Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
UCLA care delivery model Kidney Transplant Cycle UCLA part? Address interprofessionalism concepts
I address concepts of interprofessionalism extensively in this paper. The first sentence of this document:
"The UCLA care delivery model for the kidney transplant cycle at the university is extremely detailed, well thought out, and completely based on concepts of interprofessionalism."
is wholly based on interprofessionalism, as is the remainder of that paragraph.
The third paragraph is also completely dedicated to explaining how the care model is based on interprofessionalism, and discusses the interaction of a number of different professionals from various occupations who work together to aid the patients.
The other paragraphs emphasize concepts of interprofessionalism by detailing the actions of still other professionals from diverse lines of work who are instrumental in this care model.
Interprofessionalism is roundly discussed within this paper, and is virtually inseparable from an explanation of the UCLA care model itself.
Porter, M.E., Baron, J.F., Chacko, J.M., Tang, R. (2010). "The UCLA medical center: kidney transplantation." Harvard Business School.
Kidney transplants are regarded as the most preferred treatment intervention for patients suffering from end-stage kidney disease. However, access to kidney transplants remain relatively problematic because of some issues relating to ethnicity, culture, gender, and social determinants of health. According to Khanal et al. (2018), ethnicity affects access to kidney transplants as Indigenous Australians are less likely to undergo dialysis than non-Indigenous Australians. Indigenous Australians are less likely to be placed on the kidney transplantation waiting list in comparison to non-Indigenous Australians. Additionally, this population experience challenges in early access to renal replacement therapy. With regards to social determinants of health, Indigenous Australians are less likely to access to get kidney transplants because of their remoteness. These people live in remote areas characterized with poor health service delivery and a burden of comorbid conditions. As a result of living in remote areas, these individuals have different values and beliefs regarding…
Mayor, S. (2009). "UK sees rise in people donating a kidney to unknown recipients." British medical journal 338(7710), pp. 1521.
In this brief yet highly relevant article, the author describes a recently observed trend of increasing live-donor kidney donations for unknown recipients. hough living donors for family members with a need for transplant have been relatively common for sometime, the idea of donating a kidney while still living for a person unknown to the donor is a very recent development in kidney translation and availability. hough the reasons for this increase are not yet clear, as no research has been undertaken to determine the causal effect of this observed trend, initial results suggest that simple awareness of the need for renal donation and the normalcy of life following the donation of a kidney is a major factor.
Nakamura, Y.; Konno, O.; Matsuno, N.; Yokoyama, ., et al. (2008). "How can…
Though various methods and schema for renal transplantation exist, this study points out the benefits of living donor donation in the combating of end-stage renal failure, in Japan specifically. Citing a decreased need for recipient medication and an increased likelihood of successful transplantation when kidneys used in transplantation come from living donors, the authors of this study examine various methods for increasing rates of living donorship. A new surgical procedure developed by the authors limits the invasiveness and the blood loss in an elective living donor surgery, and combined with higher donorship rates could greatly increase the successful treatment of renal disease.
Testa, G.; Angelos, P.; Crowley-Matoka, M. & Siegler, M. (2009). "Elective surgical patients as living donors: A clinical and ethical innovation." American journal of transplantation 9(10), pp. 2400-5.
An innovative new schema for encouraging organ donation is put forth in this article. Specifically, the authors suggest that patients slated for laporoscopic cholecystectomy be given the opportunity to undergo a more invasive surgical correction and donate a kidney as a living donor at the same time. This would eliminate (or greatly reduce) the need for living donors to become surgical candidates with no health benefit to them; the same surgery and level of invasiveness would both correct the patients' problem and allow for donorship. This is the reverse of the current living donor schema, in which donors become surgical candidates specifically for donor purposes, raising ethical and medical concerns.
However, Harvard Medical School (HMS) reports that in that study of 1,400 patients, 222 "composite events occurred." Those "events" included 65 deaths, 101 "hospitalizations for congestive heart failure, 25 myocardial infarctions and 23 strokes."
In an understatement, the HMS report - written by Dr. Singh - concluded that while improving the lives of patients with CKD is "of paramount importance," this particular study reveals, "...Aiming for a complete correction of anemia is associated with increased risk, increased cost and no quality of life benefits." The study was published in the November 16, 2006 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
Meantime, the National Institutes of Health / Medline Plus (www.nim.nih.gov) explains that epoetin alfa is also used with people who have HIV, it is used prior to surgery and after surgery "to decrease the number of blood transfusions needed" in the predicable loss of blood during surgery. It is…
Harvard Medical School. (2005). Blood test can accurately diagnose heart failure in patients
With kidney dysfunction. Retrieved February 10, 2008, at http://www.hms.harvard.edu .
Harvard Medical School. (2006). Higher Doses of Anemia Drug for Chronic Kidney Disease
Does Not Improve Quality of Life and Increases Risk for Cardiovascular Events. Retrieved February 9, 2008, at
(2008). The study measures public opinion concerning two scenarios: one in which the kidney donor is given a fixed financial compensation; and one in which the donor is provided with health insurance coverage for life. According to the findings of the study, "although almost half of the respondents (46%) were reluctant towards introducing a system with fixed compensation to increase the number of living kidney donors, still 25% of the general public reacted positively." (Kranenburg, 1039) This study would conduct a similar comparative discussion, but would expand the number of available options discussed and would use a different sample population, as discussed in the subsequent section.
Subjects and Sampling Technique:
The subjects will be drawn from amongst nursing professionals working in randomly selected renal specialty facilities and wards. Initial contact will be made by phone with a Director of Nursing at selected facilities requesting participation. Those that agree will receive…
Conesa, C.; Rios, a.; Ramirez, P.; Sanchez, J.; Sanchez, E.; Rodriguez, M.; Martinez, L.; Ramos, F. & Parrilla, P. (2009). Attitude of Primary Care Nurses Toward Living Kidney Donation. Transplantation Proceedings, 37(9), 3626-3630.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, a.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Neyhart, C. & Colaneri, J. (2004). Living Anonymous kidney donation: A solution to the organ donor shortage? Nephrology Nursing Journal. Online at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m 0ICF/is_3_31/ai_n17207253/' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This study underscores the presumption that where public health information campaigns are concerned, information is often accessed but forgotten or ignored. By connecting this information to certain compensatory incentives, those who make up a likely donor population may be more likely to retain and return to the information provided. Though controversial, this does present a realistic view on the motives that might incline one toward an act with significant personal and health-related implications.
It is important for public health facilities to consider the courtship of donations in this way, primarily because a failure to do so is increasingly stimulating an extra-curricular market for the sale of kidneys. In other words, by neglecting to consider the option of connecting kidney donation courtship to such compensatory incentives, the medical community is not protecting against the ethical concerns correlated thereto. They are simply forcing would-be recipients to look outside of the field for…
Aghanwa, H.S.; Akinsola, A.; Akinola, D.O. & Makanjuola, R.O.A. (2003). Attitudes Toward Kidney Donation. J Natl Med Assoc., 95(8), 725-731.
Kranenburg, L.; Schram, A.; Zuidema, W.; Weimar, W.; Hilhorst, M.; Hessing, J. & Busschbach, J. (2008). Public Survey of Financial Incentives for Kidney Donation. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, 23(3), 1039-1042.
Medical News Today (MNT). (2008). Kidney Donation Websites Raise Ethical Concerns - Public Solicitation For Organs May Favor White, Educated And Wealthy Recipients. Wiley Blackwell Publishing. Online at http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/125649.php
A woman complains of abdominal pain and is rushed to the hospital. After an examination, the physician informs the woman that she needs a kidney transplant. However, based on the managed care organization's utilization management review, a nurse practitioner decides to deny the procedure for this patient. The woman eventually dies as a result of not having the transplant.
I personally feel that managed care organizations should provide the best possible care that they can and should have provided treatment to the woman after the physician after her diagnosis. However, on the other hand, it should be noted that there are also many factors that could be entirely relevant that are not specifically outlined in the scenario. For example, there are not typically enough livers that are available to treat every patient that is in need of one at the time. Therefore, there has to be some way…
Jones, T. (2015). A Descriptive Analysis of Implicit Rationing of Nursing Care: Frequency and Patterns in Texas. Nursing Economics, 144-154.
Papastavrou, E. (2013). The ethical complexities of nursing care rationing. Health Science Journal, 346-348.
Papastavrou, E., Andreou, P., & Vryonides, S. (2014). The hidden ethical element of nursing care rationing. Nursing Ethics, 583-593.
Women without functioning uteruses now have a real chance of making their motherhood dreams come true with a radical new surgical procedure that involves a uterus transplant. Mats Brannstrom, the Swedish doctor who was the first in the world to deliver babies from transplanted uteruses, has successfully delivered about half a dozen babies from transplanted uteruses so far (“First baby from a uterus transplant in the U.S. born in Dallas,” 1). In the United States, the first baby was born from a transplanted uterus in December of 2017, in Dallas. As promising as it is, a uterus transplant birth is a relatively risky medical procedure, though, and one that has raised some questions about the efficacy and ethics of this remarkable intervention. However, as long as full disclosure is made to patients, who make their decisions autonomously and with informed consent, transplanted uterine deliveries should certainly be an option…
Its use on those with acute PAH should be performed with caution. The complication rate was observed at 2%
in patients with acute PAH. The use of the procedure was deemed relatively safe for chronic pulmonary arterial hypertension. Severely ill patients should be subjected to non-invasive imaging method exhaustively before resorting to pulmonary angiography (Hofman et al.).#
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
adesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Flattery, Maureen P. And Kathy M. aker. Evidence for Racial Disparity in Cardiac
Transplantation Survival Rates. Journal of Cultural Diversity: Tucker Publications,
March 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 26, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m)MJU/is_1_11/ai_n6183827/?tag=content;col1
Hofman, Lawrence V., et al. Safety and Hemodynamic Effects of Pulmonary…
Albert, Nancy M. Caring for Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension. Nursing:
Springhouse Corporation, May 1999. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3689/is_199905/ai_n8846566/?tag=content;col1
Badesch, David, et al. Medical Therapy for Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension.
131 (6). Chest: American College of Chest Physicians, July 20, 2007. Retrieved on April 25, 2009 from http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/560041
Buy and Sell Organs for Transplants:
The consideration of the possible negative socio-ethical repercussions of allowing people to buy and sell their non-vital body organs for transplant fortifies the argument of all opponents to the proposition. As stated in the U.S. Constitution, human beings are created equal and given the un-separable rights to life, freedom, and the pursuit of happiness. While in the pursuit of these rights, the American society has learnt that the end does not always justify the means and as such, necessary legislation has been instituted to help protect minorities from majorities, the poor from the wealthy, and the weak from the strong. A society in which people could buy and sell organs for transplant would further ruin the pursuit for equality and frustrate the liberty of generosity needed for living a happy life.
Opposing the proposition does not mean that one believes society bears no duty…
Andre, C. & Velasquez, M. (n.d.). Kidneys for Sale. Retrieved from Santa Clara University -- The Jesuit University in Silicon Valley website: http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v1n2/kidneys.html
Mayes, G. (2003.) Buying and Selling Organs for Transplantation in the U.S.: National Organ Transplant Act of 1984 (NOTA) Bans Buying and Selling. Medscape Education, 4(2). Retrieved from http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/465200_2
"Statistics." (n.d.). Donate Life America. Retrieved January 31, 2012, from http://donatelife.net/understanding-donation/statistics/
elling Human Organs: The Ethical Issue
elling body transplants is one of the latest ventures that entrepreneurs have devised. ome see it as servicing a public good, whilst others perceive it as one more example of capitalism at its worst.
Barry Jacobs is an example of an international broker for bodily parts whose business involves matching up kidney "donors" with patients needing kidney transplants. The donor receives a magnanimous paycheck; the recipient receives a healthy kidney, and Jacobs, himself, profits by business in worse ways (Chapman, 1984). Jacobs and other advocates of organ-selling see this business as filling a necessary void. Approximately, 100,000 organ transplants are needed per annum, and only an annual 10,000 are performed due to the deficiency of matching organs. Biomedical breakthroughs have increased the success of these operations, but the procedures cannot always be accomplished due to depletion of stocks. People are simply not willing to…
Annas, GJ (1984) Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Organ Sales, Hastings Center Report, 14, 22-23.
Chapman, FS (1984) The Life and Death Questions of an Organ Market, Fortune 108-118.
Borna, S (1987) Morality and Marketing Human Organs, Journal of Business Ethics, 6, 37-44.
Education Project Proposal (Nursing)
This study is intended to educate the patients (within the age group of 8-12) about the post operative treatment approaches and to prepare them to face the situation. As the main audience is the pediatric patients who have gone trough a kidney transplant, we will focus on the recovery issues with respect to this audience. This study will help these patients to learn about the general issues related to recovery of their wounds, the nutrition they are supposed to adopt during the recovery stage and the physical activity that is expected to be maintained by them. This educational activity is important for the patients because a thorough understanding of the recovery process is very important for the patient.
With an understanding of the process the patient will be able to cooperate with the nursing staff and will more actively participate in the process. From this program,…
Barbara A. Nilsen: Week by Week: Plans for Observing and Recording Young Children: Delmar Learning, January 1997
Evelyn A. Petersen: Practical Guide to Early Childhood Planning, Methods and Materials, A: The What, Why and How of Lesson Plans: Allyn & Bacon, November 1995
Linda M. Bambara & Tim Knoster: Designing Positive Behavior Support Plans: Amer Assn Mental Retardation: January 1998
Barbara Stevens Barnum: Teaching Nursing in the Era of Managed Care: Springer Publication Company, March 1999
Hospital Case Study
If the first requirement of any successful case study is a detailed and analytical examination of the situation, the emotional component of so called "high stakes" issues can make this requirement difficult, indeed. The simple fact, however, is in order to find good solutions and policies regarding the problem presented in the case study, one must apply the three main questions of "situation," "remedy/s," and "method/s." Although this may seem difficult in some situations, the emotional component must not be considered.
A good example of this fact occurs in the examination of an unfortunate case involving the botched heart/lung transplant of a 16-year-old girl, much like the recent incident at Duke Hospital. In this case, a young girl died as a result of receiving miss-matched organs. Unfortunately, in this case, all of the supposed safeguards of the system, imposed to assure that proper blood typing of both…
Chibbaro, Lou. (2004) Victory Claimed in HIV Suits. Washington Blade. Web site. Retrieved on August 8, 2004, at http://www.washblade.com/print.cfm?content_id=2771
Colorado State University Writing Center. "Case Studies." Retrieved from Web site on August 2, 2004 http://writing.colostate.edu/references/research/casestudy/com2a1.cfm
CTDN. California Donors Network. (2004) Facts about organ and tissue donation. Web site. Retrieved on August 8, 2004, at http://www.ctdn.org/resources/faqs.php?id=3&NoHeader=1
Duke University. (2004). UNOS and DUH Safeguards for Organ Transplant Safety. Duke Medical News. Retrieved on August 7, 2004, at http://dukemednews.org/filebank/2003/06/28/UNOS%20and%20DUH%20Safeguards%20for%20Organ%20Transplant%20Safety.doc
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…
Above all it has followed the delibeate maketing of health cae (in association with touism) as medical cae has gadually moved away fom the public secto to the pivate secto, ensuing that a gowing majoity of people, especially in the ichest counties, and paticulaly in the United States, must pay -- often consideably -- fo health cae. Finally, gowing inteest in cosmetic sugey, involving such elective pocedues as hinoplasty, liposuction, beast enhancement o eduction, LASIK eye sugey and so on, o moe simply the emoval of tattoos, have ceated new demands. Vaious foms of dental sugey, especially cosmetic dental sugey, ae not coveed by insuance in counties like the UK and Austalia; hence dental touism has become paticulaly common. In Asia these tends ae 'the unlikely child of new global ealities: the fallout of teoism, the Asian economic downtun, intenet access to pice infomation, and the globalisation of health sevices'…
references because the family vetoes it, in part because they were never made known. For a grieving and bereft family, a request for organ donation is difficult to agree to because they can only guess at the wishes of the deceased and if there were any doubt at all, would not the natural answer be a rejection? If relatives had severe objections, they should be taken into account for to do otherwise raises the spectre of the swastika, but the point remains that by changing the default position of organ donation it is a veto clearly against the deceased's wishes, which would be rather more unlikely to take place than the current veto due to a simple lack of information. It is not that the PC system is ethically unsound (Hatfield and Walker 1998).
It can be argued that presumed consent is superior to the opt-in system because it truly ensures autonomy by giving effect to choices each person makes. It gives legal effect to individual autonomy and it ensures truly informed consent when accompanied by public education and information, instead of intuitive responses to organ donation. But one has to question how comfortable the deceased family will be when they come to realise that their relatives' kidney is being placed into someone who is HIV positive. This is likely to be an ethical and morale matter rather than a discriminatory one (Williams, 1999).
Nonetheless, some problems with presumed consent have been pointed out. Patient autonomy lies at the very heart of modern medicine and medical research. This is partly a reaction against medical paternalism and an increasing awareness of the integrity of the individual. It may be argued that a presumed consent (PC) system is paternalistic - but it concomitantly reinforces individual autonomy and preserves the dignity and integrity of the individual especially in comparison to, for example, an organs market. (Brooks).
McLean points out that underpinning the system of organ donation is the fundamental view that organ transplantation should be a gift relationship and should not be based on the type of disease a person has. This underlines that HIV sufferers are just as entitled to a kidney transplant as those who are looking for a heart transplant. John Morris doubts that proposals to change legislation to allow presumed consent to be introduced are likely to be publicly accepted. However, why is presumed consent any less a gift? It does not mean widespread harvesting of major organs. It means greater public awareness and individual choice that is made concrete.
In today's modern, the reality is that HIV / AIDS is at a crossroads where the economic and political niches of the contemporary modern condition provide both the possibility to raise scientific research in order to create a means of effective pandemic or the new religion of globalize capital may only serve as to extend HIV / AIDS to become the biggest social issue of all history. There is a huge issue with regards to donor transplantation and especially kidney transplantation. Unfortunately, some patients with Human Immunodeficiency Disease are denied equal access to kidney transplantation and the same priorities of other people who are suffering from other serious diseases. Therefore, in this research, evidence will be provided to proof HIV patients have the same rights as others to get a kidney transplant regardless if they appear completely diseased.
"Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening metabolic problem caused by inability of the kidneys to excrete potassium, impairment of the mechanisms that move potassium from the circulation into the cells, or a combination of these factors "FN12. The article states that acute episodes of hyperkalemia are commonly triggered by the introduction of a medication affecting potassium, and that illnesses and dehydration can also be factors. The physician must also be aware therefore that a common positive response by patients in these circumstances was to a sodium bicarbonate supplementation.
Another bit of information that might be important to the diagnosing physician would be that "elevated serum aldosterone causes the renal cortical collecting ducts to excrete potassium and retain sodium, further lowering serum potassium" FN13. Potassium levels should be monitored in an ongoing fashion to determine whether they are stable or not. Additional monitoring should take place for hypertension since twenty to sixty…
Pietrow M.D., P.K.; Karellas, M.D., M.E.; (2006) Medical management of common urinary calculi, American Family Physician, Vol. 74, No. 1, pp. 86-94
Wolf, Jr. J.S., MD, FACS, Bloom, D.A. (2008) Nephrolithiasis, eMedicine.com, http://www.emedicine.com/MED/topic1600.htm#section~AuthorsandEditors , Accessed June 12, 2008
National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse,(2007), http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/iganephropathy/ , Accessed June 11, 2008
Thorp, M.L., D.O., M.P.H.; (2005) Diabetic nephropathy: Common questions, American Family Physician, Vol. 72, No. 1, pp. 96-99
However, what was once a slow journey has recently gathered momentum with the introduction of "more flexible immunosuppression protocols, the ability to individualize surgical options to patient needs, and the dramatic improvement of isolated islet transplantation results." (Allen, p. 3485) esearchers use pancreas transplant options and advanced surgical techniques, but the donor pancreas and surgical complications, as well as the type of immunosuppression affect the outcome of islet transplantation.
The immunosuppressive drugs have significant side effects and long-term effects are still not known. Known side effects of immunosuppressive drugs include mouth sores and gastrointestinal problems, such as stomach upset or diarrhea. Patients also have experienced increased blood cholesterol levels, decreased white blood cell counts, decreased kidney function, and increased susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. Taking immunosuppressive drugs increases the risk of tumors and cancer as well.
Progress on whole pancreas and beta cell transplantation has been hampered by the…
Allen, R.D.M., et al. (January-February 2000). Pancreas and islet transplantation: an unfinished journey. Transplantation Proceedings. Vol. 33. Nov-Dec 2001.
Clark, W.L. (January-February 2000). Beta cell replacement and islet transplantation. Diabetes Self-Management. Vol. 17(1): pp. 52, 54, 56.
Collazo-Clavel, M., ed.. (2001). Mayo Clinic on Managing Diabetes. Rochester, MN: Mayo Clinic.
Faustman, D. (December 2004). Towards a cure for type 1 diabetes (and other autoimmune diseases?). Infocus. 12(4): 1.
Transforming Scheduled Death Into Renewed Life
One of the harsh realities of living in an otherwise-free society is the fact that the United States incarcerates far more of its citizens than other leading industrialized nations, and it one of the few countries in the world that retains the death penalty on its books. hen capital offenders are executed, there exists the opportunity to turn this scheduled death into renewed through organ donations. At present, while an individual has the right to say whether their organs should be donated, death-row inmates are considered wards of the state and it is the position of this study that the state should have the corresponding right to harvest their organs as a means of execution in order to save and improve the quality of the lives of others. To determine whether the potential exists for such an approach, this study examines the relevant peer-reviewed…
"Abolish the death penalty." (2011). Amnesty International. [Online]. Available: http://www.
Beard, T. Randolph, David L. Kaserman and Richard P. Saba. (2006). "Inefficiency in cadaveric organ procurement." Southern Economic Journal, 73(1): 13-14.
Ben-David, Orit F. Organ Donation and Transplantation: Body Organs as an Exchangeable
patient is a 35-year-old (male?), he was diagnosed with diabetes twenty five years ago at the age of ten years old, he claims that this is hereditary in his family. He has one sister who has Type 2 diabetes and a brother who has type 1 diabetes. He manages his diabetes and other illnesses from home and through a medical clinic; for most of his life he has known he has diabetes and manages to regulate it through insulin shots, glucose tablets as well as through the right nutrition, however he claims that this is difficult and there are most days where he experiences draw backs. Many complications have arisen from his diabetes. This patient was selected because of the certain case he has in regards to his diabetes and other complications which had developed from it. His treatment and management also includes an extensive study. At the young age…
Acute renal failure is a serious medical condition. The gravity of the condition is manifested itself in the fact that the survival rate for renal failure has not improved for more than forty years. It occurs in 5% of all hospitalized patients and dialysis treatment is required in approximately .5 of cases. Dialysis is required to sustain "fluid and electrolyte balances, minimize nitrogenous waste production and sustain nutrition Infection accounts for 75% of deaths in patients with acute renal failure, and cardiorespiratory complications are the second most common cause of death" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000). Pathophysiology can vary depending upon the type: "patients who develop AKI can be oliguric or nonoliguric, have a rapid or slow rise in creatinine levels, and may have qualitative differences in urine solute concentrations and cellular content.... Oliguria is defined as a daily urine volume of less than 400 mL/d and has a worse prognosis,…
Epstein, Murray. (1997). Alcohol's impact on kidney function. Alcohol Research and Health21. 1 (1997): 84-91.
Malay, Agrawal & Richard Swartz. (2000). Acute Renal Failure. American Family
Physician. Retrieved October 29, 2011 at http://www.aafp.org/afp/20000401/2077.html
Page, Timothy F. & Robert S. Woodward. (2009). Cost-effectiveness of Medicare's coverage of immunosuppression medications for kidney transplant recipients.
A biopsy of the bone marrow is the only way to be sure that it is leukemia.
Treatments for leukemia can vary depending on the stage, the age of the patient, the type of leukemia, and the advanced or infant stages that it is in, but most leukemia patients do go through a host of treatments that include chemotherapy.
Treatment also depends on the stage that the disease is placed in. Staging is simply a method by which the cancer is categorized for the purpose of developing a treatment plan and for research purposes with regards to cure rates and treatment successes or failures (Leukemia (http://www.emedicinehealth.com/leukemia/article_em.htm).
In most cases of the disease, including Kate's case the treatment of choice is chemotherapy. There is a scene in the novel in which Anna, Kate and their mother are dancing around the kitchen together after shaving their heads so Kate would not…
Leukemia (Accessed 11-11-06)
Signs and Symptoms (accessed 11-12-06)
Doctors use a fasting plasma glucose test to confirm a diagnosis of type-two diabetes. A patient must fast for 8 hours prior to giving a blood sample (http://diabetes.webmd.com/guide/diagnosing-type-2-diabetes). If it is determine that the patient has diabetes, the doctor will prescribe diet management and exercise. In some cases, insulin shots or pills may also be prescribed.
Unlike type-one diabetes, type-two develops because of lifestyle choices. If you are overweight and get little or no exercise, you have a greater chance of developing type-two diabetes. Other un-controllable factors known to contribute to type-two diabetes include: family history, age, race, ethnicity and a low body weight at birth (https://members.kaiserpermanente.org/kpweb/healthency.do?hwid=hw135189§ionId=ur1000&contextId=hw135189).
COMPLICATIONS AND EFFECTS OF DIABETES
There are many long-term health issues are associated with diabetes. If a patient fails to be diagnosis or a patient does not maintain their insulin schedule, complications may occur. Diabetics have a higher likelihood of developing eye problems…
www.webmd.com www.diabetes.org www.kaiserpermanente.org
Bakalar, N. "Diabetes: A state-by-State Breakdown," New York Times, October 12, 2009.
Masters of Science Program
My professional experience as a demonstrated leader has spanned the past three decades. During that time, I have obtained a multitude of skills pertaining to organizational and individual leadership that have enabled me to successfully guide organizations in the public and private sectors of both corporate and nonprofit businesses. A wide range of my leadership attributes are evinced in my current position as Chief Operations Officer for the entire group of Hightower companies which includes entities dedicated (respectively) to energy, petroleum, construction, and building design/contracting. My professional experience has included functioning in leadership capacities for various organizations in Africa, Western Europe, and North America, enabling me to become adept at mastering cultural diversity and applying it to the benefit of individual organizations. I have achieved formal academic training in various facets of organizational leadership including marketing, human resources, social technologies, economic and legal environmental studies, construction…
As many forms of live donation do not cause harm to others, and as we allow the donation of blood for payment, we violate the categorical imperative by banning the sale of human organs.
It has been argued by some that banning organ donation is within the bounds of Kantian ethics because we have collectively agreed to the conviction that "such a practice would diminish human dignity and our sense of solidarity" (Cohen, 2002). Yet, we do not prohibit the donation of blood or of bone marrow. Indeed, most among us would agree that such donations are necessary and beneficial. Lives are saved. There is nothing morally wrong about saving lives -- indeed live donations today are conducted voluntarily and without any moral consequence.
Allowing live organ donations is ethically consistent with our established principles regarding blood donation and voluntary, unpaid live organ donation. It will increase the supply of…
Holcberg, David. (2008). Allow the Sale of Human Organs. Chicago Sun-Times. April 18, 2008.
Cohen, Cynthia B. (2002). Public Policy and the Sale of Human Organs. Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal. Vol. 12, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 47-64.
Mullen, Shannon. (2009). Sale of Human Organs in New Jersey a Worldwide Scandal. Asbury Park Press. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.app.com/article/20090726/NEWS/907260350/1004/NEWS01
MacDonald, Nikki. (2005). Live Donors the Key to Organ Shortage. Give Life NZ. Retrieved August 3, 2009 from http://www.givelife.org.nz/latest_news_and_press_cuttings/live_donors_the_key_to_organ_shortage.cfm
Picoult, J. (2004). My Sister's Keeper: A . New York: Atria. Social Justice Issues. I hone ethical principles/theories expressed situation write thesis statement including principle/theory.
Jodi Picoult's 2004 novel "My Sister's Keeper" puts across an account involving ethical dilemmas and ethical thinking that are likely to trigger intense feelings in readers. The novel is told from several perspectives, most probably with the purpose of presenting readers with an overall image of the events that take place in the book. Picoult's scenario makes it possible for a series of ethical issues to arise, especially considering Anna's situation. The fact that the girl's birth is not initially planned and that once she is born she has to undergo many dangerous medical procedures presents readers with the gravity of her position and with the fact that she was denied the right to a happy childhood. hen considering matters from a deontological perspective, one…
Picoult, Jodi, "My sister's keeper: a novel," Simon and Schuster, 2004.
"Descriptions of Ethical Theories and Principles," Retrieved February 4, 2012, from the Biology @ Davidson Website: http://www.bio.davidson.edu/people/kabernd/Indep/carainbow/Theories.htm
Wilm's tumor refers to a very rare type of kidney cancer that is also known as nephroblastoma, a type of cancer which can impact both kidneys, though usually first developing in just one. Because Wilm's tumor so frequently impacts children, doctors tend to think that "the tumor begins to grow as a fetus develops in the womb, with some cells that are destined to form into the kidneys malfunctioning and forming a tumor" (kidshealth.org, 2013). At the same time, even though this condition is more common to children, it can still occur in adults. It generally manifests between the ages of 3 and 4 and becomes less likely to occur around the age of five.
Symptoms and Signs
It's important to acknowledge that while this condition does occur with a set group of symptoms, some children experience no symptoms whatsoever. Another important aspect to remember is that…
Canver.gov. (2013, January). General Information. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/ cancertopics/pdq/treatment/wilms/HealthProfessional/page1#Section_558
Kidshealth.org. (2013). Wilm's Tumor. Retrieved from Kidshealth.org: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/kidney/wilms.html#
MayoClinic. (2011, September 2). Symptoms. Retrieved from MayoClinic.com: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/wilms-tumor/DS00436/DSECTION=symptoms
Medscape.com. (2013). Etiology. Retrieved from Medscape.com: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/989398-overview#aw2aab6b2b2ab1
New Graduate Position Selection Criteria
Demonstrated High Level Interpersonal, Verbal And Written Communication Skills
When I worked at the eader's Bookstore, I nurtured skills and applied them in the areas mentioned above. I dealt with customers regularly, and staff and suppliers over the phone and in person. I was charged with handling customer enquiries. I applied my communication skills to the fullest extent. Dealing with book request orders involved contacting the supplier on phone, updating the computer system with the data of the customer and the book/s ordered, making the book order and reaching back to the customer to alert them when the order has been delivered. I also captured the same information in the bookstore's filing system for use by others in the firm. I established a good relationship with customers and suppliers through effective communication strategies. I also rendered effective customer service. My line manager gave a positive…
American Association of Colleges of Nursing -- Interdisciplinary Education and Practice. (2016). Aacn.nche.edu. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://www.aacn.nche.edu/publications/position/interdisciplinary-education-and-practice
Brent, N. (2016). WHAT IS RISK Management AND HOW DOES IT HELP ME? Cphins.com. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://www.cphins.com/blog/post/what-is-risk-management-and-how-does-it-help-me
Browne, C. (2016). Job Description for a Registered Nurse in an Acute Care Hospital. Work.chron.com. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://work.chron.com/job-description-registered-nurse-acute-care-hospital-21331.html
Career FAQs Team. (2016). Selection criteria sample: Ability to apply academic knowledge and concepts to practical situations. Career FAQs. Retrieved 8 March 2016, from http://www.careerfaqs.com.au/careers/resumes-and-cover-letters-tips/selection-criteria-sample-ability-to-apply-academic-knowledge-and-concepts-to-practical-situations
In the fifth hypothesis of measuring the business ethics levels of Taiwanese ITPs the Null and Alternative Hypotheses are defined as follows:
H0: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is high.
H1: In the ethical climate of independence, the business ethics level of Taiwanese ITP's is low.
Results of Testing Hypothesis Five
It has been established in the fourth hypothesis that the greater the ethical climate of independence, the greater the level of ethical self-direction and ownership of ethical outcomes. This also holds true when the ethical climate of instrumental low. The adherence to self-defined ethical standards is high. When the specific variable of in this company, the employees are expected to do their job according to their personal belief of ethics is correlated against the variable of in this company, the employees can make decisions based on their personal judgment,…
omen's Health -- Focused on prevention and care for breast health, mammography, etc.
Transplant Programs - Swedish is one of seven kidney transplant centers and one of just four liver transplant centers serving the entire Pacific Northwest. The Organ Transplant Program at Swedish is at the forefront of new advances in transplantation surgery, including pancreas transplants and transplants between unrelated living organ donors and recipients (Swedish Medical Center, 2011).
Service design, operational activities, strategic decisions- Swedish is nothing but on the move -- strategically and tactically. In October, 2011, Swedish opened a new full-care facility with a 550,000 square foot campus in the city of Issaquah, southeast of Seattle city proper. This new facility was designed to be an entirely new hospital experience. Some of the operational innovations include a new Childbirth Center with eight new Labor/Delivery/Recovery rooms that include sleeping areas for partners, iPod access and a hotel room…
Arnold, E. (2007). Service-Dominant Logic and Resource Theory. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Sciences, 36(1), 21-24.
Crosby, J. (2011, November). Human Resource - Swedish Hospital.
Institute of Medicine. (2000). To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System. Washington, DC: National Academy Press.
King, D. (2008). Designing the Digital Experience: How to Use Experience Design. Medford, NJ: Information Today Press.
Challenging employees allows him or her to be creative and generate new ideas or product lines that will increase sales and/or customer satisfaction. Listening to employees opinions is vital to success. The people who work the frontline of any business will have ideas on how to better the processes. Some companies used an approach uncommon to most CEO's; walking around the store to meet and greet the associates and customers. This approach allowed the consumers the opportunity to tell him how well he or she liked the store and offer suggestions for change. The associates liked this approach because it made him an approachable CEO who was willing to listen to employees and customers.
Poor socio-economic background and conditions mixed with the HV / ADS crisis can only mean even more socio-economic and political upheaval, the regression of development and the collapse of societies: beginning with families, communities, regions and…
In order to overcome the issues, everyone needs to consider group thinking and conformity so that everyone can work together. Group thinking and conformity focuses on the interpersonal transaction between managers and employee. Leaders are seen as engaging in behaviors that maintain a quality interaction between themselves and followers. The company is lacking group thinking and conformity because no one is willing to work together. In order to be an effective company, they have to conform as one so that productivity can be increased to make high profits.
Each employee should be offered stock options and given a portion of the profits as an incentive to keep working toward higher customer satisfaction. Motivation and communication are additional ways the CEO could create happy employees. Challenging employees allows him or her to be creative and generate new ideas or product lines that will increase sales and/or customer satisfaction. Listening to employees opinions is vital to success. The people who work the frontline of any business will have ideas on how to better the processes. Some companies used an approach uncommon to most CEO's; walking around the store to meet and greet the associates and customers. This approach allowed the consumers the opportunity to tell him how well he or she liked the store and offer suggestions for change. The associates liked this approach because it made him an approachable CEO who was willing to listen to employees and customers.
Poor socio-economic background and conditions mixed with the HIV / AIDS crisis can only mean even more socio-economic and political upheaval, the regression of development and the collapse of societies: beginning with families, communities, regions and into subsequently economic social systems. This has contributed to the stigma attached to HIV and people assume that these people got HIV through their own antics and they should not automatically qualify for a kidney transplant when others need it too. For instance, the crisis in South Africa, with specific focus on the 'unending' dilemma of anti-retroviral drug distribution in the country. The country now has the unenviable position of being host to the highest number of HIV / AIDS infections on the planet, yet it was only in November 2003 that the South African government finally agreed to offer treatment through the creation of a strategic treatment plan in conjunction with existing preventative strategies (Garbus 2003). Many of these came to the U.S. For a kidney transplant. With this, it is apparent that companies should sell the drugs at a lower price, which should be required by law, considering this illness is not curable.
The medical term assigned to this phenomenon is called 'microchimerism'. In the case of more children being born, this can lead to some of the older child's DNA to be transferred from the mother to the younger child's fetus.
In an attempt to study microchimerism, J. Lee Nelson, an immunologist from the Fred Hutchinson Cancer esearch Center in Seattle conducted an experiment with assistance from his colleague Natalie. Blood samples from 32 healthy women revealed over 20% of them to bear white blood cells which belonged to their mother. It is hard to understand how these cells reside there instead of being rejected immediately by the host body. One assumption stated by Nelson indicates this to be a way to enhance the mother's immunity to prepare for the development of the fetus which can be deemed as a foreign organ on its own. They might even actively participate in the…
Halder Ashutosh " Placental chimerism in early human pregnancy." Original Communication 11.2(2005): 84-88 Web. Web 8 Apr.2010
Nicholas, J.W.,Jenkins W.J. And Marsh W.L "Human Blood Chimeras -- A study of surviving twins" The British Medical Journal 1.5033(1957): 1458-1460 Web 8 Apr.2010
"What is Chimerism ?" Wisegeek. Web. 8 Apr.2010.
"The Stranger Within." Katewerk. Web. 8 Apr.2010
Telling Patients the Truth
In regards to the permissibility of deception on the part of Sokol, the writer (2006) ultimately argues that "withholding…information from…patients would be ethically permissible and, more generally, that honesty is not always the best policy" (p. 19). Sokol reaches this conclusion by evaluating a real life case study in which a daughter is willing to donate her kidney to an individual whom she believes is her father. However, while medically evaluating the former for compliance with kidney transplant criteria, the doctors determined that the pair cannot be biologically related. The critical determinant in Sokol's conclusion (2006) is that "The testing was not done to establish paternity and, from a medical point-of-view, the findings do not preclude…donating" (p. 19). Essentially, the author utilizes this case study to reason that informing the patients of this situation could provide too many unnecessary complications which could negatively impact the kidney…
Higgs, R. (1985). On telling patients the truth. In Bioethics: An Anthology. Ed. Helga Kuhseand Peter Singer. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. 2006.
Sokol, D.K. (2006). Truth-telling in the doctor patient relationship: a case analysis. Clinical Ethics. 1.3.
co.uk 2001). Of those 1,795 reactions, "23 were fatal, 14 being actual suicides," the pressbox Web site reported. More than 200 of the "adverse reactions were psychiatric with 20 reports of suicidal thoughts of suicide attempts." Additionally, 80 reports of "depression" were logged and 13 reports of "mood swings."
The pressbox article stated that surprisingly, 74% of UK patients who had used Accutane "had mild or moderate acne according to a study among UK dermatologists." The MCA, through the article in pressbox, stated that Accutane "should only be used for severe recalcitrant cystic acne as a treatment of last resort."
Not all Accutane patients wind up depressed, psychotic or dead from suicide, of course, and Brandi Jones is one example of an Accutane success story. At least, she made it through six months of Accutane treatment, and now her skin is "mostly pimple-free" (Setoodeh, 2005), according to an article in…
The Accutane Lawyer (2004), "Accutane Side Effects, Accutane Lawsuit," [Online] Available at http://www.the-accutane-lawyer.com.
Acne-Rosacea.co.uk 2004, "Acne Treatments Page," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-rosacea.co.uk/Acne%20Treatments.htm .
Acne Resource Center 2004, "Understanding Acne," "Alternative Therapy Resources,"
The Potential Dangers of Prescription Medications," [Online] Available at http://www.acne-resource.org.
Treating Post Traumatic Stress Disorders
WHAT IS PTSD
Many adults suffer from the mental illness of Post Traumatic Stress Disorders, otherwise known as PTSD. PTSD is an extreme anxiety mental disorder that causes excessive concern, or worry over common problems, or problems that might happen, such as automobile not starting in the morning to get to work, although it has been running smoothly, the house catching on fire during the middle of the night with no apparent reason. Various treatments for PTSD have been experimented with, producing just as many different results, although a cure has not yet been discovered. In this essay, we will be discussing PTSD, how the drug Serzone has been used in treating this illness, and other possible cures for PTSD.
PTSD is a serious mental disorder, and the seriousness of this disease should not be underestimated, however, it is not to be confused…
GORMAN CHRISTINE, 2002
THE SCIENCE OF ANXIETY
Health experts declared that if Jack in the ox Inc. restaurants had obeyed Washington State's set of laws, the outbreak of an epidemic would have been prevented. Jack in the ox, on January 22, 1993, guaranteed "to do everything that is morally right for those individuals who had experienced illness after eating at Jack in the ox restaurants as well as their families." Due to the negative publicity the company was facing, Robert Nugent substituted his public relations firm. Moreover, they instantaneously stopped their hamburger production, "recalled meat from distributors, increased cooking times and temperatures, and pledged to pay all medical costs related to the disaster." Jack in the ox used the services of Dr. David Theno, in order to come up with a brand new food-handling method.
In 1994, they instituted the fast-food industry's first comprehensive food-safety program, the Hazard Analysis & Critical Control Points system. Today, they…
ADVFN PLC. (1999-2007) Stock Charts for Jack in the Box (JBX). Retrieved Jan 31, 2008 from ADVFN Web site: http://www.advfn.com/nyse/StockChart.asp?stockchart=JBX
Sellnow, T.L.&Ulmer, R.R (1995). Ambiguous argument as advocacy in organizational crisis communication. Argumentation & Advocacy. Retrieved Jan 31, 2008, from Department of Defense USA Web site: http://www.ou.edu/deptcomm/dodjcc/groups/02C2/Jack%20in%20the%20Box.htm
Crisis Communication Strategies. (2008) Analysis Case Study: Jack in the Box E. coli crisis. Retrieved Jan 31, 2008 from Department of Defense USA Web site:
Environmental Cues Shape Behavior
Most people spend their daily lives completing tasks, which involve waiting or queuing on a line. With this situation of waiting like at ATMs, others avoid, postpone, or even abandon their endeavors. Other people endure the wait even though they feel frustrated or dissatisfied by the experience (Horowitz, 2007).
It is evident that irrelevant environmental cues like queue barriers used in airports, banks of ATMs serve as barriers that split people waiting in two categories. The first category comprises those who are within the system and the other category involves those outside the system. In-system people show increased persistence in task completion, action initiation and overall optimism (Ahmad & Prasad, 2012).
Situational cues have a substantial impact on behavior. For instance, wine shops that play French music have demonstrated an increase in the purchase of French wine. This suggests that cues not directly connected to a…
Ahmad, P. & Prasad, M. (2012). Environmental adaptations and stress tolerance of plants in the era of climate change. New York: Springer New York.
Cormier, L., Nurius, P., & Osborn, C.J. (2009). Interviewing and change strategies for helpers: Fundamental skills and cognitive behavioral interventions. Belmont, CA: Brooks/Cole Cengage Learning.
Horowitz, F.D. (2007). Exploring developmental theories: Toward a structural/behavioral model of development. Hillsdale, N.J: L. Erlbaum Associates.
Racism in America -- the Causes - Effects
hy has the ugly social scar of racism -- whites demonstrating racially biased attitudes and actions against African-Americans -- continued in the U.S. through the years? hat causes people to look down on those of another race -- or to otherwise hold people of another ethnicity in contempt? Given the fact that the U.S. Congress passed the Civil Rights Act (1964) and the Voting Rights Act (1965), and that Americans elected and re-elected a bi-racial president (Barack Obama), an objective observer from another country might imagine that racist attitudes have subsided (and in ways things have improved on racial issues).
There is still today -- and may always be -- white racism against blacks, and this paper points to the fact that racism has continued to be a social and moral blemish in the U.S. because it has become institutionalized and carried…
Callender, Clive O., and Miles, Patrice V. "Institutionalized Racism and End-Stage Renal
Disease: Is Its Impact Real or Illusionary?" Seminars in Dialysis, 17.3. 2004.
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. Everything Your American History Textbook
Got Wrong. New York: The New Press, 2008.
Shareholder Capitalism as a Model for Economic Development
The idea that shareholder capitalism may serve as a powerful type of economic progression model has been made practical with the growth of credit along with a large marginal tax that delivers a security net for Americans, but additionally has its own limits.
Shareholder capitalism, and also the American structure of corporate governance which can serve as its main-operating-system, continues to be held out like a replica of economic growth and development for up and coming markets within the last era. This document reveals the roots of the model inside the U.S. And argues that this model has already established, in the best scenario, mixed success beyond the U.S. borders. Furthermore, the after-effects in the two financial bubbles in the early Twenty-first century shows that shareholder capitalism might not function as publicized even inside the U.S. During the economic crisis, sensible policymakers…
Armijo, L.E. (1999), 'Introduction and Overview', in L.E. Armijo (ed.), Financial Globalization and Democracy in Emerging Markets, pp. 10 -- 14. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Bekaert, G., C.R. Harvey and C. Lundblad (2005), 'Does Financial Liberalization Spur Growth?', Journal of Financial Economics, 77: 3 -- 55.
Berle, A.A. And G.C. Means (1932), The Modern Corporation and Private Property, Modern Reprint, 1991 edition. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.
Brandeis, Louis (1914), Other Peoples' Money: and How the Bankers Use It. New York: Frederick A. Stokes.
Flows in Health Care
Since the government had started the practice of handing over major departments to private sector like health care and education, these areas are now more focused on employing techniques that can draw major profit flow. On examining the three crucial aspects of profit earning such as the number of patients, quality of staff and management, we come to a conclusion that all three areas go side by side and need to be checked upon regularly (Michael, 2006 ).
The numbers of patients are important, to a hospital; patients are the customers who are taking advantage of the health care services provided by that respective hospital. Another item that is associated to the number of patients is the type of patients coming in which is directly associated with the services that a hospital is providing at that particular time. In order to earn more profit in this…
Del. Donna M., Christensen M.D. (Oct 2003). Women on the Cutting Edge of Health Care and Research. Ebony, 82.
Funtleyder, L. (2008). Healthcare Investing: Profiting from the New World of Pharma, Biotech, and Health Care Services. McGraw-Hill Professional.
Harry A. Sultz, Kristina M. Young. (2010). Health Care USA. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Leiyu Shi, Douglas A. Singh. (2011). Delivering Health Care in America. Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
management of fatigue in patients on peritoneal dialysis and respond to the following critique questions. Do not provide simply yes or no answers to the questions. Provide examples to support your responses. Submit the assignment through the assignment link in Moodle
Identify the study design. Identify the specific type of quasi-experimental design used in the study.
The quasi-experimental design of this research was to implement exercise interventions within a patient population undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. There was no random sampling because of the very small population that met the inclusion criteria. The independent variable was the level of exercise, while the dependent variable was the reported measures of fatigue experienced by the participants. These measurements were then statistically analyzed using
For the specific design, what are the threats to internal validity? What are the threats to external validity?
There were threats to validity based on the individuals who participated…
Health Care Policy: Medicare
Medicare in the U.S. was formed in 1966 and is defined is one of the national social insurance program whose administration is vested in the federal government. The policy is dispensed through 30 private insurance organizations in the country. Medicare avails health insurance to Americans of ages 65 years and older that had worked and paid within the national system (Nadeau, Belanger & Petry, 2014). The policy avails health insurance benefits to different younger people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, disabilities, and end-stage renal disease.
Medicare availed health insurance to close to 47 million residents in 2010. 40 million of them were of 65 years and above while seven million were younger individuals with disabilities. The policy was the primary point of payment for close to 15.4 million inpatient cases in 2011 that was $182.7 billion (47.2%) of aggregate inpatient costs in the United States hospitals. Medicare…
Almgren, G.R. (2013). Health Care Politics, Policy and Services: A Social Justice Analysis. New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Barr, D.A. (2011). Introduction to U.S. Health Policy: The Organization, Financing, and Delivery of Health Care in America. New York: JHU Press.
Holtz, C. (2008). Global Health Care: Issues and Policies. New York: Jones & Bartlett Learning.
Moniz, C., & Gorin, S. (2013). Health Care Policy and Practice: A Biopsychosocial Perspective. New York: Routledge.
The NIH (2014) defines robotic surgery as "a method to perform surgery using very small tools attached to a robotic arm", wherein the surgeon operates the robot. Robotic surgery was developed to enable the performance of surgical procedures through smaller cuts than open surgery. The robot is capable of smaller, more precise movements that would be possible with a human arm. It is also much easier for the surgeon to work with the surgical tools than would be possible with, say, an endoscope. The NIH notes that robotic surgery is used for an increasing range of procedures, including coronary artery bypass, cancer excision, gall bladder removal, hip replacement, hysterectomy, kidney transplants and pyloroplasty (NIH, 2014).
The minimal invasiveness of robotic surgery means that there is lower risk to the patient during the course of the surgery, and that the post-surgery healing time is lower, and less risky as…
(Newman, 1) Here, it can be evidenced that the empathy accorded by the theoretical framework will provide an ideological umbrella for how best to address one's condition while simultaneously abiding the regulatory medical requirements common to most forms of modern treatment.
This means possessing a degree of pertinent information where nursing theory is concerned that will allow for such pragmatism and a firm understanding of the practices pertinent to kidney donation as denoted in the annotated bibliography provided here below.
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
The article here described a first-ever successful procedure in which a healthy kidney was removed through a donor's vagina rather than through traditionally employed and far more invasive surgical procedures. This is useful to our discussion because it reduces the strain and cosmetic impact of making a kidney donation. The article cites the…
Cohen, E. & Pifer-Bixler, J. (2009). Surgeons Remove Health Kidney Through Donor's
Vagina. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/HEALTH/02/03/kidney.vagina.surgery/index.html
Griffin, D. & Fitzpatrick, D. (2009). Donor Says He Got Thousands For His Kidney. CNN. Online at http://www.cnn.com/2009/WORLD/meast/09/01/blackmarket.organs/index.html
McKay, R. (2010). Kidney Donor Needed Own Transplant. Chicago Tribune. Online at http://www.chicagotribune.com/news/chi-tc-nw-man-kidney-0104-0105jan05,0,2513301.story
While no one ought to begrudge Mickey Mantle (or anyone) a much-needed liver transplant, it remains hard to believe, given the speed at which Mickey Mantle received a liver and an operation that he was indeed placed on a list and then waited his turn like everyone else.
Further, according to Koch (March 1996)Normative and prescriptive criteria: The efficacy of organ transplantation allocation protocols (March 1996):
well publicized cases have raised questions in North America about the efficacy of [donated organ] allocation procedures. An analysis of those cases, and the relevant technical literature, suggest consistent structural deficits exist in the organ allocation process as it is applied by many individual transplantation centres. These irregularities are based upon both the failure of rank waiting as a method to guarantee just treatment and a general failure to recognize the extent to which prescriptive criteria -- social values -- are commonly used to…
Koch, T. (March 1996). Normative and prescriptive criteria: The efficacy of organ transplantation allocation protocols. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Historical Archive),17(1). SpringerLink. 75-93. Retrieved July 31, 2005, at http://www.springerlink.com/app/home/contribution.asp?wasp=d059577 aa86c4a37b56a37e250fa9bdf&referrer=parent&backto=issue,7,8;journal,4,55;linkingpublicationresults,1:403004,1.html.
Man gets liver after using billboards, Net. (August 13, 2004). MSNBC.com.
Retrieved July 31, 2005, at http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/5685485/html .
Stem Cell Differentiation
The need to restore the lives of the individuals calls for more of transplantation than that which is available. There are fewer organs, which can help in the transplantation process, which means that overdependence on the process makes it to be reliable. Further, the process may also end up endangering the life of the donator. Transplantation is the only available process that can for the individuals having kidney and lung problems. However, the numbers of individuals who are suffering from kidney and lung failure are always more than those who are ready to supply the needed organs. This calls for an alternative way, which can help in compensating the loss that the individuals face. One of the major alternatives for the process of translation is stem cell differentiation that may occur in any body cell. The stem cells differentiation offer the possibility of a renewable source of…
Wang, J., Collins, J. et al., (2012). Functional analysis of transcription factor binding sites in human promoters. Genome Biology, doi:10.1186/gb-2012-13-9-r50
Guillot PV, Cui W, Fisk NM, Polak DJ. (2007). Stem cell differentiation and expansion for clinical applications of tissue engineering. J Cell Mol Med. 11:935-944.
Gerrard L, Rodgers L, Cui W. (2005). Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells to Neural
Lineages in Adherent Culture by Blocking Bone Morphogenetic Protein Signaling. Stem Cells 23: 1234-1241.
working with a diverse population of Native Americans, Hispanics, and other individuals in the prison systems and public clinics of this country, I have come to two, crucial conclusions. Firstly, that the currently cost-strapped environment of the national health care system cries out for innovative financial and sociological solutions. Secondly, I believe I require further education in the field of public health to accomplish my goals in seeking to remedy the systemic abuses I have personally witnessed in my own, current capacity as a physician's assistant. These two crucial reasons combine and fuse in my desire to pursue a PhD at Walden in the field of public health.
"Physician, heal thyself," goes the famous quotation -- and indeed, I have sought to heal my own gaps of knowledge through continually educating myself in the technical innovations of the medical field and of the current state of public health in America.…
Organ transplant recipients are more susceptible to cancer due to oncogenic viral infections and immunosuppression. What is the overall pattern of cancer following an organ transplantation?
Cancer is a major adverse outcome of solid organ transplantation.2 Previous studies have demonstrated an overall 2- to 4-fold elevated risk of cancer.3- 11 Excess risk is largely due to immunosuppression, with a spectrum of cancer resembling that seen with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, another immunosuppressing condition.11 isks are especially high for malignancies caused by viral infections, including non-Hodgkin lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma (both due to Epstein-Barr virus [EBV]), Kaposi sarcoma (human herpesvirus 8), anogenital cancers (human papillomavirus), and liver cancer (hepatitis C and B viruses). Certain other malignancies such as cancers of the lung, kidney, skin, and thyroid also are increased in transplant recipients. Linkage of population-based transplant and cancer registries from the same geographic region can allow for systematic ascertainment of…
Engels, E.A., Pfeiffer, R.M., Fraumeni, J.F., Kasiske, B.L., Israni, A.K., & Snyder, J.J. (2011). Spectrum of Cancer Risk among U.S. Solid Organ Transplant Recipients. JAMA, 306(17), 1891-1901. doi:10.1001/jama.2011.1592
Saaristo, T., Moilanen, L., Korpi-Hyovalti, E., Vanhala, M., Saltevo, J., Niskanen, L. . . . Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S. (2010). Lifestyle intervention for prevention of type 2 diabetes in primary health care: one-year follow-up of the Finnish national diabetes prevention program (FIND2D). Diabetes Care, 33(10), 2146-2151. Doi:10.2337/dc10-0410
Sperling, R.A., Aisen, P.S., Beckett, L.A., Bennett, D.A., Craft, S., Fagan, A.M., . . . Phelps, C.H. (2011). Toward defining the preclinical stages of Alzheimer's disease: Recommendations from the National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer's Association workgroups on diagnostic guidelines for Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's & Dementia,7(3), 280 -- 292. doi:10.1016/j.jalz.2011.03.003
S. (Levine, 2008).
One of the paradoxes of modern medical science and technology is the blurring of the line between life and death, something that was never an issue before modern medicine (Griniezakis, 2007; Levine, 2008). That was the case even before the most recent revelations in 2009 that many patients previously diagnosed as being in long-term persistent vegetative states actually remained conscious throughout their ordeal and that several patients considered to be brain dead according to accepted criteria eventually recovered consciousness (Halpern, az, Kohn, et al., 2010). The obvious concern is that inaccurate diagnoses of persistent vegetative states and the premature declaration of death could result in the procurement of organs for transplant from patients who could still recover from their medical predicament. That issue, unlike religious objections to scientific research remains a valid bioethics concern.
The other principal ethical issue in relation to organ transplantation is in connection…
Griniezakis AM. "Legal and ethical issues associated with brain death." Issues in Law & Medicine (September 22, 2007).
Harrison TR, Morgan, SE, and Di Corcia MJ. "Effects of information, education, and communication training about organ donation for gatekeepers: clerks at the Department of Motor Vehicles and organ donor registries" Progress in Transplantation (December 1, 2008).
Halpern SD, Raz a, Kohn R, Rey M. Asch DA, and Reese P. "Regulated Payments for Living Kidney Donation: An Empirical Assessment of the Ethical Concerns"
Annals of Internal Medicine (March 16, 2010).
Type 1 Diabetes
Diabetes has been among the illnesses that need rigid and proper attention to maintain the normal condition of the patient's body. Among the stages and types of diabetes, type 1 diabetes is the illness type that usually hits both the young and adults. This disease is preventable though. However, if the health condition of the patient with type 1 diabetes is not properly managed, the risk to serious complications such as heart ailments, damage in kidney and nerve, blindness, and many others, is high.
In any kind of illnesses, it is essential that one acquire enough information to prevent from getting or developing a disease. In view of this, in relation to type 1 diabetes, this paper finds it important to discuss the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes. This paper aims to provide useful information on the following.
History of Type 1 Diabetes
Symptoms of Type 1…
2002). Clinical practice recommendations: 2002. Diabetes Care.
American Diabetes Association. 25, 21.
Ackinson, M.A., Wilson, S.B. (2002). Fatal Attraction: Chemokines and Type 1 Diabetes.
The Journal of Clinical Investigation, (110)11, 1611.
Ethics of Embryo Design
Selecting the Perfect Baby
With all the recent advances in science and technology, there are new options for couples looking to get pregnant. This includes not only first time couples who have had trouble getting pregnant, but also couple looking to design their perfect baby using science to pick out the most desired genetic markers. This is the choice given to the Shannons, who are looking to have certain genetic markers in their next child to avoid a diagnosis of fanconi anemia that their older child has, as well as to provide a potential future match for a bone marrow donor for their current daughter, Sally.
Thus, the Shannons are looking into the pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) procedure. According to the research, this procedure is "a technique that enables people with a specific inherited condition in their family to avoid passing it on to their children.…
American Pregnancy Association. (2013). Preimplantation genetic diagnosis: PGD. Infertility. Web. http://americanpregnancy.org/infertility/preimplantationgeneticdiagnosis.html
Human Fertilization & Embryo Authority. (2014). Pre-implantation genetic diagnosis (PGD). Treatment and Storage Options. Web. http://www.hfea.gov.uk/preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis.html
Genetic Components of the Disease
Metabolic Components of the Disease
Causes of the disease
Symptoms of the disease
Diagnosis of the disease
Treatment of the disease
Cord lood Transfusion
Treatment for Late on-set Form
Incidence and Longevity of the disease
Krabbe disease, also referred as globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), causes a deficiency in galactocerebrosidase (GALC), the enzyme responsible for preventing a build-up of galactolipids in the brain. Without the regulation of galactolipids, the growth of the myelin sheath around the nerve cells is severely impaired. Krabbe disease usually presents in first 6 months of the life. A child in the last stages of Krabbe disease is immobilized and has decreased level of responsiveness. Most of them die at the age of 2. (Lantos, 2011)
Genetic Components of the Disease
GLD is one of the subgroup of metabolic disorders called leukodystrophies. The leukodystrophies are caused…
(2011). The Case of Krabbe Disease. In J. Lantos, Dangerous and Expensive Screening and Treatment for Rare Childhood Diseases. Kansas City, Missouri.
Mayo Clinic Staff. (2011, June). Mayo Clinic. Retrieved March 2013, from Krabbe Disease: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/krabbe-disease/DS00937/DSECTION=risk-factors
Orchard, P. (2013). National Marrow Donor Program. Krabbe Disease.
Rosenberg, R.N. (2008). The Molecular and Genetic Basis of Neurologic and Psychiatric Disease. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
When it comes to the sale of organs from one party to another, there are usually two "camps" that people fall within. Those camps are inclusive of people that rae entirely against the practice in any form and then there are those that feel that some level of person-to-person sales should be allowed for so long as the parties involved face certain rules. Even with the concerns about organs going to the highest bidder, there are diametrically opposed concerns and assertions including the right of an owner of a kidney being able to sell to who he or she wants and the fact that the proceeds from such a transaction can be life-changing in nature. While it may be controversial and problematic to some, there is a middle ground to be had between allowing organ sales between people with no limitation and never doing so under any circumstances.…
S. Congress that the prospects of stem cell research were so vast that it could touch all the realm of medicine (Connor 2000). An unlimited source of embryonic stem cells will solve the problem of shortage of transplants. Embryonic stem cells will save lives by curing generative diseases of the brain, hepatitis, diabetes, leukemia, rheumatoid arthritis, muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis and diseases of the heart and kidneys. ut current laws restrict the use of stems cells on embryos less than 14 days old and for correcting fertility, reproduction or congenital disorders. The restriction is grounded in the belief that the embryo is a potential human being from the moment of conception. It thus possesses a soul and a dignity just like any other viable person (Connor). Previous scientific research presented evidence that genetically engineering cells could partly repair a defective immune system (Travis 2002). Two new studies bolstered this…
Bauer, D.G. (2005). Review of the endocrine system. MedSurg Nursing: Jannetti Publications, Inc.
Connor, S. (2000). Science: the miracle cure with a catch. The London Independent: Newspaper Publishing PLC
Degen. D (2008). Body organization and homeostasis. 1 page. Bones, Muscles and Skin. Pearson Education, Inc.: Pearson Prentice Hall
Farabee, M.J. (2006). Animal organ systems and homeostasis. 18 web pages. Estrella Mountain Community College. Retrieved on February 1, 2006 at http://www.emc.maricopa.edu/faculty/farabee/biobk/BioBookMUSSKEL.html
Donated body organs like hearts and kidneys contribute to the saving of hundreds of lives each year. The fact is that bequeathed tissues like skin, bone and heart valves could remarkably enhance the value of life for the persons receiving them. A patient who is dead following a cardiac arrest i.e. whose heartbeat has stopped permanently cannot be an organ donor but can be a tissue donor. Though in case of tissue donation the urgency of restoring a life by donation of liver or heart is absent, yet it is no way less critical to bring back vision by the help of a donated cornea, avert the severing of a leg using a bone donated by somebody or brighten the odds of survival of a patient having sustained burn injuries by skin donation.
Transplanted tissues offer advantages like it helps in alleviating trauma, assisting individuals to see again,…
Chabot-Long, Lynn. A Gift of Life: A Page from the Life of a Living Organ Donor,
Je-Lynn Publications, 1996
LaTour, Stephen A; Manrai, Ajay K. Interactive Impact of Informational and Normative influence on Donations. Journal of Marketing Research. Volume: 26; No: 3;
August, 1989, pp: 327-335.
Music and Pain
The use of music in relation to relaxation and pain control is universal in application. Many cultures use music, tones, chanting, drums, or other forms of biofeedback to treat patients in acute pain, women in labor, recovery, and now, most recently, in pre- and post-operative care. In fact, the therapeutic value of music has been recognized as vital and powerful since Ancient Times; archaeological evidence shows flutes carved from bone in pictures of physicians healing patients, Greek physicians used music and vibration to heal, aid in digestion and induce sleep; the Early Egyptians used musical incantations to help with the healing process; and certainly, numerous native tribes use singing and chanting as part of their healing rituals (Nilsson, 2008).
Further, most postoperative patients have pain, despite the use of analgesia. Nurses are constantly trying to be more effective in delivering pain medication. One study showed that patients…
Ghetti, C. (2011). Active music engagement with emotional-approach coping to improve well being in liver and kidney translplant recipients. Journal of Music Therapy. 48 (4): 463-85.
Good, M., et.al. (2010). Supplementing Relaxation and Music for Pain After Surgery. Nursing Research. 59 (4): 259-69.
Goodwin C.J. (2010). Research in Psychology: Methods and Design. New York: John
Intradialytic weight gain has become a major problem for End Stage enal Disease (ESD) patients who are dependent on hemodialysis. This issue has resulted in more complications and hospitalizations of ESD patients who need effective IDWG management programs that are driven by nurses. This project proposes a project that is geared towards improving IDWG management for these patients by 10% through a 12-week educational program. The paper demonstrates how the project will be implemented in a 19 chair dialysis clinic that functions 6 days every week in order to accommodate 150 hemodialysis patients. The discussion includes a description of the proposed change, rationale for selecting it, implementation methods, and expected results. The author provides evaluation of baseline data collected from patients during implementation and conclusions based on the collected data.
Objectives of CNL Internship Project
The objectives or aim of this CNL Internship Project is to coordinate a plan of…
Barnett, T., Li, Y.T., Pinikahana, J. & Si-Yen, T. (2008, February). Fluid Compliance among Patients having Haemodialysis: Can an Educational Programme Make a Difference? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 61(3), 300-306.
Lingerfelt, K. & Thornton, K. (2011). An Educational Project for Patients on Hemodialysis to Promote Self-Management Behaviors of End Stage Renal Disease. Nephrology Nursing Journal, 38(6), 483-489.
Mento, A., Jones, R. & Dirndorfer, W. (2002). A change management process: Grounded in both theory and practice. Journal of Change Management, 3(1), 45-70. Retrieved from EBSCO Host, AN 7329277.
Critical Pathway: Chronic enal Failure
egents Online Degree Program
Critical Pathway: Chronic renal failure
Chronic renal failure is often occasioned by chronic kidney disease, immune disorder, trauma among other conditions. It does not have any specific symptoms and might include feeling unwell generally and experiencing a reduced appetite. It is diagnosed following screening of individuals who are identified to be at risk of kidney problems, like individuals with diabetes or high blood pressure and others who have blood relative with chronic kidney disease. It always seems complex when trying to come up with the right diagnosis for a patient.
M.A. is a 60-year-old man who has a stage V chronic kidney disease mainly as a result of diabetic nephropathy and a 12-year of type 2 diabetes. He has symptomatic peripheral vascular insufficiency, and 3 years ago he had undergone coronary artery bypass 3. Within the ten months that…
Ahern J, Kruger DF, Gatcomb P, Petit W, Tamborlane W.,(1989). The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT): the trial coordinators perspective. Diabetes Educ 15:236 -- 281
Bassilios N, Launay-Vacher V, Khoury N, et al. (2001) Gabapentin neurotoxicity in a chronic haemodialysis patient. Nephrol Dial Transplant.
Blum RA, Comstock TJ, Sica DA, et al.(1994). Pharmacokinetics of gabapentin in subjects with various degrees of renal function. Clin Pharmacol Ther;56(2):154-159
Brawek B, Loffler M, Dooley DJ, Weyerbrock A, Feuerstein TJ.(2008) Differential modulation of K (+)-evoked (3)H-neurotransmitter release from human neocortex by gabapentin and pregabalin. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol.:376(5):301-307
Such experiments demonstrated that only seven of the thirty five within the test actually experienced vascular rejection, whereas all of the sheep receiving hearts from unmodified pigs exhibited vascular rejection.
The near-term implications of Berchorner's work could have a profound influence on organ transplants and the future of patient treatments. Researchers will inject human liver cells into fetal pigs; these pigs will be bred with a "suicide gene" that will be triggered to destroy their own livers. His hope is that human cells will then take the initiative to repopulate the pig liver, thus creating a synthesis of the two within the liver. This current study could lead to breeding pigs specifically for the purpose of human liver transplants. Even now, the use of pig livers are being used as a mechanism to help patients survive a few hours longer while waiting for human liver transplants. Berchorner's research may eventually…
Jonietz, Erika. A donor Named Wilbur. 25 Jan. 2007 http://www.islet.org / forum020/messages/18140.htm>.
Beschorner, William E. Heart Xenograft Survival With Chimeric Pig Donors and Modest Immune Suppression. 25 Jan. 2007
ethics regarding organ donation by brain-damaged people. The writer explores how a brain-damaged person is defined, and whether or not the donation of organs from that person is ethical. There were 15 sources used to complete this paper.
The field of medicine has advanced mankind to arenas never before thought possible. Today doctors can take entire organ systems out of one person and place them in another and the recipient can live for many years with transplanted organs. Hearts, lungs, kidneys, livers, eyes and many combinations of them are just a few of the organs that are transplanted worldwide today. As the medical community continues to advance age and quality of life the need for more organs has reached the critical stage. One of the most argued and passionate debates in the medical community today is whether or not it is ethical to remove organs in the case of a…
BROOKER Michelle, The gift of life after death., The Press (Canterbury, New Zealand), 08-10-2002, pp 3.
CAROL ANN CAMPBELL, Staff Writer, TV SHOW ANGERS ORGAN DONOR GROUPS., The Record (Bergen County, NJ), 11-13-1996, pp a09.
Author not available, [Thoughts of The Times] An Explanation of Brain Death., The Korea Times (Seoul, S. Korea), 02-09-2000.
Author not available, Pre-transplant brain-death test done on man in his 20s., Kyodo World News Service, 06-13-1999.
Unfortunately, a tremendous amount of valuable research has been put on hold ever since the ban of federal funding for stem cell research. In the United States, the vast majority of medical research of all types that eventually lead to cures for disease are funded by the federal government. The federal ban on stem cell research does not completely prohibit it, but the effect is nearly the same, just as it would be if the federal government withdrew funding for cancer or diabetes research.
The main opposition to stem cell research comes from the Religious Right who believe that any form of research using fetal stem cells is wrong, because according to their religious views, every fertilized human egg should be considered as much a human being as any living person, even a microscopic zygote consisting of nothing more than four cells of human tissue. Certainly, the concept of religious…