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The entire Kennedy investigation case is highly unusual at best, and is more likely one that simply reeks of impropriety. There are a number of highly salient aspects about this case that make it readily apparent that certain parties were interested in making sure that it was never solved. One of the foremost of these facets was the fact that the forensics work conducted on the bullet fragments occurred 14 years after the fatal shooting of Jack Kennedy, who was gunned down in front of his wife (Clarke, 2013). A 14-year lapse in an investigation, even if it involves forensic work, is far from an earnest attempt to truly gauge the facts of what happened, why, and how.
As far as specific elements of the case that were mishandled as denoted within the textbook, the details of the autopsy are probably the most significant. What exactly is a…
YOU'VE GOT THE TEXTBOOK, I DON'T
Clarke, T. (2013). "A death in the first family." Vanity Fair. Retrieved from http://www.vanityfair.com/politics/2013/07/icebergs-jfk-jackie-death-patrick
It might have been the combination of the right timing with this new satellite technology and this horrific event of the President being shot that changed the public interest in complete, live, and around the clock coverage.
The fact that television at that time could bring powerful images of what was happening in the world and could make the incident seem like a local event that was happening in their own home town, was a new concept.
It was also television that brought to the public the first live presidential debate between Kennedy and Nixon in 1960. Approximately 60% of the households viewed the three debates -- around 60 million people out of a total population of 179 million at that time. Kennedy was the first President that most people felt they had a personal connection with, all because of live TV.
So after the assassination the public couldn't get…
"JFK: Breaking The News." n.d. KERA Productions. 27 May 2009 .
"Television news ." n.d. media in the 1960. 27 May 2009 .
Zelizer, Barbie. "Covering the Body." n.d. American Experience PBS. 28 May 2009 .
An Analysis of Why Kennedy's Assassination is a Turning Point
The 1963 assassination of President John F. Kennedy was a turning point in American history. On a superficial level, it served as the eradication of post-War idealism, of American "purity" and patriotic zeal. Kennedy's death ushered in an era of social revolution throughout the 1960s and 1970s. On a deeper level, however, Kennedy's assassination and the events surrounding it pushed many Americans toward a more skeptical and cynical view of their government. If Eisenhower warned of the rise of the military-industrial complex (MIC) in his 1961 Farewell Address, Kennedy's death opened the door even more widely to the notion of government conspiracy and the power of the MIC (Jarecki, 2008, pp. 152-154). This paper will analyze the Kennedy assassination and show why it serves as a turning point in American history.
To say that President Kennedy's assassination was…
Jarecki, E. (2008). The American Way of War. NY: Free Press.
Kinzer, S. (2006). Overthrow. NY: Henry Holt and Company.
Mellen, J. (2005). A Farewell to Justice. Washington, D.C.: Potomac Books, Inc.
The camera lens recorded what I could not possibly have seen at the moment -- a rifle barrel extended over the windowsill. hen the film was developed later, it showed two figures hovering over it."
He gave his negatives to a daily newspaper in Toronto; but when he phoned and asked them to return his negative, the negative with the two figures in the window was gone. He got a "fat cheque in the mail" but never saw his negative again, Marrs writes on page 23.
The Connally Bullet - CTKA
According to an article by Robert Harris (published in Citizens for Truth About the Kennedy Assassination, CTKA), the bullet that was alleged to have passed through Kennedy and Connally was found to be in "near pristine condition," and when examined under a microscope, no tissue or blood was found. Moreover, an orderly named Darrell Tomlinson, who found the bullet,…
Ferrell, Mary. (2006). The JFK Assassination. Retrieved November 10, 2011, from http://www.maryferrell.org .
JFK Assassination Records. (1964). Report of the President's Commission on the Assassination
of President Kennedy / Warren Report. National Archives. Retrieved November 10, 2011,
from http://www.archives.gov/research/jfk/select-committee-report/summary.html .
Assassination of President John Kennedy
hy was the assassination of President John Kennedy considered a turning point in history and not just another event?
In the first place, the election and inauguration of John F. Kennedy (JFK) was in itself a dramatic turning point in American history. Americans had never had a president who made such eloquent speeches, who was so young and handsome, and who had such a beautiful, classy wife and family. In Europe there were royal families but Americans had never had a family like the Kennedys, who created a kind of "Camelot" in the hite House. JFK talked tough to the Soviets as to the Cold ar and he also "…made [Americans] dream of walking on the moon and equal rights for all" (History Since 1945). In other words, the charming, well-spoken president brought a dramatic change in leadership style from President Eisenhower and Truman, who…
Driscoll, E. (2007). Kennedy Assassination: Ideological Turning Point of Democratic Party.
Spinning Clio / Musings of an independent historian. Retrieved July 26, 2013, from http://cliopolitical.blogspot.com .
History Since 1945. (2011). Turning Point in American History: President Kennedy. Retrieved July 26, 2-13, from http://historysince1945.blogspot.com .
Lowry, R. (2007). Kennedy Assassination: Ideological Turning Point of Democratic Party.
Kennedy and Brinkley
President John Fitzgerald Kennedy is an important figure in American history and was instrumental in shaping the American identity in the second half of the twentieth century. His personality and optimism, as well as his heroism in the Second orld ar helped the country to formulate a hope that the 1960s could be a time of renewal and rebirth in the United States of America. In recent years, the more scandalous aspects of his life have overtaken his historical significance, something that should be remedied and his importance restored. Most importantly, his actions during the Cold ar between the United States and the U.S.S.R. are credited with saving the world from descending into nuclear war. In Alan Brinkley's 2012 book John F. Kenney, the author attempts to explain the man in terms of his place in history and how his personal abilities and charisma were able to…
Brinkley, A. (2012). John F. Kennedy: The American Presidents Series: The 35th President,
1961-1963. Times: New York, NY.
Kennedy, J. (1961). Inaugural address. American Rhetoric.com
Kennedy, J. (1963). American University commencement address. American Rhetoric.com
The administration of J.F.K. determined that the mission and size of the U.S. advisory project must increase if the U.S.-backed government in Saigon was to survive and win the war. While some of Kennedy's cabinet advisors proposed a negotiated settlement for Vietnam similar to one that recognized Laos as a neutral nation, this was not to be. The administration had just suffered diplomatic setbacks and embarrassments in Berlin and Cuba. So that it did not repeat this, the covert military option was used, but unsuccessfully. The war continued to escalate, requiring more U.S. advisors and military and foreign aid. Unfortunately for the U.S., the covert operations to assist the South against North Vietnam escalated in the harassment and landing of covert forces until the U.S. Navy became embroiled in the Gulf of Tonkin incident that sealed the U.S. path to open military involvement in the conflict (ibid.).
Diplomatic options in…
Anderson, D.L. (1999). The military and diplomatic course of the vietnam war. Retrieved from http://www.english.illinois.edu/maps/vietnam/anderson.htm .
Kennedy considered supporting coup in south vietnam, august 1963. (2009, December 11). Retrieved
from http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB302/index.htm .
Lemnitzer, L. (1962). Operation northwoods. Retrieved from www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/news/20010430/doc1.pdf.
Various versions of the conspiracy theories link the purported involvement of Giancana with Castro, Giancana with the CIA, and Oswald to one or the other, or to both. Finally, other conspiracy theories even linked then Vice
President Lyndon B. Johnson to the assassination plot, at least in terms of having been made aware of the operation in advance if not necessarily as a co-conspirator (Galanor,
Several specific individuals later emerged, providing information of their claimed involvement in the assassination conspiracy, including James Files and David Morales
(Benson, 1998). Files was linked to both the CIA after working as a former covert military operative in Laos as well as to organized crime through his association with Charles Nicoletti, a Mafia hitman operating in the Illinois area. Files specifically claimed to have been recruited by Nicoletti to act as a backup shooter positioned in the vicinity of the grassy knoll and…
Benson, M. (1998). Who's Who in the JFK Assassination: An a to Z. Encyclopedia.
New York: Citadel.
Galanor, S. (1998). Cover-Up. New York: Kestrel Books.
The President's Commission on the Assassination. (1992). The Warren Commission
President Kennedy's term of office arrived at a transitional time in American history, when the idealism of the 1950s was slowly beginning to fade into the realities of the Cold ar. Foreign policy concerns were not the only thing to plague the Kennedy administration. Domestic issues were perhaps even more important. Shifting social norms presented problems related to race, class, gender, and power. Moreover, the anti-Communist scare was causing the administration to assume an aggressive interventionist policy the likes of which was unprecedented in American history. Involvement in Vietnam, committing American troops to a remote war, eventually led to a massive anti-war movement. Kennedy's assassination shook the nation awake, and ushered in a new era of social unrest. Civil rights and a broad mistrust of government would be themes in the next decade of American history. hen Kennedy refers to the "larger freedom and a more equal and spacious…
S., Great Britain and the Soviet Union. However, due to ennedy's assassination in Dallas on November 22, these negotiations stalled, especially when France and China refused to become parties to the new non-nuclear proliferation treaty. Thus, if ennedy had survived, it is clear that this treaty might have served as the foundation for a very early movement against nuclear proliferation and might have signaled the end of the "Cold War" some twenty-seven years before it finally did end in 1989 with the fall of the Soviet Union.
Second, in 1963, many American civil rights leaders, especially Martin Luther ing, Jr., wished to speed up the progress of desegregation in the U.S. which led to a number of important demonstrations. In June of 1963, President ennedy was convinced that the American public was demanding some type of action by Congress to end desegregation in America. As a result, ennedy sent to…
Kennedy, somewhat surprised by this move, quickly accepted Khrushchev's offer and negotiations began on August 5, 1963 which included representatives from the U.S., Great Britain and the Soviet Union. However, due to Kennedy's assassination in Dallas on November 22, these negotiations stalled, especially when France and China refused to become parties to the new non-nuclear proliferation treaty. Thus, if Kennedy had survived, it is clear that this treaty might have served as the foundation for a very early movement against nuclear proliferation and might have signaled the end of the "Cold War" some twenty-seven years before it finally did end in 1989 with the fall of the Soviet Union.
Second, in 1963, many American civil rights leaders, especially Martin Luther King, Jr., wished to speed up the progress of desegregation in the U.S. which led to a number of important demonstrations. In June of 1963, President Kennedy was convinced that the American public was demanding some type of action by Congress to end desegregation in America. As a result, Kennedy sent to Congress a civil rights bill that included provisions designed to expedite the registration of black voters, to guarantee equal access to all public accommodations, to allow the U.S. Attorney General (Robert Kennedy) to institute lawsuits to desegregate the schools and to withhold federal funds from state or local programs in which racial discrimination was evident.
Certainly, if Kennedy had survived, this civil rights bill, the first of its kind in the United States since the days of the Civil War in the 1860's, might have helped to stave off a number of violent protests in some major U.S. cities during the late 1960's. As previously pointed out, this bill was stalled in Congress at the time of Kennedy's assassination, but if he had survived and had been allowed to return to Washington to pressure Congress to pass the bill immediately, the history of the Civil Rights Movement in America might have turned out very different indeed.
In this Kennedy appeared to be following up on his anti-Communist speech with anti-Communist actions. but, the level of actual commitment was clearly not there. Kennedy had the entire United States military at his disposal. All he had to do was use them. but, clearly, he did not have the stomach to follow it all the way through. Kennedy wanted to appear strong but did not want to have to be strong - image meant everything.
Operation Mongoose continued the entire Cuban situation. It relied upon covert use of the CIA to make any and all attempts necessary to overthrow the Cuban government. On the heels of the Bay of Pigs failure, Kennedy attempted another poorly conceived attempt to rid himself of Castro. The operation essentially failed before it could possibly begin. Time after time, plans were brought out to be replaced by others. And those plans were impossibly strange…
LeFeber, Walter. America, Russia and the Cold War: 1945-2002. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2002.
Merrill, Dennis & Paterson, Thomas G Major Problems in American Foreign Relations: Since 1914. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2005.
Assassination of JFK
Why is your chosen turning point actually a turning point and not just another event?
One of the most commonly analyzed and a questionable event in the history of the U.S., the assassination of JFK was a real turning point. The complex analysis on this topic is somehow frustrating. While "JFK-nuts" may be captured in some seriously arcane information of proof, some readily available information can entirely discredit the official government version of what occurred. The assassination of JFK can be seen as a coup-d'etat and a caution to all individuals and government figures who may try to question the status quo. Strong forces within government were able to take off such a criminal action and successfully pass off such a cheap cover story. The condition of the country's democracy can be deciphered from this scenario (Zelizer, 2012).
Even more considerably, the complicity of the United States…
Zelizer, B. (2012). Covering the body: The Kennedy assassination, the media, and the shaping of collective memory. Chicago u.a: Univ. Of Chicago Press.
John F. Kennedy was the youngest individual elected American president and the first Roman Catholic to serve in that capacity. His election as president came in the aftermath of the Second orld ar and is considered as an initiative that came to reflect the ascendance of youthful idealism during this period. However, the promises of the youthful energetic president were not fulfilled following his assassination near the end of his third year as U.S. president. As a populist-oriented, youthful and energetic, intelligent, optimistic, and charismatic leader, Kennedy had matured and evolved before his assassination. Some of the major elements that demonstrated his maturity include successful navigation of a conflict that could have led to nuclear war with Soviet Union and position the country to deal with the growing domestic and international social issues. The success of John F. Kennedy as president was mainly attributed to the correlation between his political…
"John F. Kennedy Biography." Bio.com. A&E Networks Television, LLC, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2014. .
"John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Miller Center - University of Virginia. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia, n.d. Web. 8 Jan. 2014. .
Lazzaro, Joseph. "JFK Assassination: President John F. Kennedy - His Life And Death." International Business Times. IBT Media Inc., 20 Nov. 2013. Web. 08 Jan. 2014. .
Mara, Wil. John F. Kennedy. New York: Marshall Cavendish Benchmark, 2010. Print.
The Moral, Legal, Political, and Practical Dimensions of Assassination
Murder: The killing of a political leader or other public figure by a sudden violent attack. Destruction of something: the destruction of something such as somebody's reputation by malicious or treacherous means.
In the wake of the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the New York World
Trade Center and the Pentagon, some attention has been focused upon the assassination ban contained in Executive Order (E.O.) 12333, Section 2.11, and whether it would prohibit the United States from responding to the attacks by targeting those who orchestrated these acts of terrorism. In considering the challenges involved in effectively combating terrorism and protecting the United States from future terrorist attacks, there has been wide-ranging debate as to what approaches might be beneficial. Part of that discussion has centered around whether assassination of terrorist leaders is, or should be, one…
Bazan, E.B. 2002. Assassination Ban and E.O. 12333: A Brief Summary. CRS Report for Congress, Congressional Research Service Web, Library of Congress.
Grossenbacher, R. 1993. Assassination in modern America: Political participation through a gun barrel? Western Michigan University: Kalamazoo, MI.
Johnson, F. 1903. Famous Assassinations of History: From Philip of Macedon, 336 B.C. To Alexandria of Servia, AD 1903. A.C. McClurg & Co.: Chicago.
Padover, S.K. 1943. Patterns of Assassination in Occupied Territory. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 7(4), 680 -- 693, Oxford University Press.
Memories of John F. Kennedy
When I got up that day, the most important thing in the world was the test scores we were going to receive. By the end of the day they seemed irrelevant, and in fact I didn't even open my envelope for another four days, even though they would help determine my future."
It was the day John F. Kennedy was assassinated. My aunt was in the auditorium with all the other seniors, with the envelope containing her state test scores for college placement in her hand. This test covered everything taught in high school whether one had taken it or not. Then Principal stopped everything to tell them about Kennedy. My aunt really doesn't remember the rest of the day very well; like many students she just aimlessly wandered the halls -- at a time when you had to have a pass to…
WALKING a MILE IN JOHN F. KENNEDY'S SHOES
John Fitzgerald Kennedy (JFK) was a tremendously important figure in modern American history despite the fact that his presidency was cut short after less than three years by his tragic assassination in 1963. Born into a wealthy and politically influential family, Kennedy served in the U.S. Navy during World War II after which he served as a U.S. Congressman from 1946 until his election as the nation's 35th president, overcoming the significant obstacle of prejudice against Catholics in American politics. Kennedy also suffered from colitis, chronic back problems, and Addison's Disease throughout his career, a fact that was largely hidden from the public in an era where the press maintained a form of "gentlemen's agreement" to avoid publicizing unflattering personal information about political representatives. Likewise, no public mention was ever made of Kennedy's extramarital affairs. His presidency faced several extremely important domestic,…
Roberts, P. (2000). The Cold War. Phoenix Mill: UK.
Sorensen, T.C. (1965). Kennedy. Harper & row: New York.
Onassis devoted most of her time to plan social events that were to be at the White House as well as other state properties. Frequently she could invite poets, writers, artists, musicians and scientists so that they could mingle with diplomats, statesmen and politicians, Molly Driscoll, (2011). She as well started to let guests at the White House drink cocktails, in an attempt to give the mansion a more relaxed feeling.
Onassis proved to be very popular among international dignitaries, and the reasons could be her skill at entertaining. Prior to her visit to France, a television special was shot in French house having First Lady on the White House lawn. In this visit, the public was really impressed with her ability to speak fluent French, and also her extensive knowledge of French history. Jacqueline learnt her French language through a prominent Puerto ican educator "Maria Teresa Babin Cortes."
Jesse Kornbluth" Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: An Autobiography in Books" 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://headbutler.com/books/biography/jacqueline-kennedy-onassis-autobiography-books
Jone Johnson Lewis "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis" (2012). Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://womenshistory.about.com/cs/firstladies/p/p_jackieo.htm
Molly Driscoll," Jackie Kennedy interviews are full of surprises," 2011. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://www.csmonitor.com/Books/chapter-and-verse/2011/0912/Jackie-Kennedy-interviews-are-full-of-surprises
Thomson Gale, "Encyclopedia of World Biography on Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis" 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://www.bookrags.com/biography/bouvier-kennedy-onassis/
Not long after the car bombing that claimed the life of Hariri and nine others, U.S. Secretary of State, Condaleeza Rice, issued a statement saying that the U.S. Ambassador to Syria had been recalled for consultations as a result of the assassination (the ashington Times, February 16, 2005, p. A01). Short of making a specific statement of accusation that Syria had been behind the murder, Rice called for an investigation of the murder (2005, A01). It is here, at this point, that question should follow: ho had the greatest interest in seeing Rafik Hariri eliminated from Lebanon and the Middle East scene? e must ask that question before we go any further, or perform review any additional information in order to keep an open mind as we process the reports that arose from the U.N. commissioned investigation of the events. At this it would serve anyone attempting to sort through…
After Mehlis; Charting a Better Future for Syrians." The Washington Times 31 Oct. 2005: A21. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5011586082.
Baroudi, Sami E. "Sectarianism and Business Associations in Postwar Lebanon." Arab Studies Quarterly (ASQ) 22.4 (2000): 81. Questia. 20 Oct. 2007
economy in the United States and the catastrophic terrorist attacks of September 11th is often discussed, for many reasons. The events were so integral to the United States as a historically devastating occurrence that emotionally, socially and psychologically changed the face of the nation and with that nation is the integral issue of economy. This work will analyze the difference between the economic after effects of the September 11th attacks, in the Stock Market particularly, and the effects of another crucial historical event of the last century, the assassination of John F. Kennedy. The correlation between events and the stock exchange is often difficult to find information on in that a comprehensive history of the exchange has not been done, but perhaps the best time for such a work to be written would be now, as we discover just how well the nation and the world recover from the September…
Burk, James. Values in the Marketplace: The American Stock Market under Federal Securities Law. New York: Aldine De Gruyter, 1992.
"Correspondence." The American Prospect 18 June 2001: 6. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
Dingle, Derek, and Sakina P. Spruell. "Bouncing Back: In the Aftermath of the Terrorist Attacks, Black-Owned Business Learn the True Meaning of Crisis Management as They Turn Losses into Gains." Black Enterprise Dec. 2001: 77+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
"Economy Still Strong after 9/11." The Washington Times 13 Sept. 2002: F32. Questia. 4 Dec. 2004 .
United States is a large nation that is presently facing a multitude of problems. For many Americans the most important of these problems is the plight of the workforce and the unemployment rate among that workforce. The importance of this problem is reflected through the result of opinion polls conducted by a number of the country's leading pollsters. Displacing concerns with the economy as the nation's number one problem, the fact that unemployment now ranks as the primary concern highlights how serious unemployment has become in the United States. It indicates that the American workforce is eager to get back to work.
The unfortunate thing about the present unemployment figures is that they do not reflect the seriousness of the present situation. The figures do not reflect those who have ceased seeking employment, those working in positions below their capabilities, and those working two or three part-time jobs in order…
Autor, D. (2006). The Growth in the Social Security Disability Rolls: A Fiscal Crisis Unfolding. Cambridge, MA: National Bureau of Economic Research.
Ayton, M. (2007). Conspiracy Thinking and the John F. Kennedy, Robert Kennedy and Martin Luther King Assassinations. Retrieved from http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/ayton2.htm
Meyer, D.S. (1994). Social Movement Spillover. Social Problems, 277-298.
Perraton, H. (2000). Open and Distance Learning in the Developing World. New York: Routledge.
Crossfire by Jim Marrs is an encyclopedic collection of information about the assassination of President John F. Kennedy in 1963. As a trained journalist, Marrs fills the more than six hundred pages of his book with details both commonly known and potentially revelatory. Virtually every conspiracy theory ever applied to the assassination is examined along the supporting and disproving evidence.
The biggest problem with this book is the sheer amount of information it provides. There are so many minute details covered, it is easy to loose sight of the big picture. For instance, regarding the pace of the motorcade through Dealey Plaza, Marrs offers the following:
The [Presidential] party had come to a temporary halt before proceeding on to the underpass." Phil Willis (p. 24)
A]fter the third shot, I heard Roy Kellerman tell the driver, 'Bill, get out of line.' And then I saw him move, and I assumed…
alarm clock will break and so you'll oversleep. When you do wake up, you will burn your lips, tongue and liver on your coffee. Your car will refuse to start, and when it does you will discover that one of your tires is flat. While changing your flat tire you will be bitten by a black-widow spider. Just as you arrive at the emergency room, the nurses will go out on strike. A small earthquake will then strike, crushing your car in the hospital garage. You will develop gangrene after you leave the hospital without being treated - but not before a bicyclist runs into you as you walk home, knocking you down and breaking your glasses.
Okay, maybe we haven't all had days that were exactly this bad, but sometimes they come close - which is no doubt one reason that many people are so attracted to conspiracy theories.…
The five items found in the time capsule are: 1) a 1964 record by Nina Simone called “Wild is the Wind,” 2) A Time magazine from 1964, with a painting of the face of Lee Harvey Oswald on the cover and a banner saying: “The Warren Commission: No Conspiracy, Domestic or Foreign,” 3) a photograph of Lyndon Johnson and Mathilde Krim 4) the original Orville Nix film of John F. Kennedy’s assassination, and 5) the 1969 mugshot photograph of Sirhan Bishara Sirhan, alleged assassin of Bobby Kennedy.
The record by Nina Simone includes the song “Wild is the Wind,” which represents a powerful marriage between classical piano and blues/jazz. Nina’s rich vocals and deep voice give the song a melancholy that couples with resonating romanticism. It is just one song on the record; others are: “Black is the Color of My True Love’s Hair,” “Either Way I Lose,” and “Break…
It did not help matters that Johnson was photographed being sworn into office aboard the plane bringing the body of Kennedy back to ashington, D.C., with Kennedy's widow, and First Lady Jacqueline Kennedy, who was still wearing the suit stained with her husband's blood. Many people, right or wrong, took the photo as a statement by Mrs. Kennedy; even though she remained a close friend of Johnson's wife, Lady Bird, all of the years of their lives.
For his part, President Johnson placed the work of the investigation of the Kennedy assassination into the hands of the arren Commission, and then he went about the work of creating his Great Society (Eavns and Novak, 2). If the assassination of Kennedy weighed on the minds of the people, it was no less troubling for the man from Texas who followed Kennedy. Johnson commented: "They say Jack Kennedy had style, but I'm…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5027073635' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Hyperrealism in Literature
The following criticism was made by Michael izza on Don DeLillo's Libra:
In Libra, Don DeLillo offers solace for the issue of achieving historical certainty; however, despite rendering fictive order to historical confusions, the attempt to describe events, like the assassination of John F. Kennedy, has been complicated by him, through transferring individual agency to external forces. ejecting these forces' caricatures by astrology, paranoia and conspiracy, he lets characters makes decisions (izza 2008). Nevertheless, independent actions, apparently initiated by characters, become a system's products, while design springs from and in spite of individual intentions. Though chaos and system theories help shed light on the conjunction of determinism and randomness, the individual is incorporated in the global. Moreover, the unstable identity of Oswald is performative; he performs for a changing audience, which dictates every new act.
While the above critique has its views, I would agree with it.…
DeLillo, Don. Libra.Penguin Books, 1991. Print.
Horst, Bredekamp. Hyperrealism - One Step Beyond. UK: Tate Museum Publishers, 2006. Print.
Johnston, John. "Superlinear Fiction or Historical Diagram?: Don DeLillo's Libra." Modern Fiction Studies . 40.2 (1994): 319-342. Web..
Parrish, Timothy . "From Hoover's FBI to Eisenstein's Unterwelt: DeLillo Directs the Postmodern Nove." Modern Fiction Studies. 45.3 (1999): 696-723. Web..
"Exploring sites of memory:" the Kennedy assassination
According to Barbie Zelizer's review article entitled "Exploring sites of memory," "public history emerges simultaneously from the commonplace and mundane, the eccentric and comic, the background of the everyday, and the splendor of life on high" (Zelizer 1999:202). There is a collective memory that shapes our individual memory, and vice versa. While Ziegler's review is applied to a book on recent French history, her analysis is equally trenchant within an American context. Take, for example, the assassination of John F. Kennedy. This is a public memory of record. But for many Americans of an earlier generation it is also a very personal memory. Most people who grew up during the early 1960s say that they know exactly where they were when Kennedy died, and have a very vivid visual picture of what transpired.
However, the public nature of this 'memory'…
Zelizer, B. (1999). Realms of memory. Journal of Communication. 49 (4). 202-205.
culture of hatred and paranoia that currently flourishes in the United States has been festering for generations. As Minutaglio & Davis (2013) show in Dallas 1963, the tenor of political discourse had become thoroughly irrational and beyond comprehension. The Kennedy assassination in many ways epitomizes the culture of Dallas and its compatriot regions throughout right-wing America. acism and bigotries of all types were supported openly, just as they are today and especially in light of there being a black President. A strange and hypocritical brand of hyper-patriotism also swept through the streets of Dallas in the 1960s. ather than propose constructive solutions or add to intelligent political discourse, the antagonists in Dallas chose what can only be called a bellicose course of action in which violence is the consequence.
Minutaglio & Davis open the narrative prior to the election of Kennedy to provide some background and historical and cultural context.…
Minutaglio, B. & Davis, S.L. (2013). Dallas 1963. New York: Hachette.
Cinema and American Politics
The modern politics of the U.S. and their imperialistic manifestations within the global political economy (GPE) have often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result. For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent ridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity, and democracy). Yet…
Benoit, William; Nill, Dawn. "Oliver Stone's Defense of JFK." Communication
Quarterly, vol. 46, no. 2 (1998): 127-143.
Cole, David. Republican Party Animal. WA: Feral House, 2014.
Elliott, William; Schenck-Hamlin, William. "Film, Politics and the Press: The Influence
e must canonize our own saints, create our own martyrs, and elevate to positions of fame and honor black women and men who have made their distinct contributions to our history." (Garvey1, 1)
Taken in itself and absent the implications to African repatriation that we will address hereafter, this is a statement which seems to project itself upon both Martin Luther King and Malcolm X, mutually driven as they would be by a belief that African men had been deprived of a humanity which it was their duty to see restored. But it is here that we can also begin to observe the elements of Garvey's rather poetic and frequently biblical rhetoric as producing multifarious responses in its future champions. Certainly, the greatest and most daunting common ground between King and Malcolm X in this instance is in their mutual 'creation' of 'martyrs.' They would both sacrifice themselves to the…
Associated Press (AP). (1963). MALCOLM X SCORES U.S. And KENNEDY; Likens Slaying to 'Chickens Coming Home to Roost' Newspapers Chided. New York Times.
Edward, W. (1996). "A Lunatic or a Traitor" by W.E.B. DuBois. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Edward1, W. (1996). "The Negro's Greatest Enemy" by Marcus Garvey. African-American Political Thought, 1890-1930: M.E. Sharpe.
Garvey, a.J. (1967). The Philosophy and Opinions of Marcus Garvey. Routledge.
Cinema and American Politics
will address the relationship between film and politics in the U.S.
The modern politics of the U.S. has often been reflected in the mainstream Hollywood films of the era yet simultaneously criticized and satirized by auteur and/or independent filmmakers, such as Kubrick with his 1964 Dr. Strangelove or Oliver Stone's JFK. While political science is a field in which the dynamics of political discourse may be examined more directly, an analysis of the cinematic representation of American politics as depicted in film can provide an alternative assessment of the life of U.S. political forces, how they are perceived to operate in popular film, and how popular political beliefs are shaped and communicated to citizens as a result.
For instance, Spielberg's Lincoln and his recent Bridge of Spies are two films that celebrate some aspect of the American political ideal (such as freedom, unity, integrity,…
In this article, Grenier discusses the history of paranoia in political classes, dissecting groups according to ethnicity, political affiliation, and culture. He points to Stone's film on JFK as evidence that the paranoid class has evolved into a force worth reckoning. This article will be helpful to my paper because it highlights one of the ways in which the political establishment views critically the success of Stone's work.
King, Noel. "Reconsidering the film-politics relation." Continuum: Journal of Media & Cultural Studies, vol. 6, no. 1 (1992): 228-235.
This study focuses on the way in which society is shaped by a film-political discourse, with cinema both reflecting the political ideology and attacking it at alternate intervals. Thus there is a tendency for the political establishment to reach out to and use Hollywood and a tendency for Hollywood to be both receptive to the embrace and resistant to it. The article is helpful to this paper because it shows how there is an uneven relationship between the political field and cinema and how a two-way flow can be perceived.
Therefore, the "day the music died" was the day music and politics became fused. The Vietnam War, the Kennedy assassination, the Civil Rights movement, and other historical events also evoke imagery associated with death. "The day the music died" also marked the day merica's Golden ge died too. During the 1960s music became associated with sex, drugs, and violence: in stark contrast to the childlike "doo-wop" days of the 1950s.
McLean weaves in references to British groups the Beatles and the Rolling Stones to show how the British invasion altered the landscape of merican music. In addition to using musical references, McLean also writes about merican popular culture through film stars like James Dean, who also died tragically and whose iconic career embodies the central themes of "merican Pie." Like Buddy Holly and Richie Valens, James Dean was also a 1950s icon. His death also marked the "day the music…
American Pie" progresses chronologically from the "day the music died" until the late 1960s. In verse five, McLean mentions the Woodstock festival in 1969 and refers to "a generation lost in space." McLean also mentions Satan and the Devil to underscore his view that the 1960s was a time of debauch. The songwriter views the 1960s as being a generation "lost" to drugs. Music concerts and public events became spectacles and often erupted into violent protests. For instance, McLean refers to a concert the Rolling Stones played at, during which the Hell's Angels motorcycle gang overstepped their authority as chief security officers. McLean likens the event to a "sacrificial rite." Therefore, the songwriter describes the changes in American culture in Biblical terms, continuing to use imagery relating to death.
The title of the song is itself conveys the semiotics embedded in "American Pie." Pie is one of the only foods considered quintessentially American. The reference evokes mom's apple pie, an image of idyllic domesticity in the suburbs, of traditional gender roles, of sweetness, family, and the American Dream. The "day the music died" was the day that American woke up from its Dream. Gender roles were shifting rapidly so that women were no longer geared to be housewives. American culture seemed to be coming apart at the seams. The happy-go-lucky energy of the 1950s, captured in the songs of Buddy Holly, Richie Valens, and the Big Bopper, had died when those musicians perished in a plane crash. Those were the "good old boys" McLean refers to in the central refrain of the song. Likewise, when McLean writes about driving his "Chevy to the levee," he also uses another icon of American culture: the Chevrolet automobile.
During the 1960s a wave of events took place that would forever alter the character of the American Dream and of the American consciousness. The Vietnam War was by far the most significant, giving rise to a youth culture to a degree that had never before existed. Prior to the 1960s youth culture was a silent voice on the cultural landscape. Artists like James Dean were among the first to reveal the power of youth culture in America. His death, referred to in the third verse of "American Pie," is akin to the deaths of the three musicians mentioned at the beginning of the song. Youth culture became rebellious and highly political. Activism was a new trend that led to disturbing protest movements that were often mingled with musical concerts like Woodstock. The Kennedy assassination also signified the "day the music died," as did the infusion of radical politics into popular music. McLean mentions Marx in verse three to refer to the wholesale shifts in American lifestyle and culture.
disrupting America's economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists
Even as the world continues to struggle with the terrible shock from the September 11 attacks in New York and Washington, one principle lesson has already become clear: disrupting our economic system is a fundamental objective of terrorists.
Prior to September 11, our economic environment was certainly not immune to terror, in comparison to many other nations; we lived relatively terror-free. Now, however, the aftermath of the terrorist attacks serves as a grim reminder that international relations and security developments can dramatically affect economic performance.
US History is replete with countless examples when macro fundamentals are overtaken by what economists refer to as, exogenous shocks -- surprise events that can profoundly and often unpredictably shift political and economic resources, and send even the most accurate forecasts astray. Commodity shocks, such as the two OPEC jolts in the 1970s, are classic…
Bagehot, Walter. 1927. Lombard Street: A Description of the Money Market, John Murray, London.
Balbach, Anatol B. 1981. "How Controllable is Money Growth?" Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis Review, vol 63, no 4, April, p. 5.
Becker, Gary S, Steven N. Kaplan, Kevin M. Murphy and Edward A Snyder. (2002 / winter). "The Economic Effects of September 11," GSB Magazine, University of Chicago's Graduate School of Business.
Bell, Stephanie. 2000. "Do Taxes and Bonds Finance Government Spending?." Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 603-620.
Quality TV generates interest about social problems
Quite often, fictional TV programs can raise national consciousness and awareness about social problems. Through fiction, viewers care about people far away because problems and issues are personalized and humanized. For example, the HBO program Oz about life in prison has generated compassion about the fate of incarcerated individuals and motivated calls for prison reform in a way that seeing someone in handcuffs on the nightly news cannot. The Sopranos was not simply a high-quality TV drama, its location in a suburban community also forced viewers to think more critically about their daily lives, like the lies, pain, and murder that lay behind the closed doors of affluent suburban New Jersey. The use of violence in these shows is designed to accurately depict life
Quality TV is cinematic
Violence has become part of the cinematic vocabulary, and modern television dramas with legitimate aspirations…
Meade replied (p. 189) that "...neither the United States Government, myself, nor General Kilpatrick authorized, sanctioned, or approved the burning of the city of Richmond and the killing of Mr. Davis..."
Subsequent chapters in Schultz's book deal with the complications of retrieving Dahlgren's body and giving it a proper burial in the north, and with an ill-fated attempt by the Confederates to create chaos and draw blood in northern cities (Chicago among them) by sending disguised mercenaries down from Canada.
But Chapter 22 ("Desperate Measures: ho rote the Dahlgren Papers?") is loaded with Schultz's own beliefs and the views of others as regards the legitimacy of the papers. The people in the south believed the papers were real, and those in the north chose to believe the opposite. On pages 242-245 Schultz reprints what he asserts are the actual orders that Dahlgren was carrying with him. Back and forth, back…
Hall, James O. 1999. Gunning for Davis. Civil War Times Illustrated 37 (February): 66-68.
Mullen, Richard. 1999. Civil War Comes to Virginia. Contemporary Review 275 (September):
Schultz, Duane. 1998. The Dahlgren Affair: Terror and Conspiracy in the Civil War. New York:
W.W. Norton & Company.
While the other SWAT operations we have discussed, are critical to the public's safety and protection, it is the training that is crucial to the SWAT team's safety.
The more "real" the training is and the more it is based on real-time skills, the more valuable it is to the team. SWAT trains almost constantly. And most don't let up. As an example, like the U.S. Army and its training for Iraq and Afghanistan, SWAT training involves a physical, intense, real-life scenario to the point that, sometime, team members can suffer minor injuries. Unlike, other agencies that might want to back off if that occurs, SWAT, normally does not, because injuries -- or worse -- in a real-time operation are entirely possible.
The effective SWAT team trains "force-on-force" and hand-to-hand with other SWAT teams and individuals on a regular basis. And they run practice shooting drills often using various scenarios,…
Critchfield, S. (n.d.). The United States S.W.A.T. program: A history and overview. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from helium.com: http://www.helium.com/items/101114-the-united-states-swat-program-a-history-and-overview
Davis, K. (2007, March 22). Learning from S.W.A.T. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from officer.com: http://www.officer.com/web/online/Operations-and-Tactics/Learning-From-SWAT/3$35,346
Goranson, C. (2003). Police SWAT teams: Life on high alert. New York: The Rosen Publishing Company.
O'Brien, R. (2007, June 20). It's our duty to study and preserve SWAT history. Retrieved November 30, 2009, from policemag.com: http://www.policemag.com/Blog/SWAT/Story/2007/06/It-s-Our-Duty-to-Study-and-Preserve-SWAT-History.aspx
Geneational Gap in the Wokplace
Contempoay woking age Ameicans ae categoized into fou distinct geneations that, allegedly, have been made into what they ae and thei pesonalities fomed due to the socio-political and economic as well as histoical occuences of thei age. These fou geneations ae vaiously known as: Taditionals, Baby Boomes, Geneation X, and Geneation Y
Thee ae at least two views egading geneational diffeences in the wokplace. The fist suggests that whilst individuals ae distinct, nonetheless, shaed geneational values, events, beliefs, behavios, and occuences indelibly affected membes of a paticula geneation and impact them fom effective integeneational communication (Zemke, et al. 2000). The othe is that although, cetain geneational events do occu that influence people's behavio and beliefs, ultimately employees ae constant and geneic in what they seek fom jobs and tying to categoize them and pedict thei pefomance accoding to geneation categoy is misguided (Yang & Guy,…
references of the younger generations. Similarly, whilst discussion groups are the format of choice for the older generations, the younger generations see them as least effective and more time-consuming. Again, one can readily see historical circumstances as prompting choice. Additionally, the younger generations tend to value feedback more than the older ones do, and the various generations seem to indicate different methods in learning and internalizing skills. Computer and Internet may have a great deal to say in the diversities between the characteristics on these points.
As regards desire for greater balance between life and work, most of the evidence that the younger generations seem to incline towards the latter in comparison to the older ones, is anecdotal. It may be that the younger generations resists the influence of work on their lives to a greater extent than the older generations do, but, this again may differ according to personality and context and needs further research.
Other differences in Workplace Generation Gap
Definitions of 'success' and 'leadership' vary too between the generations with apparently generational perspectives of the constructs hinging on the paradigms of their times. The gap seems to be most pronounced between the Traditionals and the younger generations with the Traditionals connecting success to workplace conduct, and the younger generations connecting it to computer skills. As regards leadership style, the two older generations prefer a leader with credibility, whilst the younger ones prefer empathy and active listening (Deal, 2007).
All generations want to be valued and appreciated as well as receive fair treatment. In the end, definite differences may exist more in popular literature than in real life. Further empirical research needs to be conducted to demonstrate whether this is or is not the case.
One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest by Ken Kesey was written after its author worked as an orderly in a psychiatric ward. Yet the novel also demonstrates significant research that manages to elevate it to the level of a serious critique. Published in 1962, One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest is thus an artistic contribution to that decade's emerging critique of societal handling of mental illness, a loose affiliation of scholarly critics that would include the British psychiatrist R.D. Laing and Canadian sociologist Erving Goffmann and would in 1967 be collectively nicknamed the "anti-psychiatry movement." I think we can understand Kesey's role in this movement by focusing on the narrator of his novel, Chief Bromden. By examining Kesey's handling of Bromden's mental state, both as medical fact and as metaphorical device, the novel's criticism of psychiatry in its year of publication may be seen as part of a…
Hofstadter, Richard. The Paranoid Style in American Politics, and Other Essays. New York: Vintage, 1964. Print.
Kesey, Ken. One Flew Over the Cuckoo's Nest. New York: Viking, 1962. Print.
Neyraut-Sutterman, Marie-Therese. "On the Origin of the 'Influencing Machine' in Schizophrenia." International Dictionary of Psychoanalysis, Online. Accessed 15 April 2011 at: http://www.enotes.com/psychoanalysis-encyclopedia/origin-influencing-machine-schizophrenia
Pynchon, Thomas. The Crying of Lot 49. New York: Lippincott, 1966.
stands on its own as being one of the most dominant and important computers constructed and manufactured throughout the history of computing. This says a lot considering the modern age of the Internet and computing did not really start until the 1990's and the IBM 360 was brought about roughly thirty years before that. This report shall offer a brief summary and review of the IBM 360, what is meant to the business and wider world at the time and what it still means to this very day.
One that fact clearly stands out when it comes to IBM and the 360 is that they literally bet the future of their company when they developed and created the computer. This was despite the fact that IBM dominated the computing world at the time. Indeed, of all of the computers out there at the time, IBM was the manufacturer of about…
Computer History. (2015). IBM System/360 - CHM Revolution. Computerhistory.org. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from http://www.computerhistory.org/revolution/mainframe-computers/7/161
IBM. (2015). IBM100 - System 360. Www-03.ibm.com. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/system360/words/
Mayer, J. (2015). In today's computer science courses, why are we still learning IBM 360 architecture?. Quora. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from http://www.quora.com/In-todays-computer-science-courses-why-are-we-still-learning-IBM-360-architecture
Popkin, H. (2014). NBC News. Retrieved 22 June 2015, from http://www.nbcnews.com/tech/gadgets/5-reasons-love-mad-mens-new-star-ibm-360-n101716
The line of legitimacy, separating socially approvable use of force from violence, cannot be effectively drawn without an agreement on what constitutes the optimum amount of force necessary to maintain social order and to protect human rights against encroachment. A society subscribing to infinite morality which condemns all use of force as immoral is doomed no less than a society accepting the absolute pragmatism of tyrants. "
As Oleg Zinam proposes, these two extreme social attitudes to morality are equally unprofitable to the societies that adopt them. The attitude of absolute pragmatism can easily lead to the acceptance of political assassinations, as long as such acts may help the final political purpose. An example of absolute pragmatism can be the regime initiated by Hitler, who ordered the extermination of all Jews in an attempt to "purify" the human race by excluding anyone who did not fill in the Arian ideal.…
Ben-Yehuda, Nachman. 1997. Political Assassination Events as a Cross- Cultural form of Alternative Justice.
International Journal of Comparative Sociology, Vol.38: 25-30.
Feliks, Gross. 1974. The Revolutionary Party. Essays in the Sociology of Politics. Westport: Greenwood
Had the failure of the Cuban invasion not occurred, Kennedy would not have been able to appear so ascendant, and the positive reaction to his handling of the Cuban Missile Crisis might not have been as great in magnitude. Truly however, it was his social programs such as the Peace Corps and his focus on establishing peace with the Soviet Union that truly showed him to be the charismatic leader for which he is remembered today.
Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164
John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/
John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm
O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. etrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1
Parekh, N. (2005). "John F. Kennedy Biography." Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.buzzle.com/editorials/1-23-2005-64647.asp
Freedom Doctrine Speech." (1961). WGBH Lectures. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://forum.wgbh.org/wgbh/forum.php?lecture_id=1164
John F. Kennedy." (2009) About the White House: Presidents. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/
John Fitzgerald Kennedy." Spartacus Educational. Accessed 21 January 2009. http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAkennedyJ.htm
O'Brien, M. (2005) John F. Kennedy. New York: Macmillan. Retrieved via Google Books 2 January 2009. http://books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=fxzd__gA_I4C&dq=john+f+kennedy&printsec=frontcover&source=web&ots=b090N20I3D&sig=vZHZ3U4jmj3sFRVEx7CFDb7pE4s&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=9&ct=result#PPA494,M1
John F. Kennedy and Nikita Khrushchev
This paper will begin by overviewing each of these powerful leaders. Following these overviews, the leadership styles will then be compared and contrasted. In so doing, a clearer understanding will be developed of how two very different leaders could so effectively lead the two most powerful nations, during one of the most intense times in world history.
Following World War II, the world felt the intensifying of the Cold War. Although the primary players were the United States and ussia, countries around the globe sat on the edge of their seats, waiting for the tension to rupture and a third World War to erupt. Two leaders had the fate of the world in their hands, during this era of world history, Nikita Khrushchev and John F. Kennedy.
This paper will begin by overviewing each of these powerful leaders. Following these overviews, the leadership styles…
John F. Kennedy. (5 Jun 2005). Retrieved June 6, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy .
Khrushchev, N. (25 Feb 1956). The Secret Speech -- On the cult of personality. Retrieved June 6, 2005, from http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1956khrushchev-secret1.html .
Khrushcheva, N. (2 Oct. 2000). The case of Khrushchev's shoe: Nikita Khrushchev shoe banging incident at United Nations. New Statesman. Retrieved June 6, 2005, from http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FQP/is_4506_129/ai_66383187 .
Nikita Khrushchev. (4 Jun 2005). Retrieved June 6, 2005, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nikita_Khrushchev .
Perhaps Kennedy wanted to purge that bootlegging reputation from the Kennedy name. For example, while Bobby Kennedy publicly tried known Mafia figures, they still aided the Kennedy presidential campaign. Another Mafia historian notes, "Sam Giancana [a noted mob figure] helped to carry Cook County for the Kennedys in spite of a preelection insult from Bobby Kennedy, who brought Giancana in to face the McClelland Committee and humiliated him publicly with embarrassing questions" (Kelly, 2000, p. 138). Thus, Kennedy seemed driven to drive out organized crime from the country, and another speculation is that he became so worrisome during his presidential campaign that the Mafia was behind his assassination.
The Teamsters were notorious for their activities with organized crime, even before Hoffa took the helm. After Hoffa took over, there was even more illegal activity in the Union. The Teamsters had huge influence around the country because just about every industry…
Editors. (2004). RFK's Enemies: Jimmy Hoffa. Retrieved from the PBS.org Web site:
www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/rfk/sfeature/sf_enemies_03.html26 May 2006.
Kelly, R.J. (2000). Encyclopedia of organized crime in the United States from Capone's Chicago to the new urban underworld. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press.
Leiter, R.D. (1957). The Teamsters Union: A study of its economic impact. New York: Bookman Associates.
Ngo Dinh Diem
orn in the year 1901 to an aristocratic family, Ngo Dinh Diem rose to become the Prime Minister of South Vietnam in the year 1954. This paper looks in detail at the events during the life of Ngo Dinh Diem, his era of governance and the events that took place in the aftermath of his assassination. Catholic missionaries converted his predecessors into Christianity several years back in the 17th century. Much like his pervious family generations, he too was educated in French Catholic schools. Following his successful graduation he was trained as an administrator who worked in conjunction with the French authorities based in Vietnam. At a very young age of twenty-five, he became a provincial governor. This was his foray into a long political career, which marked dramatic incidents both in his personal life and the history of Vietnam.
At a time when communism was rising…
Diem, Ngo Diem' Retrieved at http://us.history.wisc.edu/hist102/bios/29.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Ngo Dinh Diem - Encarta: An Encyclopedia Article' Retrieved at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761576219/Ngo_Dinh_Diem.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Colby's Vietnam: History Misrepresented' Retrieved at http://www.hartford-hwp.com/archives/54/099.html Accessed on April 5, 2004
Letter to John F. Kennedy' Retrieved at http://pages.xtn.net/~wingman/docs/lettdiem.htm Accessed on April 5, 2004
American Civil ight Movement
Compare and contrast the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) and the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) on the basis of their leadership, philosophy, and tactics.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) was a civil rights organization that was initiated by African-Americans in 1957 (Fairclough, 2001). The movement was primarily aimed at ending the segregation and discrimination against the black African population in the U.S. The core philosophy of SCLC revolved around to seek civil rights and economic justice for the people of Southern States having majority of African-Americans.
Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) actually aimed achieving same objectives as those of SCLC but through non-violent sit-in and defiance of segregated dining and lunch services. The core philosophy of SNCC was also eliminating segregation but the mission statement was narrower compared to SCLC.
The most prominent leader of SCLC was Martin Luther King, Jr. Other prominent…
Dyson, M.E. (2009). April 4, 1968: Martin Luther King, Jr.'s Death and how it Changed America. Basic Books.
Fairclough, A. (2001). To Redeem the Soul of America: The Southern Christian Leadership Conference and Martin Luther King, Jr. University of Georgia Press.
Johnson & Johnson (2013). Annual Report & Proxy Statements: J&J. Retrieved from: [http://files.shareholder.com/downloads/JNJ/2770950354x0x644760/85FD0CFF-2305-4A02-8294-2E47D0F31850/JNJ2012annualreport.pdf]
Sundquist, J.L. (1968). Politics and Policy: The Eisenhower, Kennedy and Johnson Years. Brookings Institution Press.
.. [of] her father, a gunsmith, she writes...'All he ever cared about were guns. All I ever cared about was art'" (Martin 2000). Vowell's anti-gun politics and assassination fascination thus may have a personal dimension -- in the act of remembering violent American history, Vowell comes to terms with her past although retains her liberal politics.
Vowell does tie the issues raised by violence and assignations in the past to present-day attitudes Regarding one unwitting casualty in the attempt on Ronald Reagan's life, Reagan's press secretary James Brady who must spend the rest of his life in a wheelchair due to his injury, Vowell is proud that she is part of their campaign and writes how moved she is: "that he and his wife, Sarah, turned this rotten luck into the Brady Campaign to Prevent Gun Violence is downright heroic. And not the soft-focus treacle that 'heroic' often implies. I'm…
Beato, Greg. "On the road with wisecracks and historical oddities.' The San Francisco
Chronicle. April 17, 2007. C3.
Handy, Bruce. "Assassination Vacation: Dead Presidents." The New York Times. May 8
Marin, Rick. Radio Daze. The New York Times Magazine. April 4, 2000.
United States Bomb its Way to Victory in Vietnam?
What was John F. Kennedy's "New Frontier" in American foreign policy? What approach did his administration take to the Third World?
The New Frontier policy was a plan to provide aid to foreign countries. He wanted to help Third World countries by increasing their levels of education and boost their economies thereby eventually making them self-sufficient.
Describe and analyze the circumstances and outcomes of the Kennedy administration's crises with Cuba.
The major issue between the United States and Cuba was the Cold War which divided the countries politically. Cuba, being Communist sided with the U.S.S.R. against the U.S. And allowed the U.S.S.R. To have nuclear missiles on their island, pointed at the U.S.
In what ways did Kennedy deepen U.S. involvement in Vietnam? Why did Kennedy believe U.S. engagement/influence in Vietnam was crucial to his foreign policy? How were Kennedy's attitudes…
President Johnson "Americanized" the Vietnam War by introducing more troops into the country and limiting the use of Vietnamese troops. In the Gulf of Tonkin in 1964, Vietnamese weapons supposedly fired on American ships. This account has since proven to be false. It is important because Johnson, very well knowing the truth, intentionally misled the government and the American people. Congress never officially declared war on Vietnam.
6. In what ways was the American nation polarized by the war in Vietnam? What effect did the anti-war movement have on American society? Describe the ways in which 1968 was a year of upheaval (in the U.S., and elsewhere in the world)? How did the Vietnam War shape the election of 1968?
The people of the United States were divided over the American involvement in the Vietnam War. Some viewed it as necessary to protest Communism and others considered it an immoral war that the country should not be involved in. The anti-war movement served to divide the country along the lines of Vietnam support and to further the hippie and counter culture movements. 1968 was a year of upheaval because of the U.S. involvement in Vietnam and the assassinations of both Martin Luther King, Jr. And Robert F. Kennedy. The war shaped the U.S. election
The underside of affluence
The period is in the early years of the twentieth century. America is now experiencing economic and political expansion as it became the model of an imperial superpower for all nations, both in the Western and Eastern regions. Economic growth spurred as a result of the industrial revolution, while political structures strengthened due to the numerous successful conquests of the Americans to colonize nations in the Asian and southern American regions.
However, despite the affluence that American society had experienced during this period, a considerable half of the American population is suffering from poverty. With the rise of urbanization, many people flocked to the cities in search of a high-paying job and steady source of income as factory workers. However, the rapid incidence of migration to the cities made them crowded with people, hence, living conditions began to deteriorate, which includes the lack of…
In spite of being little more than a tool in the hands of the U.S., Diem was nonetheless a very capable minion. ith the purpose of destabilizing Diem's power, Kennedy "recalled the CIA station chief in Saigon, John Richardson, who was known to be friendly with Ngo Dinh Nhu" and "cut off the funds to support some Special Forces under Nhu's Control" (Moss 109).
Predictably, the coup overthrowing and murdering Diem did not last for long and conditions became unfavorable for South Vietnam. Diem was followed by several leaders who appeared to be supportive toward the U.S. And against communist, but none matched the former leader in reputation and in managing abilities. hen hearing that the Americans supported the coup, the North Vietnamese realized the mistake their enemies did and embarked on a mission to take over South Vietnam and defeat any troops they encountered in their way, with no…
1. Moss, G. (2009). "Vietnam: An American Ordeal (6th Edition)." Prentice Hall.
Like other forms of discrimination and bigotry in the United States, racism has thankfully started to tail off and reduce over the years and generations. However, this is happening at a pace that is frustratingly slow and plodding. Court decisions and new laws passed throughout the 20th and 21st centuries have led to more inclusion and less institutional racism and other bigotry. However, de facto racism and other forms of bigotry still remain present and problematic. This report shall cover a lot of the facets of all of this including how Brown vs. Board of Education changed things, what President Kennedy perhaps should have done at the time of his Presidency to address racism head-on and more adeptly, examples of how things have gotten better, stayed the same or gotten worse, detailed reasons why it is important to keep a keen eye on society and what is going…
Cuban Missile Crisis
There are two views, as with any conflict or issue, on the reasons and reactions of the major players in the Cuban Missile Crisis that took place at the end of October 1962. The crisis pitted two world powers, the United States and the Soviet Union, against each other in what many describe as the closest the world has come to World War III and a nuclear holocaust.
In order to understand the Crisis, it is important to first understand the events leading up to the crisis. This paper examines the background of the crisis from the Cuban/Soviet point-of-view in depth. Toward the end of the paper, the United States' perspective of the crisis is discussed with regard to what is described previously from the perspective of supporters of the Castro regime and the now collapsed Soviet Union.
After the devastation that the bombs left in…
Alleged Assassination Plots Involving Foreign Leaders," 20 November 1975. The National Security Archives. 147.
Bay of Pigs: Forty Years After," Chronology, National Security Archives (Cuban Problems 11 December 1959), 24 June 2004. http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/bayofpigs/chron.html .
Bay of Pigs." Cuban History: Missile Crisis. Marxists.org. 25 June 2003. http://www.marxists.org/history/cuba/subject/missile-crisis/index.htm .
Crisis de Octubre: Cronologia." Informe Especial: 1960 and 1961. Centro de Estudios Sobre America.
Cold War and Film
Generally speaking, the Cold War has been depicted as an era of spy games and paranoia in popular films from the 1960s to the present day, but the reality of the era was much more complex. The Cold War was a period of military and political tension from 1947 to 1991, or from the end of WW2 to the collapse of the Soviet Union, in which the "politics of war" masked the business and social agendas of multinationals and ideologues. The era was marked by myriad issues: East-West mistrust, proxy wars, espionage, the threat of nuclear war, domestic and foreign propaganda, the rise of the military-industrial complex and multinational corporations, assassinations, detente, de-colonization, new nationalism, neo-colonialism, the vying for control of resources, alliances (NATO, Warsaw Pact), and an inculcation of the "deep state." [footnoteRef:1] It can be divided into five basic periods: 1947-53, 1953-62, 1962-79, 1979-85,…
Dominik, Andrew, dir. Killing Them Softly. NY: Weinstein Company, 2012. Film.
Eliot, T.S. "Burnt Norton." The Four Quartets. Web. 10 May 2015.
Frankenheimer, John, dir. Seven Days in May DVD Commentary. LA: Warner Home
" The Great Society initiative included policies concerning increased education assistance, fundamental protections of civil rights and the right of all Americans to vote, urban renewal, Medicare, conservation, beautification, control and prevention of crime and delinquency, promotion of the arts, and consumer protection (President Lyndon B. Johnson's Biography 2009).
The contributions made by President Johnson were both numerous and significant. In this regard, Firestone and Vogt (1988) report that, "As LBJ led Congress to the completion of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, to a major tax bill, the first significant federal aid to education, and the program of medical care for the aged that had been pending since Harry Truman's day, surely confidence and optimism were not unwarranted" (1). Following his reelection to the presidency in 1964, Johnson was not content to rest on his laurels but continued his quest for improved civil rights in the country. For…
Abbott, Philip. 2005. "Accidental Presidents: Death, Assassination, Resignation, and Democratic
Succession." Presidential Studies Quarterly 35(4): 627-628.
Blight, James G. And Janet M. Lang. The Fog of War: Lessons from the Life of Robert S.
McNamara. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2005.
The events leading to the Vietnam conflict were determined by the administration in place at that time (VIETNAM CONFLICT (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vietnam_War).
Initially it was decided that Vietnam would be occupied by Chinese and British troops and that they would supervise the surrender of Japan.
In 1960 Hanoi instructed the southern communists to establish an organization called the national liberation front. The purpose of this organization was to overthrow the government of the south. The organization was made up of two groups. The intellectuals of the South and who opposed the foundation of the government of South Viet Nam and the communists who had remained in the south after the partition.
The Di-m government was initially able to cope with the insurgency with the aid of U.S. advisers, and by 1962 seemed to be winning. Senior U.S. military leaders were receiving positive reports from the U.S. commander, Gen. Paul D. Harkins of…
CONTAINMENT of SOVIET UNION
An Outline of American History (1994) http://www.let.rug.nl/~usa/H/1994/ch11_p5.htm
CUBAN MISSILE CRISIS
Plot to Kill the President by George Robert Blakey. he paper attempts to define the weak and strong points of the book as well as define the theory that the author believes pertains to the assassination of John F. Kennedy in the 1960's. here was one source used to complete this paper.
he last four decades have been filled with discussions and theories about the assassination of American president John F. Kennedy. While some believe it was a plot planned and carried out by the government's own CIA others hold steadfast to the belief that the president was indeed killed by a lone gunman on the knoll that day. While these two theories are well-known and often discussed on talk shows as well as dinner parties there is another theory that is not as well-known but every bit as intriguing. he book by George Robert Blakey and Richard Billings titled…
The assassination of the president shocked the nation. Schools were closed down and students sent home to watch their parents weep and the flags fly at half mast. With two main theories about what happened it seems the world has figured it out, until reading The Plot to Kill the President by George Blakey and Robert Billings. This book takes the reader down a plausible path of discovery and the reader comes out with the belief that it was not the CIA or the single man on the knoll. The book is a strong example of what the mob is capable of and probably did do that afternoon in Dallas.
Blakey, George. Billing Robert. The Plot to Kill The President. Time Books, 1981
" The 'number' of witnesses later turned out to be a single witness who was not even sure about who he saw at the window.
Palm prints on the cardboard box: Similarly Oswald's palm prints were said to have been found on a cardboard box found at the window of the depository building from which Oswald allegedly shot Kennedy. Oswald's prints were not found anywhere else in the room except on a 'convenient' carton that could easily find its way to the police station where Oswald was kept in custody. (Lane,
Apart from these, not insignificant, inconsistencies in the "evidence" presented by the Dallas Attorney General, it is highly unlikely that Oswald, using the Carcano, could have shot with the accuracy and speed required at a moving target.
According to the arren Commission that investigated Kennedy's assassination, three shots were fired from the Depository window, the first and…
Lane, Mark. "Oswald Innocent? A Lawyer's Brief." A Guardian Special. Nov. 22, 1963, December 7, 2004. http://karws.gso.uri.edu/JFK/the_critics/lane/Natl-Guardian/Natl_Guardian.html
Roffman, Howard. "Presumed Guilty." Chapter 9 Oswald's Rifle Capability. A Book by a.S. Barnes and Co., Inc. 1976. http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/PG/PG.html#TOC
Oswald insisted that he was innocent and said he would prove it when he was brought to trial; he persisted in his denial despite the fact that he was questioned for 48 hours without the benefit of counsel; he even refused to admit to the killing as he lay dying
Even this 'fact' has not been proven beyond a shadow of doubt, but we will discuss the point later.
Washington on August 28-29
On this day, more than 200,000 Americans congregated in Washington, D.C., for a civil demonstration referred to as the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom. Planned and prepared by some civil rights and religious groups, the incident was intended to spell out the political and social challenges African-Americans constantly experienced across the nation. The march, which turned out to be a fundamental moment in the mounting struggle for civil rights in the United States, concluded in Martin Luther King Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech, a strong-willed appeal for racial, even handedness, fairness and equality (History, 2016). This topic might be of interest today with the recent cases of killings and discrimination against African-Americans in the United States to the creation of the Black Lives Matter movement.
Beatles on Ed Sullivan Show
On this day, the Beatles were introduced to the American public. It is…
Carlson, P. (2010). K Blows Top: A Cold War Comic Interlude Starring Nikita Khrushchev, America's Most Unlikely Tourist. Read How You Want. pp. 408 -- 412.
Churchill, R. S., & Churchill, W. S. (1967). The six-day war (Vol. 5). Houghton Mifflin.
Cyr, A. I. (2012). Cyr: Cuban missile crisis offers lessons relevant today. Newsday. Retrieved from: http://www.newsday.com/opinion/oped/cuban-missile-crisis-offers-lessons-relevant-today-arthur-i-cyr-1.4133202
Haas, R. (2011). 9/11 Perspective. Council on Foreign Relations. Retrieved from: http://www.cfr.org/911-impact/911-perspective/p25735
Because of the extreme conditions of the 1930s depression, the New Deal under Franklin Roosevelt went further in expanding the powers of the federal government than any previous administration in history, certainly far beyond the very limited role permitted to it by the conservative administrations of arren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover in 1921-33. It was the worst depression in U.S. history, and led not only to the complete collapse of all Street and the financial system, but of industrial production as well, which fell 85% in 1929-33, while the Gross National Project fell by half and in some cities like Chicago the unemployment rate rose as high as 50-60%. At the same time, the entire banking system collapsed by 1933, as did agricultural prices, and money stopped circulating. John Maynard Keynes and other economists blamed this severe contraction on low incomes, unequal distribution of wealth,…
Clarke, P. Keynes: The Rise, Fall and Return of the 20th Century's Most Influential Economist. Bloomsbury Press, 2009.
Fine, S. Sit-down: The General Motors Strike of 1936-37. University of Michigan Press, 1960.
Heinrichs, W. "Lyndon B. Johnson: Change and Continuity" in Warren I Cohen and Nancy Bernkopf Tucker (eds). Lyndon Johnson Confronts the World: American Foreign Policy, 1963-68. Cambridge, 1994: 9- 31.
Skidelsky, R. Keynes: The Return of the Master. Perseus Books Group, 2010.
Nixon's election indicated a shift to the right in American politics that would remain in place for most of the next twenty-five years. The success of the third-party candidacy of George allace also indicated that there was lingering racism in America. The long-term effects of the election for the Democrats was their being out of the hite House for twenty of the next twenty-four years during which time the Party underwent a major transformation. For Nixon, personally, the election actually signaled the beginning of the end of his political career. ithin months of the inauguration, the Nixon administration was plagued with controversy which ultimately led to Nixon's resigning in disgrace shortly into his second term of office.
Bundy, illiam P. Tangled eb: The Making of Foreign Policy in the Nixon Presidency. New York: Hill & ang Publishers, 1998.
Burner, David. Making Peace with the 60s. Princeton, NJ: Princeton…
Bundy, William P. Tangled Web: The Making of Foreign Policy in the Nixon Presidency. New York: Hill & Wang Publishers, 1998.
Burner, David. Making Peace with the 60s. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1996.
Converse, Philip E. "Continuity and Change in American Politics: Parties and Issues in the 1968 Election." The American Political Science Review (1969): 1083-1105.
Kiewiet, D. Roderick. "Approval Voting: The Case of the 1968 Election." Polity (1979): 170-181.
standard joke about America in the 1960s claims that, if you can remember the decade, you did not live through it. Although perhaps intended as a joke about drug usage, the joke also points in a serious way to social change in the decade, which was so rapid and far-reaching that it did seem like the world changed almost daily. This is the paradox of Todd Gitlin's "years of hope" and "days of rage" -- that with so much social and cultural upheaval, the overall mood at any given moment in the 1960s must surely have seemed contradictory. How then can we assess the three most important themes in this broad social change? I would like to make the case that the three longest-lasting social changes came with America's forced adjustment to new realities on the international scene, with Vietnam; on the domestic scene, with the Civil ights movement; and…
Bloom, Alexander and Breines, Wini, (Editors). "Takin' It to the Streets "u: A Sixties ?Reader. Third edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
Buzzanco, Robert. Vietnam and the Transformation of American Life?
New York and Oxford: Blackwell, 1999. Print.
Chafe, William H. The Unfinished Journey: America Since World War II. Sixth edition. New York and London: Oxford University Press, 2010. Print.
6. p. 8 -- When Joseph Kennedy made an enemy of FDR, he made an enemy of J. Edgar Hoover. This is important because Hoover intensely disliked John F. Kennedy, and this may partly explain it.
7. p. 92 -- reporters noticed that Kennedy was spending a lot of money in state primaries but could not prove vote fraud. This was a recurring pattern in Kennedy's campaign to get elected.
8. p. 06 -- Kennedy apparently did have an affair with Marilyn Monroe. Although it was well-known among a number of people, only rumors made it into the media.
9. p. 42 -- the Chicago Mafia helped get Kennedy elected president. This shows that politics, including Kennedy politics, were still quite corrupt by this election.
0. p. 203 -- "Taking out" Castro was always a part of the "Bay of Pigs" invasion plan. This at least partly explains why Castro's…
16. p. 326 -- Jacqueline was John Kennedy's second wife; he was married briefly to Durie Malcolm, a socialite. The family used its connections to remove records of the marriage from the Palm Beach County, Florida, courthouse.
17. p. 343 -- Kruschev knew about the Kennedy's plans to outs and/or assassinate Castro, and it was an important factor in Russia's choice to put missiles in Cuba. This demonstrates that what the public has been told about the Cuban missile crisis is a sanitized and incomplete version.
Hersh, Seymour M. The Dark Side of Camelot. New York: Little, Brown Y Co., 1997.