Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Koran and Genesis
A Comparison of the Joseph Narrative in Genesis and in the Koran
Both Genesis and the Koran give a history of the story of Joseph, who was betrayed by his brothers and taken into slavery. While the story appeared first in the Book of Genesis, the Koran offers a kind of commentary on the Hebrew history. This paper will compare and contrast the two versions of the story of Joseph, analyzing how the two narratives offer different interpretations for two different religious communities.
The story of Joseph is found in chapters 37-50 of the Book of Genesis in the Hebrew history, known in Christianity as the Old Testament. From the perspective of the New Testament, Joseph takes on a symbolic nature. Like Jesus, Joseph is betrayed by his people, is presumed dead (by his father Jacob) but is "resurrected." Like Jesus he becomes a servant and then…
hy would alcohol benefit the heart? The Mayo Clinic (http://www.mayoclinic.com) explains that a moderate amount of alcohol helps raise the "good" cholesterol in the body. A moderate amount of alcohol also lowers the blood pressure and "inhibits the formation of blood clots." Also, red wine in particular helps the heart (more than any other type of alcoholic drink), according to the research in the Mayo Clinic. This is interesting because at the time that Allah gave these instructions to Muhammad (through angels), red wine was about the only type of fermented beverage other than beer.
Red wine, according to a Danish study from the year 2000 (the "Copenhagen City Heart Study") that is quoted by the Mayo Clinic, contains "Flavonoids." The flavonoids are actually antioxidants and in red wine the antioxidants are at a higher level than those found in oranges, apples, tea and onions. Also red wine has "nonflavonoids"…
Dawood, N.J. (1999). The Koran. New York: Penguin Books.
Daragahi, Borzou, & Hameed, Saif. (2008). Coordinated Baghdad bombs kill 55. The Los
Angeles Times, A3.
Encarta. (2002). September 11 Attacks. MSNBC. Retrieved March 5, 2008, at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_701509060_2/september_11_attacks.html.
In the Koran, Muhammad is advising some who want to join the war against the pagans to stay by their mothers and go on in taking care of them, assuring them that it is as worthy in God's eyes as fighting for Him in a battle.
y the time Muhammad had his first revelations, Islam came as a tool of God imposing social justice in a world that was divided between tribal wars where women were simple objects in theirs husbands' and fathers' hands. Social justice is also including a fair attitude toward them and it is acting like a book that guarantees their fundamental rights for the first time in the Arabic world, long before they got any rights in the Western world.
It is true that polygamy was allowed by the Koran, but one has to envision it in the frame of a world divided by tribal fights…
Badawi, Jamal a. "The Status of Women in Islam." Islam for Today. 17 Mar 2007. Retrieved: 6 Aug 2007. Available at http://www.islamfortoday.com/womensrightsbadawi.htm
Maqsood, Ruqaiyyah Waris. "Islam, Culture and Women." Islam for Today. 17 Mar 2007. Retrieved: 6 Aug 2007. Available at http://www.islamfortoday.com/womensrightsbadawi.htm
Quran and Women." 2001, Hashmi Human Resources Development Society. Retrieved: 6 Aug 2007 Available at http://www.hashmitrust.com/htm/women&quran.htm
The Status of Women in Islam." Muslim Students Association. 24 Mar 2004. Retrieved: 6 Aug 2007. Available at http://www.mtsu.edu/~msa/women2.htm
We learn from Genesis that God was roaming in the garden and had to call out for Adam and Eve while they were hiding behind the trees. However in the Koran, God is instrinctively aware of what Adam and Eve had done and there is no calling out and looking around for them because God knows where they are.
We have always been told that God is aware of what we are going through. He is looking out for us. But how would He look out for us if He doesn't know where we are. Genesis thus sends a wrong message to the people while Koran doesn't make that mistake and shows God as the strong One that He truly is.
After the sin is committed, both Adam and Eve start hiding their naked bodies as they are reproached by God for what they have done. That is what happens…
Savasan Yurtsever, The Bible or The Koran, http://assets.booklocker.com/pdfs/157s.pdf
The Koran: Selected Suras (Dover Thrift Editions) by Arthur Jeffery (Paperback - Dec 21, 2000)
Ernest Valea. The human condition in world religion. http://www.comparativereligion.com/man.html
James Abdul Rahim Gaudet, Rabia Mills. Islam and Christianity
Beowulf and the Koran
In some sense, both Beowulf and the Koran can be understood as adaptations of standard Judeo-Christian scripture to specific culture contexts: each text actually relies upon the previously existing text of the Bible to establish its own bona fides. Yet it is unclear in both cases to what extent this relation bears. In the case of Beowulf, some scholars have argued that the Christian-themed passages in the poem are a later insertion. In the case of the Koran, obviously many of the central tenets of Christianity and Judaism are overturned completely. But in both cases what we are witnessing is an attempt to create a culturally-specific text that can approach the subject of the purpose and meaning of life, while adapting elements of the central western religious tradition and scripture in order to establish the seriousness of the newer text.
In Beowulf, presumably, an older pagan…
Ali, A. Yusuf (Translator). The Holy Qur'an. Sacred-Texts.com. Web. Accessed 15 April 2014 at: http://sacred-texts.com/isl//quran/
Heaney, Seamus (Translator). Beowulf: A New Verse Translation. New York and London: Norton, 2000. Print.
The objective of this study is to consider how the language, arrangement and general compositional strategies of the text in the Quran result in a particular understanding of Allah's love of man and man's love of Allah.
For the reader of the Quran who has never encountered the writings love may not be at first obvious to the reader. However, when better understanding the context of the Quran and the meaning that hit holds for believers of the Muslim faith, it is clear that love is interwoven throughout the entirety of the Quran.
Love of God for Humans
According to the work of Ghazali the love of God for human beings in the Quran is God drawing people "nearer to Himself by warding off distractions and sins from [them]…"( Ghazi, 2012, p.12) The word 'mahabbah' is used for 'love' in the statement as follows:
"In its ordinary use, 'love'…
Ghazi, HRH Prince (2012) Love in the Holy Quran. Revised 6th Ed. Retrieved from: http://main.altafsir.com/LoveInQuranIntroEn.asp#.UwXan_ldUtQ.
Where is the Love in the Quran? (2014) On Islam. Retrieved from: http://www.onislam.net/english/ask-about-islam/ethics-and-values/muslim-character/168414-wheres-the-love-in-the-quran.html
Mahally, F. (nd) A study of the word "love" in the Qur'an. Retrieved from: http://www.answering-islam.org/Quran/Themes/love.htm
Non- Muslim scholars have made speculations about the dates and authenticity of the Quran, accounts of Islamic history and the Sira literature. The literatures have elicited a wide range of responses from Muslims. Others dismiss the ideas as fantasies from unbelievers, whereas others view them as dangerous attacks from the enemy designed to undermine the true faith. Apart from literary sources, other historians have tried to make speculations using graffiti, abandoned settlements, coins, inscriptions, glassware, coins, pottery, and mile makers who used caravan routes to shed some light on Islamic history, especially through the religion's prophetic role among the selected; Prophet Muhammad. These sources depict a mythological perspective and truth based on the history, life and role of prophecy in completing the principles of Islam according to Prophet Muhammad.
According to Islamic sources, Muhammad's prophetic career started two decades prior; around the 610 when he was forty years…
Haleem, A.M.A.S. The Qu'ran: A New Translation. London: Oxford, 2005.
Hisham, I.A., Ishaq, I.M., Guillame, A. The Life Of Muhammad. Chicago: Oxford University Press, 1998.
Sells, M.A. Approaching The Quran. Virginia: White Clouds Press Virginia, 2007.
Shephard, W. Introducing Islam. New York: Routledge, 2009.
Esposito finds that the premodernist revival movements of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries contributed to the pattern of Islamic politics that developed and left a legacy for the twentieth century. These movements were motivated primarily in response to internal decay rather than external, colonial threat (Esposito 40-41).
At the same time, many areas of the Islamic world experienced the impact of the economic and military challenge of an emerging and modernizing est beginning in the eighteenth century. Declining Muslim fortunes also reversed the relationship of the Islamic world to the est, from that of an expanding offensive movement to a defensive posture. Muslim responses to these changes ranged from rejection to adaptation, from Islamic withdrawal to acculturation and reform. Some responded by secular reform, and by the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Islamic modernist movements had also developed in an attempt to bridge the gap between tradition and modernity…
Ahmed, Leila. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University, 1992.
Islamic Liberalism. Chicago: Chicago University Press, 1988.
Eickelman, Dale F. The Middle East: An Anthropological Approach. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, 1989.
In some ways, the men who practice violence against women and attempt to control them to the degrees that the Taliban has decreed are simply carrying out the violence and the repression that was practiced against them; though it serves no constructive purpose and is indeed highly detrimental both to women and to the country as a whole, the Taliban's action against the women is at least partially a result of the cultural psychological repression that Afghanistan has suffered for thirty years. That, and the fact that a common enemy in women makes the Taliban that much stronger in its operations and control of the government and society as a whole, can be seen as the primary psychological motives for the Taliban's treatment of women.
Women in Islam
According to the Taliban themselves, however, their actions and attitudes towards women simply carry out strict Islamic law, and are necessary for…
Sengupta, Kim. "Abuse of Afghan women: 'It was my decision to die. I was getting beaten every day'." The Independent, 24 November 2006. Accessed 20 February 2010. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/asia/abuse-of-afghan-women-it-was-my-decision-to-die-i-was-getting-beaten-every-day-425580.html .
Skaine, Rosemarie. The Women of Afghanistan Under the Taliban. Jefferson, NC: McFarland, 2000.
Dhimmis (minorities of other religions) participated as equal citizens in this renaissance and Muslim scholars made more scientific discoveries during this time than in the whole of previously recorded history (Goldschmidt & Davidson, 2007). The break between the hiis (those who considered Ali to be legitimate ruler of the nation) and the unnis (those who revered Muhammad and all four rashidun) occurred during this period. Mystic Islam (best known as ufism), or esoteric groups were born during this period as well as Muslim philosophy.
Today, approximately 80-90% of Moslems are unnis whilst 10-20% are hiites. The key difference between unnis and hiites is that unnis believe that the first four caliphs were rightful successors to Mohamed and that caliphs should be chosen by the whole community. The alafi sect (otherwise notoriously known as Wahabbissm) is an extreme Islamic movement derived from unnism. hiites, on the other hand, believe in the…
Armstrong, K. (2000). Islam: A Short History The Modern Library: UK.
Brown, D. (1999). Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought Cambridge: Cambridge Univ,. Press
Goldschmidt, A. & Davidson, L. (2010) A concise history of the Middle East Boulder, CO: Westview Press
Hourani, A. (1991) A History of the Arab People London: Penguin
The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?
Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.
If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…
And just as different divisions of Christianity are more or less fundamentalist in their interpretation of religious texts and traditions, different divisions of Islam are more or less strict. The most fundamentalist version of Islam, one that is primarily associated with Saudi Arabia, is Wahhabism. Muslims who follow this minority version of Sunni believe that they are the only true Muslims and that other branches of Islam are illegitimate (Cleveland, 2004, p.123). In some ways, the division between Wahhabism is like that between Catholics and Protestants during the eformation and Counter-reformation or that between Orthodox and eform Judaism. All major religions have internal divisions, and all major religions -- including also Hinduism and Buddhism -- can be organized along a spectrum from most conservative to most liberal.
Some followers of Wahhabi Islam have been responsible for horrific violence. There is no justification for their actions. It is true that --…
Cleveland, W.L. (2004). A history of the modern middle east. (3rd ed.) Boulder: Westview Press.
Jenkins, P. (2009, March 8). Dark passages. Retrieved from http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2009/03/08/dark_passages/ .
The Koran preaches that "the message of Abraham was the very same as Muhammad's, but it would become corrupted by the Jews" (Kjeilen para. 15). In the Koran, Abraham is a messenger who teaches others about the Islamic God. Kjeilen writes that sources outside the Koran tell many stories about Abraham, one of which includes his circumcision. This is not nearly as significant as it is in the Hebrew texts.
Thus, both religions use the hero of Abraham to evoke their missions. The Biblical Abraham makes a compact with the Jewish God and resigns himself to Judaism. In Islam, however, Abraham is a hero in that he is a prophet, spreading the Islamic message to those who have not heard.
Brians, Paul. "The Story of Abraham, from the Hebrew Bible." ashington State
University. 1998. Department of English. 10 June 2009.
Kjeilen, Tore. "Abraham/Ibrahim." Look Lex Encyclopedia. 2009. 10…
Brians, Paul. "The Story of Abraham, from the Hebrew Bible." Washington State
University. 1998. Department of English. 10 June 2009.
Kjeilen, Tore. "Abraham/Ibrahim." Look Lex Encyclopedia. 2009. 10 June 2009.
Abdal-Hakim Murad, in his "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam," generally makes the point that violence against civilians and innocents is not in accordance with Islamic scholarship or tradition. According to Murad, it was a 19th century Iranian reformer called "the Bab" who "ignored the accumulated discussion of the centuries and wrote a Koranic commentary based on his own direct understanding of scripture." (Murad) Over time, Murad asserts that this led to many Muslim groups ignoring Islamic tradition and making their own pronouncements on what the Koran means. One of these groups were the ahhabi Muslims of Saudi Arabia, who traditionally have been considered "heretics" by mainstream Islamic scholars, but with the influx of oil money in the 1960's, began to export this extreme view of Islam around the world. Because of their seeming ability to decide the meaning of the Koran, Muslims who follow this type of…
"Al Qaeda in its Own Words." (2008). ed. By Kepel, Gilles and Jean-Pierre Milelli. Cambridge Mass: Harvard UP. Print.
Murad, Abdal-Hakim. "Bin Laden's Violence is a Heresy Against Islam." Islam For Today. Retrieved from www.islamfortoday.com
Qutb, Sayyid. Milestones. Indianapolis: American Trust, 1990. Print.
Any of these conflicts might seem limited when they start, but given the cultural differences involved, at any time they could turn into a broader cultural war involving not a small part of the Middle East but all of it, and that sort of war would be a major threat to world civilization, a Huntington shows in his book.
Khater (2004) offers a look at many documents of Middle Eastern history, documents written by participants and observers of events and trends from the eighteenth to the twentieth century. A survey of these documents helps show how the West has gotten the issues wrong numerous times an how the Islamic countries fail to understand the nature of the West at the same time. Of particular note are the many diplomatic cables and other correspondence addressing the situation in Iran before the revolution and the return of Ayatollah Khomeini in the 1970s,…
Cleveland, W.L. (1999). A History of the Modern Middle East. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press.
Gelvin, J.L. (2008). The Modern Middle East: A History. New York, (2nd Edition) Oxford University Press.
Gumley, F. & Redhead, B. (1992). The Pillars of Islam. London: BBC Books.
Huntington, S.P. (1993, Summer). The Clash of Civilizations? Foreign Affairs, 22-49.
Islam and Human Rights
a Critique of Contemporary Muslim Approaches
The basic objective of this research is note the errors that are committed by Muslims in their argument of human rights in Islam or in other words to explore possible means of formulation of a more coherent alternative expression of values to point out the errors committed by Muslims in their attempt to argue the case of human rights in Islam in the hope that efforts and resources expended in that direction can be derived to a more agreeable end; which is the exploration of possible means of formulating a more coherent alternative expression of values to the so-called "Islamic human rights."
A considerable amount of literature has been produced on these issues by competent Muslim thinkers and scholars but because they either
purposefully or 2) inadvertently chose to follow almost the same style as explored in the Western tradition…
Hassan, Riffat, Ph.D. ( ) Are Human Rights Compatible with Islam? The Issue of the Rights of Women in Muslim Communities, University of Louisville, KY [Online available at: http://www.religiousconsultation .org/hassan2.htm
Islam 101 "Human Rights in Islam" 2005 [Online available at: http://www.islam 101. com/rights/index.Htm 'Allamah Abu Al'A'la Mawdudi at Tawid Journal 'Vol.. IV No. 3 Rajah-Ramadan 1407 ajab-Ramadahan 1407 Human Rights in Islam.]
These Gods subjugated humans in a way that never happened in other primitive river-valley cultures yet seemed to follow a political will as the concept evolved. This finally culminates in the marriage between the God of Above, Nergal, lord of Summer, Growth and Heat; and the Goodness of the Below, Ereshkigal, queen of the underworld, inter, the Cold, and of Death. e now have opposites, attracted, and yet polarized in deed, action, and even interpretation (Messadie, 1996, 90-7).
This conception then seems to flow mythologically out of the Middle East into other cultures; we have the trickster, the shadow, the evil one, and even the unknown. However, considering the geographical location of the Abrahamic religions, it is logical that there would be a cross-over from the archetype that would manifest itself within these religious traditions.
Satan in Judaism -- in traditional Judaic thought, there is no conception of the Devil…
Jews Believe in the Satan, and Not in the Devil. (2003, March). Retrieved November 2010, from What Jews Believe: http://whatjewsbelieve.org/explanation7.html
Anderson, W. (2010). Dante the Maker. Brooklyn, NY: S4N Books.
Bowker, J. (1997). The Oxford Dictionary of World Religions. New York: Oxford University Press.
Catchpool, D. (2002). The Koran vs. Genesis. Creation, 24(2), 46-51.
Byzantine Empire in the Eastern Mediterranean that extended from Syria, Egypt up to and across North Africa is seen to have made significant contact with the emerging Islamic world in the period from seventh and ninth Centuries. The seventh century saw the vast territories in these regions being ruled by the Byzantine Empire from Constantinople, the now Istanbul. These Southern provinces or territories were greatly influenced by the Greco-oman traditions and formed the home of Coptic, Orthodox and Syriac Christians and Jewish communities. These regions were critical to the wealth and the power of the empire. Great centers for pilgrimage saw large numbers of faithful visit the place coming from as far off as Yemen towards the East and Scandinavia towards the West. There were also major trade routes that extended all the way to India in the South that saw ferrying of silk and ivories into the region, commerce…
Cunningham & Reich, (n.d.: Pp 162). Byzantium.
Rosenberg K., (2012). Ornate Links Tethering Cultures in Flux. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.nytimes.com/2012/03/16/arts/design/byzantium-and-islam-age-of-transition-at-the-met.html?_r=1& ;
The Metropolitan Museum of Art, (2012). Byzantium and Islam Age of Transition. Retrieved June 6, 2014 from http://www.metmuseum.org/exhibitions/listings/2012/byzantium-and-islam
Confucianism, Catholicism and Islam between 1450 and 1750.
Three major religions, located at diverse axes of the world, Catholicism, Confucianism, and Islam, were faced with similar problems and challenges in the years between 1450 and 1750. Catholicism encountered a militant Protestant Reformation in the shape of Martin Luther King that espoused religion whilst criticizing the Pope. Confucianism, in the shape of the renowned philosopher and politician Wang Vangming, grappled with a future that threatened to challenge its traditional learning and way of life whilst Wahhabism introduced fundamentalist religion into an Islam that had gradually become more secular and detached from the Koran-simulated way of life. The following essay elaborates on their individual problems and challenges.
Luther's Protestantism effectively ended the many years of sole religious monopoly that the Catholic Church had on Europe. At the same time, Catholicism was also threatened by the new Humanism that tentatively insisted, first…
Sources. (vol. 2) Bedford; New York, *.
1 Strayer, p.751
2 Strayer. p.755
This has caused a divide in Iran, where traditionalists want to save the old religious and moral values, while many people want to bring more changes to Iran, like democracy and true free elections. This has created a rift in the country, and has caused unrest and even hatred of western values. That is one of the things that has caused Muslim fundamentalists in Iran (and elsewhere in the Middle East), to declare a war on American and westernization. This shows that modernization is not always a positive change, and that some countries simply do not need or want modern conveniences if it means they come along with western values. It is a time of social change in the country, and it is certain that more changes will happen in Iran today and in the future.
Mahmoodshahi, eza. "Westernization: A New Motif for evolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mahmoodshahi, Reza. "Westernization: A New Motif for Revolution in Iran." Published:12/15/2002.
Mirsepassi, Ali. Intellectual Discourse and the Politics of Modernization: Negotiating Modernity in Iran. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 2000.
Rinehart, James F. Revolution and the Millennium: China, Mexico, and Iran. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 1997.
Salehi, M.M. Insurgency through Culture and Religion: The Islamic Revolution of Iran. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1988.
Stoning of Soraya M
Stoning is not prescribed in the current version of the Koran. Islamic law (Sharia) requires that adulterers be put to death, since it was the example set by Muhammad. In practice, the women are executed far more often, since they are presumed to bear the burden of sexual responsibility. ape victims are sometimes convicted if they speak out. eporting a rape means a confession of adultery under Sharia law if four male witnesses cannot be found to confirm the victim's claim. Numerous examples of stoning adulterers under Islamic law persist, from the Islamist frontier of Somalia to the modern state of Iran. In 2010, the Taliban planted a couple having unauthorized sex in the ground and brutally pelted them with stones only a few days after they flogged a pregnant woman 200 times and then shot her in the head. In "condemning" the killings, the "moderate"…
Cannon, C.M. (2010). Soraya M., stoned to death for being an "inconvenient wife." Politics Daily. The HuffPost Politics. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.politicsdaily.com/2009/05/13/he-who-casts-the-first-stone/
"Somali rape victom stoned to death was 13." (2009, February 11) CBSNews.com. From the Associated Press. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/11/01/world/main4562850.shtml
"Stoning adulterers." (NDI). TheReligionofPeace.com. Retrieved January 30, 2013, from http://www.thereligionofpeace.com/Quran/001-adultery_punishment.htm
The ole of eligion in the Middle East Conflict
The Middle East is the cradle of the main religions of the world (Molloy, 1942). Despite this fact, the region has experience hatred and violence for many years. The two main religions involved in the conflict are Jewish and Islam. Many Arab nations portray the ongoing conflict between them and Israel as a war against their religion. In this regard, they wage war as a basis of incitement of other Arab and non-Arab nations against Israel. According to Hama (1994), the endless conflict between Arabs and Israel may not be exactly a land issue or a war between nations but a mindless pursuit to defend Arab nationalism from the israeli threat. The founder of Islam, Mohhamad cultivated the idea of jihad as a way of influencing the spread of Islam by using forceful strategies. Arab Muslim countries have perfected this…
Hama, K. (1994, July 26). A Window-opening view of the dark, mindet so prevalent in the Arab world. Syrian Daily .
Israel Science and Technology Directory. (2012). Is improving economic conditions for Palestinian Arabs conducive to peace? Retrieved March 1, 2012, from www.science.co.il: http://www.science.co.il/
Molloy, M. (1942). Experiencing the world's religions: tradition, challenge, and change. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.
Prager, D., & Telushkin, J. (2003). Why the Jews?: The Reason for Antisemitism. New York:
Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society
It is the habit of history to study several cultures as if they have developed independently of one another, and entirely different. The results of national and regional pride are evident in the manner in which history is retold, as each civilization builds the future of its own region and develops its own regional differences and standards, each is often studied as if it has developed in a vacuum. Within the primary sources of the foundational societies that encompass the history of today's world there are many differences to be found; yet there is also a clear indication that Early Medieval Western Society, Byzantine Society and Islamic Society all developed within the context of the Ancient Roman Civilization, with all the resulting effects. Additionally, they all developed feudal and manorial institutions in response to internal and external pressures of encroachment. In short…
According to Bass, "Hinduism is the only major religion lacking an adequate explanation as to its origin," as no definitive Hindu text exist that that date before 1000 B.C. Indeed, because Hinduism is one of the religions that views time as cyclical rather than linear, what information is available about Hinduism does not give a very accurate picture of its history (Bass 5). hat can be gleaned from this history is the fact that Hinduism is one of the oldest religions with one of the oldest societies in the world. Just as their origins are difficult to define, the beliefs of Hinduism are varied depending on one's personal interpretation of the religion. However, one of the more important aspects of Hinduism is its social caste system. This belief states that there are four casts, and each "has its rules and obligation for living." The three castes are Brahman, priests, hatriyas,…
"A Concise History of Islam and the Arabs." Mid East Web. n.d. 11 June 2009.
Abdullah, Mohd Habibullah Bin. "The Story of Creation in the Quar'an and Old
Testament." Bismika Allahuma. 15 October 2005. 11 June 2009.
The already shaky relationship between the Qatar state and Iranian society was further undermined by the Western exploitation of Iranian resources during the second half of the nineteenth century.
From 1918 until 1921 "British subsidies kept the government afloat, and British military and administrative advisers attempted to reorganize Iran's army and to manipulate the various political factions within the country to British advantage" (Cleveland, 185)*. When Britain added insult to injury by offering Iran a loan in exchange for exclusive advisory privileges, anti-imperial demonstrations broke out in several cities. Widespread discontent grew further. The Qatar government was regarded as ineffective and pro-British. A determined military commander finally took action and put a stop to the chaos.
Reza Khan used the political climate to advance from the position of commander and chief of the army in 1921 to that of the shah of Iran in 1925. His election overthrew the Qatar…
Jewish, Christian Islamic belief? How religions compare ? Talk discussion: Judaism: Creation Patriarchs Prophets Kings the Bible Literature Early
Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are three of the most renowned religions in the world and this is reflected by the number of followers supporting each religious ideology and by their background. In spite of the fact that there have been many conflicts between individuals following these three religions, they have a lot of similarities. The concepts that they put across made it possible for numerous individuals to express interest in wanting to live in accordance with their laws and gradually made them three of the most important religions in the world. hile one might find it difficult to compare these religions due to their complex background, it is actually not very difficult to find correlations and differences between the three.
Christianity, Islam, and Judaism are all monotheistic religions and they all…
Busse, Heribert, Islam, Judaism, and Christianity: theological and historical affiliations, (Markus Wiener Publishers, 1998)
Kleiner, Fred S. Gardner's Art Through the Ages: A Concise Western History, (Cengage Learning, 2010)
Ruthven, Malise, Islam: A Very Short Introduction, (Oxford University Press, 2012)
Von Harnack, Adolf, What is Christianity?, (Fortress Press, 1987)
In spite of the conflicts between the world's great monotheistic faiths, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam share much in common. Each of these religions was born in the Middle East, and each of these religions values sacred texts as being important ways for human beings to receive the word and knowledge of God. As monotheistic religions, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam eschew idol worship or the worship of Gods that are not their own. At the same time, these religions have very similar concepts of God. The Gods of each of these four religions in omniscient, omnipotent, and omnipresent: a concept of God that actually originated with Zoroastrianism ("God, Zoroaster, and Immortals," n.d.). Zoroastrianism is the oldest of these four faiths, followed by Judaism. The followers of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are collectively referred to as "people of the Book" because all value the Hebrew Bible, which is known…
"Basic Beliefs of the Qur'an." Retrieved online: http://people.ucalgary.ca/~elsegal/I_Transp/IO4_QuranBeliefs.html )
"God, Jesus, and the Saints." BBC Religions. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/beliefs/basics_1.shtml
"God, Zoroaster, and Immortals." BBC Religion. Retrieved online: http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/zoroastrian/beliefs/god.shtml#findoutmore
Huda. Allah (God) in Islam. Retrieved online: http://islam.about.com/od/godallah/a/god.htm
Most of the people would define a myth as a story. But this is not the correct meaning of a myth. The debate over the accurate meaning of myth has been going through since last 2000 years. The most generally accepted definition of a myth is that, myths are stories regarding the gods. They are sacred stories and they give an explanation about the way the world is. They are traditional stories that contain knowledge and information. (Pinch 1-5)
Mythological stories have been told by the Egyptians for thousands of years. They, however, properly started recording and writing these mythological stories from 2000 BC. In the ancient times the Egyptians had a number of gods. People belonging to different regions had different gods whom they worshiped. ith the development of society, people of different regions started living together, and the stories regarding the culture, traditions, religion and way…
Bbc.co.uk. "BBC - History - Ancient History in depth: Ancient Egypt and the Modern World." 2010. Web. 1 May 2013. .
Center for Future Consciousness. "Ancient Myth, Religion, and Philosophy." 2013. Web. 1 May 2013. .
David A., Warburton. "Myth as the Link between Event and History." IBAES X. 283-292. Web. 1 May. 2013. .
Dijk, Jacobus. Myth and Mythmaking in Ancient Egypt. Groningen: University of Groningen, 2008. 1697-1700. Web. .
As a finanial ounselor, should you be surprised if a male lient states that he has a ompulsive shopping problem; why or why not?
I would not be surprised if a male lient stated that he had a ompulsive shopping problem. This is beause the preoneived notion that women onstitute 90% of the shopaholis has been proven false by a new researh. 2513 adults were interviewed nationwide in the U.S. And it was found that 5.5% males had a ompulsive shopping problem and 6% of women had this problem. These statistis were very similar so it would be safe to assume that men suffer from these problems as well. This study was onduted by Dr. Koran of Stanford University Shool of Mediine to underlying the growing problems of ompulsive shopping problems not just in women but also in men. And that the statistis were not the same but…
c. As a financial counselor, you will need to refer clients to experts for help when dealing with client issues outside of your realm of expertise. Please find two support groups for compulsive shoppers. List the URL for their websites and give a brief description (75- 100 words) of the organizations.
The Shulman Centre is a place to consult to if your client has gambling, theft or spending problems. Terrence Shulman is the Director and Founder of this Centre. The website you can visit this on is http://www.shopaholicsanonymous.org/ . This website and center provides you with the ability to find out if you have a shopping problem and it provides details of what it is all about and why it occurs so that you may be able to curb it an earlier stage. It also has guidelines if you are confused as to whether you have the disease or not. You can get help online, on the phone or even in person! Or you can purchase books online.
The Comprehensive Addiction Rehabilitation Education (C.A.R.E) Foundation based in Florida is another such organization. The website is http://www.careflorida.com/treatment-programs/specialized-holistic-drug-rehab-treatment-programs/compulsive-shopping-addiction.html. It has a twelve step program to help with compulsive shopping problems which includes family therapy as well because shopaholics cause problems in families and relationships.
More recently, reports have begun coming from the Middle East that women will no longer be "expected" to participate in the pilgrimage to Mecca, thereby eliminating women from the holiest rite associated with Islam. Having once done that, it would then be easy to keep women physically, mentally, emotionally isolated within any Muslim society.
Of equal concern is the way in which the Koran is interpreted to facilitate and carry acts of terrorism. The Koran does call for the defense of Islam, that should Islam be threatened, it is the responsibility of every Muslim - presumably, women too - to rise to the defense of Islam."Islamic rulings of warfare are complex, appear to be contradictory and require careful analysis. The simplistic visions of paradise for suicide preached by militant jihadist clerics defy over 1,400 years of Islamic history and wisdom. Yet those like Osama bin Laden, yman al Zawahiri, or…
Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 18.
Answers.com, Zahra Kazemi, found online at http://www.answers.com/topic/zahra-kazemi , retrieved 10 January 2007
Aboul-Enein, Y. And Zuhur, S., p. 19.
Female circumcision, has been a point of contention for many years with regard to Islam, as Islam or more specifically the Quran and "secret" texts of it have often been used as the sited foundation of the practice. hat is abundantly clear is that this practice in its mildest to most extreme forms predates the Quran and the Prophet Mohamed. Once again this may be an example of a situation where Mohamed observed something that he believed was hurting women and he attempted to control the practice. Though there is also evidence that this is not something Mohamed would ever have observed, as it was a secluded practice, performed by women on women and that it was not prolific within the region, where he lived and traveled.
Leonard 168) the Quranic evidence associated with circumcision is limited to two passages. One Hadeeth discusses circumcision…
Abu-Hamdiyyah, Mohammad. The Qur'an: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2000.
Badawi, Jamal. "Gender Equity in Islam" webpage at http://www.soundvision.com/info/gender/femalecircumcision.asp,2007 .
Cook, Michael a. The Koran: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Cragg, Kenneth. The Mind of the Quran: Chapters in Reflection. London: Allen & Unwin, 1973.
Human rights are the activities, freedoms and conditions that all human are entitle to enjoy, and these rights include economic, political, cultural and social rights. Putting differently, human rights are inalienable, inherent, indivisible and interdependent, which cannot be taken away, must be respected, and which the governments are to put in places the instrument to regulate laws and policies for human rights protection. Similarly, international human rights are the set of rules that guide the conducts of state's behaviors. Globally, countries enter into treaties to guarantee certain rights and refrain from violating these rights within their jurisdictions. (IJRC, 2016). The historical facts of human rights started from the declaration of universal human right rights in 1948, and the expressions are referred as aggregate rights of humans. The UDHR ("Universal Declaration of Human Rights") (IJRC 2016 p 1) was ratified by 48 countries with some Muslim countries such as Iran, Iraq,…
A view of this event captures an incredible sea of worshippers flowing like a human river in the footsteps of the prophet Mohammed, who it is said arrived at this spot some 1400 years ago to pay homage to Abraham.
The role of the woman as it is understood through the ritual reenactments are quite different from the unequal stance which is often assumed of Muslim women today, with Hagar and Ishmael given tribute as well. Exiled to the dessert valley that would become Mecca, Hagar would give birth to the numerous Arab peoples, and would be enabled to do so by the salvation of the angel Gabriel. In many ways, this story parallels the matriarchal role of the Madonna to Christianity, who was likewise guided by an angel in a time of crisis. Islam tells that Gabriel was sent down to bring water to Hagar in the desert in…
Pakistan: Hounour Killings of Girls and Women. Amnesty International.Online at http://web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engASA330181999
Al-Uthaimeen, S.M.A. (2006). How to perform the ritiuals of Hajj and Umrah. Princeton University. Online at http://www.princeton.edu/~humcomp/hajjguide.html
BBC. (June 2003). Pakistan's Sharia Law Is Criticized. BBC News. Online at http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/2958316.stm .
Select a eligion
eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. This paper has selected Islam as the religion to be discussed.
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Christianity
Analysis of Islam
eligion plays an essential role in providing spiritual, moral and ethical guidelines to individuals in order to apply it into their daily lives (Fisher, 2005). eligion is considered to be belief and acts of worship, which concentrates on worshiping a deity and gives a detailed and comprehensive outline for the way of living. It teaches the difference between good and evil, right and wrong and morality and immorality. There are several religions in the world, which includes Islam, Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism and Taoism.…
Fisher, M.P. (2005). Living religions (6th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
McInerney, W. (2003). Instructor's manual with tests: Living religions (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Religion of Islam.(2009). Minnesota State University. Retrieved from http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/cultural/religion/islam/beliefs.html
The first five books were separated from the whole about 400 B.C. As the Pentateuch. Jean Astruc in the eighteenth century noted that the Pentateuch is based on even earlier sources. The two chief sources have since been identified in Genesis on the basis of their respective uses of Yahweh or Elohim in referring to the deity. They are called J. For the Jehovistic or Yahwistic source and E. For the Elohistic source, and P. For the Priestly source was later separated from the E. source (Miller and Miller 698-699).
Consider just the complexities involved in the construction of the first book of the bible, Genesis, in its present form. It is believed that at an early time in human history, perhaps as early as the eleventh or tenth century B.C., someone put together the stories of God's dealing with the fathers from oral forms then in circulation. Such a…
Blair, Edward P. Abingdon Bible Handbook. New York: Abingdon Press, 1975.
BrJhier, Louis. "Crusades." The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume IV. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1908.
Dimont, Max I. Jews, God and History. New York: Mentor, 1994.
Jomier, Jacques. How to Understand Islam. New York: Crossroad, 1991.
Nor could a man repudiate the oath made by any of his female relatives." (Azeem, 1995)
VI. The ROLE of the MOTHER
Part two of the work entitled: "Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth and the Reality" states that in relation to 'mothers' from the viewpoint of the Old Testament, there are several commandments concerning the necessity for kind and considerate treatment of parents and a condemnation for those who dishonor their parents. In Islam, the mother holds a very special place and as described by the Prophet Muhammad as follows: "A man asked the Prophet: 'Whom should I honor most?' The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your mother!'. 'And who comes next?' asked the man. The Prophet replied: 'Your father'" (ukhari and Muslim;…
Hughson, G., Johnston, S.A., Bisman, D. (nd) Understanding the Three Abrahamic Faiths: Judaism, Christianity and Islam. The Dunedin Jewish, Christian and Muslim Community Liaison Group.
Q&a on Islam and Arab-Americans (2001) USA Today. 30 Sept 2001 Online available at http://www.usatoday.com/news/world/islam.htm
Azeem, Dr. Sherif Abdel (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part I. Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full.htm
Kingston, SM (1995) Women in Islam vs. Women in the Judaeo-Christian Tradition: The Myth & the Reality. Part II. Online available at: 10 Feb 1995 Online available at http://www.themodernreligion.com/women/w_comparison_full2.htm
"In Islam...precedent is all. The principles of the Prophet- as divined from the Koran and the approved traditions- are for all time. They can be extended to cover all disciplines." (Naipaul). The Prophet was Arabic, so it follows that those approved traditions are going to be Arabic and that Islam, whether practiced in an Arabic nation or elsewhere, is going to be Arabic at its core. Furthermore, the Prophet indicated his belief that, as generations passed, Muslims would become less devote because of a dilution of faith. (Naipaul). Therefore, it makes sense that anything that could lead to further dilution of faith would be prohibited. In fact, there are several ideas in Islam which have been distorted by culture, which the devout might not be able to recognize as distortions if they were reading an interpreter's translation of the Koran. For example, the Koran's instructions about the burqua condemn male…
Naipaul, V.S. Among the Believers: An Islamic Journey. New York: Vintage Books, 1981.
Wikipedia. "Bible." Wikipedia. 2005. Wiki Media. 1 Nov. 2005 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bible#Biblical_versions_and_translations .
Teachings and Practice of Islam
The Teachings of Islam Around the World: Outline
Islam is an incredibly complex religion, where religious practices often differ depending on the cultural context of the region in which it is practices in.
Basic Teachings of Islam
History of Islam
Five Pillars: Prayer and Practices
How it is Practiced in the United States and Great Britain
Influx in Muslims
Facing Adversity and Stereotypes
Muslims as a Minority
Spread of Islam into India
Other Asian Nations
Islam as eacting Against a Growing Western Presence
The Middle East
Islamic Law as National Law
C. Gender Issues
The Teachings of Islam Around the World
No two Muslims are alike, just as any two persons of any other religion. Here in the West, we tend to lump categories of Muslims together, without understanding…
Ahmad, Ghulam. (2003). Teachings of Islam 1896. Kessinger Publishing.
Morgan, Diane. (2010). Essential Islam: A Comprehensive Guide to Belief and Practice. ABC-CLIO.
Raatma, Lucia. (2009). World Religions: Islam. Capstone Publishing.
Shamsul, A.B. (2006). Convergence of interesting and sharing a future: Deepening the Understanding of Islam in Asia and Europe. ASIEN. 62-69. Web. http://www.asienkunde.de/content/zeitschrift_asien/archiv/pdf/A100_062_069.pdf
Ashraf": Its meaning, history, origin, and significance in the Koran
Its exact national or tribal origin remains uncertain. However, it is likely to have its beginnings in the ancient Near East. The name of Ashraf is not common in America, except in the Muslim community. However, it is common in the Muslim world. It is often given to boys in conjunction with another name. This is because, in Arabic, the name Ashraf means "most honorable." (Zelo, 2004)
Thus, the name is also an honorific, or a title given to honor a man as well as simply a name or label. The name Ashraf can also be used as an adjective in its language of origin. This may be contrasted to other male names with more specific mythic references, or that refer to nouns or famous figures in the Koran who were helpful to the Prophet. Zelo, 2004) In contrast, interestingly…
Hirshfield, Richard & Gottheil. (2002) "Ka'b Al-Ashraf." The Jewish Encyclopedia. Retrieved 11 November 2004 at http://www.jewishencyclopedia.com/view_friendly.jsp?artid=3& letter=K
Zelo. (2004) "First Names and What They Mean." Retrieved 11 November 2004 at http://www.zelo.com/firstnames/findresults.asp?name=ashraf
Furthermore, under most circumstances, these variations in Muslim belief do not have a negative impact on how Muslims interact; instead, they manage to live peacefully side-by-side in most settings. This may have to do with the idea that all Muslims believe that the Quran (Qur'an, Koran) is the holy text for Muslims. They believe that the Quran reflects the word of God. "For Muslims, the text of the Koran is entirely the work and word of God. It is possible for a Muslim to hold that the Koran uses symbolic language and is describing the essence of things, not their technical form, but it is difficult to hold that the Koran reflects the views of our more distant ancestors" (Sedgewick 2006, p. 40).
Mohammed plays a central role in Islam. He is the most important prophet and many facets of modern day Islam are based, not simply on the Quran,…
Hassan, R 2008, Exploring Islamic consciousness, Inside Muslim minds, Melbourne University
Press, Carlton, Vic, pp. 24-61.
Jupp, J 2009, Aboriginal and Torres Straight Islanders in the Encyclopedia of religion in Australia, Cambridge University Press, Port Melbourne, pp.69-118.
McBrien, R 1982, the nature and use of power in the church, Proceedings of the annual convention, 37, CTSA Editorial Offices, Yonkers, NY, pp.38-49.
Gender and Islam Books
The war in Iraq has shone attention on the plight of women in the Middle East. For many scholars, the issue of the rights of women as mandated in Islamic texts and the role of Muslim women in the contemporary Islamic world is one of the most pressing issues.
This paper examines two works that shed light in this regard -- Islam, Gender, and Social Change edited by Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and John L. Esposito and Leila Ahmed's Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate.
Both books provide a rich background of the history and modern-day context women living under the Islamic religion. The first part of this paper gives a summary of selected readings from Islam, Gender, and Social Change and of Ahmed's work. The second part then gives a critique of the works. In the final section, the paper relates…
Essentially, science utilizes the power of reason and logic in its search for the truth while religion depends almost wholly upon faith, being a belief in something without any evidence whatsoever to support it. In the realms of science, investigators seek to understand natural phenomena through direct observation and experimentation which makes it mandatory that all interpretations of the facts be provisional and testable. Statements made by any authority, revelation or appeal to the supernatural are not part of this process, due to the absence of supporting evidence.
Thus, in the eyes of religious scholars and authorities, all opposition to what science has uncovered is based on faith and mythological revelation which takes precedence over evidence. Also, the tenets of religion have not, for the most part, changed much over time and cannot be validated when subjected to the scientific method.
Like many others that study the natural world, scientists…
estern world thinks of Muslim women, it is often in terms of Muslim women as an oppressed stereotypes. This includes images of women in hijabs, Turkish women in chadors and women who must be veiled in public at all times. Distorted beliefs about Islamic beliefs regarding polygamy and the subservient role of women further contribute to the stereotype that Muslim women are more oppressed than their Christian counterparts.
However, while strict laws do present limits to the public lives of many Arab and Muslim women, these stereotypes do not present a complete picture of their lives. As ethnographer Susan Schafer Davis observed, Muslim women have and continue to exert considerable influence in the private sphere of family and women's associations. This gave them much more autonomy and power than Christian women of the same era.
This paper examines the scope of a Muslim woman's authority and power within the private…
Al Faruqi, Lamya. 1994. Women, Muslim Society and Islam. Plainfield, IN: American Trust Publishers.
Davis, Susan Schaefer. 1985. Patience and Power: Women's Lives in a Moroccan Village. Cambridge: Schenckman Books.
Harik, Ramsay M. And Marston, Elsa. 1996. Women in the Middle East: Tradition and Change. New York: Franklin Watts.
Islam-Husain, Mahjabeen. 1997. "It's Up to Muslim Women to Reclaim Our God-Given Rights," in Islam. Jennifer A. Hurley, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press.
When this is taking place, a person may not understand the event, due to the fact that they do not have the same intellect or knowledge as God. Over the course of time, these individuals will begin to see and understand how God's plan is working. The Mutaizllis believe that the individual is responsible for their own actions. As a result, the underlying amounts of morality will determine how God will judge the deeds that we take. Where, everyone is given free will and the opportunity to choose how they will react to various events. Those who behave in the most morally correct fashion will be rewarded for their actions with eternity in paradise. While those people who are engaging in actions that are immoral will be held accountable, by going to hell. This is important, because it shows how both sects will differ based on the underlying levels of…
"Historical Development of Muslim Mutaizllis." Deens Research Center, n.d. Web. 1 Dec. 2010
Delbert Burket. "Islamic Perspectives." The Blackwell Companion. Malden: Wiley, 2010. 232 -- 250. Print.
Naseem, Hamid. "Intellectual Discussions." Muslim Philosophy. New Delhi: Sarup, 2001. 1 -- 40. Print.
Robinson, Neill. "Asharis and Mutaizllis." Muslim Philosophy, 1998. Web. 1 Dec. 2010
Primary Source Analysis: Islamic Text
The Muslim Brotherhood is one of the most notable conservative Pan-Islamic groups -- it is based in Egypt but has a worldwide influence. As is the case with most fundamentalist organizations, the Brotherhood takes an extremely gendered view of women. According to one of its most influential members Hasan al-Banna in his tract "Towards the light:"
"Following are the principal goals of reform grounded on the spirit of genuine Islam...Treatment of the problem of women in a way which combines the progressive and the protective, in accordance with Islamic teaching, so that this problem - one of the most important social problems - will not be abandoned to the biased pens and deviant notions of those who err in the directions of deficiency and excess...a campaign against ostentation in dress and loose behavior; the instruction of women in what is proper, with particular strictness as…
Al-Banna, Hasan. Five Tracts of Hasan al-Banna. Translated by Charles Wendell Berkeley,
1978. Excerpt available:
[20 Apr 2013]
One of the strengths of the collections at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art is collection of works from the ancient Near East. This paper examines two of those artifacts, discussing both their aesthetics properties as well as the historical, political and cultural context in which the two works were created. These works - although they provide only the barest glimpse into the complexities of cultural and religious dynamics of the region - nevertheless help us to understand the intimate and powerful way in which religion and culture are linked even today in the Middle East. (Images of the two works are appended to the end of this paper.)
The first work is two leaves taken from the Koran, the holy book of Islam made during the Abbasid caliphate during the ninth or tenth centuries. Even for a viewer who cannot read Arabic and who knows little…
Peterson, Andrew. Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. New York: Routledge, 1995.
Wiet, Gaston. Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate. Norman: U. Of Oklahoma, 1971.
Zakiriya, Mohamed. The Calligraphy of Islam: Reflections on the State of the Art. Washington DC: Center for Contemporary Arabic Studies, 1990.
Allan, James. Islamic Ceramics. Oxford: Asmolean, 1995.
178). For example, Sakkal reports that, "The measuring system of Ibn Muqlah is based on a circle with a diameter that equals the height of the letter Alef. It controls the correct proportions of the letters by comparing them to the circle, and by diagonal dots written with the calligraphy pen" (1993:9). In his analysis of Ibn Muqla's role in the standardization of the geometrical basis of Arabic writing, Ernst, citing an early treatise, illustrates the religious significance of the circle as being an integral part of these revisions to calligraphic script: "God (glory be to the Most High) created the world in a circular form. The master Abu Ali Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al- Husayn ibn Muqla the scribe (may God have mercy on him) realized that writing could be made circular. He transmitted that method of [round] Kufic in this fashion that is now current, so that it…
Brown, Keith, Anne H. Anderson, Laurie Bauer, Margie Berns, Graeme Hirst and Jim Miller.
Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Boston: Elsevier, 2006.
Blair, Sheila S. And Jonathan M. Bloom. 2003. "The Mirage of Islamic Art: Reflections on the Study of an Unwieldy Field." The Art Bulletin 85(1): 152-154.
Eaton, Gai. Islam and the Destiny of Man. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press,
In fact in some instances women are not even treated like human beings. However, in other parts of the world Muslim women enjoy relative equality and freedom. It is important to recognize that not all Muslims are extremists or violent towards women.
Men in Islam
As it pertains to men in the Islamic world, their positions in Muslim society are significant. The Islamic religious leaders are and have been men ever since the inception of the religion. Men hold the highest positions in the Muslim faith and they still dominate positions in government in Islamic nations.
The dominance in men in Muslim society is the most prevalent in the Muslim home. As with other aspects of Islam, the amount of power or dominance that men have has a great deal to do with the nation that they live in. However for the most part Muslim men are seen as the…
Hekmat, Anwar. Women and the Koran the Status of Women in Islam. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books, 1997.
Knapp, Michael G. "The Concept and Practice of Jihad in Islam." Parameters 33.1 (2003): 82+.
Tell, Carol. "The Women of Afghanistan." Social Education 66.1 (2002): 8+.
What Is the Difference Between Sunni and Shiite Muslims -- and Why Does it Matter? http://hnn.us/articles/934.html
Women in the Major Religions
The role of women in organized religion has been an issue of discussion and debate for many years. It gained significant attention as the "women's rights" movement gathered momentum, and it has been fueled further by recent global events. After the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, interest in religious practices in Afghanistan gathered a lot of attention. That is because the recently deposed Taliban government had extremely harsh restrictions on virtually every aspects of an Afghan woman's life.
While most people realized that the Taliban held an extremely distorted view of what the life of a Moslem woman should be, many people didn't know what a more reasonable interpretation of women's role would be within Islam. In addition, little mention was given in the media to the role of women in other major religions.
This paper will look at how…
Arin, Canan, "Far Reaching Reforms-Legal Rights of Women in Turkey." Manushi, January, 1998, pp 12-18.
Author not available. "What the Koran Says About Women." Christian Science Monitor. December 19, 2001.
Author not available. "Women in the Church: Scriptural Principles and Ecclesial Practice, Part III." A Report of the Commission on Theology and Church Relations of the Lutheran Church -- Missouri Synod. September, 1985.
Author not available. "Woman's ordination: Rome's Position on Women's Ordination." Report of the Women's Ordination Conference. Accessed via the internet 2/16/02.
Islamic women are now restricted from most activities, and their rights have been steadily decreasing. Her social and political as well as economic rights are all being violated everyday by unscrupulous men who have corrupted the very religion to their own advantage, and today, especially in most Arab countries, woman has become 'Awarah', or the very subject of concealment, wherein her public presence is banned; where even her very voice, must not be heard in public. (Women's Position, ole, and ights in Islam)
In India, there are only 960 women to 1000 men, a figure that when compared to the rest of the world, especially developed countries, which shows 105 women to 100 men, due to better health care for women, is quite miserable. It is in India that women are often considered to be burdens on their families, and the main reason for this is the 'dowry system', wherein…
Agarwal, Sita. Hindu Scriptural Sanction for the Crushing of Women. Retrieved at http://www.dalitstan.org/books/gowh/gowh6.html . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
Gender Equality. 2004. Retrieved at http://www.faithnet.org.uk/Ethics/genderequality.htm. Accessed on 16 March, 2005
John, MacArthur Jr., Women's Roles. 20 March, 2003. Retrieved at http://www.believersweb.org/view.cfm?ID=205Accessed on 15 March, 2005
Mbiti, John. The Role of women in African traditional religion. Retrieved at http://www.afrikaworld.net/afrel/atr-women.htm . Accessed on 16 March, 2005
In Sufism anyone who is in a position to give out what they have has an obligation to do so. Through this giving they get an opportunity to purify their wealth and at the same time attain salvation. In Sufism there is strict adherence to the Quran and hence they follow what is stipulated within the Quran as what is to be subjected to the Zakat tax or the exact share of an individual's income that has to be paid at zakat. Therefore, it is expected that 2.5% of the wealth that one has should be used to benefit the poor within the society in Sufism. The fourth pillar is fasting; this is a practice that is followed in Sufism as it is stipulated in the Quran. In Sufism there is following of the three types of fasting which are ritual fasting, repentance fasting and ascetic fasting. In Sufism ritual…
Pecorino, a.P. (2001).Philosophy of religion; Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.qcc.cuny.edu/socialSciences/ppecorino/PHIL_of_RELIGION_TEXT/CHAPTER_2_RELIGIONS/Islam.htm
Rahim, B.M. (2009).Sufism and Islam. Retrieved April 29, 2013 from http://www.al-islam.org/beliefs/spirituality/suffism.html
Islam venerates Mary highly and gets its concept of female fidelity from her (Finazzo).
hile Islam venerates the Virgin (indeed, the Koran is very high in its praise), it is this author's opinion that the rest of the Koran's attitudes toward women is so negative that it very much outweighs this. Ahmed needs to examine to what extent Mohammed "missed the boat" (so to speak) with regard to his treatment of women and whether or not this reflects a difference between the Mecca and Medina strains of the Islamic Sharia. The Sharia tends to follow the later Medina sayings and these are much more radically conservative ("Living Islam"). It is this creeping conservatism that is not really explained by Ahmed, as we can see in Islamic fundamentalist circles today. hile things were not as radical in 1992 when she wrote the book, it is disappointing that she does not explore…
Ahmed, L. Women and Gender in Islam: Historical Roots of a Modern Debate. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992.
Finazzo, G. "The Virgin Mary in the Koran." EWTN.com. EWTN, n.d. Web. 13 Feb 2011. .
"Three Themes of Inquiry." Living Islam. Independent Broadcasting Associates, 2002.
Web. 11 Feb 2011. .
Judaism, Christianity and IslamIntroductionThe three main world religions are Judaism, Christianity and Islam. These religions have a great deal of influence around the world. They are hundreds and even thousands of years old and share some similarities in terms of morals, values, and beliefs about the goodness of God. However, they also contrast sharply when it comes to specific doctrines. This paper looks at the historical timeline of these three religions, their theological divisions, how they contrast particularly on two pointsthe nature of Jesus and holy booksand challenges that they face in terms of relations with one another in a globalized world.TimelineThe historical relationship among Judaism, Christianity and Islam is that Judaism appears first on the historical timeline around 2000 BC. Abraham is considered the founder of Judaism, as he is cited as the Father of the Hebrews (Brenner, 1952). However, Moses is also viewed as a founder of Judaism,…
ReferencesBiddle, M., Cooper, M. A. R., & Robson, S. (1992). The Tomb of Christ, Jerusalem: a photogrammetric survey: a report of the work undertaken under the aegis of the Gresham Jerusalem Project.The Photogrammetric Record,14(79), 25-43.Brenner, A. B. (1952). The covenant with Abraham.Psychoanalytic Review,39(1), 34-52.Brown, R. E. (1965). Does the New Testament Call Jesus God?.Theological Studies,26(4), 545-573.Habermas, G. & Licona, M. (2004). The Case for the Resurrection of Jesus. Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications.Lasker, D. J. (1990). Proselyte Judaism, Christianity, and Islam in the Thought of Judah Halevi.The Jewish quarterly review, 75-91.Limor, O. (2007). Sharing Sacred Space: Holy Places in Jerusalem between Christianity, Judaism, and Islam.Laudem Hierosolymitani: Studies in Crusades and Medieval Culture in Honour of Benjamin Z. Kedar, 219-231.Pregill, M. E. (2007). The Hebrew Bible and the Quran: the problem of the Jewish influenceon Islam.Religion Compass,1(6), 643-659.
Day treatment programs can provide services at less cost because the patient goes home at night after being treated during the day, which often is used for rehabilitating chronically ill patients (Sharfstein, Stoline, & Koran, 1995, p. 249). The mere fact of having more choice benefits some patients by giving them more say in their care.
Patient-focused care involves a method for containing in-patient costs for hospitals and for improving quality by "restructuring services so that more of them take place on nursing units rather than in specialized units in other hospital locations, and by cross-training staff on the nursing units so that they can do several 'jobs' for the same small group of patients rather then one 'job' for a large number of patients" (Kovner, 1995, p. 186). Kovner notes a number of barriers to this type of care. One reason has been that hospitals have not had to…
Doctors Say Managed Care Strains Patient Relationships (1997, June 9). Westchester County Business Journal 36(23), p. 24.
Kovner, a.R. (1995). Hospitals. In Jonas's Health Care Delivery in the United States, a.R. Kovner (ed.), pp. 162-193. New York: springer Publishing.
Moore, G.T. (1991,
April 24). Let's provide primary care to all uninsured Americans ? now! JAMA, pp. 2108-2109.
If Americans find out about government law enforcement policy primarily via media as Elias contents, it is axiomatic that we find out about international crime via media. If we cannot be bothered to read for ourselves the bills introduced to Congress that result in laws to find out what those laws really mean, we certainly cannot be bothered to read and interpret the Koran to see where the truth lies in that document.
Elias offers an insight that works equally well for the failure of America's increasingly tough stands on crime and our acceptance of Islamic murderers as martyrs, and it is this:
With few exceptions, the media have uncritically reproduced official, conservative, 'law-and-order' perspectives with little fundamental analysis of their success or failure. They have also repeatedly covered and promoted 'crime wars' and 'drug wars' which inevitably fail but which are periodically resuscitated (with the media's help) as…
Charles, R. (2005, June 2) Martyrs and language. The Washington Times, p. A18. Retrieved 11 November 2005 from www.questia.com.
Elias, R. (1994, Feb.) Official stories: Media coverage of American crime policy, The Humanist, p. 3+. Retrieved 11 November 2005 from www.questia.com.
Islam in the Age of Globalization
The three major religions in the 21st century are all Abrahamic in historical basis. These religions, Judaism, Islam and Christianity remain at the edge of political, social, and cultural issues, particularly now in that globalism has become so predominant. These religions are noted as Abrahamic because each uses the basic teachings of the Prophet Abraham in their general world view. All three faiths are monotheistic and together account for over half the world's population, or combined in excess of 4 billion people. Within these three religions, despite much public disagreement, there are many areas of commonality (The Top 10 Organized eligions in the World, 1998). From a non-religious perspective, however, globalism has brought about some change in the perception of these religions based not necessarily on religion, but on marketing and consumerism.
One of the consequences of globalism in the world is the availability…
The Top 10 Organized Religions in the World. (1998, August 4). The Christian Science Monitor, p. B2.
Islamic Consumer Protest Hits West Where it Hurts. (2002, November 7). Retrieved from The Guardian UK: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2002/nov/07/internationalnews
Food, Fashion and Faith. (2007, August 2). Retrieved from The Economist: http://www.economist.com/node/9587818
How to Live According to the 5 Pillars of Islam: The Foundation of Islam Cannot be Laid in a Day. (2008). New York: Quick and Easy Guides.
Islam and Christianity have a lot of history to share dating back to some years before the birth of Jesus. Although the members did not interact freely, the current 'animosity' characterizing the two religions was unheard of. In fact, they appeared to be focused much in solving their individual problems which unique but almost similar. This study shows that the two religions were affected by problems related to political succession leading to the cooperation instead of conflict.
How did the problem of political succession affect Islamic and Christian societies in the Middle Ages?
The problems of political succession affected Islamic and Christian societies in a number of ways. First, political succession affected Islamic societies by causing an expansion of Islam from the Middle East in other parts of the world. In this regard, a series of events that took place in the Middle East affected the spread of Islam. This…
The world's spiritual traditions and religious practices have major groupings. However, in these groupings there is no uniformity of practice. Various religions have different culture and ways of practice. This practice began in the 18th century as developing civilized societies. Different cultures of the world have had an influence on the religious beliefs of the people. For example, Hinduism borrows from the Indian culture, Islam from Muslim culture and Taoism from particular cultures in china. Traditionally, scholars of religion recognized the fact that, different religious beliefs have the same philosophy of searching for the truth. It may argue that religion is an act of worship given to God irrespective of religion.
Overview of Christianity and Islam
Christianity as a religion teaches salvation from sin. The religion also teaches issues of eternal life, physical death as well as the resurrection of Jesus Christ the messiah. The religion began as…
Van Voorst, R.E. (2006). Anthology of world scriptures. Belmont: Cengage Learning.
Muslims are a family oriented people with religious centered traditions and government. They follow the law of Sharia based the Koran or Qur'an. The women experience a range of individual rights from dressing more liberally with colors and headscarves, to being unable to drive or dance in public. Although Westerners often paint a negative picture of Muslim culture, there are many wonderful and beautiful things to be learned of the Muslim faith and Muslim culture.
In recent times, many Muslims have adopted new ways of living, providing outsiders' access to their pursuits. From female racecar drivers to singing competitions, Muslims have grown and expanded their culture to embrace modernity and variety. The best example of this is Dubai. Dubai houses ultramodern skyscrapers and the latest in cars and fashions. Although separation of genders remains prevalent even in a more modern city like Dubai, that does not keep Muslims from enjoying…
Knight, K. (2006). My Muslim faith. North Mankato, MN: Cherrytree Books.
Modood, T. (2005). Multicultural politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
Pohl, F. (2010). Modern Muslim Societies. New York: Cavendish Square Publishing.
" After effectively damning her to a life as a vampire, Ibrahim, himself abused by the man who made him one of the undead, tries to 'make good' on his promise to himself to help Lina: "Despite the many shortcoming of Ibrahim's moral probity, he had known from the start that he would live his life as a vampire much the same way he had lived his life as a normal human -- trying to be good, even if he failed miserably most of the time." This is, Taylor suggests, not unlike that of a terrorist who rationalizes his conversion of another man (or woman) to the cause, that he is at least trying, and saving the new convert from a worse fate.
Taylor's extended metaphor of Islamic terrorism and fundamentalism and vampirism, of one life as an outsider in real life with life as an outsider in a science…
Ahmad, M.A. "Islam and Science Fiction: Islam SciFi Interview of Pamela Taylor."October
13 th, 2010.
Taylor, Patricia. "50 Fatwas of the Virtuous Vampire." November 1, 2010.