high school students had risen substantially in the 1990s, with almost 9.5% being cocaine users; a third being binge drinkers, and 14.6% being inhalant users (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). In line with these statistics, the rate of juvenile crime rose by a massive 145% during this period compared to the rate reported in the last decade (Office of Justice Programs, 2003). Juvenile drug courts were established after it became apparent that the traditional juvenile court system did not deal effectively with substance abuse, mental illness and other related problems owing to its lack of specialization…

References

Chassin, L. (2008). Juvenile Justice and Substance Use. The Future of Children, 18(2), 165-183.

Cooper, C.S. (2001). Juvenile Drug Court Programs. The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/184744.pdf 

Office of Justice Programs. (2003). Juvenile Drug Courts: Strategies in Practice. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from  https://www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/bja/197866.pdf 

United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. (2015). BRIDGE Program: Mission Statement and Policies. United States District Court for the District of South Carolina. Retrieved August 10, 2015 from  http://www.scp.uscourts.gov/Downloads/BRIDGEProgramMissionPolicies.pdf

Juvenile Court
Words: 1269 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 37471800
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Another factor to consider when determining if Jason should be tried in an adult court focuses on the child's ability to respond to treatment. It is important to understand that juvenile court is much more adapted to the rehabilitative aspect of corrections than the adult court, where little mercy and stiff penalties are the norm in today's prison culture society.

The focus should then shift to Jason's individual characteristics and abilities to see if he requires extra special attention in the form of a transfer to adult court. Jason's family life needs to be understood in greater detail as well to get a better picture on how Jason reacts in that type of environment. Any other information should also be sought after to help paint a more complete picture of Jason. These things should include his habits, friends, social networks, diet siblings and tendencies. A physical medical examination should also…

References

Allard, P., & Young, M.C. (2002). Prosecuting juveniles in adult court: The practitioner's perspective. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 2(2), 65-77.

Bryan-Hancock, C., & Casey, S. (2011). Young People and the Justice System: Consideration of maturity in criminal responsibility. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 18(1), 69-78.

Bryan-Hancock, C., & Casey, S. (2010). Psychological maturity of at-risk juveniles, young adults and adults: Implications for the justice system. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 17(1), 57-69.

Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems
Words: 678 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 69171380
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Juvenile and Adult Justice

Juvenile and Criminal Justice Systems

Similarities and differences: Juvenile and adult criminal justice systems

The goals of the juvenile justice and the adult criminal justice systems are fundamentally distinct. The goal of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate the offender and to provide aid and assistance to the juvenile, enabling him or her to become a more productive adult (La Mance 2010). In contrast, the purpose of the adult system is one of fact-finding, and is designed to see 'justice' done on a societal level: in the case of a guilty offender, this usually means him or her 'paying a debt' to society in the form of some kind of punishment. However, the adult system still does offer many rehabilitative programs for the majority of convicts, including educational and vocational training. And, depending on the state, if the severity of the crime is deemed significant…

References

Chapter 4: Juvenile justice system structures and processes. (1999). Juvenilia Offenders and Victims: National Report. Retrieved:  https://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/nationalreport99/chapter4.pdf 

Juvenile law: status offenses. (2013). Nolo. Retrieved:

 http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/juvenile-law-status-offenses-32227.html 

Komisaruk, Kami. 92007). Differences between juvenile and adult court. Just Law Collective.

Juveniles as Adults When a
Words: 3421 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 94721016
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However, the prosecutor is not the only person who can seek a transfer. Juvenile court judges can also begin transfer proceedings (Michon, 2012). Furthermore, in some states there are automatic transfer laws, which require that juveniles over a certain age be tried as adults when they commit specific crimes, usually violent crimes like rape or murder. In states without automatic transfer laws, the defendant is entitled to a hearing prior to being transferred. At this hearing, which is known as the waiver hearing, fitness hearing, or certification hearing, the prosecutor has to show probable cause that the defendant committed the crime (Michon, 2012).

Establishing probable cause is only the first step in the waiver process. Once probable cause is established, it becomes the court's duty to determine whether the juvenile is likely to be rehabilitated. This is the most difficult part of the determination because it involves predicting the future…

References

Applegate, B., King Davis, R., & Cullen, F. (2009). Reconsidering child saving: The extent and correlates of public support for excluding youths from the juvenile court. Crime & Delinquency, 55(1), 51-77.

Fristsch, E., Caeti, T., & Hemmens, C. (1996). Spare the needle but not the punishment: The

incarceration of waived youth in Texas prisons. Crime and Delinquency, 42(4), 593-609.

Jordan, K., & Myers, D. (2007). The decertification of transferred youth: Examining the determinants of reverse waiver. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 5(2), 188-206.

Juvenile Courts
Words: 1459 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 63160490
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Juveniles as Adults: Pros and Cons

Severe and continuing juvenile offenders are progressively being tried as adults in criminal court all over the country. These juveniles face incarcerations in adult correctional facilities and the dangers that come from being with an adult criminal population. This type of movement poses significant inquiries for policy makers. To what degree do trials in criminal courts and imprisonment in adult reformatories endorse or hinder community security and the answerability and reintegration of juvenile offenders? This research paper deliberates on the legal consequences of adjudication in criminal court and offers a comprehensive review of research discoveries on the preventive effects of transfer laws, sentencing patterns and conviction and recidivism rates in juvenile as opposed to criminal courts, and programming and conditions in juvenile as opposed to adult correctional facilities. The pros and cons of trying juveniles as adults are discussed along with the evidence to…

References

Bartol, C.R., & Bartol, A.M. (2011). Chapter 6 Consulting with Juvenile and Civil Courts. Introduction to forensic psychology (3 ed., pp. 187-219). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cooper, D.K. (1997). Juveniles' understanding of trial-related information: are they competent defendants?. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 15(2), 167-180.

NCIDS. (n.d.). Chapter 3: Juvenile Court Jurisdiction and Parties to Juvenile Proceedings. Retrieved March 23, 2014, from http://www.ncids.org/other%20manuals/JuvDefenderManual/JuvenileDefBook_03.pdf

Ojo, M., & Olufemi, D. (2012). A SOCIOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ISSUES ON JUVENILE DELINQUENCY. Journal of International Social Research, 5(21), 468-482.

Juvenile Probation
Words: 967 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26502240
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I wish to pursue a career in the juvenile probation area of law enforcement, as a juvenile probation officer. Mcmahon (2016) defines 'juvenile probation' as a type of juvenile sentence wherein a juvenile lawbreaker is allowed to reside within his/her communities, instead of being sent to a new home or to prison. Numerous reasons may be cited as to why juvenile lawbreakers are allowed such leniency. It is up to the court to decide whether any juvenile offender is entitled to probation or not, as well as the probation terms. Probation as a whole, forms a rather critical area of criminal justice. At times considered a test, probation enables lawbreakers to serve their sentence partially or entirely outside of jail. From the incarceration system's perspective, probation reduces costs incurred by the state, enabling prisons to concentrate on punishing dangerous and vicious criminals. Probation for juveniles in the preferred sentence as…

Juvenile Delinquency Drug Crimes
Words: 9197 Length: 33 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 69293543
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Intervening With Juvenile Drug Crimes

Researchers are now focused on developing and evaluating programs designed to break the drug-crime cycle that is common in juvenile delinquents. This paper will summarize existing literature about programs designed to prevent the juvenile drug-crime cycle and, based on that literature, identify interventions that offer the best chances for success. This paper will also provide guidelines and recommendations for developing a comprehensive juvenile justice system that can best address the needs of juvenile offenders involved with drug crimes.

This thesis is expected to make a contribution to the selection of successful interventions and the development of collaborative partnerships in the juvenile justice system, drug treatment programs, and other agencies as they attempt to break the cycle of drugs and crime afflicting U.S. juveniles.

Introduction

With the prevalence of drug crimes among juveniles and the complexity involved in their treatment, which must involve both the child…

Bibliography

Abuse and Dependence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 5 (1): 201-211.

Allison, M., and Hubbard, R.L. (1985). Drug abuse treatment process: A review of the literature. International Journal of the Addictions 20:13211345.

Anglin, M.D., and Hser, Y. (1990). Treatment of drug abuse. In Drugs and Crime, vol. 13, edited by M. Tonry and J.Q. Wilson. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Ball, J.C., Rosen, J.A., Flueck, J.A., and Nurco, D.N. (1981). The criminality of heroin addicts: When addicted and when off opiates. In The Drugs-Crime Connection, edited by J.A. Inciardi. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.

Juveniles and Crime the Interaction
Words: 5161 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 11803867
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As theories claim certain risk factors and ignore others, it is critical to evaluate the most common risk factors despite their discipline fields. There are five broad domains for risk factors: Individual, family, school, peer group, and community. Another key component to understanding risk factors is the age of onset, in which early onset is considered age 6-11, and late onset is considered age 12-14 (Shader, 2002). Each of the risk factor domains are also coupled with protective factors, such as high IQ and parental monitoring, that subtract from the probability of risk factors blossoming into delinquency. isk factors of juvenile delinquency can be grouped together in a variety of ways, and the five domains of individual, family, school, peer group, and community can be distilled further into: individual, social, and community categories. The three categories also branch into sub-categories, for example, the social category includes both family and peer…

References

Binder, A, Geis, G, & Bruce, D. (2000). Juvenile delinquency: historical, cultural, and legal perspectives. Cincinnati, OH: Anderson Publishing Co.

Cicourel, A. (1995). The social organization of juvenile justice. Brunswick, NJ: Transaction

Publishers.

Farrington, D. (2002). Family influences on delinquency. Juvenile delinquency: an integrated

Juvenile Delinquency Essay
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Introduction

In the past, there was no such term as “juvenile delinquent” or “juvenile delinquency” within the justice system. As frightening as it is to consider, over a hundred years ago, children who committed crimes were thrown into prisons with adults and some children were even sentenced to corporal punishment or even death (Yale.edu, 2000). Reformers of the justice system were the ones who pushed for a distinct court system for the treatment of juveniles, with the underlying notion being that these young people could potentially be helped and reformed. “Central to the concept of juvenile court was the principle of parens patriae. This meant that instead of lawyers fighting to decide guilt or innocence, the court would act as a parent or guardian interested in protecting and helping the child” (yale.edu, 2000). These reforms were novel at the time, and helped to enact changes such as closed hearings for…

Juvenile Recidivism Rates and Analysis
Words: 12874 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Capstone Project Paper #: 40811758
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Dugan: Should be on its own page.

Juvenile recidivism is a prevalent problem in the criminal justice system. Tackling reoffending remains a complex task requiring several strategies and aims. It involves research, acknowledgement of causes, factors, exploration, and evaluation of subgroups to generate long-term, positive changes in the lives of juvenile offenders. From gang violence to Interactive, Constructive, Active, and Passive (ICAP), researchers discover some of the reasons why juveniles reoffend and the kinds of intervention methods that may help or worsen the problem of juvenile recidivism. Intervention philosophies like surveillance, discipline, close monitoring may increase recidivism rates. estorative programs, counseling, skill building programs, as well as multiple coordinated services decrease recidivism rates. Comment by Max Dugan: I would put evaluation at the end of the list vs. first. Comment by Max Dugan: Need to spell out all acronyms before using in APA format.

elevance

Juvenile offenders and reoffenders are…

References

Aalsma, M., White, L., Lau, K., Perkins, A., Monahan, P., & Grisso, T. (2015). Behavioral Health Care Needs, Detention-Based Care, and Criminal Recidivism at Community Reentry From Juvenile Detention: A Multisite Survival Curve Analysis. American Journal Of Public Health, 105(7), 1372-1378.  http://dx.doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2014.302529 

Baglivio, M. & Jackowski, K. (2012). Examining the Validity of a Juvenile Offending Risk Assessment Instrument Across Gender and Race/Ethnicity. Youth Violence And Juvenile Justice, 11(1), 26-43.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1541204012440107 

Baglivio, M., Wolff, K., Piquero, A., & Epps, N. (2015). The Relationship between Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) and Juvenile Offending Trajectories in a Juvenile Offender Sample. Journal Of Criminal Justice, 43(3), 229-241.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2015.04.012 

Bates, K. & Swan, R. (2013). Juvenile delinquency in a diverse society (1st ed.). SAGE Publications.

Juvenile Delinquency Criminal Justice
Words: 1380 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 15443616
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Criminal Justice: Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile delinquency is described as the participation of minors, usually under the legal age of 18, in criminal activities. Cases of juvenile delinquency have increased at an alarming rate in recent years. According to the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, OJJDP (2015), juveniles under the age of 18 are responsible for about 10% of all homicides. In the period between 1990 and 2003, violent crimes by juveniles declined significantly - but after 2003, the previous trend continued and about 30% of murder crimes were attributed to delinquency. Today, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) incarcerates more than 33000 minors under the age of 18 for different criminal offenses (OJJDP, 2015). The fight against juvenile delinquency is often inconvenienced by recidivism. ecidivism occurs when juvenile offenders relapse back to their criminal ways after they are released from residential care. Majority of juvenile offenders are rearrested…

References

Burfeinf, J.W & Bartusch, D. (2011). Juvenile Delinquency: An Integrated Approach. Sudbury, MA: Jones and Bartlett Publishers, LLC.

National Institute of Justice (2015). Formal System Processing for Juveniles. Crime solutions. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from  https://www.crimesolutions.gov/PracticeDetails.aspx?ID=9 

The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. (2015). Juvenile Justice System Structure and Process. Office of Justice Programs. Retrieved 6 February 2015 from  http://www.ojjdp.gov/ojstatbb/structure_process/index.html 

Welsh, B. C & Siegel, L. J (2015). Juvenile Delinquency: Theory, Practice, and Law. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Juvenile Criminal Justice System
Words: 742 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 82314966
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juvenile crime," the United States continues to promote policies that channel adolescent offenders into the adult justice system ("Juvenile Justice," 2014). The PBS production When Kids Get Life examines the ramifications of trying minors as adults for serious crimes, leading to their entire lives being spent in prison with no opportunity for rehabilitation. While the crimes in these cases are severe and do warrant punishment, clearly there are other options that should be made available for juvenile offenders. The majority (87%) of adolescents in custody have been diagnosed with mental illness; a full 73% of youth in custody are diagnosed with more than one mental illness (Indig, et al., 2009, p. 21). Based on the evidence presented in When Kids Get Life and the vast body of literature on adolescent criminality, the juvenile justice system should be oriented more toward rehabilitation and mental health services than to incarceration.

The whole…

References

Bikel, O. (Director). (2007). When kids get life [Documentary]. United States: WGBH Educational Foundation: FRONTLINE.

Indig, D. et al. (2009). 2009 NSW young people in custody health survey: full report. Retrieved online: http://www.juvenile.justice.nsw.gov.au/Documents/JH_YPICHSRep2009_D10b_00_opening.pdf

"Juvenile Justice," (2014). PBS Frontline. Retrieved online:  http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/juvenile/stats/ 

Kent v. United States (1966). Retrieved online:  https://www.law.cornell.edu/supremecourt/text/383/541

Juvenile Delinquents and the Impact of Broken Homes
Words: 939 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77051897
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Role of Family in Juvenile Offenders

Sociology 398: Methods of Social Research

Barrett, D., Ju, S., Katsiyannis, A., Zhang, D. (2015). Females in the juvenile justice system: influences on delinquency and recidivism. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24: 427-433.

"Our study addressed two major research questions. First, among delinquent females, what are the personal and family background variables which are useful in predicting female recidivism? Second, to what extent can we predict membership in the delinquent group versus the non-delinquent control group on the basis of females' emotional/behavioral problems and early adverse family experiences?" (2015: 428).

"Using information from a state department of juvenile justice, we examined the role of selected family and demographic variables in predicting female recidivism"

a. Variables included drug use, family delinquency, severity of the offense, and age. The control consisted of non-delinquent females.

-"multivariate logistic regression (Hosmer and Lemeshow 2000) was chosen to examine…

Juvenile Court Juvenile Criminal Justice System Has
Words: 1312 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 64626816
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Juvenile Court

Juvenile criminal justice system has enforced laws, which govern the rules for determining whether a juvenile criminal is eligible for a sentence or a counseling period is mandatory to alter the behaviors of such individuals. This system has been effectively placed for children less than the age of 21 who have reportedly committed crimes in various forms such as sex offenders; murderers etc. (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this aspect, several crimes have taken place in USA marking the statistics in the country by 32% of the total juvenile crime statistics (Whitehead & Lab, 2012). In this essay, a case study of one of the most fierce juvenile crime acts have been presented which explains a situation where the juvenile criminal was at first ordered to be treated as an adult for the sentence purposes due to committing first degree of the crime. However, later due to his…

References

Bell, S.J. (2011). Young Offenders and Youth Justice: A Century After the Fact. Toronto: Cengage Learning .

Jones, B. (2012, April 13).  http://www.usatoday.com /news. Retrieved from

Juveniles & Justice Is it
Words: 701 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 38463361
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, 1914, p. 500).

Meanwhile when the state asserts control over the child due to his non-criminal behavior that governmental intervention supports parens patriae, Siegel maintains. (Parens patriae in Latin means "substitute parent"; its been the court's prerogative to intervene in cases where through no fault of his own a child has been neglected or is dependent, Alarid, et al., explains on page 326). States' intervention supports parens patriae simply because state courts believe -- and they assume without really knowing for certain -- that status offender is in his best interests (Siegel, 17). Approximately 150,000 under age youths (technically children) are sent to juvenile court as "status offenders" every year, Siegel explains (17). This policy takes due process and throws it out the window, just because the individual is under age.

The U.S. Congress passed the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act in 1974, which provides funds to make…

Works Cited

Alarid, Leanne Fiftal, and Del Carmen, Rolando V. (2010). Community-Based Corrections.

Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.

McLaughlin, Andrew Cunningham, and Hart, Albert Bushnell. (1914). Cyclopedia of American

Government, Volume 1. Emeryville, CA: D. Appleton and Company.

Juveniles Since Biblical Times Children Have Been
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Juveniles

Since biblical times, children have been mentioned and admonished about social transgressions. The first man and woman, according to the Christian Holy Bible suggest that Adam and Eve, both children of God, were in trouble from the outset; the consequences were dire with no "out" such as rehabilitation. Today, of course, we see that rehabilitation is the primary focus for children's behaviors. Further, social attitudes toward children differ around the world in various cultures. These attitudes have changed over time, of course. The purpose of this paper is to detail differences in perception of children throughout history, with a particular emphasis in the periods between 1824-1960 and, in contrast the "modern" period after 1960.

The age at which children are considered responsible for their own actions (e.g., marriage, voting, etc.) has also changed over time, and this is reflected in the way they are treated in courts of law.…

References:

 http://law.jrank.org/pages/12069/Juvenile-Justice-Changing-social-attitudes-toward-children.html 

Melchiorre, A. (2004) At What Age?...are school-children employed, married and taken to court? Retrieved from:  http://www.right-to-education.org/node/53 

Rachel K. Jones and April Brayfield, Life's greatest joy?: European attitudes toward the centrality of children. Social Forces, Vol. 75, No. 4, Jun 1997. 1,239-69 pp. Chapel Hill, North Carolina

Akers, R.L. (1973). Law and Control in Society. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

Juveniles and Delinquency Youths Are
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Based on statistics, nearly one million eighth graders admit getting drunk and another 1.2 million twelfth graders are considered binge drinkers. Heroin use by young adults has doubled from 1991 to 1996 and even teenage compulsive gambling is on the rise (http://www.einstein.edu/e3front.dll?durki=8576,2004).

Youth Gangs and Violence - The Starting Point

It should be noted that violence started from the family affecting the whole society. hat an individual has for a family, what can be seen in the society, what is seen in the environment are all clear reflections of the kind of people a certain society is bringing up - whether it is a deviance to the society or not.

Now, pertaining to the crimes and how the government solved it, it must be remembered that the laws are already there, it is already being maintained by the concerned officials and followed the U.S. citizen. But there are still some…

Works Cited

Capital punishment." 2004 [online] Duhaime.org.  http://www.duhaime.org/dictionary/dict-c.htm .

Capital Punishment: Pros." 1998 [online]

http://www.*****/essays/legal/870.shtml

Cerf, Vinton G. Computer Networking: Global Infrastructure for the 21st Century. 1997. February 21, 2004.  http://www.cs.washington.edu/homes/lazowska/cra/networks.html

Juvenile Delinquency Has Long Plagued
Words: 1015 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 29069253
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In this form of punishment, authorities find infractions, encourage compliance and reward or punish and take away rights depending on the individual's response. In 1957, Fritz edl and David Wineman (as cited in Vander Ven, 2009) wrote about another approach in their book, the Aggressive Child, which proved to be much more successful at their juvenile residence Pioneer House. However, for various reasons, their methodology never received much of a following (Vander Ven, 2009).

Now, residential institutions are revisiting edl and Wineman's approach, which has greater credibility due to insights in the behavioral sciences over the past several decades. The distinction between typical youth and those who hate and are filled with anger, say edl and Wineman, is that while neither always behave perfectly, typical children will respond to interventions that remind them of what is good behavior. However, even these "normal" children under certain types of stress may not…

References

Edmondson, V.C. (2009) a new business: redirecting Black youth from the illegal economy

Reclaiming Children and Youth 18(3), 16-21 Hide details

Edwards, D.M. (2002). From illegal to legitimate professions: Alternatives to low-wage employment. UAB McNair Chronicle 3, 42-47.

Peterson, S.B. (2009) Made in America: the Global Youth Justice Movement: with more than 1,200 local youth and teen court programs in America -- Europe, Australia, Asia, and Canada are now implementing this model to harness the positive peer influence of youth volunteers to reduce juvenile crime. Reclaiming Children and Youth 18 (2), 48-53

Juvenile Arrest List and Explain the Factors
Words: 666 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 97624148
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Juvenile Arrest

List and explain the factors that affect a police officer's decision whether or not to arrest a juvenile.

One of the primary responsibilities of police officers is in the investigation of crime and the arrest of suspects. Taking a person into custody is always a serious matter and that is why officers must make sure that they have the right suspect before taking this drastic step. Even if a person is later found to be not guilty of a crime, the arrest will still impact them psychologically and sociologically, and may even follow them throughout the rest of their lives. Guilt or innocence and the punishment that a person is to receive are determined by the court system. The officer's job is to find the person responsible and to bring them in. From an emotional perspective, the responsibility can be burdensome and so every officer tries to make…

Works Cited:

Davis, S. (1971). Justice for the juvenile: the decision to arrest and due process. Duke Law

Journal. (1971:5). 913-37.

O'Neil, R. (2010). Police policies on arresting juveniles. OLR Research Report.

Patterson, C. & Kaba, M. (2011). Arresting justice: a report about juvenile arrests in Chicago

Juvenile Delinquency the Phenomenon of
Words: 538 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 7843045
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Finally, for the purposes of this research proposal we will refer to a third study that suggests education could be at the heart of reducing juvenile delinquency statistics but the conditions in which the child is raised impacts their ability to choose between right and wrong (Hindelang, 1981).

Method and design

The goal of this study is to add to the literature that demonstrates that there is a correlation between poverty and juvenile delinquency. This researcher will begin by reviewing the available statistics provided by the state judicial system related specifically to the number of juveniles currently incarcerated at state facilities as well as the youths' offenses. Once this information has been compiled the next step will be to chart the level of income brought in by the adults within each home as well as to determine if the families live rely on welfare or government assistance for their daily…

References

Hindelang, M; Measuring Deliquency. Sage Library of social research; Vol. 123.

Lewis, D; Violent Juvenile Delinquents: Psychiatric, Neurological, Psychological, and Abuse Factors. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry. Vol 18, Issue 2

Loeber, R.; Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review. Vol. 10, p. 1-41. 1990.

Future ole of the Juvenile Justice System in the United States

Young people are naturally prone to experimentation and impulsive behaviors that frequently result in their involvement with the law enforcement community, and police officers today generally enjoy wide latitude in resolving these incidents. In fact, in some if not most cases, police officers can release young offenders into the custody of their parents or guardians without the further involvement of the criminal justice system. Even when young offenders are arrested, though, the juvenile justice system tends to afford them with more leniency than their adult counterparts, due in part to the view that the role of the juvenile justice system is to rehabilitate rather than punish. These enlightened views of juvenile justice, though, are being replaced with "get-tough-on-crime" approaches in some states, and there remains a paucity of standardized models for states to follow. To gain some fresh insights…

References

Alridge, D.P. (2005, Summer). Introduction: Hip hop in history: Past, present, and future. The Journal of African-American History, 90(3), 190-193.

Black's law dictionary. (1991). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.

Boyd, T. (2002). The new H.N.I.C.: The death of civil rights and the reign of hip hop. New York:

Brookins, G.K. & Hirsch, J.A. (2002, Summer). Innocence lost: Case studies of children in the juvenile justice system. The Journal of Negro Education, 71(3), 205-210.

Criminal Justice Juvenile Court Proceedings
Words: 639 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6325447
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Having open court procedures would also lead to more liability and more community engagement that would in turn lead to better outcomes for children and families who may get caught up in the criminal justice system (Ashley, 2007).

There has been a recent increase in the number of violent crimes that are being committed by juveniles. This has caused a shift in thinking from rehabilitation to that of retribution and deterrence. Many states have begun to open juvenile proceedings to the public when a minor is charged with a violent crime that may provoke community outrage because of the nature of the crime (1990's: Juvenile The Courts Proceedings and ecords Continue to Be More Accessible to the Public, 1999).

There has been a lot of evidence presented as to why juvenile court proceeding should be open to the public. Everything has been presented from not violating the First Amendment of…

References

1990's: Juvenile the Courts Proceedings and Records Continue to Be More Accessible

to the Public. (1999). Retrieved April 17, 2009, Access to Juvenile Courts Web

site:  http://www.rcfp.org/juvcts/index.html 

Ashley, B. (2007). Difference Between Open vs. Closed Juvenile Court Proceedings.

Race Juvenile Family Community and Racial Trends
Words: 1134 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 118348
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ace Juvenile

Family, Community, and acial Trends in U.S. Juvenile Criminal Justice

The subject of race and ethnicity as they relate and correlate to criminality and prison populations in the United States has been the subject of a great deal of study and commentary for many decades. It is unquestionably true that a disproportionate number of people of color are convicted of crimes than are Caucasians both on a national level and at the community level in the majority of the country; this fact is easily supported by a cursory review of criminal justice statistics and is not a matter of debate despite the contentiousness of the issue. What is debated are the reasons behind this skewed prison population/criminal element, and in an effort to address this debate the following paper will study the problem as it appears not amongst adults, but amongst the still-developing youth of the country.

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References

Dixon, T.L., & Azocar, C.L. (2006). The representation of Juvenile Offenders by Race on Los Angeles Area Television News. The Howard Journal of Communication, 17,

Jordan, K.L., & Freiburger, T.L. (2011). Examining the Impact of Race and Ethnicity on the Sentencing of Juveniles in the Adult Court. Criminal Justice Research Review,

Piquero, A.R. (2008). Disproportionate Minority Contact., 18( 2),

Rodriguez, M. (2007). Juvenile Court Context and Detention Decisions: Reconsidering the Role of Race, Ethnicity, and Community Characteristics in Juvenile Court Process. Justice Quarterly, 24( 4),

Treating Juvenile Delinquency Juvenile Justice Delinquency Treatment
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Treating Juvenile Delinquency

Juvenile Justice

Delinquency treatment program:

Peer mentoring program for African-American male juveniles

A brief description of your community

African-American males are disproportionately represented in the incarcerated juvenile population, relative to their percentage of the general population. The reasons for this have been hotly debated amongst criminal justice professionals and laypersons. Possible reasons include racism within the police and justice systems, the ways laws are written, and also a lack of vocational opportunities. According to one study conducted by the U.S. Department of Justice in New Jersey, while 10% of white juveniles were adjudicated and sentenced for their first-degree offenses, more than 31% of African-American juveniles received sentences for the same crimes; white juvenile offenders were similarly found to receive lesser sentences than African-Americans in the state of Florida (Drakeford & Garfinkle 2000). Dealing with the unique problems of African-Americans within juvenile detention centers is clearly an essential…

References

Black male dropouts lead nation in incarceration. (2012). PR News wire. Retrieved:

 http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/black-male-dropouts-lead-nation-in-incarceration-63870242.html 

Drakeford, Will & Garfinkle, Lili Frank. (2000). Differential treatment of African-American

The National Center on Education, Disability and Juvenile Justice. Retrieved:

Violent Juveniles Removed From Homes
Words: 1569 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 41016969
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2).

The significance here, of course, is that the government will continue seeking ways to streamline care and services, and that if a foster care program is clinically proven to be beneficial in deterring criminal behavior amongst Native American juveniles, there will be an increased tendency to remove youngsters from their homes and Native American families in lieu of enforced foster care. This would be consistent with the liberty the government has exercised in removing Native American children from their homes since the 19th century.

It is, therefore, incumbent upon the Native American communities to exercise their own preventative and interventions aimed at curbing and resolving juvenile criminal behaviors. It is the only alternative to what is today the only way that society can continue to remove Native American children from their family and Native American communities.

eferences

http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002100481

Eddy, J.M., Whaley, .B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The Prevention of…

References

 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002100481 

Eddy, J.M., Whaley, R.B., & Chamberlain, P. (2004). The Prevention of Violent Behavior by Chronic and Serious Male Juvenile Offenders: A 2-Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders, 12(1), 2+. Retrieved July 13, 2008, from Questia database:

The reforming of young offenders
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estorative justice is something that has become more and more prominent within the criminal justice sphere. The use of the concept and practice has emerged in its own right within the juvenile justice realm. The efficacy of restorative justice when it comes to juvenile offenders is a very important topic because being able to top the patterns of crime, addition and deviance in general is something that should absolutely be stopped and regulated early on in an offender's life due to how hard it becomes to do the same as an offender enters and reenters the justice system over the course of their life. It is important to create and retain a connection between these young offenders and the victims that suffer at their hands so that the connection is not lost and the offender becomes ambivalent or even hostile about the feelings, suffering and toil that their crimes take…

References

Bergseth, K. J., & Bouffard, J. A. (2007). The long-term impact of restorative justice programming for juvenile offenders. Journal of Criminal Justice, 35(4), 433-451.

doi:10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2007.05.006

Davis, K. L. (2010, January 1). Restorative Justice Experiences of Juvenile Female Offenders:

School, Community, and Home. ProQuest LLC,

Reforming the Juvenile Justice System In Search
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eforming the Juvenile Justice System: In Search of Justice and Accountability

While the overall crime rate has steadily decreased over the last decade throughout the country, there is one segment of crime that has been increasing: criminal offences committed by juveniles (National Criminal Justice eference Service: 2002). In the last 15 years, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation, the incidence of criminal offences committed by juveniles (under the age of 15) increased 94%. While a number of these juveniles were convicted of committing petty crimes such as vandalism and theft, there has been a significant increase in the number of serious juvenile offences such as robberies, weapons offences, assaults, and murders. However, there is something that is not quantitatively measured in these crime statistics -- the increasing brutality and ruthlessness of the crimes committed by juvenile offenders. Over the last two decades, we have seen an increasing string of…

References

Richard Bonnie, "The Competence of Criminal Defendants: A Theoretical Reformulation," Behavior, Science, & Law 291(10), 1992.

Charlotte Faltermayer, "What Is Justice For A Sixth-Grade Killer?" Time Magazine 151(13): April 6, 1998

Thomas Grisso, "Society's Retributive Response to Juvenile Violence: A Developmental Perspective," Law & Human Behavior 229 (20), 1996.

Thomas Grisso, "The Competence of Adolescents as Trial Defendants, Psychology, Public Policy, and Law," (forthcoming)

Criminal Justice - Juvenile Justice
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The problem of determining the right approach is compounded by the effects of the culture of violence to which many young offenders are exposed. In some cases, it is possible to reform their behavior but in other cases, juvenile offenders already take on the hardened attitude normally associated with adult offenders. As a result, some juveniles are too far gone to reach through non-punitive methods by the time they reach high school age.

In terms of the protections afforded by American due process principles, those principles are essential to the fair administration of criminal justice and they provide a much more fair judicial system than those of most other countries (Dershowitz 2002).

However, in terms of the distinction between due process with respect to suspending concepts of guilt in crimes perpetrated by juveniles, the strict application of punitive sentences for criminal conduct may sometimes be more appropriate. Certainly, there are…

References

Dershowitz, a.M. (2002). Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in a Turbulent Age. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Pinizzotto, a., Davis, E., Miller, C. (2007). Street Gang Mentality: A Mosaic of Remorseless Violence and Relentless Loyalty. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Sep. 2007: 1-7.

Schmalleger, F. (2008) Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall

Causes of Juvenile Delinquency
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Causes of Juvenile Delinquency

Criminal Justice

The problem of juvenile delinquency is becoming more complicated and universal, and crime prevention programs are either unequipped to deal with the present realities or do not exist. Many developing countries have done little or nothing to deal with these problems, and international programs are obviously insufficient. Developed countries are engaged in activities aimed at juvenile crime prevention, but the overall effect of these programs is rather weak because the mechanisms in place are often inadequate to address the existing situation. On the whole, current efforts to fight juvenile delinquency are characterized by the lack of systematic action and the absence of task-oriented and effective social work with both offenders and victims, whether real or potential. Analysis is further complicated by a lack of international comparative data. (WY, 2003) The paper is a meditation and investigation of the causes of juvenile delinquency. While it…

References:

Ali, M. (2008). Youth Crime: Causes and Remedies. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, 17223, Available from:  http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/17223/ .

Chowdry, I.A., Khan, M.M., & Uddin, I. (2012). Causes and Consequences of Juvenile Delinquency in Bangladesh: A Sociological Analysis. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(4), 1 -- 11.

Loeber, R. (1990) Development and risk factors of juvenile antisocial behavior and delinquency. Clinical Psychology Review, 10, 1 -- 41.

Tigar, Michael E. "What Are We Doing to the Children?: An Essay on Juvenile (In)justice." Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, Vol. 47, No. 849, 849 -- 866, 2010.

Correctional Systems Juvenile and Adult
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In numerous states, specific laws which govern how juvenile offenders are treated in the court and prison systems are separate "from the criminal code used for adult offenders," a situation which can often be found in other state correctional systems. Of course, all those convicted of crimes against society "must be held accountable for their actions," yet when dealing with young offenders, most state courts seems to stress this idea to the maximum while also taking in account that "the basis of a sound juvenile justice system lies in getting to the root causes of delinquent and law-breaking behavior," meaning that early intervention is far more important for young offenders that it is for older offenders. Basically, much more emphasis is placed on treatment programs, education and "preparing juveniles to re-enter" society as responsible adults than in adult correctional systems ("Juvenile Services," 2007, Internet).

Also, there are a number of…

References

Juveniles in the Adult System." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at  http://law.jrank.org/pages/1532/Juveniles-in-Adult-System-Youthfulness-proportional-punishment-death-penalty.html .

Juvenile Services: FAQ's about the Dallas Juvenile Department." (2007). Internet. Retrieved at  http://www.dallascounty.org/department/juvenile/faqs.htm .