Karl Marx Essays (Examples)

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Marx Historical Context Classical Sociological and Economic

Words: 1342 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59721592

Marx Historical Context

Classical sociological and economic theories like those of Karl Marx emerged in Western Europe when it was experiencing the Enlightenment, the emergence of scientific method, a growing sense of individual autonomy over one's life conditions, the emergence of private property, urban growth, and a total shattering of the social balance of relations among peoples that had been in place for centuries if not millennia. Christianity and other traditional religions were being undermined by the new developments in science and technology, while urban, industrial capitalism was breaking up the old feudal-agrarian order in Europe and the Americas. All the founders of modern sociology had to deal with this radically new society, and attempted to describe its historical origins, the new social and economic problems of industrial capitalism, and how governments and societies should deal with them. Karl Marx received his PhD in economics in Germany during the dawn…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Appelrouth, S. And L.D. Edles (2010). Sociological Theory in the Classical Era: Text and Readings, 2nd Edition. SAGE Publications.

Greene, J.C. "Biological and Social Theory in the Nineteenth Century: August Comte and Herbert Spencer" in John Offer (ed). Herbert Spencer: Critical Assessments of Leading Sociologists, Volume 2. Routledge, 2000, pp. 203-26.

Marx, Karl and Friedrich Engels. The Manifesto of the Communist Party. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1969.

http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1848/communist-manifesto/
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Marx and Rousseau on Property

Words: 2567 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50509866

. . while defending these institutions themselves" (1034-1035). Peled further argues that Rousseau was not able to solve this paradox and it was one of the reasons why he became increasingly pessimistic about modernity. But Rousseau's attempts to reconcile the contradiction in his approach are worth looking at in details.

Although Rousseau abhorred inequality that rose out of private property, he did not hold any illusions about modernity. He believed that private property became an essential component of the modern bourgeois society and economic relations in the modern era could not be free from errors and corruption. So, Rousseau thought that the best solution to modern inequality was to allow private property in limited amounts and regulate it through the state that represents the common will. In a perfect society imagined by Rousseau, the state would honor the right to possess private property but at the same time would retain…… [Read More]

Works Cited:

Alvarez, Andres and Jimena Hurtado-Prieto. "Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Karl Marx on the Critique of Economics. Some Insights from their Analysis of the Role of Money." Academic paper, Phare, Universite de Paris X -- Nanterre. Available at  http://rousseaustudies.free.fr/articleHURTADOALVAREZROUSSEAUMARX.pdf 

Bozarth, David. "Rousseau Closer to Marx than to Locke." Academic paper, Sonoma State University (2004, June 15). Available at http://dbozarth.com/Poli_Sci_Notes/Rousseau_Closer_To_Marx_Than_To_Locke.htm

Brenkert, George, G. "Freedom and private Property in Marx." Philosophy & Public Affairs, 8.2 (1979): 122-147. Available at  http://www.jstor.org/ 

Chattopadhyay, Paresh. "Marx's First Critique of Political Economy, 1844-1994." Economic and Political Weekly, 29.31 (1994, Jul. 30): 54-59. Available at
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Marx Rhet X Marx the

Words: 1388 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47250659

45). ith the ideology of the ownership class necessarily becoming the dominant ideology throughout the world not simply through the spread of industry and capitalism but through dramatic changes in international trade and economies brought about by capitalist/industrialist changes in single countries, the bourgeoisie acquires (or acquired) dramatic power to shape global events and politics through their shaping of the thoughts that can be had and the modes by which they can be expressed -- through their control over rhetorical interpretations and expression, in other words.

Implications of Marx's Rhetorical Theory

Using a Marxist approach to rhetorical theory has a variety of benefits and drawbacks to theorists and critics working from many different perspectives. The benefits to such a perspective are clear, if somewhat ominous -- they give concrete and measurable ways in which to develop an understanding of thought itself, and of how thoughts are created and expressed (and…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marx, Karl and Engels, Frederick. Manifesto of the Communist Party. 1848. Accessed 28 February 2013. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/download/pdf/Manifesto.pdf

Marx, Karl. The German Ideology. 1845. Accessed 28 February 2013. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1845/german-ideology/ch01a.htm
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Marx and the Species-Being Doctrine

Words: 1447 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39422741

His objection to Capitalism is that it forces the market division upon the worker - it creates and monopolizes opportunities such that the independent producer is unable to survive and thus men are forced into relationships where others (managers, owners) dictate the course of their day, the purpose of their labor, and grants the credit and benefit of that labor go to the company and not to the worker. The capitalist, "profits...by the division of labor and...by the advance which human labor makes on the natural product. The greater the human share in a commodity, the greater the profit of dead capital," (39).

The diversity of humanity is critical to its survival. The truth is that Marxism never took off, would never have been successful, and was never successful in any variation that it took. Marx gives this away when he says, " the human essence of nature first exists…… [Read More]

Referenced

Marx, Karl & Engles, Freiderich. Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 Karl Marx. Martin Milligan, Translator. New York: Prometheus Books, 1988.
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Marx Kafka in His Communist

Words: 927 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14548814

Within this shared common language they are able to see a commonality or a common existence and, despite the many other differences that exist, this common thread will hold a society together.

Thus, it can be said that, according to Marx, language is the great equator. Within language a society is able to claim equality as, at least at the time of his writing, societies, regardless of how many classes it may have had, shared one basic language. However, this is not necessarily the truth today. As societies become more and more intermixed, due to immigration and the global economy, languages are beginning to clash and the emergence of class-based languages are starting to arise (such as Ebonics). When these clashes occur, one begins to see sub-societies rally behind their language and thus, their right to identification. When someone else tries to translate ones language as being the foreign one,…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Crumb, R. (1996): Kafka. New York: Kitchen Sink Press, Inc.

Marx, Karl. (1998): Communist Manifesto. New York: Penguin Group.
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Marx on Labor Heilbroner's Honesty at the

Words: 544 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57541915

Marx on Labor

Heilbroner's honesty at the onset of his writing on Karl Marx reveals the flaws and distortion contained within the often complex, if not mystical tone of Marx's philosophy. The admitted sheer immensity of work produced by Marx and his partner Engels cannot be completely understood. The author confessed " the collected works compromise forty volumes, each 700-1000 pages in length. I have no room for many documents of great historical importance." This dismissal is proof of the limited value of Marx and his theory. Cherry picking this and that from any collection suggests an inconsistency, if not cloaking, of the true essence of Marx's art.

Regardless of the irrationality behind the author's analysis, there are still worthwhile ideas contained within the writing. The alignment of Marx and Adam Smith's appreciation for the value of labor and the corresponding explanations of each demonstrated a quality of humanity in…… [Read More]

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Marx Weber Does Max Weber

Words: 1105 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49617403

Society was more complex than a world divided merely into workers, aristocrats, and clergy, and contained many classes, from workers to owners to civil servants to politicians to aristocrats. Marx saw the major difference after the Industrial Revolution to be that of a shift from agriculture to industry, although the inequities and exploitation of the class possessing the means of production remained constant. But as a result of the complexity created through industrialization, eber believed social power had become more diffuse. Social power and classes were not based simply upon land ownership, money and wealth. Social power also rested in social prestige and political power and influence. (Bartle, "Community Empowerment: Lecture Notes, Marx and eber -- Inequality, 2006) Social classes were not fixed entities. A person's power and class allegiance could shift quite rapidly, depending upon one's immediate context.

eber might argue, for example that some persons who are not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Bartle, Phillip. "Community Empowerment: Lecture notes -- Max Weber." Last Updated 23 Apr 2006. [6 Jul 2006]

 http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/soc-webr.htm 

Bartle, Phillip. "Community Empowerment: Lecture notes -- Marx and Weber -- Inequality." Last Updated 23 Apr 2006. [6 Jul 2006]

 http://www.scn.org/cmp/modules/soc-mweb.htm
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Marx 'N Me The Influence

Words: 1098 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41472168

Marx's pragmatism is also very appealing to me. Emotive appeals not only do not make much sense to me, they also do not tend to affect great policy change or sway societies. Marx argues for the same things that many of the humanist philosophers of the Enlightenment argues for, but he determines that this is the correct course not due to emotive arguments, but the cool, rational logic of money, which always speaks to people in power.

This is not to suggest that Marx was always -- or even often -- successful in implementing his ideas. Indeed, the Russian Revolution whose early leaders claimed so much attachment to Marx's ideas fairly well butchered the humanist philosophy at the core of Marx's economic and political ideals. He even got into disputes with others that were ostensibly of his view: "Marx had refused to join forces with the Londoners [...] until they…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marx, Karl. Capital. Moscow: Progress Publishers, 1999. First Published 1887. Accessed online 10 November 2008. http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1867-c1/

Marx, Karl. The Communist Manifesto. 2008. First Published 1848. Accessed online 10 November 2008.  http://www.anu.edu.au/polsci/marx/classics/manifesto.html 

Wheen, Francis. Karl Marx: A Life. New York: Norton & Co, 2001.

Wood, Allen. Karl Marx. New York: Routledge, 2004
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Marx's Theory of Social Change

Words: 1350 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33187418

He disclosed that the proletarians inevitably outnumber the capitalists. The capitalist mode of production is capable of yielding tremendous growth because the capitalist can reinvest profits in new technologies. But Marx argued that capitalism was subject to cycle of crises. Marx argued that capitalist society undergoes a continuous cycle boom followed by collapse with marked upheavals in between. He rightly pointed out that the net result of all this process is further strengthening and enforcement of bourgeoisie class and dilipidation of proletriats.

Karl Marx assumed that if the proletariat class was to take control of means of production this class would probably indulge in social relations that would promote the benefits for everyone and thus making the society less prone to severe crisis. But this of course is more of an idealistic scenario where fairness and equal benefits for all are the name of the game, the reality on the…… [Read More]

References

Shlomo Avineri, the Social and Political Thought of Karl Marx (Cambridge University Press, 1968) ISBN 0-521-09619-7

G.A. Cohen, Karl Marx's Theory of History: A Defence (Princeton University Press, 1978) ISBN 0-691-07068-7

Hal Draper, Karl Marx's Theory of Revolution (4 volumes) Monthly Review Press

Ronald Duncan & Colin Wilson, (editors) Marx Refuted, (Bath, U.K., 1987) ISBN 0-906798-71-X
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Karl Popper Is Arguably One of the

Words: 2263 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29453729

Karl Popper is arguably one of the greatest philosophers of the twentieth century because of his role as one of the pioneers of philosophy of science. Popper was a political and social philosopher of significant stature, a dedicated campaigner and strong defender of the Open Society, and a committed rival of all types of conventionalism, skepticism and relativism in human affairs and science (Thorton, n.d.). He considered one of the greatest philosophers of his time because of his remarkable extent of intellectual influence that contributed to his recognition by individuals within and outside the field of philosophy. In his early years, Popper displayed a wide range of interests including music and an inquiring mind that was characterized by examining the psychotherapeutic theories of Fred and Adler, participating in lectures by Einstein, and becoming a Marxist. The main motivation for Popper's scientific inquiry and discovery was the search for truth in…… [Read More]

References:

Chaffee, J. (2012). The philosopher's way: thinking critically about profound ideas (4th ed.).

London, Greater London: Pearson.

Ormerod, R.J. (2009). The History and Ideas of Critical Rationalism: The Philosophy of Karl

Popper and Its Implications for OR. Journal of the Operational Research Society, 2009(60), 441-460.
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Marx & Alienation of the

Words: 711 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 84952981

In such a system, "the worker becomes an ever cheaper commodity the more commodities he produces. The devaluation of the human world grows in direct proportion to the increase in value of the world of things. Labor not only produces commodities; it also produces itself and the workers as a commodity," as workers sell their labor on the marketplace. (Marx, 1844)

The more money the factory owner makes, the more workers he can hire and thus the more command he can have over an increasingly alienated workforce. According to Marx, "this alienation has a profound psychological effect upon the worker. For it is clear that, according to this premise, the more the worker exerts himself in his work, the more powerful the alien, objective world becomes which he brings into being over against himself, the poorer he and his inner world become, and the less they belong to him." (Marx,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Marx, Karl. (1844) "Estranged Labor." From "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844." Retrieved 1 Dec 2004 at http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1844/manuscripts/labour.htm
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Marx & Engels Would They

Words: 2052 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75849158

Voice, however, is usually political and confrontational.

In communist societies, it is impossible to get all people to conform to an ideal without using some type of force. People view freedom as the ability to do what they want with their time and control their resources. If the state forces you to work only for its benefit and the benefit of the community, individual freedom will always be limited. This problem was seen in the Soviet Union, North Korea, and China, which were repressive nations that used force to support its theories.

It is important to consider that "exit" is not always physical. It can be mental or emotional, as well. If communist theories were in motion, citizens would not have the ability to exit the system if they decided they did not like it. Physically, it is likely that they would lack the resources to move to another country.…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Hirschman, Albert. 1970. Exit, Voice, and Loyalty: Responses to Decline in Firms, Organizations, and States. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Marx and Engels. (1969). Marx/Engels Selected Works, Volume One, Progress Publishers, Moscow, USSR, pp. 98-137.

Putnam, Robert D.,editor. 2002, Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, Oxford University Press Inc., New York, NY.
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Marx & Machiavelli the Issue

Words: 919 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30489518



Marx would therefore react negatively towards the idea that some economic power cannot be distributed in an absolutely equal sense. Communism entails the equal distribution not only of wealth, but also of economic power. Liberalism does therefore fit into this ideal to some degree, but not entirely.

Machiavelli had a number of beliefs related to his economic paradigm. According ot this philosopher, human beings, society and culture can all be improved by means of education, and that central to such education stood manly virtues. This paradigm is more or less proved by means of the evolution of liberalism in the United States. A system that began as yet another form of coercion has developed to become an altogether improved paradigm. Indeed, the variety of ideologies within society at any given time greatly influenced the evolution of the liberalist ideology. This can be seen above, with the historical movements from World…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. "Karl Marx." August 26, 2003

The Reader's Companion to U.S. History. "American Liberalism." 2004. http://college.hmco.com/history/readerscomp/rcah/html/ah_053200_liberalism.htm
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Marx Weber Bourdieu and Gramsci

Words: 1136 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12434216

Cultural Power

Karl Marx, Max Weber, Antonio Gramsci and Pierre Bourdieu all conceptualize culture power in different ways. Each identifies the agent (the specific social group) which acquires and makes use of cultural power as well as the means by which the agents acquire and maintain cultural power.

As Marx and Engels observe in The German Ideology, "The class which has the means of material production at its disposal, has control at the same time over the means of mental production, so that thereby, generally speaking, the ideas of those who lack the means of mental production are subject to it" (64). Thus, for Marx, laborers were the specific group that needed to acquire power from the elites (capitalists), owners of the means of production. The means of production were, of course, the laborers. Communism was the ideology that would free the laborers from subservience to the owners of capital.…… [Read More]

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Marx and Engels

Words: 978 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96398063

Legacies of Marx and Engels

The publication of The Communist Manifesto in 1848 by Karl Marx and Frederick Engels formed the basis for a variety of ideologies. Some of these ideas have been modified and adapted by both communists and capitalists in the ensuing years. However, a number of Marx's ideas can be shown to be erroneous and/or outdated in light of events which have taken place since the time Marx and Engels wrote.

Marx believed that human history unfolds in distinct stages, and that these stages follow a distinct order, with one unfolding to reveal the next. According to Marx, scientific laws, which can be discovered by man using his innate powers of reason, govern the progression of these stages, and thus the progression of history can be foretold. This basic idea has often been applied by modern political and economic theorists as they make predictions of how events…… [Read More]

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Marx Sartre Existentialism and Skinner

Words: 363 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 34474558

Humans had to learn to use freedom in a positive, rather than a negative fashion, said Sartre.

A modern manager, cognizant of such critiques, thus must try to create a workplace where a sense of connection to the product, place, and community is fostered. For example, at Google, workers are encouraged to use company time and equipment to pursue their own projects. Google is a place where workers can eat free meals, take free fitness classes, and combine work and pleasure. This creates a sense of togetherness, rather than fosters angst, alienation and exploitation. Skinner's concept of behaviorism, or rewarding positive behavior, is transformed so that giving back to the organization with creative input and ideas is reinforced. Google's mindset shows a sophisticated evolution beyond the concept of giving a worker a crude 'carrot' in the form a small bonus when he or she succeeds in fulfilling a mechanical objective…… [Read More]