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Kingdom of God
Christianity, Judaism and the Kingdom of God
Christianity is a force of both unparalleled influence and of continuing humility on the global scale, being both the salvation of the indigent and the foundational force under great and established power structures. It is this duality that perhaps best helps to initiate a discussion on the concept of the Kingdom of God. Indeed, the Kingdom of God is both everything and all around us. All things which we experience and engage may be seen to those of us who walk in the light of God as emanating from the will and grace of the heavens. This means that the Kingdom of God extends from heaven to earth, convicted each of us to act on earth as we would in heaven. The concept is an important one as it is generally used to justify a wide range of Christian ethics…
Kingdom of God
Today, the kingdom of God is thought by many people as a heavenly place or afterlife. Many people are not able to give an explanation of the kingdom of God or the reason why Jesus came on Earth. Most people relate to terms such as strong tower which we guess is a strong tower but if we want to say that the relationship we have with God makes us safe we would have to rephrase this. A better understanding of the concept of the kingdom of God and messiah can only be understood through an individual's personal experiences as well as dong a lot of research. There are two contemporary metaphors that can be used to describe the kingdom of God. I was inspired by the camel passing through the eye of a needle and the parable of the mustard seed (Griffin, 2005).
In contemporary living one…
Griffin, W.(2005).The Kingdom of God is like The metaphors of the kingdom. Retrieved January 24,2013 from http://www.sbl.org/wbs/kingdom/Week8/kgw8.shtml
Magruder, W.(2012). The Kingdom of God Needs Better Marketing.Retrieved January 24,2013 from http://missionalwisdom.com/new-day/blog/the-kingdom-of-god-needs-better-marketing/
The Kingdom of God annotated bibliography And Essay
Part I: Introduction with Thesis Statement
The Kingdom of God is a much different kingdom than the earthly kingdom the Pharisees were expecting. What characterizes the kingdom of God? Isaiah 11:1-9 describes a restoration of innocence, in which there is no more disharmonic world but rather a world in which everyone and everything is at peace. Romans 14:16-19 relates to this passage, as it also tells Christians that the Kingdom of God is focused on peace and serving God in the Holy Spirit. Psalm 72:5-14 describes a kingdom that is without end, that covers the whole world, and that is served by all men. These two passages from the Old Testament were selected because they touch both on the spirit of the kingdom—it is oriented towards restoring peace and innocence and love—and on the earthly aspect of the kingdom: it is not…
Abernethy, Andrew. The Book of Isaiah and God’s Kingdom: A ThematiTheological Approac. Downers Grove, IL: IVP Academic, 2016.
Dempster, Stephen. Dominion and Dynasty: A Theology of the Hebrew Bible. New Studies in Biblical Theology. Downers Grove,IL: IVP Academic, 2003.
Goldsworthy, Graeme. The Goldsworthy Trilogy: Gospel and Kingdom, Gospel and Wisdom, The Gospel in Revelatio. Exeter, UK: Paternoster, 2011.
Hahn, Scott. “Kingdom and Church in Luke-Acts: From Davidic Christology to Kingdom Ecclesiology.” In Reading Luke: Inter-pretation, Reflections, Formatio, edited by Bartholomew, Joel Green, and Anthony Thiselton, 294–326. Scripture and Hermeneutics 6. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2005.———.
The Kingdom of God as Liturgical Empire: A Theological Comentary on 1–2 Chronicles. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Academic, 2012.
Jipp, Joshua W. Christ Is King: Paul’s Royal Ideology. Minneapolis, MN: Fortress Press, 2015.
Kupp, David. Matthew’s Emmanuel: Divine Presence and God’s People in the First Gospel. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1996. 146 For Further ReadingLadd, George Eldeon. Gospel of the Kingdom: Scriptural Studies in the Kingdom of God. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerd mans, 1959.
McCartney, Dan. “Ecce Homo: The Coming of the Kingdom as theRestoration of Human Vicegerency.” Westminster TheologicalJournal 56.1 (1994): 1–21.
Jesus Kingdom Activity
Throughout Christ's ministry on Earth He was engaged in promoting the kingdom from which He came. Many passages can be used to demonstrate this, but there are those which seem to tell the story better than other. Often, these will be marked by Christ himself as having something to do with His home in heaven. At other times, these activities demonstrated a principle that he had taught to the multitudes and wished to enforce with a personal action. In all of His ministry he taught the people first to fill their human needs, then to fulfill their obligations to the kingdom, and finally He demonstrated the character of the kingdom.
The greatest need of any human is that of salvation, but people did not follow Jesus just because they knew He spoke the truth. Many did, but most also wanted to be a part of…
Maranville, C. (2012). The kingdom of God: The heart of Christ's message. The Good News: A Magazine of Understanding. Retrieved from http://www.ucg.org/doctrinal-beliefs/kingdom-god-heart-christs-message/
Stanley, C. (2011). Why do people follow Jesus? Christian Post. Retrieved from http://www.christianpost.com/news/why-do-people-follow-jesus-65960/
At first, the passage in Romans seems unequivocal -- a rebellion against established authority seems to be the same as a rebellion against God. But a closer and more considered examination of the situation suggests that this is not the case. First, Romans was written with a very specific government in mind -- the Roman government, as a matter of fact. It considers authority as the earthly servant of God. At the same time, this passage suggests that free will exists, in that men have the ability to rebel against God and authority. Therefore, individual authorities could rebel against God and use their authority in ways that were not in his service. This would make the authority no longer the arbiter of sin, and rebellion would be almost morally necessitated.
For many who rebelled during this nation's revolution, and even those who came to the continent in the preceding century…
Augustine of Hippo, Saint. City of God. Accessed 26 April 2009. http://www.newadvent.org/fathers/120104.htm
Romans. New International Bible. Accessed 27 April 2009. http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=romans%2013
The Cosmological Argument: This argument begins with the tenet that for the Universe to exist something outside the universe must have created it. Also refereed to as the First Cause or the Uncaused Cause theory, here God exists as the prime mover that brought the universe into existence. The universe is a series of events, which began with God who must exist apart from the universe, outside of time and space as well. (Martin) the detractors of this theory say that if everything has a creator than God must also have a creator and that perhaps an infinite series of creators and universes exist as well. Also if God is an uncaused cause than why could not the universe be one as well.
The Moral Argument: This is perhaps one of the most interesting arguments for the existence of God. Basically it states that since man perceives a moral law,…
Dawkins, Richard. The Selfish Gene UK; Oxford University Press, 1989
Lamprecht, Sterling P. Our Philosophical Traditions: A Brief History of Philosophy in Western Civilization. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1955.
Martin, C.F.J. Thomas Aquinas: God and Explanations. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1997.
McIntyre, John. St. Anselm and His Critics: A Re-Interpretation of the Cur Deus Homo. Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd, 1954.
The second point of criticism Hoekema levels at dispensationalists is that "the kingdom which Christ offered to the Jews of his day did not involve his ascending an earthly throne," as most dispensationalists assert (Hoekema, p. 213). If in fact Christ had made an offer to rule the Jews from a throne on Earth, certainly, Hoekema goes on, "his enemies would have brought up this offer in the trial before Pilate, and made an accusation out of it" (p. 213). Pilate specifically asked Jesus' accusers, "hat evil has he done? I have found in him no crime deserving death" (Luke 23:2) (Hoekema, p. 213). No such charge was ever made against Jesus during that trial, though if it had been made it would have been used as evidence of the charge that "Jesus had claimed to be a king over the Jews in an earthly sense, thus threatening Caesar's…
Boyer, Paul S. "John Darby Meets Saddam Hussein: Foreign Policy and Bible
Prophecy." Chronicle of Higher Education 49.23 (2003): 12-14.
Hoekema, Anthony a. The Bible and the Future. Grand Rapids MI: Wm B. Eerdmans
108) should not be the main focus of our lives. If we allow them to have so much importance, they will choke out spiritual growth and progress so that we cannot fully appreciate what God has for us in the Kingdom. Likewise, we are not supposed to worry about money and whether or not God will supply us with the things we need. Jesus said, "Fear not, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure to give you the Kingdom." In other words when we focus on living the life God wants us to live and treat others as He wants us to treat them -- with honesty, fairness, justice, love, forgiveness, etc. -- God supplies our needs. Jesus tells us to concentrate on the Kingdom.
That doesn't mean we should be lazy, but we are not supposed to concentrate on accumulating a lot of personal wealth either. If…
Kraybill, D.B. (1990). The upside-down kingdom. Scottdale, PA: Herald Press.
history medical studies have concluded that prayer helps to heal the sick. Many political meetings begin with a prayer and American currency has the words "In God We Trust" imprinted on its face. Around the world God is a powerful deity and one that has historically led entire societies to make decisions based on God's word. While God has been the single deity that leads and guides societies in their decisions both on an individual and collective basis there are many different concepts of what God is and entails. Two large worldwide faiths have many similarities and differences in God and its meaning. The faith of Christianity as well as the faith of Judaism both believe in a single God. The faiths are based in the word of that God and their followers respect and revere the God of their faith. While both faiths believe in a single God there…
J.S. Spong, "A New Christianity for a New World: Why Traditional Faith is Dying & How a New Faith is Being Born," HarperSanFrancisco, (2001), Pages 37 & 38.
THE JEWISH CONCEPT OF THE MESSIAH
Book Review: Concept of God as shepherd is Jewish paradigm
What is the image of God? This is an important theological question. Depending upon what a person believes the image of God to be, and man's relation to that image, the whole rest of that person's theological belief system will be affected and slanted by it. The Bible gives some good guidelines as to what the image of God is, and what man's relation to that image is. Noted theologian Henry Theissen discusses it in his lecture series, as well. This paper discusses the idea of the image of God and man's relation to that image using contemporary theological research.
The Bible tells us that man was created in the image of God. This seems pretty straightforward. On first reading, one might reasonably assume that man was created to look like God. This would mean that God looks like us. This is a very comforting thought for most people,…
Dolphin, Lambert. "Made in the Image of God." LDolphin.Org. 2001. http://www.ldolphin.org/Image.html>.
Humanity as the Image of God." Shef.Ac.UK. n.d. http://www.shef.ac.uk/uni/academic/A-C/biblst/DJACcurrres/Postmodern2/Humanity.html
The Image of God in Man." Let Us Reason Ministries. n.d. http://www.letusreason.org/Wf14.htm >.
Man, Created in the Image of God: How Man is Unique Among All Other Creatures on Earth." God and Science.Org. 2003. http://www.godandscience.org/evolution/imageofgod.html
Kingdom of Matthias
n the early nineteenth-century America went through a phase of religious revival with many people turning to the religious beliefs in Christendom following the religious instability that took place in the seventeenth-century in England for the reformation of Christians and the community. The most notable event amongst all the momentous events was called the Second Great Awakening, which lasted one year and began in 1830. This year holds a lot of history for a country like America because it was the same year that Americans reached the highest level of consumption of alcoholic drinks, with an average of four gallons per person. This was not only the highest for all the years of American history but also one of the highest in the world. t was in the year that came to be known as 'the spirit-soaked year' when the evangelical preacher Charles Grandison Finney came to…
In this in-depth research, Paul Johnson takes the opportunity to explain and use a small and unknown event to depict an interesting event from an interesting perspective on the city of New York. There are several incidents used to signify the issues of sexual corruption to radical doctrinal innovations. The Burned-Over district in the city of New York, served as the platform for the many religious movements such as Mormonism, Adventism, Christian Scientists, however there are numerous smaller religions and even noteworthy political movements such as Antimasonry that did not leave their mark on American soil to exist till today.
This book is also based on the story of one of those movements. The story begins by introducing Matthias to Kirtland as he goes to visit the Mormon Prophet, Joseph Smith. Although, his visit took place close to the end of the book, or better put close to the end of Matthias's activity of fooling his followers, his ideas were obviously cheated from many of the ideas of Joseph Smith. Even the practice of the washing of feet common to both the followers of Joseph Smith and Ellen White was also used by Matthias for his followers. He believed that the truth of the Gospel had come to the earth following the demise of Christ for another Mormon belief. Another feature common to Smith was the possession of a sword which he claimed was ancient similar to Smith's sword of Laban, as well as naming the Priesthood after the order of Melchezidek. His mentor Mordecai Noah, taught him that the Indians belonged to a branch of the Israelites, as found in the Book of Mormon. These ideas were known before 1830 when Matthias began his practice in the name of religion.
The book doesn't only contain horrid tales about his activities but also contains humorous parts of this periods history is the moments that connect to Matthias' enemies trying to shave off his beard. Johnson did a marvelous job at condensing the most relevant information in this short book. The Kingdom of Matthias is a humorous book and serves as an interesting read for those interested in this period of American religious history.
Kingdom of Matthias. There are three references used for this paper.
From the Quakers to the Great Awakening to Nat Turner, we have examined numerous variations of where a belief in the 'inner light' or the 'priesthood of all believers' could lead. It is important to examine the cult of Matthias to understand why he was popular, the factors which could have led to his revelations, the social and religious climates and the needs of his followers. It is also important to explore whether the cult was due to the transhistorical appeal or if it offers deeper lessons about early American religious experiences.
Robert Matthews was "a carpenter from upstate New York who, after a lifetime of finding God everywhere and economic success nowhere, rode his half-starved horse into Manhattan in 1832, proclaiming his own divinity. He presented himself as not a Christian at all, but as Matthias, the…
Brown, Lee Rust. "The Kingdom of Matthias." The New Republic. (1994): 17 October.
Johnson, Michael P. "The Kingdom of Matthias: A Story of Sex and Salvation in 19th-Century
America" The Nation. (1994): 14 November.
(The Matthias Delusion. (Accessed 27 November, 2004).
DNA instructs the cell. DNA is a three-billion-lettered program telling the cell to act in a certain way" [what authorized and created that system, if not God?] and e) "e know God exists because he pursues us… constantly initiating / seeking for us to come to him… [and] keep the question of His existence constantly before us" (Morse, 2010, p. 2).
Meanwhile Oxford professor Anthony Flew argues against those who say that because of the big bang God is proven to exist. Did God cause the big bang, or was it just "popped" into existence, Flew asks. And why only two possibilities? Only a physicist can explain that, Flew asserts. Okay then, Flew explains that if God is truly "omnipotent and omniscient" and wants people to "behave in a certain way, why couldn't he accomplish this? If you were omnipotent wouldn't you expect results and expect people to do exactly…
Craig, William Lane, Flew, Anthony, and Wallace, Stan W. Does God Exist?: The Craig-Flew
Debate. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, LTd, 2003.
Morse, Donald R. "Does God Exist?" The Journal of Spirituality and Paranormal Studies.
Kingdom of Heaven
The great irony of Ridley Scott's 2005 film "Kingdom of Heaven" is that its central argument is calculated to seem inoffensive to contemporary audiences, but does so by being historically inaccurate. I take the central message of the film to be what Liam Neeson says approximately 22 into the film, as the ailing Crusader Godfrey of Ibelin (a somewhat fictionalized depiction of Godfrey of Bouillon) tells his son why he will be journeying from rural France to the Holy Land. The son, played by Orlando Bloom, asks his Crusader dad what the Crusader King of Jerusalem could possibly ask him to accomplish. Neeson, as the ailing Crusader, responds with the speech that gives the film its title:
"A better world than has ever been seen. A kingdom of conscience, a kingdom of heaven. There is peace between Christian and Muslim, we live together. Or, between Saladin and…
The world is filled with chaos, war and strife. In Africa, innumerable numbers of individuals suffer and die from AIDS, poverty and hunger. Genocide and mass murder of groups with varying cultures continues. Regularly, soldiers and civilians die in Iraq. Terrorism scare tactics threaten throughout the world and the Middle East remains a hotbed for horror. China moves forward with its "Big Brother" actions and North Korea downplays its nuclear capacity. In such a world, how can I believe in God? Because it is more important to believe now than it ever was before, especially with such uncertain world. As Voltaire once said: "To believe in God is impossible. Not to believe in Him is absurd."
One of the main reasons I believe in God is that it makes me feel more secure amidst this growing instability. Because we live in such an insecure world, it is impossible to…
Holy Bible King James Version Study Bible. New York: Thomas Nelson, 1997.
Voltaire Foundation. Website visited October 9, 2003. http://www.voltaire.ox.ac.uk/voltaire_english.html .
Anselm also added the passion of repentance and the exhilaration of praise to the bare texts, involving the supplicant in an intensity of feeling and a deepening of understanding. In the intensity of sorrow for sin, he is the heir of Augustine of Hippo, and the language of the Confessions is very close to Anselm's self-revelation and repentance.
(McGinn, Meyendorff, and Ledercq 202)
So, in City of God the textual concepts from his earlier works became the stuff of reformative language that would apply itself not only to the personal but to how the person was meant to build upon the institutions that surrounded him, influenced him and in turn was influenced by him. Bernard of Clairvaux was a direct descendant of Augustine in his ideas. He strove to recreate the church not as a calling of finery and social stratification but of one that encompassed a monastic tradition of…
Abelard, Peter. Henry Adams Bellows trans., Historia Calamitatum the Story of My Misfortunes Online Fordham Medieval Sourcebook, 1922: Retrieved, Oct 12, 2008 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/basis/abelard-histcal.html
Augustine of Hippo. Henry Betterson trans, City of God. New York: Penguin Group. 2003.
Bernard of Clairvaux. David Burr trans, Apology Online Fordham Medieval Sourcebook, 1996: Retrieved, Nov 1, 2008 at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/bernard1.html
Bonner, Gerald. St. Augustine of Hippo: Life and Controversies. London: Canterbury Press, 1986.
Time and again mankind has proven himself to be resourceful, skilled, and deliberate in taking on the forces of nature. hen mankind acts in a way that is contrary to the forces of nature, such as building fixtures or structures in the path of well-known paths of natural destruction, then mankind is challenging the forces of nature that bind mankind to the earth - the domain that God created for and gave to mankind.
However, when mankind succumbs to his own inner capacity for evil, then he is exercising free will. That that capacity for evil is capable of reaching extraordinary levels of destruction is the manifestation not of the devil, but of man's own reaction to the incremental levels of evil, the fueling of power that comes from exercising free will over others who are not capable, or who won't, act to prevent that exercise of free will over…
Dictionary of Theology and Religious Studies?
Power, Samantha. "Bystanders to Genocide: Why the United States Let the Rwandan Tragedy Happen." The Atlantic Monthly Sept. 2001: 84-108. Questia. 26 Feb. 2008 http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5002381507' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Sons of God" in Genesis 6 are human, by using the following verses as background on the subject: Deuteronomy 9:18, Joshua 7:6, Psalm 112, Genesis 4:26, Numbers 13:33, Job 1:6, 2:1. The Sons of God referred to so briefly in Genesis 6 are indeed human, because they have the distinct human vice of "wickedness," which in the end seals their fate. They are Sons of God who came to Earth to create a race of "giants," but in the end, God removed them all for their wickedness, and replaced the population with the relations of Noah, whom He favored above all at the time. In Deuteronomy 9:18, the Bible alludes to this sin, when Moses beseeches his people not to bring down the anger of the Lord upon them. Implied here is the anger of the Lord that came before, when he flooded the land for forty days and nights…
Augustine, Saint. The City of God. Trans. Dods, Marcus D.D. New York: Modern Library, 1950.
Bird, T.E. "The Psalms." A Catholic Commentary on Holy Scripture. Ed. Orchard, Bernard. New York: Nelson, 1953. 442-473.
Jastrow, Morris. The Book of Job: Its Origin, Growth and Interpretation. Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott Company, 1920.
Massey, Kundan. "Why do Christians Call Jesus the 'Son of God'?" The Tide of the Supernatural. 2004. 30 July 2004. http://www.leaderu.com/isr/articles_resources/whysonofgod.html
etween the belief that God is a person and the belief that God is personal which one is essential to Christian faith? My stand is that the belief that God is a person is a hindrance to Christian faith. Interestingly, some recent religious philosophy writers have however made the assumption that believing in God is believing in a person. Richard Swinburne is one such influential advocate of this concept. It is clear from his works that Richard Swinburne understands that God is like "a bodiless person, a spirit who can do anything, is all knowing, free, without fault, eternal and the creator of the universe.
That God is a person or personal is one of the fundamental claims believers have continuously made about God. God is represented like a person in Vishnu, Hinduism, rahma and Shiva. In the bible, the Old Testament, You can read about…
Bloesch, Donald G. 2006. Jesus Christ: Savior & Lord. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press.
Burns, Elizabeth. "Must Theists Believe In A Personal God?" THINK 8, no. 23 (Autumn, 2009): 77-86,
Cross, George. "Does a Philosophy of Morals Tend to Undermine the Christian Faith in a Personal God?" The Journal of Religion .Vol. 1, No. 2 (Mar., 1921) (pp. 197-199)
It was clear that Cain had murdered his brother, an offense that is unthinkable in today's modern context. When Cain refused to admit his sins, God punished him in the same manner as he had punished Adam and Eve. God had cast Cain out of his homeland, just as He had done with Adam and Eve; "And now art thou cursed from the earth, which hath opened her mouth to receive thy brother's blood from thy hand. When thou tillest the ground, it shall not henceforth yield thee her strength; a fugitive and a vagabond shalt thou be in the earth," (Genesis 4:11-12). Cain followed in the footsteps of his earliest ancestors.
This tells a lot about the character of God as represented by the Old Testament. Essentially, He is omni-benevolent when His followers are true to following His demands. In fact, God rewards in great measure. Yet, He can…
Luther's concept of the "liberated Christian" allows for both an almost existential responsibility and an odd passivity on the other hand. Humans are responsible for creating faith within themselves, but having once accomplished the achievement of faith, they can simply allow themselves to exist in the cocoon of divine love. Christ has done the work for others through his life and death. (Countering this is the idea of Luther's that all Christians serve as a communal priesthood, although it is not entirely clear to what extent he means this to be literal and to what extent he may be allowing for the metaphorical.) This tension between the active and the passive (or perhaps "accepting" might be a better translation of Luther's ideas than "passive") brings us back to the seeming contradiction posed in Luther's opening statements. It allows us to see another level of complexity in Luther's understanding of the…
On the surface, Hinduism and Christianity could not be much more different. Ancient Hinduism offers a colorful pantheon of playful deities, some of which assume animal characteristics such as Hanuman and Ganesh. Stemming from its Jewish roots, Christianity presents a much different view of the origin and structure of the universe. Christian cosmology is more tightly ordered than that of Hinduism. Strictly monotheistic, Judaism imparted a mistrust of pagan polytheism to Christianity. Christian deity is unitary but also triune, in the worship of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Herein lies the strongest connection between worship in ancient India and worship in early Christianity. Hinduism, like Christianity, has a triune God concept. The Hindu God Brahma is the Supreme God, but God has three manifestations as Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva. Each of these gods has its own expression and role in the Hindu cosmology. hereas Brahma is…
Bible: Old and New Testament
Das, Subhamoy. "Top 10 Hindu Deities." About.com. Retrieved online: http://hinduism.about.com/od/godsgoddesses/tp/deities.htm
"The Origins of the Universe." BBC. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/rs/environment/hinduismbeliefsrev1.shtml
Moreover, unlike Augustine who criticized the mysticism, the Jewish faith embraces it, however Judaism is more concerned about actions that beliefs (Judaism). In the Jewish law, sex is not considered shameful, sinful or obscene, nor is it a necessary evil for the sole purpose of procreation (Judaism). Although sexual desire comes from the evil impulse, it is no more evil than hunger or thirst, and like hunger, thirst and other basic instincts, sexual desire should be controlled and channeled, satisfied at the proper time, place and manner (Judaism). The primary purpose of sex is to reinforce the marital bond between husband and wife, and since the first and foremost purpose of marriage is companionship, sexual relations play an important role (Judaism). Although procreation is a reason for sex, it is not the only reason (Judaism).
Growing up Catholic, my views of the world, including sex, have been formed much from…
Augustine. City of God. Penguin Classics. 1984.
Jewish Questions. Retrieved November 06, 2005 at http://www.gotquestions.org/Jews-saved.html
Judaism 101. Retrieved November 06, 2005 at http://www.jewfaq.org/beliefs.htm
Newton did believe in God, a divine being, whom he cited as the keeper of balance in the universe. In his Principia, he states that "This most beautiful system of the sun, planets, and comets, could only proceed from the counsel and dominion of an intelligent Being…This Being governs all things, not as the soul of the world, but as Lord over all; and on account of his dominion he is won't to be called "Lord God" (Newton 42). He continues with a listing of the characteristics of this God: "The Supreme God is a Being eternal, infinite, absolutely perfect" (Newton 42). Newton had, in fact, been born into an Anglican family -- but he had also come to maturity during the Age of Enlightenment, which was primarily naturalistic in its worldview. Newton's beliefs in God were similar to those of the Deists. They did not make Newton a Christian…
Newton, Isaac. Principia. NY: Library of Classics, 1953.
Westfall, Richard. The Life of Isaac Newton. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1993.
John Milton's Paradise Lost tells the story of Heaven and Hell both before and after Adam and Eve fell from grace. At the center of Milton epic poem is the story of the character of Satan, a being who has been sent to the underworld to live in agony forever after trying and failing to take over the control of Heaven from God. Satan will spend the rest of eternity amid the demons and monsters that live in what is now his realm. As he was punished for disobeying and daring to challenge God, so he wishes to damn all of God's creations in kind. Mankind is God's newest experiment and thus the subject of Satan's diabolical machinations. Before, God had made angels and other celestial beings that were extremely powerful and thus could pose a challenge to Him. ith man, God took a different position with his…
Anderson, Gary A. "The Fall of Satan in the Thought of St. Ephrem and John Milton." Hugoye:
Journal of Syriac Studies. 3:1. 2000. Print.
Benet, Diana Tevino. "Adam's Evil Conscience and Satan's Surrogate Fall." Milton Quarterly.
39:1. 2005. 2-15. Print.
Horus History Of the Egyptian God, Horus
Horus is one of the most important Egyptian gods and the Pharaoh was seen to be his earthly embodiment. At the same time, the Pharaohs were the followers of Ra and so Horus became associated with the sun as well and was seen as the son of the God, Osiris. In the common perception of Egyptian mythology, Horus is known as one of the offspring of the original pair of Egyptian gods, Ra and Rhea. Horus' siblings were Set, Isis, and Nephthys.
The mythological story continues with Osiris succeeding Ra as king of Egypt. Osiris is credited with bringing civilization to the Egyptians. Among the things he taught them were the uses of corn and wine, weaving, sculpture, religion, music and law. Set slew Osiris, and dismembered the body; but Osiris' consort, Isis, reassembled the body and brought Osiris back to life. Osiris…
1911 Encyclopedia. Horus. May 23, 2004. http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/H/HO/HORUS.htm
Acharya, S. The Christ Conspiracy: The Greatest Story Ever Sold. 2004. Accessed May 23, 2004.
Egyptian Myths. Ancient Egypt: the Mythology. May 24, 2004. http://www.egyptianmyths.net/horus.htm
Horus: He who is above. May 24, 2004. http://members.aol.com/egyptart/hormyth.html
Old Kingdom Egypt
Egypt is known for its cultural and intellectual developments, because the Egyptians were focused on the afterlife. This paper will discuss the religious and cultural role of the pyramids. Funerals were very important to old kingdom Egypt and its conception of immortality. Immortality was the most important goal in the life of an Egyptian, whether they were rich or poor. Old kingdom Egypt began around 2686 BC, when King Menes united lower and upper Egypt and ran unbroken for nearly 3000 years (Koeller, 1999). It was generally run by approximately 30 family dynasties (Underwood, 2004). During this time, many pyramids were built for the rulers when they died. Although the pyramids were spectacular feats of architecture, they were also built for cultural and religious reasons. It was believed that the rulers of old kingdom Egypt were god-kings, and they would ascend from the pyramid after death and…
Koeller, David W. (1999). Old Kingdom Egypt. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/OldKingdom.html
Lamb, Annette, & Johnson, Larry. (2003). The topic: Ancient Egypt. http://www.42explore2.com/egypt.htm
Tangen, Turid. (1996). Pyramid building begins. http://campus.northpark.edu/history/Web Chron/Africa/Pyramids.html
The Great Egyptian Pyramid (2004). http://www.geocities.com/TheTropics/7210/pyramid.htm
ive of God is hardly a romance, though, and has other implications that, even somewhat subtly, convey the author's social and political viewpoint. First, the political system, so intricately surrounding the Pharaoh is shown to be both divisive and efficient. It is efficient in the sense that there is a single authority, and realistically, it would be impossible for a real Pharaoh to have control over all the aspects Smith suggests. The system was also divisive, however, in that while its historical precedents focused on tradition, it was the quality of the human Pharaoh's personality and foibles that set the tone for the nation. Culturally, every aspect of Egypt was shown to be focused on the god-king; yet Smith accurately represents that regardless of the period of history under study, people are people -- with their errant ways, their grandeur, and their hierarchy of being. Sociologically, Smith shows Egypt to…
Smith, W. River of God. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1984.
Religion in Rome vs. Religion in the City of God
In Augustine's The City of God against the Pagans, the theologian-philosopher asserts that the true religion should be identifiable by its fruits -- i.e., the products of its practice. He compares the outcomes of the duties of propitiation practiced in the pagan rituals to the more wholesome duties practiced in the Christian religion to show the main difference between Christian and pagan worship. He notes that the former is respectable and the latter unrespectable. The fault of the pagans, he asserts, is located not necessarily in their lack of reason (as Cicero was highly rational and valued the virtue of truth, as shall be shown) but rather in the faith they placed in the false religion. This paper will show how Augustine distinguishes a true religion from a false religion.
The duty to identify that which is "true" or "most…
Augustine. The City of God against the Pagans. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1998.
Cicero. On Duties. UK: Cambridge University Press, 1991. Print.
People of God
When Is a Person Truly "In" the People of God?
When Is A Person Truly "In" The People Of God?
"Inclusivism" is a term that encompasses a fairly wide range of positions, as J.A. DiNoia notes in his book, The Diversity of eligions. DiNoia's definition is broad enough to encompass both a minimal and a maximal form of inclusivism. The maximal form is asserted by those who believe that "all religious communities implicitly aim at the salvation that the Christian community most adequately commends." Non-Christian religious bodies may think and act as if their ultimate goals are distinctively different from the church's. However, their goals in fact orient them to some degree towards Jesus Christ, and to the extent that they do, their concrete identities may be truthful and their way of life leads to salvation. A minimal version of inclusivism says little or nothing about the…
Congar, Yves. (1964) The Church: The People of God in Concilium, vol. I. New Jersey: Paulist Press, pp. 11 -- 37.
D'Costa, Gavin. (1986) Theology and Religious Pluralism: The Challenge of Other Religions. Oxford: Blackwell.
Rahner, Karl, S.J. (1968) The Theology of Pastoral Action. New York: Herder.
Karl Barth could be understood as an exclusivist on the basis of the way he opposes "religion" to Christianity in his early work. I would say that by his Church Dogmatics period he had more of an inclusivist position, though one that had little bearing upon his ecclesiology. See Church Dogmatics, trans G.W. Bromiley, II/2 (Edinburgh: T&T Clark, 1957), pp. 417f.
Victor and his creature are opposing forces that struggle because of their conflicts throughout Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein. Conflict is the dominant theme of the novel—one that Mary Shelley herself experienced in her own life, being married to the romantic poet Percy Byshe Shelley, who struggled with his own romantic ideas just as Victor Frankenstein struggles with his vain desire to be a Creator in Frankenstein. While Victor Frankenstein does become a Creator, he accomplishes his task ironically because he is a creator of the monster (which becomes of a monster because of Victor’s own incapacity to love him). True, the monster comes into life looking hideous—but that is because he had an uncaring creator; the monster is actually very thoughtful and desires to love and be loved. He attempts to make friends but finds that he is rebuked for his ugliness and driven away into isolation. He then…
..may establish schools for the education and care of the disabled and schools for special education in a way that matches their abilities and aptitudes." This article takes us back to the idea of isolation not integration, by establishing special schools for the disabled. This is a possibility, not an obligation, in accordance with the Minister of Education's inclinations and preferences." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) It is stated in Article 14 that conditions of medical fitness "...should be required for acceptance in all age stages." (Fekry, Saeed, and Thabet, 2006) Specifically stated are the following:
(1) Article no. 1 states "The provisions of the child law shall be applicable and any other provision contradicting with the provisions of the said law shall be abrogated."
(2) Article no. 54 indicates "Free education in the schools of the state is a right of all children."
(3) Article no. 133 states "The…
Mittler, Peter (2003) International Experience in Including Children with Disabilities in Ordinary Schools. Inclusion Theory and Practice. Enabling Education Network. 3 Mar 2003. Online available at: http://www.eenet.org.uk/theory_practice/internat_exp.shtml
Helen Chapin Metz, ed. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1990.
Gaad, Eman (2004) Cross-cultural perspectives on the effect of cultural attitudes towards inclusion for children with intellectual disabilities. International Journal of Inclusive Education. 1 July 2004.
Wormnaes, Siri (2008) Cross-cultural Collaboration in Special Teacher Education: An arena for facilitating reflection? International Journal of Disability, Development and Education Vol. 55, No. 3, September 2008, 205 -- 225
The Conflict of the God's under Diocletian
The oman Empire was in a state of decline. The military had conquered lands as far north as the Germanic tribes, and even crossed the English Channel into the British Isles. They had traveled east to the mountains of modern day Turkey, and west to the arid sand of Spain. As far as the known world stretched, so walked the red clad praetorian guard of the roman legion. However, as the political will to expand the empire waned, and the military discovered that they had reached the end of their supply lines, another war appeared on the horizon. At the heart of the empire, civil war of another kind was developing. The Christian church was expanding throughout the oman Empire. These Christians talked about an everlasting kingdom, and a returning king. They did not bow to the statues in Ephesus, Corinth, or…
Guterman, s. Religious Toleration and Persecution in Ancient Rome. Aiglon Press, 1951
Simmons, M.B. Arnobius of Sicca: Religious Conflict and Competition in the Age of Diocletian. Oxford University, 1995
The Encyclopedia of World History, Sixth edition. Peter N. Stearns, general editor. Houghton Mifflin Company Bartleby.com Accessed 6 Dec 2003. http://www.bartleby.com/67/261.html
Acta Maximiliani250f.; according to M.P. Speidel and M.F. Pavkovic, "Legio II Flavia Constantia at Luxor," AJPh 110 (1989), 152, military dedications of the Diocletianic period follow 'a pattern in which army units pronounce themselves lucky so long as the Emperors are safe'. See Millar (1993), 187 ff.
The real question is not which party is right or wrong, but rather, what lessons can be learned and applied to modern man.
The Warnings in Genesis 7: 21-24
In these verses, we learn that God tried to warn his children, but on the day of the flood, they were still eating and drinking without abandon. They did not heed the final warning. This demonstrates that God was not set on his resolve to destroy humankind. He was acting the part of the father, giving his children one last time to change their ways. God gives his children many chances to repent. It is clear that he wishes them to repent, rather than to destroy them. First, he gives them 120 years, then a final week, and then on the day set for the flood to occur, he gives them one final chance. They can save themselves at any point…
Constable, Thomas. Notes on Genesis. 2005 Edition. [online] 2005. Available at http://soniclight.com/constable/notes/pdf/genesis.pdf .Internet.
Hardy, Randy. What Does Genesis Say About the Genesis Flood? 1999. Available at http://www.amen.org.uk/cl-north/narrativ.htm . Internet.
Hayut-Man, Yitzhak. The Book of Genesis as a Redemptive Scenario and Guide for Re- Biography. The Academy of Jerusalem - New Genesis Exegesis. The HOPE Cyber Library. [online] 1997. Available at http://thehope.tripod.com/TORENOW0.htm . Internet.
Henry, Matthew. Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary. [online] (1706, 2008). Available at http://www.christnotes.org/commentary.php?com=mhc&b=1&c=6 ,Internet' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
This is a reflection her attitude in
which the gods are responsible for her problems inside. She has become a
strong ruler, much like a man, but she is not in touch with spirituality at
all. In fact, she wears a veil to cover her face and hide it from the
truth. Her face had seen the god of the mountain, but she was not ready
for the encounter yet. In her delusion, Orual also says "hy must holy
places be dark places?" which is a reflection on her misunderstanding of
the nature of the gods and of holiness in general (Lewis 259). Orual is
not in touch with the actual positives of god and spirituality, and thus
needs to improve her relationship with the gods.
Ultimately, however, Orual succeeds in conversion. She succeeds in
realizing her errors. She is able to lift the veil from her face and
Lewis, C.S. Till We Have Faces: A Myth Retold. London, UK: Geoffrey Bles,
Though the figure and invocation of God is of course central to the power and purpose of Ezekiel's prophecies against the foreign nations, and indeed in all of his prophecies as a whole, there is also necessarily a great deal of personal power in the voice and words of the prophet. Without this, his exhortations and condemnations would not be heard or heeded. This leads to a third possibility for the essential purpose of his prophecies against the foreign nations -- that of strengthening his position within the community of exiled Israelites.
Despite the commonality of oracles and prophecies condemning and predicting the downfall of foreign nations in the prophets of the Old Testament, it is highly unlikely that these words ever reached the leaders or the people of these foreign nations, or that the prophets or writers of these texts ever intended them to (Tuell 2009, pp.…
Block, D. (1997). The Book of Ezekiel: Chapters 1-24 (Volume 1): The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand rapids, MI: Wm. B. Edermans Publishing.
Block, D. (1998). The Book of Ezekiel: Chapters 25-48 (Volume 2): The New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Grand rapids, MI: Wm. B. Edermans Publishing.
Malick, D. (2009). "An Argument of the Book of Ezekiel." Accessed 15 May 2010. http://bible.org/article/argument-book-ezekiel
Tuell, S. (2009). Ezekie:l New International Biblical Commentary. Peabody, MA: Hendrickson.
Carrabine, Lee and South 193)
As has been said before, the UK no longer makes anything, builds anything or sells anything tangible. The decline in industrial production has resulted in an overall decline in employment of industrial workers, who have not been aided by a failing system to transition to other work.
Some would say that the changes occurring in the UK, at this time with the increased importance of service industry work and intelligence rather than physical labor employment is a natural byproduct of globalization and an evolutionary product of the next phase as a "developed" nation.
They evidence this by observing that all developed nations are leaning in this direction. Yet, the transition has not and will not be easy, whether it is normal or not, a point which remains to be proven.
ith the education system in the UK in serious need of reform…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=5000677576' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Philosophy and Theology
Philosophy is the study of wisdom while theology is the study of God. Some of the earliest and best known classical philosophers are Socrates, Plato and Aristotle. They essentially laid the foundation for Western philosophy by examining such concepts as truth, goodness, virtue, and the meaning of life. Socrates made the claim that God and Truth are basically one and the same: in fact, for Socrates, God, Truth, Goodness, Beauty, and Virtue were all united and of the same essence (Plato, 2010). Theology, on the other hand, largely came into being in Middle Ages in the West thanks to Church Fathers like Augustine and Aquinas. Aquinas basically codified the science of theology in his Summa Theologica -- the Sum of Theology. This was the scholastic view of theology or of how the Medieval world thought of God: it was based on reason and on the philosophical tenets…
Aquinas, T. (1920). Summa Theologica. UK: Fathers of the English Dominican.
Aristotle. (n.d.). Metaphysics. Internet Classics Archive. Retrieved from http://classics.mit.edu/Aristotle/metaphysics.html
Descartes, R. (2013). Meditations on First Philosophy. OR: Oregon State University.
Kant, I. (1892). Critique of Judgment. Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved from Plato. (2010). The Dialouges, vol. 1. Online Library of Liberty. Retrieved from http://lf-oll.s3.amazonaws.com/titles/111/Plato_0131-01_EBk_v6.0.pdf
Armand Nicholi's The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life is a downright unusual book. It places in counterpoint the thought and writings of two men who never met, spoke, or engaged in any important way with each other's writings -- in fact they had little in common apart from both living in Great Britain at the same time for a period of about fourteen months. These men are the Oxford don, C.S. Lewis, an authority on Renaissance literature and a novelist and Christian polemicist, and the psychiatrist Sigmund Freud, still famous as a doctor and theoretician who posited the existence of such concepts as the Oedipus complex, the unconscious, and polymorphous perversity. Freud never read a word that C.S. Lewis wrote, and while it is extremely unlikely that Lewis could have escaped exposure to the widely disseminated ideas of…
Nicholi, Armand. The Question of God: C.S. Lewis and Sigmund Freud Debate God, Love, Sex, and the Meaning of Life. New York: Free Press, 2002. Print.
Christian Church acknowledges its missionary function as truly the core of Christianity, the heart of the Church. Through Christ's teachings, mission is the foreground of His legacy to the Church, the instrument for redemption. The guiding principles at the basis of the Church's mission exist as transparently related by the ible which in itself transcends all worldly knowledge and phenomena. God, as the Holy Trinity, reveals Himself through the biblical record in order to communicate with man candidly and openly, sends His only son into the world in order to claim Him back to the offspring of wholeness, and puts forth a missionary pattern for His followers: "A new commandment I give unto you, That ye love one another; as I have loved you, that ye also love one another." (John 13:34, 15:17 King James ible) "And he said unto them, Go ye into all the world, and preach the…
Abraham, William, James. The Logic of Evangelism. Grand Rapids: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1989.
Blauw, Johannes. The Missionary Nature of the Church. New York, Toronto, London: McGraw-Hill Company Inc., 1974.
Bosch, David, C. Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission. New York: Orbis Books, 1991.
Flett, John, G. The Witness of God: The Trinity, Missio Dei, Karl Barth, and the Nature of Christian Community. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans Publishing Co., 2000.
except a man be born again, he cannot see' namely he can neither understand the nature nor share the blessedness- of the kingdom of God" can best be understood by recourse to William James's discussion on converts. A convert is a man who is born again; who perceives his 'personhood in a different way.
The Personhood or ego, according to James is categorized into two aspects:
The phenomenal self (the experienced self, the 'me' self, the self as known)
The self-thought (the I-self, the self as knower).
It is the way that one perceives the world that shapes this Me/I and, in turn, this Me/I effects the way one perceives the world.
The 'I' is the constant flow of subjective thought that the person has about the self and which makes the person perceive the self, moment per moment, in a certain way
The ME self is divided into three…
James, W. (1890). The Principles of Psychology (2 vols.). New York: Henry Holt (Reprinted Bristol: Thoemmes Press, 1999).
James W. The Varieties of Religious Experience
Wright, NT The Kingdom New Testament: a contemporary translation New York: HarperOne, 2011
exegesis and demonstrate what is needed in order to do a proper exegesis of a passage of scripture. In doing so name at least three different methods of scriptural criticism and explain how they assist in the exegetical task.
In a strictly definitional sense, according to the American Heritage Dictionary, to conduct an "exegesis" merely means to embark upon a critical explanation or analysis of a text. (American Heritage Dictionary, exegesis, 2000) However, this neutral term contains, within its innocent sounding syllables, contains a long history of contentiousness, regarding scriptural interpretation. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis" within the context of scriptural criticism is the branch of theology that investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture. (Catholic Encyclopedia, "exegesis," 2001) The true sense is not merely understood, even by the devout, as a unified study, however.
To conduct an appropriate exegesis one must first understand the literal meaning…
Bokenkotter, Thomas. "The Creed: Faith Essentials for Catholics." From Catholic Update.
"Exegesis." The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. Fourth Edition. 2000.
"Exegesis." The Catholic Encyclopedia. http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/05692b.htm
Guinan. "Christian Spirituality"
THE ROMAN WAY
Rome exerted tremendous pressure on its colonies to conform, and do things in the Roman Way. When in Rome, one does as the Romans do. The Via Romana is a road referring to the Roman way. Rome conquered Alexander's vast empire and then imposed the Imperium (the imperial right to rule) upon the world. Religio-Romana refers to the Roman religion of paganism and polytheism. Roman religion. Romans are to practice Rome's religion without changing it. The Roman practices will be executed as they have always been since the beginning of Roman civilizations. This includes worshipping the Roman emperor as god. The political connection between Rome's religion and the people impose the belief and practice: Roman religion is the truth. Mos Maiorum refers to the living traditions. People are to live their lives according to Roman traditions. This is the daily life of Romans extant in the…
He describes how he dines with the members of Antipas' court, "thus maintaining the table-fellowship connection of Mark and Daniel," (Freyne 98). Therefore, the account of government practices which can be validated by other reliable sources show the New Testament as presenting clear and reliable sources for the historical validity of the figure of Jesus. Thus, modern researchers have found great truths and reliable correlations between the figure of Jesus and the occurrences of government within the ancient world.
The Biblical cannon also present more specified elements of correlation, such as Jesus' relationship with John the Baptist. John was a reliable historical figure, whose existence has long been assumed as historically accurate and backed up with sources verifying his locations and actions during and before the time of Jesus. In fact, the beginning of Jesus' ministry was heavily defined by his relationship with John the Baptist. Very little was recorded…
Blackburn, Barry L. "The Miracles of Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Charlesworth, James H. The Historical Jesus: An Essential Guide. Abingdon Press. 2008.
Freyne, Sean. "The Geography, Politics, and Economics of Galilee and the Quest for the Historical Jesus." Studying the Historical Jesus: Evaluations of the State of Current Research. Eds. Chilton, Bruce & Evans, Craig A. Brill Press. 1998.
Josephus, Flavius. Antiquities of the Jews Book XVII. Christian Classics Ethereal Library. 2009. Retrieved 11 Dec 2009 from http://www.ccel.org/j/josephus/works/ant-18.htm
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Unequal Pairs in Genesis
The source of hostility experienced by humankind has a long record and an intricate web of linked causes and ascription of causes. The highly charged concerns that human beings experience in the contemporary world are as a result of something more central and at the heart of people. Abel and Cain were brothers, but brothers who felt humiliated and threatened by actions and attitudes of each other. They were brothers who sought for exceptional favor and blessings from the same Creator they worshipped in distinctive ways. However, God accepted the sacrifice presented by Abel and rejected that of Cain. The rejection of Cain's sacrifice and acceptance of Abel's sacrifice demonstrate the need for people to choose between salvation and eternal torment, righteousness and wickedness.
The story of Cain and Abel follows upon the tale of sin of humanity, and represents humanity's further estrangement from God. The…
Bible Society in Australia Staff. (2008). Holy Bible: New international version. Australia: Bible Society in Australia Incorporated.
" It caused missionaries to deal with peoples of other cultures and even Christian traditions -- including the Orthodox -- as inferior. God's mission was understood to have depended upon human efforts, and this is why we came to hold unrealistic universalistic assumptions. Christians became so optimistic that they believed to be able to correct all the ills of the world." (Vassiliadis, 2010)
Missiology has been undergoing changes in recent years and after much serious consideration Christians in the ecumenical era "are not only questioning all the above assumptions of the Enlightenment; they have also started developing a more profound theology of mission. One can count the following significant transitions:
(a) From the missio christianorum to the missio ecclesiae;
(b) the recognition later that subject of mission is not even the Church, either as an institution or through its members, but God, thus moving further from the missio ecclesiae to…
Bosch, David Jacobus (1991) Transforming Mission: Paradigm Shifts in Theology of Mission, American Society of Missiology Series; No. 16. Maryknoll, N.Y.: Orbis Books, 1991.
Gelder, Craig Van (2007) the Missional Church in Context: Helping Congregations Develop Contextual Ministry. Volume 1 of Missional Church Series. Missional Church Network Series. Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing 2007.
Guder, Darrell L. (2000) the Continuing Conversion of the Church. Grand Rapids, NI: Eerdmans, 2000.
Hesselgrave, David J> (2007) Will We Correct the Edinburgh Error? Future Mission in Historical Perspective. Southwestern Journal of Theology.Vol. 49 No. 2 Spring 2007.
Revelation 20:1-6 (the Millenium)
The objective of this study is to examine the 1000 years of Revelation 20:1-6 (The Millennium) an exegetical and theological topic therefore the review will be extended beyond only the biblical in terms of research and will examine the views of other scholars in this area of inquiry.
The lue Letter ible states the following in the ook of Revelations, Chapter 20, Verses one through six:
"Then I saw an angel coming down from heaven, holding the key of the abyss and a great chain in his hand. And he laid hold of the dragon, the serpent of old, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him for a thousand years; and he threw him into the abyss, and shut it and sealed it over him, so that he would not deceive the nations any longer, until the thousand years were completed; after these things…
Christianson, D. (2014) Revelation 20: 4-6. The Millennial Kingdom. Retrieved from: http://www.bibletrek.com/files/revelation20.pdf
Four Views on the Millennium (2014) the Blue Letter Bible. Retrieved from: https://www.blueletterbible.org/faq/mill.cfm
The Millennium: Thousand Years Reign of Christ (2014) Apttoteach. Retrieved from: http://www.apttoteach.org/Theology/End%20times/pdf/908_Millennium.pdf
Thomas, Robert L. Revelation 8-22: an exegetical commentary. WEC. Chicago: Moody, 1992, 1995.
In Chapter 5, the great churchman informs us that Water is in fact an apt designation for the Divinity, better than any of the other elements.
Water possess the unique properties of being more moveable than earth (though less movable than air) while at the same time being essential to the creation and sustaining of life, as in the way water must be added to the soil in order for plants to grow.
This signification of matter first conveys its end, that is, that for the sake of which it was made; secondly, its formlessness; thirdly, its service and subjection to the Maker. Therefore, it is first called heaven and earth; for its sake matter was made. Secondly, the earth invisible and without form and darkness over the abyss, that is, the formlessness itself without the light, as a result of which the earth is said to be invisible. Thirdly,…
http://www.questia.com/ PM.qst?a=o&d=101597555' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
They could only be disposed of, as it were, by leases till the year of jubilee, and were then to return to the seller or his heir."
This would preserve familial and tribal heritage as well as prevent the wealthy from being able to incur large masses of land, thus keeping certain families in extreme poverty. It gives all Israelites their liberty, as well as treats them all as equals, as the land would be regenerated every fifty years. "The chief point was that there should never be a build-up of power by a few to control the land and the people; therefore, there was redistribution of the land as it had been divided in the beginning."
Each family or tribe is given the opportunity to return to his or her land, and be renewed. "Those that were sold into other families, thereby became strangers to their own; but in…
Achtemeier, Paul A., Green, Joel B., and Thompson, Marianne Meyer. Introducing the New Testament: Its Literature and Theology. Grand Rapids, MI. William B.
Boadt, Lawrence. Reading the Old Testament. New York, NY. Paulist Press. 1984.
Bruggeman, Walter. An Introduction to the Old Testament. Louisville, KY.
Moltmann and Pannenberg - Theology of Hope
Jeremiah 29:11 - For I know the plans I have for you, declares the LOD, plans for welfare and not for evil, to give you a future and a hope.
A theological shift that took place in the 1960s involved an attempt to understand Christianity based on a deep focus on the awareness of Jesus' impending return and what it would mean for mankind and a hope for the future. As mankind has become increasingly unhappy with society's ills -- crime, evil, violence, hatred, and death -- a hope has developed that is rooted in peace and justice. There are many theologians who have contributed to this body of thought. Jurgen Moltmann and Wolfhart Pannenberg are two such central figures who share many similar perspectives about the theology of hope. This paper looks at them in more detail, as well as some differences…
Hallanger, N. (2008). Reason for Hope: The Systematic Theology of Wolfhart Pannenberg, Second Edition -- By Stanley Grenz. Reviews in Religion & Theology, 15(1), 128-130. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9418.2007.00372_2.x.
Harvie, T. (2008). Living The Future: The Kingdom of God in the Theologies of Jurgen Moltmann and Wolfhart Pannenberg. International Journal of Systematic Theology, 10(2), 149-164. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2400.2007.00275.x.
Moltmann, J. (1993). Theology of hope: On the ground and the implications of Christian eschatology. Minneapolis, MN: First Fortress Press. NIV Life Application Study Bible. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan.
Schweitzer, D. (2012). Ethics of Hope - By Jurgen Moltmann. Religious Studies Review, 38(4), 231. doi:10.1111/j.1748-0922.2012.01647_2.x.
In conclusion, the "miracle" associated with the raising of Lazarus from the dead as described in the Gospel of John holds some very key elements for the true Christian. First, it confirms that Jesus Christ was indeed capable of performing "miracles" that not only helped his fellow people but also supported his divine nature as the one and only "Son of God." ut most importantly, the resurrection of Lazarus and the eventual raising of Jesus Christ from the dead and his ascent into heaven reinforces the faith of all believers that someday they too will follow in His footsteps to become one with God and thus conquer death to live eternally as Jesus himself had promised in the Gospels of the New Testament.
Fuller, Robert H. Interpreting Miracles: A Commentary. London: SCM Press, Ltd., 1976.
Keller, Ernst. Miracles in Dispute: A Continuing Debate. London: SCM Press, Ltd., 1969.
Fuller, Robert H. Interpreting Miracles: A Commentary. London: SCM Press, Ltd., 1976.
Keller, Ernst. Miracles in Dispute: A Continuing Debate. London: SCM Press, Ltd., 1969.
Lightfoot, Robert H. St. John's Gospel. UK: Oxford University Press, 1956.
The New Layman's Parallel Bible. New Testament. King James Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Publishing, 1981.
I agreed with Paul's perspective that the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual and cannot be fully understood by the human mind. I also believe that following death, Christians will not experience a physical rebirth, but expect to live an immortal, spiritual life in heaven. Paul's perspective encourages rebirth as a spiritual phenomenon. I think this belief closely ties with the second view of the resurrection, which is the resurrection occurred only in the imagination or faith of those closest to Jesus. Paul believes the resurrection of Jesus is spiritual, and liberates Christians from death by promising an immortal life in the likeness of Jesus. I feel there is a strong psychological element to this belief that can be explained as faith and the hope for death to not be the end of existence. Paul's point-of-view explains death is not an ending, but the beginning of immortal life. I agree with…
Chidester, D. Patterns of Transcendence: Religion, Death, and Dying. 2nd ed. Belmont, CA:
Wadsworth Publishing, 2001. 169-179. Print.
Kramer, K. The Sacred Art of Dying: How the world Religions Understand Death. Mahwah, NJL
Paulist Press, 1988. 139-152. Print.
The Breath of Life
Throughout scripture the concept of breath represents life. Genesis 2:7
It is evident that we need to breathe to live and that without our respiratory system, we would die. But why is this? Can we know why other than to say that this is how our Creator designed us to be? Perhaps an understanding of our own respiratory system can help us to better understand our Creator? I think so.
What do we find in our nose? A kind of filter that keeps out of our lungs harmful particles and spores that would otherwise pollute them. This can be a symbol of how we should filter our minds of impure thoughts so as to keep our souls clean. It can also be a symbol of how important God's grace is in our souls -- it is to our souls as oxygen is to our bodies.…
South Bend, IN: St. Augustine's Press.
Sheen, F. (1951). Three to Get Married. Princeton, NJ: Scepter Publishers.
Holy Bible, New Living Translation. (2004). IL: Tyndale House Publishers.
American Religious History
Defining fundamentalism and liberalism in Christianity is hardly an exact science, especially because prior to about 1920 there was not even a term for fundamentalism as it exists today. hile present-day fundamentalists often claim descent from the Puritans and Calvinists of the 17th and 18th Centuries, Puritans were not really fundamentalists in the modern sense. They were not in conflict with 20th Century-style liberals and supporters of evolution and Higher Criticism because those did not yet exist. As George McKenna put it "if there were no liberalism there would be no fundamentalism" to react against it (McKenna 231). Today, about one-third of Americans define themselves as evangelical Protestants, and all Republican Party politicians have to make appeals to the Christian Right (Hankins 1). In 1976 there were at least fifty million 'born again' evangelical Protestants in the United States, and today their numbers may be as high…
Carpenter, Joel A. Revive Us Again: The Reawakening of American Fundamentalism. Oxford University Press, 1997.
Gilkey, Langdon. On Niebuhr: A Theological Study. University of Chicago Press, 2002.
Hankins, Barry. American Evangelicals: A Contemporary History of a Mainstream Religious Movement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2008.
Longfield, Bradley J. The Presbyterian Controversy: Fundamentalists, Modernists and Modernity. Oxford University Press, 1991.
It is accepting Jesus as the Son of God or even a spiritual figure that many cannot grasp. In this regard, history can be interpreted as too narrow for an understanding of Jesus. In fact, history is often interpreted as too narrow for religious or spiritual belief of any sort. These types of historical documents and data are labeled mythology. Because Jesus' arrival coincided with a great deal of relatively recent mythology such as Greek mythology, the Epic of Gilgamesh, and others, many students of history may find it easy to lump all of these spiritual beliefs together as myths. Similarly, that Jesus performed miracles is a second facet of Jesus' existence that many have a hard time grasping. Some, who believe in practicality and science above the spiritual, suggest that he was simply performing tricks that the uneducated population did not know any better than to accept. Thus, while…
This made the religion even more appealing. For example, because Christianity was born from Jewish traditions, it could be accepted by Jews; because of it's mystical attributes, Greek and other Orientals found it attractive. As a philosophy, Christianity was appealing because it offered solutions to many of the problems that ailed the world. In addition, its monotheism gave not only God but also man a place in the universe. Its promise of an afterlife provided mysticism and answers to many of the fears and worries that plague mankind. People had a reason to believe in a good God. John Crossan asserts, "God will act to restore justice in an unjust world" (Crossan 283). Indeed, the mystical aspect of this religion was very appealing because it was good. Even faith - faith in God, Jesus, and one's fellow man - becomes a significant factor in Christianity.
Christianity was a movement that…
Crossan, John. The Birth of Christianity. San Francisco: Harper Collins Publishers. 1998.
Goodman, Martin. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.
Hastings, Adrian. A World History of Christianity. Grand Rapids: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co. 1999.
Stegemann, Ekkehard. The Jesus Movement. Minneapolis: Fortress Press. 1989.
eligion and Politics
Some groups hold the view that faith groups and other institutions have a very significant role to play within the political arena and that they have a duty to enter the political fight and they expect the government to remain supportive of this obligation. However, the argument of this article suggest that religious / faith groups and institutions should never have the chance of forming political parties and they should never try to posses influence in the workings of government for their views as well as values by finding their way to the realm of political discourse and any attempts to elect their own politicians.
Different countries have their varying degrees of separation between government or politics and religious institutions. A number of countries have moved a head and set up explicit barriers between church and state since the 1780s. The constitution of the United States has…
Daniel L. Dreisbach (2006) "The Mythical "Wall of Separation": How a Misused Metaphor Changed Church -- State Law, Policy, and Discourse." Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2006/06/the-mythical-wall-of-separation-how-a-misused-metaphor-changed-church-state-law-policy-and-discourse
James Leon Holmes and Jeremy Holmes (2003) From Aristotle to Jefferson: Christianity and the Separation of Church and State. Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://cssronline.org/CSSR/Archival/2003/Holmes%2520article.pdf
Jefferson, Thomas (1802). Jefferson's Letter to the Danbury Baptists. U.S. Library of Congress.
Locke, John (2002). Political Writings. Cambridge Texts in the History of Political Thought.Ed. Mark Goldie. CUP: Cambridge, Retrieved May 28, 2014. http://www.iep.utm.edu/locke-po/
25. How does New Age spirituality differ from that of Eastern mysticism?
Although the New Age readily embraces Eastern mysticism, it diverges from the old Eastern traditions because the New Age is more of a "hybrid spirituality," (131). The New Age combines Eastern and estern mystical beliefs. Eastern religions are not tailored for the modern world so the New Age mutates Eastern traditions to best suit the needs of the modern lifestyle.
26. How is paganism related to the New Age movement?
Paganism is integrally related to the New Age movement. Evidence of this can be found on any New Age bookstore shelf. The New Age movement is not necessarily demonic, as many modern witches do not believe in Satan, but neo-pagans assert a belief in a Goddess. Many New Agers support pre-Christian pagan beliefs and shamanism as well.
27. How does the eastern element of New Age spirituality contrast…
Groothuis, Douglas R. Unmasking the New Age. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press, 1986.
In the "Odyssey" Achilles says to Odysseus, that it is better to be a living dog than honored in Hades.
Submission to fate is ultimately what the Greeks seem to honor as a 'good' attitude. Oedipus the King finally accepts his cursed status, rather than fleeing from it, and from the beginning of her life, Antigone seems to anticipate that she will meet with an unhappy end. Although she is betrothed to marry, she does not seem to see her future as a married woman as an obligation that supersedes her obligation as a sister, and even says that because she can only have one brother, unlike a husband; obligations to the family come before everything. The play seems to suggest that this is valid, given the wrath that falls upon Creon's head. But evil also falls upon the heads of the innocent, because of the actions of the guilty,…
Sophocles. "Antigone." The Norton Anthology of World Literature. 2nd edition. Edited by Lawall & Mack. Vol. a.