In addition, in Congress few voices spoke out against the war, since they wanted to use the war to end the IWW and socialism.
Johnson and Tindall/Shi's books were sometimes difficult to get through, because of all the names and facts. I found myself reading and rereading parts of Johnson's book to get the gist of what he was saying. Despite the fact that Tindall's was to be a narrative, it did not seem like that in most cases. Although there are photos to break up the copy, in many cases it is jam packed with too much information. The paragraphs should have been broken up more, since they were long and with small type. Like Johnson, it was necessary to reread sections to truly get the underlining message.
Zinn's book, despite its definite editorial slant against the war, was an easy read. The quotes from a variety of people,…… [Read More]
World War I was the first war fought on not only an international scale, but on a global scale. eginning in 1914 and ending in 1918, this global conflict involved not only various counties in Europe and Asia, but ultimately also ended up including the United States of America who formerly entered the conflict on April 6, 1917, almost two years after the attack on the RMS Lusitania by Germany.[footnoteRef:1] There are several reasons that can be considered in determining the root cause of World War I and the political and historical issues that led up to the conflict between various neighboring countries. [1: "U.S. Enters World War I," History Channel, accessed June 22, 2013, http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/us-enters-world-war-i]
The event that will forever be remembered as the catalyst for beginning World War I is the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand by Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip on June 28, 1914.[footnoteRef:2] The…… [Read More]
World War I was believed to be the last general war that this world had to go through. Due to massive losses during the first major conflict, people believed that no country will ever want such an event to happen. However, twenty years after the Treaty of Versailles, Britain and France declared war on Germany. The Second World War caused the death of many more people than the first. Unlike the First War, which had Europe as a battlefield, the Second World War affected almost all the world. The war had three battlefields: air, sea and land.
In September 1939 Adolf Hitler, the leader of Germany, invaded Poland. This event determined the beginning of World War II. "Hitler had attained power in 1933 after years of attacking the terms of the peace agreement that ended World War I, the Versailles Treaty, with its harsh treatment of Germany." (Adriane uggiero, page…… [Read More]
These states included Germany -- whose aggressive policy of expansion and investment in a powerful navy -- and Great Britain -- which had territorial holdings throughout the world. Other parties in the conflict included France, with strong imperial ambitions in northern Africa, and Russia, whose imperial expansion complicated matters in the MIddle East and even East Asia. In short, with so many great empires in Europe, it was only a matter of time before a major conflict erupted. That it took as long as it did to occur is perhaps the one surprising aspect in the history of orld ar I. It took an appropriate political excuse -- the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand -- to motivate the great empires into the first orld ar.
hen considered in terms of the imperial ambitions of these states, the aftermath of orld ar I begins to make much more sense. The Treaty of…… [Read More]
orld ar I
At the beginning of the First orld ar, the United States was determined to be neutral. Then President oodrow ilson pledged that this was a European war and that the United States would not take part in the fighting. The majority of the American people were against involving their nation with the war overseas, much like how the situation was preceding the Second orld ar. ithout the public opinion in favor of war, the politicians in ashington, D.C., did not feel that entering into the war was the right thing. However, even though they had declared themselves neutral, the U.S. had been providing supplies and weapons to Great Britain and the allies for some time. Almost since the war began in early 1914, American manufacturers had been increasing production and preparing just in case the United States became embroiled in the action.
Following the 1915 sinking of…… [Read More]
World War II or the Second World War occurred between 1939 and 1945 between the Allied Powers and the Axis Powers (Wikipedia 2006). The Allied Powers were led by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the U.S. The Axis Powers were led by Germany, Italy and Japan. World War II claimed 12 million lives and began in response to the military aggression of Nazi Germany under Adolph Hitler and Japan's imperialist ambition in Asia. Nazi aggression was aimed at the conquest of Lebensraum to increase the German Empire but at the expense of the peoples of Eastern Europe and the destruction of the Jews. Records say that approximately 62 million or 6.2% of the world, perished in this War and that 60% of them were civilians, who died because of disease, starvation, genocide, massacres and aerial bombing. After the War, power shift from Western Europe and the ritish Commonwealth…… [Read More]
The strike at Heligoland ight was not intended to seriously hurt the German fleet. Rather, it was intended to distract Germany from the landing of marines at Ostend in elgium. Catching the German fleet completely by surprise in its own port, German light cruisers engaged the Royal Navy without proper cover. The Germans lost 3 light cruisers and a destroyer, as well as more than 1,000 men. In great contrast, the ritish lost only 75 men and sustained few damages; no ritish boats were sunk. This was obviously a win for the ritish and would likely have encouraged future naval actions like it. However, Heligoland ight was the only such action of World War I.
Though Jellicoe's forces met few German ships in their time in the North Sea, the threat of German U-oats had become a serious one. U-boats threatened not only military ships, but merchant ships carrying everything…… [Read More]
esultantly, a great portion of 1915 was controlled and dominated by Allied actions against the Ottomans. France and Britain reportedly launched an unsuccessful attack on the Dardanelles, and this campaign was subsequently followed by the British invasion of the Gallipoli Peninsula.
The longest battle of the war, the Battle of Verdun, resulted in approximately one million casualties. The Battle of the Somme reportedly resulted in an estimated one million casualties as well, but offered no real breakthrough for the Allies. The tank was introduced by the British, and was considered an effective weapon but there weren't enough of them to make a significant difference. In 1917, United States President Woodrow Wilson announced America's entrance into World War I as a 'crusade to make the world better'. Wilson is also credited with developing a program of progressive reform, asserting leadership on an international level and building a new world order.
The…… [Read More]
orld ar I Tactics and eaponry
In many ways, the "ar to End All ars" was fought with a wide range of increasingly modernized weaponry that was matched with obsolete tactics that resulted in millions of deaths and casualties on both sides of the conflict. Indeed, during the period between 1914 and 1918, the full brunt of early 20th century technology was brought to bear on the battlefields of Europe and the ghastly results were truly impressive, but the initial results of these weapons were insufficient to completely turn the tide of the war. Consequently, the belligerents became increasingly bogged down in trench warfare that demanded even more destructive weapons. To determine what happened during orld ar I in these areas, this paper details the type of techniques and weaponry used throughout the war and looks at how these changed technologically to change future wars. An examination concerning the reasons…… [Read More]
According to Henry Kissinger, treaty was nothing but a "brittle compromise agreement between American utopism and European paranoia - too conditional to fulfill the dreams of the former, too tentative to alleviate the fears of the latter."
Making a conclusion, it's important to note that despite all attempts of W. Wilson, his fourteen points were not ratified. France and Great Britain could not confess that their colonial systems were doomed to collapse, so reparations of Weimar Germany were provisional panacea for their economies. Political instability and further social revolution was apparent from the first days of the Weimar epublic: strikes, workers movements, crisis and depression were evidence that people were not satisfied with the conditions of life and they were ready to act. Peace treaties signed after WWI only created fertile soil for revenge and new war. S. Tucker writes, that unofficial outbreak of WWII was annexation of Manchuria by…… [Read More]
All of the poets write of the sheer horror of war and warfare, and this colors their words and their outlook. They all speak of fighting a terrible war at a terrible cost.
Many of the poems also speak of dying. In "Anthem for a Doomed Youth," Wilfred Owen writes, "What passing-bells for those who die as cattle? / Only the monstrous anger of the guns. / Only the stuttering rifles' rapid rattle / Can patter out their hasty orisons" ("Anthem"). Sassoon writes of death in "The General," "Now the soldiers he smiled at are most of 'em dead," ("The General"), and obert Brooke writes in "The Soldier," "If I should die, think only this of me: / That there's some corner of a foreign field / That is forever England" ("The Soldier.) Thus, all of the poets write of their experiences, their fears, and the war itself. It was…… [Read More]
World War I
Hopefully, this letter finds you in better health and fully recuperated from your wounds. How very proud you must be of your medals and of your heroism in the line of fire. The boys here at home all wear theirs to social affairs, and I must admit to my private jealousies at the attention they get, not just from the ladies, or during parades, but also from admirers in general.
I am beset with a nagging guilt at not having participated and at having missed the last glorious opportunity to prove my mettle in action in this final, Great War that has surely ended all war amongst nations and men. Sometimes I feel ashamed in comparison to you, and to the other lads at home who had such a fantastic opportunity. Nor it is it my imagination that the fellows who were soldiers all see…… [Read More]
Xenophobia against people from the ethnic groups America was fighting rose in intensity. Much as French Fries became Freedom Fries for a brief period during the contemporary 'war on terror,' so frankfurters, a German dish, became the more America-sounding hot dog. More seriously the Red Scare, the Palmer Raids, anti-immigrant and anti-African-American sentiment as a result of new migrations of people within the United States created the paradox of the government engaging in censorship and civil rights violations, ostensibly to make the world 'safe' for democracy. However, given that anti-immigration sentiment had shared a less-than-noble place in the Progressive Movement, along with support for the American working man, perhaps these actions do not completely counter the idea that the movement to war was progressive, encompassing the ugly as well as the noble progressive sentiments of past eras. However, progressive intellectuals like alter Lippmann, author of Drift and Mastery, would likely…… [Read More]
Lesson 6 Journal Entry # 9 of 13
Journal Exercise 6.4B: Responding to Literature
Modern British Poetry
Lesson 6 Journal Entry # 10 of 13
Journal Exercise 6.5A: Responding to Literature
The poem was written in 1919, which is immediately after the First World War. I think that Yeats is, on one hand, enthusiastic about the end of the world and the coming of a new era. On the other hand, I think he is also a bit circumspect about what this new era is likely to bring about: more anarchy? The fact that the world has escaped the tragedy does not mean that it is over the hurdle yet: it can still spiral out of control, just like the hawk in the poem.
The second poem refers to the death of one's father, while the first has an ever presence of nostalgia throughout the writing. In both cases, many…… [Read More]
Queens and Kings preferred to fight using allies' lives. In the beginning of 20th century frightened by Germany British empire asked old enemy - ussia to become an ally. British monarch wanted to push off Germany, ussia and France and when they will suffer a lot from the bloody war become the strongest winner of this absurd fight. ussian and French soldiers had to die for Britain.
British rulers dreamed of separating dying Turkey, capturing German colony in the Middle East and terminating German threat.
All these countries had own interests and wanted to realize them in any case. This war had to solve all international problems as leaders of great countries thought. Now we know how they were wrong.
War began between Austro-Hungarian Empire and Serbia. Everybody knew then that other European countries would not stay out of this conflict, politicians were sure that this war wouldn't be local.…… [Read More]
("My History Lab") In order to gain influence with the Europeans, who had ignored American pleas for peace, ilson came to the conclusion that America must involve itself in the war. It was Germany who was ruled by a totalitarian Kaiser, who attacked neutral ships on the open seas, while the Allies both were trading with, and owed a great deal of money to, America. Therefore, ilson concluded that in order to fulfill his progressive world vision, the U.S. had to join the war on the side of the Allies. ("My History Lab")
Getting the American public to support joining the war was not going to be easy, for years Americans had harbored antiwar feelings and isolationism was a way of life for most. But once America joined the war on the side of the Allies, despite the large numbers of German-American citizens, anti-German sentiments emerged. Americans of German decent,…… [Read More]
World War I: A Short History was written by Michael Lyons at a time thought by many to be the end of history: 1993. As such, his work proves to flow well and be carefully analytic, lacking the un-necessary bravado and patriotism to be expected of post-911 history books. A professor of history who earned his PhD from the University of Minnesota in 1969, Lyons has served on the faculty of North Dakota State University for 17 years, managing to develop a careful understanding of the two chief conflicts of the 20th century while recounting their specifics while head of the History Department. This position he maintained until 1989, when his first book, World War II: A Short History won him critical acclaim. After his retirement in 1993, the State Board of Higher Education named him Professor Emeritus. Although his repertoire is limited to these two books, they are well…… [Read More]
World War I's effect on literature
This is a paper that outlines the effects of World War I on contemporary literature. It has 5 sources.
The lost generation was a group of people who emerged after World War I. Shocked and torn by the seemingly senseless destruction of the first war these people realized that the values and norms they had been brought up in were wrong. As they lost their past they sought meaning in life and searched for the future. They could not understand how humans wrought such devastation and in trying to understand this they lived a life of opulence as writers and artists began to express themselves through their work. Their work thus focused on their lives or their perception of it and through their depictions emerged the lost world they lived in for their characters searched for meaning even as they strove to live the…… [Read More]
The depression and unemployment of this era was more than anything else a driving force for anxiety. Unemployed soldiers returned from war without jobs and joined the ranks of the unemployed, hyperinflation and the need for war reparations from the defeated countries resulted in economic crisis. The inevitable result of a massive panic of the masses as they felt the need for quick and easy solutions to their economic crisis. Thus, anxiety that resulted from economic disparity was one of the strongest forces in modern society and forced social and political upheaval throughout the era.
The result of both the demise of great aristocratic empires and the economic depression was an "anti-modernist" movement that military might was the only means to create stability within the inhumane world of post WWI Europe. As a result, Nazism and Fascism developed in some of the most destitute areas of war ravaged Europe. These…… [Read More]
ecause of this, Austria-Hungary reached out to Germany in order to make sure that if this happened that Austria-Hungary would not be alone.
Germany was aware that any further toleration of Serbian maneuverings would weaken Serbia's continuation as a State and their situation as a great Power, therefore also intimidating the equilibrium of power in Europe. Germany was convinced that Russia saw that it was in its own best interest, to make sure that existing European equilibrium of power which was so important for the peace of the world was maintained. Austria-Hungary's fight against Serbia was conventional from beginning to end, and its aim was the necessary conservation of their situation in Europe.
The Serbian government was under a duty to uphold gracious and friendly relations with Austria-Hungary, but allowed their press to provoke hatred against the Monarchy in an unparalleled manner. Serbia allowed the propaganda with the aim of…… [Read More]
It was then that the newly arrived American Expeditionary Force (AEF) "met and turned back the German tide at Chateau-Thierry, Soissons, and Belleau ood." (Henry 4) by the end of summer 1918, the American forces in France were sufficient to form the U.S. First Army which consisted of nearly 20 full infantry divisions. This American force played a significant role in the Allied counter-offensive in the Fall of 1918, winning important victories such as in the St. Mihiel salient. But it was in the Meuse-Argonne region that the Americans played their most important role in the Allied victory. After losing 130,000 casualties to the American attack in the Argonne, German Field Marshal von Hindenburg later commented that "The American attack decided war." (quoted in Selles 37)
At a time when both the Allies and the Germans were extremely war-weary, the Allies suddenly received a new ally with huge amounts of…… [Read More]
At the time the West started its ascension to global domination and power in the sixteenth century, military institutions and organizations played a pivotal role in its impetus to supremacy. Contemporary historical work gives the suggestion that the military structure of the West has gone through repeated periods of innovation starting at the onset of the fourteenth century and prevailing on to the present and that these sorts of periods have given rise to general and significant changes to the simple nature of combat and the establishments that fight. The military account of the twentieth century demonstrates that this configuration has prevailed uninterrupted aside from the aspect that key innovations have been deteriorating as the intricacy of innovation has progressively advanced. Military innovation does not take place in a setting that lacks politics. The military institutions of nations such as France, Britain, and Germany subsisted within dissimilar political and strategic…… [Read More]
World War Analysis
WWI analysis examining the significance and impact of WWI on U.S. history
In the early 20th Century, a general fear existed that a huge war would break out due to the circumstances existing at that time and therefore every small incident was considered deadly. However the triggering factor was the assassination of Austrian Archduke Ferdinand in June 1914 resulting in World War I (WWI) or the Great War. WWI took place from 1914 to 1918 and major countries took part in it; war resulting in drastic consequences such as collapse of economies and death of millions of people. The two main groups fighting against each other were Triple Alliance and Triple Entente (also known as the Western Powers). The U.S. did not participate in the war in the beginning and tried its best to remain neutral. However, it was forced to join the Triple Entente when German…… [Read More]
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife represented a culmination of several concurrent forces, all of which led to the outbreak of World War. The concurrent forces that led to World War One can be loosely grouped under the following categories: nationalism, imperialism, and militarism. Within each of these categories are ample sub-categories that can testify to the extent of forces that shaped the pre-war conditions throughout not just Europe but the entire world. World War One was a total war for many reasons: it involved serious civilian casualties on a horrific scale for all parties. The Great War also brought to light the impact of globalization on the global economy and political enterprise. Nationalism, imperialism, and militarism all played a part in shaping participation in World War One; the effects of which continue to reverberate.
As Marshall (2001) points out, "Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy were all…… [Read More]
National debt and veterans benefits for example drove a permanent increase in taxes, although these were not as high as during the war. The country's international economic position was also permanently affected. Its pre-war status as a debtor country was permanently changed to a net creditor, in the order of $6.4billion. Also, the power as financial world leader shifted from London and the Bank of England to New York, with an enhancement of the Federal Reserve's role (World War I History). In general, it appears as if the war effort had a favorable impact on the U.. economy. The devastating human and resource losses were offset by favorable economic factors. In this way, World War I changed the economic position of the United tates both permanently and favorably.
Duffy, Michael. "The Causes of World War I." FirstWorldWar.com feature articles. March 27, 2004. http://www.firstworldwar.com/origins/causes.htm
U.. Declaration of War with Germany,…… [Read More]
From the beginning of the war, there had been some variation in the Canadian attitude toward the conflict. Canada never questioned the legitimacy of the war and did not question the need for Canadian participation. There were differences of opinion, though, concerning how extensive the Canadian contribution should be. These variations affected the response to calls for enlistment and divided the country as the towns were more willing than the countryside, the prairies more willing than the Atlantic seaboard, and "it was observed that the proportion of enlistments achieved by any social group appeared to vary almost inversely to the length of its connection with Canada. On the one hand, the ritish-born -- the new arrivals with a large proportion of unattached males of military age -- gave the highest percentage of their numbers to the armed services, and, on the other hand, the French Canadians unquestionably gave the…… [Read More]
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954
During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…… [Read More]
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…… [Read More]
World War I and its Effect on the Middle East
The Europeans who had already colonized much of the area with post-World War I now spread further into the Middle East claiming further portions such as Arabia, Iraq, yria, Libya, and Palestine. The Constantinople Agreement followed by many more including the ykes Picot agreement over and again implemented covert agreements regarding lands that would go to each of the Allies. After the war, France received Lebanon and yria (
) even though yria herself preferred an American mandate (2), and Britain received land that included Palestine, Israel, Transjordan, and Iraq (3). The indigenous people themselves were never consulted regarding whom they wished to control them, and colonization, consequently, prompted Arabic nationalism.
Nationalism was, furthermore, created by the fact that the peace settlements imposed by the Allies after World War I broke up nation states and created others, confusing many who,…… [Read More]
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…… [Read More]
..the spirit of ruthless brutality will enter itn every fiber of our national life" (Johnson 643).
Staying out, states Tindall & Shi 948), was "more easily said than done, not least for Wilson himself. Americans might want to stay out of the war, but most of them cared which side won. Ironically, because there were so many first- or second-generation immigrants from Germany and Ireland, the leaning was toward the Central Powers. However, "old-line Americans" mostly of ritish descent were sympathetic to the Allies.
Yet actions were to occur that made the final decision. In 1915, the Germans sank the ritish Cunard liner Lusitania with 128 Americans on board. The Americans were outraged and sent letters to no avail. Then U-boats sank a number of American ships and finally, the press published a secret telegram from the German Foreign Minister Arthur Zimmerman to the Mexican government proposing a German-Mexican offensive…… [Read More]
All European nations suffered devastating postwar economic consequences, which further increased the reluctance to use military force to subdue Hitler. The United States enjoyed a postwar boom, given that none of the battles had been waged upon its own territories. But the Republican-dominated Senate refused to allow the U.S. To become a member of the League of Nations, and the absence of strong American leadership made the League ineffective as a peacekeeping force. Germany was also stripped of all of its colonies: the fact that many new nations were created in the redrawing of the map of Europe meant that many of the recently evolved national identities and infrastructures of new countries were quite fragile.
Although they were 'older' nations, Germany and Russia were particularly politically unstable, as a result of the conditions spawned by orld ar I. Despite its early exit from the ar, Russia's economy was undergoing an…… [Read More]
With a profound sense of the solemn and even tragical character of the step I am taking and of the grave responsibilities which it involves, but in unhesitating obedience to what I deem my constitutional duty, I advise that the Congress declare the recent course of the Imperial German Government to be in fact nothing less than war against the Government and people of the United States....America is privileged to spend her blood and her might for the principles that gave her birth and happiness and the peace which she has treasured. God helping her, she can do no other." (Woodrow Wilson's war message)
United States' entry bolstered the Allied forces and gave them extraordinary power over the German Imperial army. With America's entry into the war, things suddenly changed as we were was no longer spectators. The response from the public was however not overwhelming since it had been…… [Read More]
David Fromkin's "A Peace to End All Peace." From the beginning, the review provides intriguing information, including the fact that the title relates to the ideal of "a war to end all wars." The ironic nature of this phrase has been the subject of discussion and occasional mirth for all the years after the war. I was delighted to find out the name of the originator of the term, British commander Archibald Wavell, since this is not something I knew before.
The review provides several pieces of interesting information, including the fact that the British, and particularly Kitchener, were largely ignorant about the social and cultural nature of the Middle East, making the British policy for this region largely ineffective at best and explosive at worst. Another piece of interesting information is the mistaken belief that a conspiracy was underway to undermine the position of the British in the Middle…… [Read More]
leadership is crucial to successful political military campaigns. Close scrutiny of the military and political leaders of the First World War demonstrate how political leaders use methods like propaganda and ideology to forge their victories in the psyches of the people, helping military leaders achieve their goals by engendering trust, courage, and conviction in spite of tremendous hardships and even death. Similarly, the victories of military leaders become critical for effective political campaigns. Military leadership requires a different set of tools and tactics than political leadership but both are crucial for desirable outcomes.
One of the most successful political leaders during World War One ended up being Vladimir Lenin, who spearheaded the Bolshevik evolution and ensured the enduring success of Soviet policies. Lenin's leadership skills far exceeded those of Czar Nicholas II, who failed to inspire the people of ussia in the way Lenin had, thus leading to the demise…… [Read More]
The soldier is simply unable to live with this corruption. Instead, the narrator continues as his voice by proxy, indicting the society that caused the war and created the atrocity the killed the solder. Likewise, Graves is forever changed by his experience, losing the respect he used to hold for the values and norms of the society that caused the war and failed to understand the effect of the war upon all that was beautiful and young.
In concussion, assoon's and Graves's work compare well as commentaries and criticisms upon what both authors appear to regard as the atrocity of war. assoon's very brief work has its impact in this very brevity, while Graves's detail and individual focus achieves the same effect. Both protagonists are severely traumatized by their experiences. In both works, this trauma does not remain unaddressed. Both authors provide their central characters with a mouthpiece to denote…… [Read More]
World War I
Causes and Consequences of World War I
World War 1
(Causes, America's Contribution to the War, ole of President Woodrow Wilson, Treaty of Versailles Failure)
The First World War (1914-1918) or the Great War was fought between the Allies and the Central Powers. The Allies included 27 countries of which ussia, the United States of America, France, Japan and Britain are the most prominent. The Central Powers consisted of Turkey, Germany, Bulgaria and Austria-Hungary as the chief combatants. It is the greatest and most atrocious war brawled till date.
There were a number of causes that initiated the brutality of World War I Major causes include imperialism, nationalism, materialism and alliance systems. However, the immediate cause of the beginning of the War was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, the oyal Prince of Hungary and Bohemia. As he was killed by a Serbian nationalist in June…… [Read More]
World War I
The First World War began in the summer of 1914 with the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria. The conflict lasted through late 1918, concluding with the treaty of Versailles. The war to end all wars, as it was commonly known, was dominated by trench warfare. Due to numerous advances in defense technology and a lack of tactical advances, both the Allied Nations and the Central Powers, were stymied by a lack of military advances. Early victories in France, by the German army, and in Serbia by the Austrian/Hungarian forces proved to be less than decisive, due to miscommunication between the two Central powers.
Not only was this the First war between so many great world powers, additionally this was the first war to be affected by, and ultimately fought, not only on the battle field but also in the press rooms. Due to expansion in…… [Read More]
In 1917 ussia suffered two revolutions, which resulted in a drastic change of leadership. Tsarist ussia became Lenin's Soviet ussia and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed shortly thereafter in March 1918 with Germany. The treaty gave Germany much: over a million square millions and 60 million people -- a third of ussia's population -- were annexed. ussia lost railroads, factories, the majority of its coal and iron -- but Germany was in no position to immediately profit from the treaty. The Western Front was calling. ussia gained some peace from the treaty, and could now focus on its internal problems resulting from the recent overthrow and the war effort. Leading up to the treaty, Imperial ussia had suffered devastating casualties and food shortages. The Bolsheviks called for an end to the war on the Eastern Front, and Germany supported this call, allowing Lenin himself to return to…… [Read More]
WWI: The Forces of Nationalism, Imperialism and Militarism
The forces of nationalism, imperialism and militarism irrevocably led to World War I in several ways. Germany had become an industrialized nation, vying for economic power and rivaling the power of Britain (Gilbert, 1994). Germany had also defeated France in the prior century in the Franco-Prussian War and taken the territories of Alsace and Lorraine. France wanted them back (Bradberry, 2012). ussia also had a grievance with Germany: it wanted the Bosporous Straights that were "controlled by Germany through her alliance with the Ottoman Empire" (Bradberry, 2012, p. 42). The only way for each of these countries to get what they wanted from Germany was to go to war: their alliance gave them the opportunity to attack Germany on all fronts, and Germany's support for the Austria-Hungary attack on Serbia (in retaliation for the Serbian assassination of Archduke Ferdinand) gave the Triple…… [Read More]
WWI and Literature
World War I was certainly one of the most productive periods in literature with millions of poets and authors emerging on the scene and each one contributing tremendously to the growth and progress of literature. It is quite strange that while WWI was a deeply disturbing and a largely horrifying experience for most countries, it inspired writers and poets around the globe and this resulted in significant growth of world literature.
In England alone, more than 2000 poets emerged during this period as Harvey (1993) elaborates: "From the very first week, the 1914-18 war inspired enormous quantities of poetry and fiction. The claim that three million war poems were written in Germany in the first six months of hostilities is difficult to substantiate, but Catherine W. eilly has counted 2,225 English poets of the First World War, of whom 1,808 were civilians. For example, William Watson (then…… [Read More]
World War I
The Causes and How America Joined the War
The events that led to the causes of the first world war had its roots in the Balkans in late July 1914 and there are causes including political, territorial, and economic conflicts among the great European powers in the four decades leading up to the war. Militarism, a complex web of alliances, imperialism and nationalism were some of the other causes that led up to the First World War.
The root for the Second World War lay in the peace accords and the punishments that were meted out to the Germans after the First World War and the sense of humiliation and economic debacle following the end of the First World War.
The animosity between the Americans and the Germans started with the sinking of the Lusitania as she made her maiden voyage from Liverpool to New York in…… [Read More]
World War I and the Great Depression
World War I
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand on 28 June 1914 sparked the occurrence of the First World War. A Serbian nationalist called Gavrilo Princip murdered him as the heir apparent to the throne of Austria. However, other underlying factors that contributed to the rivalry between the Great Powers include the system of alliances, nationalism, domestic political factors, militarism, the Eastern question (The Balkans), and the crises before 1914. The main powers of Europe before 1914 were: (i) the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (1882) and (ii) the Triple Entente of Britain, ussia and France (1907). In nature, the alliances were defensive, and this implied that major political disputes inevitably would lead to large and not small conflicts. Nationalism looked at eager people across the world who wanted to let the rest of the world know how strong and…… [Read More]
orld ar I: "The Great ar"
The historical record shows that orld ar I, the "ar to End All ars," did not end war, but rather set the stage for an even greater global conflagration a generation later. This paper reviews the relevant literature to assess the relative importance of diplomacy, imperialism, and nationalism in causing the Great ar (1914-1918), as well as to identify the major players leading Europe to war. An analysis of why this "unwanted war" was greeted with such joy is followed by an assessment of whether this enthusiastic reaction to the outbreak of war was the consequence of domestic tension or simple patriotism and whether the victors' positions after the war reflect their wartime experiences. Finally, a summary of the research and important findings concerning the Great ar are presented in the conclusion.
Relative Importance of Diplomacy, Imperialism and Nationalism in Causing the Great ar…… [Read More]
World War I: Dada
The literary and artistic movement known as Dada originated in the Swiss city of Zurich, at the time of the First World War, as a response to the War as well as the nationalism considered by many to have sparked the war. Inspired by Futurism, Cubism, Expressionism, Constructivism, and other innovative movements, Dadaism's output ranged from poetry, collage, and painting, to performance arts and sculptures (Jones, 2002; Hulsenbeck, 1988). The movement's aesthetic, characterized by contempt for nationalistic and materialistic attitudes, strongly influenced artists in major cities across the globe, such as Berlin, Paris, Cologne, Hanover, and New York, and all ended up creating their own separate groups. Surrealism led to Dadaism's degeneration.
Sickened by the nationalism that triggered WWI, Dadaists were constantly against the idea of authoritarianism, and all kinds of guiding ideologies or group leadership. Their main concern was revolting against the apparent middleclass…… [Read More]
1st orld ar (I) was a global scale military conflict, which erupted in 1914. Virtually, the whole of Europe was involved as well as countries and kingdoms from other regions of the globe (Strachan 9). It should however be noted that the countries that engaged in this war entered the said war at different times and joined different alliances. Essentially, the war was between two alliances - the Central Powers and the Allies. In addition to these two sides, there was a neutral group of nations that remained neutral to the war. However, some of the said groups later on started taking sides. The Allies according to Kelly consisted of Great Britain, Belgium, Ireland, Serbia, Montenegro, Russia, as well as France and they were later joined by some neutral nations including Romania, Greece, Italy, and Portugal. On the other hand, the Central Powers alliance included the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria…… [Read More]
orld ar One ultimately killed 35 million people -- this alone might have merited its being called "The Great ar," although to a large degree it was the astonishing way in which the deaths happened. On the first day of the Battle of the Somme alone, Britain suffered almost sixty thousand casualties. The ten-month stalemate of the Battle of Verdun resulted in seven hundred thousand (700,000) dead, with no discernible tactical advance made by either side (Tuchman 174). The immediate causes of orld ar One were complicated but fairly straightforward. Many of the long-standing political institutions of Europe were badly outmoded, in particular two of the oldest: the Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire. Each of these institutions were the inheritors of previous large-scale imperial institutions (the Holy Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire accordingly) which dated back nearly a thousand years -- and each was failing badly.…… [Read More]
U.S. Involvement in orld ar I & II:
There are several historical details of America's involvement in the First and Second world wars and the critical role that this country played in the two wars. Studies on these historical events have mainly focused on examining the involvement of the United States in the wars, the results of the engagement, and its impact on the country's position nationally and globally. America's involvement in the two wars had a crucial impact on the development of the nation to its current state both from the home front and internationally.
America's Involvement in orld ar I:
America's entrance and involvement in the First orld ar occurred on 6th April 1917, breaking the nation's long isolation tradition. The nation had embraced a policy of isolation and neutrality when war was declared in Europe in 1914. This policy seemed to be the most appropriate approach since…… [Read More]
osa Luxemburg's view of World War I, as demonstrated in her political tract "The Workers and the War," was relatively simple. She vehemently protested against the war on political grounds, arguing that it actually represented a dissolution of the socialist principles which had largely animated Europe and large portions of Germany at the time. This fact is readily underscored by the notion that the author was imprisoned for the majority of World War I due to her protesting this war as violating many of the crucial tenets of socialism. The author's primary thesis is that large international conflicts such as World War I were fundamentally contrary to the ideologies of socialism, which strove to unite and empower the working class. Luxemburg widely believed that World War I and the very conception of nationalism itself merely led to the disempowerment of socialists, and regulated the working class to its substandard living…… [Read More]
First World War was the first-ever war that had brought great destruction and required greater involvement of many countries, most especially the European nations. Evidence of the impending world war started during the early 19th century, wherein colonization and strengthening of military power is the most prevalent activity of all European nations at that time. The World War I was said to have many causes, although the most important and more popular cause discussed by historians today is that the First World War started because of the rising imperialism among competing European nations. The war had two competing groups, the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente. The Triple Alliance was composed of Germany, Austria- Hungary, and Italy, while the Triple Entente was made up of Great ritain, France, and Russia. These groups were not originally formed as a triad; rather, each nation became affiliated with each other before and during…… [Read More]
Wilson was one of the massive supporters of this League of Nations as he felt it would help in being responsible in preventing subsequent wars. One major aspect of the treaty of Paris in 1919 was that it contained the Treaty of Versailles, one which has a major goal of disciplining Germany and forcing a sense of punishment and finality of Germany. For instance, Germany lost many colonies and investments in lieu of this treaty and their ability to forge a military was crippled and limited to a fraction of its original size; the German air force was also similarly crippled. Germany was also further bankrupt in the reparations that it was ordered to pay -- the equivalent of $132 billion gold marks. These intense punishments were a major aspect of the treaty and were something that did cause a deadlock at certain points in the negotiating process (MacMillan, 195).…… [Read More]
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand was what allegorically kick-started the First World War. However, there was a lot more to what actually led to the outbreak of war than one political assassination. The assassination of the Archduke was significant in that it represented a growing trend in the geo-political landscape of Europe: nationalism. The Serbian assassin was a member of a Serbian nationalist group called the Black Hand.
Sensing that budding discontent against the Austro-Hungarian regime could be politically costly, the Empire, still under Franz Josef goaded the Serbian nationalists first by issuing an ultimatum. The Austro-Hungarian Empire wanted to gain total control over the entire Balkans: a geographically strategic area. Serbia stood in its way, making it seem like a worthwhile maneuver to enter into war if need be. Serbian nationalists, on the other hand, also believed it worthwhile to push back against the encroachment on…… [Read More]
orld ar I upon the Great Depression on the federal role of American government
After the advent of the Great Depression and the presidency of Franklin Roosevelt, America shifted in its national emphasis from being an economically decentralized nation, with a capitalistic and 'hands off' attitude to the development of industry, to a more truly modern nation that took an active role in the lives and well being of its citizens. The American federal government also began to seek to exercise its moral influence upon the rest of the world. However, this shift from American isolationism towards those in need within America, as well as the needs of individuals abroad, did not come with some national soul-searching. The historian illiam E. Leuchtenburg writes in his text The Perils of Prosperity: 1914-32 that the economic advancement of the post orld ar I era, and America's less economically damaging late involvement in…… [Read More]
perceptions of World War One propaganda from the Dutch, neutral perspective. The reception of this foreign propaganda can be measured in a number of different ways: via the culling of contemporary newspapers with editorials reacting to the propaganda, and with counter-propaganda materials such as pamphlets. Special attention will be given to pamphlets, posters, and other propaganda describing the 1914 invasion of Belgium by Germany, known colloquially as the ape of Belgium.
Historical context will comprise the background section of the research report. It is necessary to highlight the specific issues that the propaganda material were designed to address in the public consciousness. The propaganda material will be analyzed in terms of its symbolism and composition, and there will be some mention also of the prevailing artistic sensibilities that influenced the artwork -- which cannot be taken out of its historical context. For example, many of the sketches used for the…… [Read More]
Germans and Jews After I
Germans and Jews After orld ar I
In orld ar I, more than 12,000 Jews lost their lives fighting for Germany (Flannery, 43). They were a large part of the culture there, and had intermingled as much as they were able to. However, despite the way they were involved in so much of what was taking place in the country, they were also never really accepted. After I, Germany's official position on Jews changed. Much of that took place because the German leaders did not want to take any blame for the problems that had caused them to lose out in the war. Because they wanted to make sure the people saw them in a good light, and they did not want to admit past mistakes, they looked for scapegoats. One of the main groups for that scapegoating was the Jewish people. Even though many…… [Read More]
WWI was also the first time that toxins such as mustard gas were used and this created panic and death in many different countries, significantly raising the death toll from the war and also making it more difficult for the country to stay organized and on-track when it came to supporting the troops that were fighting (Marston, 1981).
Italy was another of the allies that joined up to retaliate against Germany. If it were not for the issue with the alkans, it is likely that WWI would have never taken place, but other countries objected so strongly to the way that Germany handled the problem that they felt they must become involved. When Italy had finally been pushed far enough, it "decided to retaliate" and officially joined the war (Marston, 1981).
For Italy, going into the war meant protecting itself and its allies. It had generally enjoyed a good relationship…… [Read More]
Balkan ar that led to orld ar I
There were several factors of the Balkan Crisis of 1914 that led to orld ar I. Generally, the European Crisis of 1914 is blamed on the "Great Power statesmen for their shortsightedness, incompetence, or failure to act in a timely or effective way to keep the peace" (Sowards 2001). However, it is important to consider the players involved in the conflict between the two states in the original Sarajevo crisis, Austria-Hungary and Serbia. Early in the crisis, when the Austrian, Hungarians, and Serbs made important decisions, "they consistently avoided compromise and risked war" (Sowards 2001). Two months passed between the murder of Franz Ferdinand and the "coming of the general war...plenty of time for calculation, caution and decision" (Sowards 2001). However, there were several successive events that took place during those two months.
On June 28, 1914, Gavrilo Princip, a nineteen-year-old student…… [Read More]
92). Pope Innocent X lamented the procedure, of course -- for it served to subvert the truths which the oman Church strove to propagate.
Thus, the modern world was built not upon the majesty of kings and religion, but upon treaties and revolutionary ideals. The philosophical fruit of Protestantism would spring up in the age of omantic/Enlightenment doctrine, which would produce the American and French evolutions. "Liberty, equality, fraternity" would be the modern world's ethos -- in theory. However, capitalist ethics would undermine the romantic ideology. Imperialism -- for gold, God, and glory at the end of the medieval world -- would be based, in the modern world, upon sheer greed (as a principle). America defined this principle well with the notion of "manifest destiny," which by the end of the 19th century was expanded beyond the American frontier to encompass the whole globe.
The new Imperialism of America (and…… [Read More]
United States entry into world war.
Taking nations from more than half the globe as partakers and victims, the first war broke out, 1914-1918, and that is known as World War 1 or the First World War. Until the World War II broke out, it was widely known as the war which had broken out which had the capacity to put an end to all wars, and commonly it was known as The Great War. In fact multiple factors produced the First World War. An International anarchy was seen all over Europe. On the eve of the World War I there were 25 sovereign states in Europe, each desiring to act on its own individual conscience. None of them was ready to submit to the interference or will of the other, as each of them held its pride high, thinking if they accepted the advice of any other state, their…… [Read More]
Post orld ar I era: Freud and Ortega y Gasset
The outbreak of orld ar I was a traumatic and disillusioning event for many people in Europe, perhaps most of all for those who had committed themselves to a notion of progress and advancement in human affairs. The sheer scale of the destruction and death unleashed by the war, which "exceeded that of all other wars known to history," at the end of a century which had been largely seen as one of peace, progress and prosperity, was a profound shock - one from which, it could be argued, the nations of Europe never entirely recovered.
hen the Austrian psycho-analyst Sigmund Freud sat down to write an article on the war in early 1915, it was this sense of disillusionment, of a loss of faith in progress, that was uppermost in his mind. The resulting essay, "Thoughts for the Times…… [Read More]