The organization and functioning of human and animal societies has long been the subject of intense investigations by natural scientists, sociologists and geneticists. Darwin, who laid the foundation for modern theory of evolution, suggested 'kin selection' as an explanation for the existence of sterile females, the worker caste, in social insects like ants, bees and termites. Later, W.D. Hamilton mathematically established the Theory of Kin Selection as a mechanism for the evolution of such apparently altruistic sterile castes.
Altruism refers to the actions of an individual that aids in increasing the survival and reproduction of another individual while sacrificing its own survival and reproduction. Kin Altruism is the technical term used to define altruistic behaviour that is theoretically explained by kin selection. Though kin altruism would appear to act counter to natural selection, the driving force of the evolution of the species, Hamilton proposed that kin selection is…… [Read More]
The purpose of this set of questions is to see whether they would engage in similar action even if they know that the other individual will not reciprocate given the reverse of their circumstances. All individuals will answer blindly, and we will anonomously collect all of the information.
There are many different results that are possible within this experiment. First, the expected result is that the majority of individuals will answer that they would act altruistically. However, they could act altruistically in some cases, as when they are giving change back to others, but selfishly when it comes to saving a drowning person and risking their own lives. Another scenario is that they could act selfishly when they are in the room by themselves, but when they are doing so in conjunction with someone else, they might be motivated by the visual sign of someone else to be altruistic.…… [Read More]
Unlike hadcoe altuism, no assumption of elatedness is necessay. Soft-coe altuism is diected beyond kin as a simple exchange of favos. (Gachte & Falk, 2002, pp1-25) Unlike hadcoe altuism, the soft-coe vaiety is less fimly tiggeed by the spontaneous calculus of the genes and moe "deeply influenced by the vagaies of cultual evolution. (Yamagishi, 1992, pp267-87) Unlike the hadcoe species in which the altuistic act is genuinely diected at othes even though one's own genes ae benefited, soft-coe altuism is ultimately moe selfish and dependent upon ecipocation as a condition fo its aousal. (Bingham, 1999, pp133-69) Unlike hadcoe altuism which is lagely "iational," soft-coe altuism equies calculation, "often in a wholly conscious way, to ensue one's needs ae seved, even though emotive mechanisms like deceit and petense may also infom this behavio. Wilson's tem "softcoe" app11es to the pinciple of ecipocal altuism fist outlined in a pape by R. Tives…… [Read More]
Traditionally, researchers in various fields of study have generally limited investigations to their area of expertise. Social scientists attend to prescribed areas such as memory, deviance, and microeconomics. In addition, natural scientists restrict their focal points to phenomena like DNA, gravity, and erosion. This practice of detached exploration, which initially proved productive, is gradually giving way to interdisciplinary endeavors as new and overwhelming evidence indicates that many domains are profoundly interconnected. Although some conventional sociologists steadfastly resist such infiltration, the field is not immune to this growing interdisciplinary movement.
Sociobiology, as the name indicates, is the synthesis of sociology and biology. It is the logical bridge 'between the natural sciences on the one side and social sciences and humanities on the other' (Wilson, 5). Stated differently, it applies the principles of biology to the study of social behavior in both human and non-human populations. More precisely, sociobiology employs evolutionary theories…… [Read More]
The first person that I helped was one of my good friends. She was scheduled to take a test in one of her classes when she got a call from her daughter's school that her daughter was sick and needed to go home. I was with her and offered to go pick up her daughter and watch her until she could finish her testing. I did not really feel rewarded by the behavior. I had plans for the afternoon, which I had to rearrange in order to babysit. While I did not resent babysitting, I felt as if I was obligated to watch her child. The reality is that I would be a horrible best friend if I had an afternoon free and did not watch my friend's child under those circumstances. Therefore, I do not even know that I would qualify this helping as a random act of kindness.…… [Read More]
Attitude Change and Pesuasion
What is evolutionay psychology? How does it explain mate selection?
Evolutionay psychology (EP) is an advance that looks at psychological taits such as memoy, peception and language fo a contempoay evolutionay pespective in egads to social and natual sciences. It attempts to categoize which human psychological taits ae alteations that have evolved (Confe, Easton, Fleischman, Goetz, Lewis, Peilloux & Buss, 2010). In othe wods, which functional poducts of natual selection o sexual selection ae evolved adaptations. Adaptationist thinking in egads to physiological mechanisms, such as the heat, lungs, and immune system, is fequent in evolutionay biology. Evolutionay psychology elates the same thinking to psychology, aguing that the mind has a modula makeup simila to that of the body, with dissimila modula adaptations seving diffeent functions (Confe et al., 2010).
Evolutionay psychologists dispute that a lot of human behavio is the output of psychological adaptations that…… [Read More]
S. scored 40. The Turks still distrust although they know well how to hide it. Turkey scored 45 in femininity vs. masculinity. Holfstede used feminine values of modesty and caring and masculine values of assertiveness and competitiveness to arrive at this score. Masculinity differs from the macho image. When the difference is not recognized, Turkey rated lower than if it was recognized. Compare with Japan, which got the highest score at 98% and Sweden at only 5% (McPherson).
In conducting research on national cultures, one must keep in mind that averages do not relate to individuals in a country or destination under study. Even if Holfstede's model has proved accurate quite often in general population studies, a researcher must be careful not to assume that all the individuals or even regions with subcultures, necessarily fit. Research can only serve as guide to understanding differences between countries. It does not set…… [Read More]
Nations and Nationalism Exist: Comparison of the ork of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson
The objective of this study is to compare the work of Laitin, Geertz, Hobsbawn, and Anderson and to answer as to which argument is the most persuasive for why nations and nationalism exist.
Definition of 'Nation'
Anderson (1991) defines the concept of nation to be such that results in theorists of nationalism being perplexed by three specific paradoxes include: (1) the objective modernity of nations to the historians eye vs. their subjective antiquity in the eyes of nationalists; (2) the formal universality of nationality as a socio-cultural concept -- in the modern world everyone can, should, will 'have a nationality as he or she has a gender vs. The irremediable particularity of its concrete manifestations, such that, by definition, 'Greek' nationality is sui generis; (3) the political power of nationalism vs. their philosophical poverty and even…… [Read More]
Divorce is no longer taboo at all. It is not unusual, but almost expected, for couples to marry, have at least one child, and subsequently separate. About half of American children are being raised in single-parent households or in households where there is a revolving door of partners for their custodial parent. Divorce is not the only issue that threatens the institution of marriage in America; approximately one in four people are currently in an abusive marriage. Furthermore, if a woman in America is murdered, the odds are overwhelming that her husband is the killer. Domestic violence does more to provide a real threat to more marriages in America than same-sex marriage ever could. As far as threatening individual marriages, the legalization of gay marriage would probably promote individual relationships. If homosexuals had the opportunity to marry their chosen partners, they may feel less pressure to remain in the closet,…… [Read More]
Marketing Channels and Methods -- the New Svelte Shape of McDonald's
Objectives & Mission Statement
Although McDonald's latest advertising slogan, as proclaimed on its 2005 website, is "I'm lovin' it," (McDonald's Official ebsite, 2005), shareholders in the fast food company have not be equally enamored of its current stock performance and plummeting sales. (The Rogue Investor, 2005) Thus, the objectives of the new McDonald's marketing campaign must be to undo some of the economic and public relations damage done to the company by the negative press generated by the success of Morgan Spurlock's film 'Supersize Me.' Over the course of the year, McDonald's wishes to gain a greater percentage of the revenue of the current fast food market than its most prominent burger-oriented competitors endy's and Burger King. McDonald's also wishes to gain some of the type of positive media as generated by the sandwich chain Subway. The Subway Diet…… [Read More]
"This is my covenant with you: I will make you the father of not just one nation, but a multitude of nations. . . I will give you millions of descendants who will represent many nations. Kings will be among them" (Genesis 17:4, 6).
Then, in relation to how Joseph ended up where he did -- why was he loved more than his siblings? We know Joseph was born was Jacob was in his "old age" (Verses 2-3), but it was more than that. Historically, scholars say that Jacob recognized that having a child with Joseph's mother, achel, was a blessing from God because she was barren for many years. "Then God remembered achel's policht and answered her prayers by giving her a child. She became pregnant and gave birth to a son. 'God removed my shame,' she said. And she names him Joseph. . . " (Genesis 30:22-23). The…… [Read More]
Due to the apparently low level of contagion, the need for public awareness is not urgent, but it is still necessary. Warnings to stay away from the convention area and to report to a local hospital if symptoms developed after being in the area or in contact with someone who had been at the convention should be issued (CDC 2009).
The known details of the attack, however, should not be released, as it is likely to create panic and bolster the terrorists' optimism. Federal assistance should be immediately sought, not necessarily for control of the spread of the disease but for the investigation and apprehension of suspects. All available resources should be called in as soon as possible in order to counter the attack. As far as treatment of the attack goes, mass prophylaxis of all convention attendees and those who have come into contact with infected individuals should be…… [Read More]
Thus, while the term "Arab" is useful for describing a particular group of people with a shared language, culture, and history, one cannot readily assume that all Arabs subscribe to a pan-Arabist ideology, especially in light of the often overlapping "Muslim world," which many Arabs would identify themselves a part of (above and beyond any shared connection due to their Arab heritage). In reality, a shared linguistic and cultural background is really the only thing that unites Arabs, but because the world's largely white, Christian reigning powers have for so long actively disenfranchised and brutalized the Arab world, either through direct action or proxies, this shared linguistic and cultural background has been the only unifying feature which allows for any resistance. In many ways, one may see the emerging democratic movements of the Arab Spring as the successful replacement of both pan-Arabism and pan-Islamism, because the desire for…… [Read More]
The State, the market, and the societal forces all have a role to play towards improving the lives of the citizens. In as much as entrepreneurs and government institutions would always endeavor to improve their economic performance, they should also make an undertaking to ensure that social services are provided to the citizens. The state in particular has to ensure that it puts in place governance structures that work for the citizenry. It should ensure that health services, education, and security become its top priority (Allchin, 2013). The state should pass legislations that makes doing business less expensive. In that way private sector entities would have the capacity to engage in large-scale export oriented industrialization. This may be a ticket out of poverty for its citizens who may get gainful employment from these industries. Countries where people are economically empowered are less likely to experience high child mortality…… [Read More]
permissive attitude towards London sailor-town exist during the 1850-1860, and how did it change during the 1900-1910?
The main Theories Fronted
Although the marine community came from diverse backgrounds, the seafarers ashore had acquired a debauched image long before the 16th Century. The seafarers have won the appraisal of researchers for their role since then. According to Lee[footnoteef:1], seafarers had delinked themselves from the usual expected bonds and roles in society as otherwise expected of all humans. They were believed to be vulnerable to being misled and were believed to be strangers to the civilized, polite norms of contemporary human decorum. Once seafarers went ashore, they were inclined to being irresponsible beings. They could engage in drunkenness as of habit. They practiced little restraint in general. The seafarers most likely committed many other ills while at sea. The lack of societal control that normally provides a steadying influence meant that…… [Read More]
Aborigines are Australia's original inhabitants and until the late 1700's -1800's the aborigine had little contact with Western civilization. Local dialects and the territorial nature of bands provided the different social groups their distinctive identity. The Mardudjara (Mardu) aborigines are part of the Western Desert cultural block in Australia (Tonkinson, 1978). The Mardu culture, societal system, etc. has never been recorded in its pristine state as anthropologic researchers did not study the group until well after alien influences had occurred. Nonetheless, the nomadic lifestyle of the Mardu was dictated by the harsh climate in which they live and they are an extremely interesting group. Nomadic groups like the Mardu often have a perception of gender or a cultural gender schema that fits in functionally with their lifestyle and is based on a division of labor and status that allows the group to maintain an identify, clearly defined roles, and survive…… [Read More]
characteristic features of the Basseri of Iran. Its first part will identify and classify "pastoralism" as the Basseri culture's primary mode of subsistence. He second part will show that "tribal chiefship" is underlies the organization of the Basseri society. Furthermore it will show that agriculture and trading determine the Basseri economic organization. Finally, as regards to gender relations, the paper will point out that the importance of the male contribution to subsistence in sheep herding leads to an emphasis on male social roles and patrilineality
Identify and classify the selected culture's primary mode of subsistence
The Basseri are a prime example of a pastoral tribe that is not self-sufficient (Pastoralism, p. 2). They are a tribe of nomads who inhabit the Iranian province of Fars and migrate along the steppes and mountains near the town of Shiraz (Johnson (1996), p. 1). In general, societies specializing in animal husbandry requiring periodic…… [Read More]
detection and intervention in childhood mental health help prevent mental health problems in adult life?
Disregarding the mental well-being requirements of children is an intolerable violation of our basic undertaking to protect their well-being. Unfavorable mental disposition amidst our children is a less acknowledged difficulty that influences their literary, societal, and emotional enhancement. Mental well-being is a wide attribute to be analyzed. The mental well-being requirements of children and youth demand introspection. There is prevalent refuting that mental well-being is comprehensive of the influence on the children -- amidst all age distinct ions, variety of cultural sections, and all income sections. Such miscomprehensions are recurring, and involvement and care are unlikely to be found. Many people have the belief that children having mental well-being difficulties are just under the impact of a particular passing cloud. (Promoting Access for Children to Mental Health Screens and Assessments in Medicaid and the Children's…… [Read More]
The Relationship between Luxury Purchase as Conspicuous Consumption and Y Generation -Take Designer rands for Example
Conspicuous consumption is a complex concept that requires a great deal of quandary. Conspicuous consumption is often thought of as unnecessary spending or the purchasing of products that are not necessities. Increases in upward mobility have increased conspicuous consumption patterns in nations around the world.
Marketing professionals are eager to find the target markets that engage in conspicuous consumption. The purpose of this thesis was to examine the conspicuous consumption of the Y Generation in Taiwan.
Our research found that there are clear differences between luxuries and necessities and that the characteristics that distinguish each can differ from country to country. The discussion also discovered that conspicuous consumption is defined as "the consumption of goods and services on a grand scale for the purpose of demonstrating pecuniary power rather than that of…… [Read More]
(Cattelain, 1997; paraphrased) the work of Cattelain additionally states that as of the beginning of "...July, 1997, approximately 66,000 children born to couples of which one is a Hong Kong resident and one is a mainlanders were waiting to come to Hong Kong, and around 2,000-4,000 children who had entered the territory illegally or overstayed visit permits were estimated to be in Hong Kong." (Cattelain, 1997) Marriage between individuals and the resulting bearing of children has proved problematic to the mainland in terms of regulations and it is stated in Cattelain's work that "One of the first issues that the newly created Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) has had to dealt with his pitted an individual right against a community's capacity to absorb large numbers of new immigrants at one time." (1997)
VII. asic Law Regulating Children orn Outside of Hong Kong with Parent in Hong Kong
It is…… [Read More]
Employee Health and Life Insurance Benefits
What is the footing of private businesses owned by families when confronted with the issue of providing employee health benefits while we surmount the millennium threshold? What is methodology employed for optimizing the benefits while at the same time putting a check spending on employees? In what way do they draw and prevent attrition of valuable professional in a competitive workforce market? In which way do they take the better of amendments of legal rules in competent strategies since the past several years? The appropriateness of these aspects and other issues will continue to challenge family managed business owners. Since the last several years remarkable governmental amendments have equipped the owners of family run businesses opportunities for planning that would by no means have been considered probable. There are no more restrictions on the quantity a company can make a payment for a staff…… [Read More]
In addition, the ceremony also contained firecrackers which were symbolic of purification and joy. The food that was served at a marriage ceremony was also symbolic. For example, fruit and longevity noodles were symbolic of harmony, happiness, and prosperity.
Indeed the marriage arrangement was detailed and extravagant (for the wealthy) during the Qing dynasty. Now that we understand the marital arrangement let us focus on the role of the ideal wife during Qing's Dynasty.
The role of the ideal wife (Qing Dynasty)
Once the transfer was complete, the wife was totally immersed in pleasing her husband and his family. All kinship ties to the wife's family were broken and when she visited her family, she was considered a guest not a relative. Smith (1994) asserts that this was a cause of distress for many new wives because they were usually amongst strangers and the mother in law had a great…… [Read More]
Women throughout Chinese history have experienced the oppression their tradition and culture exert as well as the power only members of their sex can attain in their chosen domains. Although readers have been exposed to historical anecdotes relating foot binding and Man's superiority to women, there are also many stories relating their freedom and tenacity, whether they are wives, concubines, courtesans or prostitutes. The history of Chinese women is not necessarily limited to persecution and being dominated, it is also peppered with inspirational stories of women who have been able to find happiness, success and fulfillment within the parameters Chinese tradition and culture dictate.
In Chinese society, the positions women maintained were very indistinct (http://www.wm.edu/CAS/anthropology/faculty/hamada/Virtual_Classromm/wwwb.../208.htm,1)."In Chinese society, women as a category had a dependent status." (Watson, 1991, 232). efore a girl married, she was controlled completely by her father. After she married, this responsibility was transferred to her husband. If…… [Read More]
early retirement incentives as a downsizing strategy sUMMAY: This is a thesis that analyzes and studies the use of early retirement incentives as a downsizing strategy by organizations. It has 23 references in APA format.
Chapter I- Definition of the Problem
Definition of terms-alphabetical order
Chapter II- literature eview
Health and security
Chapter III- Methodology
Chapter IV- Data analysis
21-Analysis relevant to research
25-Analysis relevant to research
26-Analysis relevant to research
Chapter 5- Summary, Conclusions, ecommendations
Definition of the Problem
Over the last fifteen years organizations strived to renew their relationships with employees and at the same time tried to survive through economic downturn. In this renewal process these organizations have experienced multiple intricate processes like structuring, resourcing, forestalling decline in profits as well as incorporating new state policies. The struggle to survive…… [Read More]
Kafr El-Elow is based upon the novel Kafr El-Elow: Continuity and Change in an Egyptian community written by Hani Fakhouri. This paper takes into account two chapters from the novel and explains why both of them are absolutely essential in understanding the social structure of the village, Kafr El-Elow. The paper also highlights some very important traditions and customs followed by the villagers.
The writer of the novel, Kafr El-Elow chose the village of Kafr El-Elow for the ethnographic research not because of its close association with Cairo but because of its location in the middle of Egypt's colossal mercantile complex. According to the author, the small village of Kafr El-Elow is bound to experience a lot of changes due to its most central location, as it is the industrial complex of a country that experience advancement. The people of Kafr El-Elow as result of urbanization and industrialization…… [Read More]
Gender in Mexican Intellectual History
Juana Inez Ramirez de Asbaje, also known as Juana Ines de la Cruz, was an amazing woman in both Latin American and world history. Here was a woman writing in the 17th century who was willing to discuss the sexual practices of the males around her and to criticize them. Being a nun, this was even more out of the ordinary and makes Asbaje an even more extraordinary figure. In the 1600s, a woman's place was at the home either as a servant or as a bearer of children to a proper husband. It was not proper for a female to be educated or to think. For many women who were born with an untimely and unfortunate intellect, the only venue for them to learn was by entering the church. In her "Response to Sor Filotea," she states that as a young girl, Asbaje asked…… [Read More]