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Governments turned out to be involved with original subjects for instance rationing, manpower distribution, home defense, removal in the time of air raid, and reply to job by an enemy control. The confidence and mind of the persons replied to management and publicity. Classically women were militarized to an exceptional degree. The achievement in rallying financial production was a main factor in secondary battle processes. Altogether of the power complicated had educated from their involvements on the Home front throughout orld ar I and strained to use its educations and evade its errors.
The harassment and genocide were done in different stages. Numerous laws to eliminate the Jews from the civil humanity, most conspicuously the Nuremberg Laws, were passed in Germany years earlier the eruption of orld ar II. Concentration camps were recognized in which convicts were exposed to slave labor up until they expired of tiredness or illness.…
Evans, R.J. (2004). The Third Reich at War 1939 -- 1945. . London: Allen Lane. .
Leffler, M.P., & Painter, D.S. (2006). Origins of the Second Wold Warr: An International History. Boston: Routledge.
Maddox, R.J. (1995). The United States and World War II. Westview Press. Macmillan Publishing Company. .
Nicholas Balabkins. (2005). "Germany Under Direct Controls: Economic Aspects of Industrial Disarmament 1945 -- 1948." New York: Rutgers University Press,.
World War II in the Context of History and Modern Warfare
he 20th Century was simultaneously a Century of exceptional advancement and unsurpassed violence. Why was this a Century of incomparable violence? he quick answer is that we, as a human race, used many of our advancements to become far more efficient killers; where advancements of prior centuries allowed armies to kill tens of thousands, the advancements of the 20th Century enabled armies to kill tens of millions. he longer answer involves military technological revolutions, military inventions used in World War II, business methods that drastically increased war production, the transformation of national wealth to effective fighting power, and the conversion of civilian moral energies into the will to win. Keegan, Overy, Ferguson and Weinberg, in turn, either support those conclusions or, at the very least, do not deny them.
a. he Four Military echnological Revolutions
Knox and Williamson…
The First World War also resulted in vastly improved infrastructure. Marshall speaks of sophisticated transportation systems moved personnel and supplies in volume and speed that were unknown merely decades earlier.[footnoteRef:27] Keegan, Ferguson, Overy and Weinberg do not dwell on these transportation developments during World War I but Keegan, Overy and Weinberg speak of their extensive use by both the Allies[footnoteRef:28] and the Germans[footnoteRef:29] during World War II. [27 S.L.A. Marshall, World War I (New York, NY: Mariner Books, 2001), p. viii.] [28: Keegan, p. 100; Overy, p. 53; Weinberg, p. 116.] [29: Keegan, p. 116; Overy, p. 49; Weinberg, p. 143.]
For example, in approximately 2 weeks in August, 1914, French railway system was so sophisticated and efficient that it transported more than 3,700,000 troops and the Germans transported approximately 2,000,000 well-armed troops through their railway system in even less time.[footnoteRef:30] [30: Marshall, p. viii.]
Marshall also asserts that the enormity of this first "World War" required the construction of factories and training of manpower in the technical requirements for manufacturing arms and ammunition, tied intimately to technology but also requiring vastly improved efficiency in living accommodations and all the accoutrements, connections and transportation. For one example, as Essen, the Germans built the Krupp works, consisting of a city-within-a-city of 41,000 workers for the construction of heavy weapons and having its own streets, police force, fire department and traffic regulations.[footnoteRef:31] Marshall provides another example in Woolwich, England, in which one factory and all required materiel and workers were transported and assembled to churn out 30,000 rounds of ammunition each month and transport them.[footnoteRef:32] Weinberg also mentions the importance of the United States' manufacture of munitions during World War I.[footnoteRef:33] Keegan, Ferguson and Overy do not mention munitions factory developments through World War I but assert that the importance of such factories was recognized from the very early stages of World War II.[footnoteRef:34] Marshall also speaks of extensive railways built to transport forces, arms, supplies and artillery. One example is the construction of five new narrow-gauge railway lines across the Fifth Army's operation zone in the Verdun to transport weapons and ammunition to their positions.[footnoteRef:35] Keegan, Ferguson, Overy and Weinberg all speak of the importance of railways for both the Germans and the Allies.[footnoteRef:36] Necessity being the Mother of Invention, the necessities of a first World War led to markedly improved developments,
These men represented a number of virtues and standards that were in accordance with those core, basic elements of humanity that the war threatened. The affection that the author feels for the old breed, in their attempts to help him and others ultimately win their own personal wars against debauchery, are alluded to in the following quotation.
War is brutish, inglorious, and a terrible waste. Combat leaves an indelible mark on those who are forced to endure it. The only redeeming factors were my comrades' incredible bravery and their devotion to each other. The Marine Corps training taught us to kill efficiently and to try to survive. ut it also taught us loyalty to each other -- and love. 4
This sense of loyalty and love was the chief 'ammunition' in the real war within World War II. This was a war to maintain one's perspective, dignity, and values in…
Sledge, E.B. With the Old Breed. New York: Presidio Press, 2007.
Terkel, Studs. The Good War. New York: The New Press, 1997.
World War II
Manhattan Project: Begun in 1939, this project was the codename for the United States' secret Atomic Bomb project. With America's entry into the war, the project grew substantially and ultimately involved more than 125,000 people, 37 separate installations, 13 university laboratories and a number of the nation's top scientists. (History.com: "World War 2: Atomic Bomb") In 1942 the project was put under the control of the U.S. Army with General Leslie Groves in command and obert Oppenheimer as its director. It was also at this time that the project was consolidated and moved to Los Alamos New Mexico where it culminated with the building and detonation of the first atomic device on July 16, 1945.
Hiroshima: Hiroshima is the site of the first atomic bombing of a city in wartime and took place on August 6, 1945. The attack was the culmination of the Manhattan…
The Eleanor Roosevelt Papers Project. "FDR's Brain Trust." Accessed 10 Dec. 2012.
History.com. "The Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki." Accessed 10 Dec. 2012.
Not only did a consumer need the money to make their purchase, they needed government approval in the form of ration stamps and cards. This severe restriction on the economic freedom of American citizens was tolerated due to the dire nature of the conflict. Another change in American society was less noticeable, but every bit as restrictive. Americans became the victims of a constant stream of propaganda ranging from posters covering the walls of public buildings to the newscasts and films shown in theaters. Again, for the sake of the nation, Americans again tolerated an intrusion into a sphere that had traditionally been independent of the government. Members of the Hollywood community participated in propaganda films, made speeches at bond rallies, and performed for the troops. The newspapers and radio media reported only what was approved by the government censors and the American people received a very one-sided view of…
"Granada Japanese Internment Camp." Colorado.gov: The Official State Web Portal.
Web 11 Dec. 2011.
Japanese-American Internment." Smithsonian Education. Web. 11 Dec. 2011.
orld ar II -- a Catastrophic Event that Changed the orld
hat was the most crucial and important cause of orld ar II?
It would be fair to look to the Nazis and Hitler's fanaticism as the most crucial and important cause of orld ar II. And certainly historians and scholars have few doubts as to Hitler's accountability in the tragic, bloody and catastrophic slaughter in Europe. But what were the events and issues that allowed the Nazis to come to power? hat propaganda did the Nazis use to seal their hold on Germany? Other causes need to be weighed in the matrix of II prior to making the judgment that the Nazi obsession for expansion and for building an Aryan race constituted the most crucial cause of the war.
Thesis: The main, the most crucial and important underlying cause of II was the Treaty of Versailles. This paper will…
Angelfire. (2010). Adolph Hitler. Retrieved March 12, 2011, from http://www.angelfire.com/wy/wwi/hitler.html .
Angelfire. (2010). The Propaganda of the Nazi Party and the Nazi Government. Retrieved March
12, 2011, from http://www.angelfire.com/wy/wwi/prop.html .
Angelfire. (2010). The Treaty of Versailles. Retrieved March 12, 2011, from
Food, gasoline, oil, soap, and clothing were all scarcely distributed so as to not take too much away from the people at war (Ames Historical Society). For the first time as well, income taxes were implemented on items as well as withheld from people's checks. Bond buying also became a popular way of funding the war (PBS). Life in the United States transformed after its involvement in World War II.
Despite the positive changes that the United States had seen in their economy, Great Britain's experience was not so positive. Europe had already been participating in the full war effort for two years prior to the involvement of the United States. Due to their proximity to enemy countries such as Germany, Japan, and Italy, Great Britain felt the full effects of the war (BBC). While the United States was busy avoiding the war, the citizens of Great Britain lived in…
Ames Historical Society. "There's a War On, You Know!" Rationing on the U.S. Homefront during WWII. Ames, Iowa Historical Society, 2004. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. .
BBC. "More Information About: The Home Front." BBC HISTORY. BBC, 2013. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. .
PBS. "The Home Front." Masterpiece. PBS.org, 2003. Web. 23 Apr. 2013. .
"World War II." New York Times (1923-Current file): 1. Aug 12, 1945. ProQuest: Historical Database. Web. 23 Apr. 2013.
World War II
Economical and military abilities of major participants of the war -
Important military campaigns
France (including Belgium and Holland)
Balkan campaign (Greece and Yugoslavia)
Industrial production in 1943
World War II is the most tragic but extremely interesting period of human history of al centuries. It was a regular continuation of previous absurd bloody conflict - World War I. New war began after Germany was defeated in WWI and after winners didn't give Germany any chance to have enough resources to feed own citizens and reconstruct national infrastructure. But British Empire wanted to become richer; United States wished the same. France in fact was destructed even more than Germany and wished to capture not only new territories but also to get as high contribution as it was necessary to restore ruined economics and rebuild vast lands bordering Germany (France…
1. The Great World War 1914-1945 -- Volume 1: Lightning Strikes Twice
John Bourne, Peter Liddle, & Ian Whitehead
2. Hitler's Gladiator. Charles Messenger, Conway Martim Press, 1988
3. Forbidden Britain -- Our Secret Past 1900-1960
World War II bring a number of images to the minds of most Americans: the Atomic omb, the Japanese Internment Camps, fighter planes, military jeeps, assault rifles, and soldiers in battle. The overall impression of the war is very masculine, from troops of male soldiers to songs about our "boys" overseas. However, women played a very significant role in World War II, and it is believed by most war historians that without such a strong backing by the female population, America would not have been victorious in the war effort. Women had many roles in the second World War; American propaganda posters proclaimed, "Women In the War: We Can't Win Without Them!" (Giampaoli) Women had to enter the workforce to increase production of wartime goods and to take the place of the male workers that were drafted. Housewives had to completely reinvent the way in which they ran their…
Giampaoli, Cristina. "Women in World War II: Would Life Ever be the Same?" History 175 Project [online]. San Diego: University of San Diego. [cited 4 May 2005]. Available from World Wide Web: (http://history.sandiego.edu/gen/st/~cg3/outline.html)
The Library of Congress. 2002. "War, Women, and Opportunity." Women Come to the Front: Journalists, Photographers, and Broadcasters During World War II [online]. Washington, D.C.: The Library of Congress. [cited 4 May 2005]. Available from World Wide Web: ( http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/wcf/wcf0002.html )
Leila Rupp, Linda. Mobilizing Women for War: German and American Propoganda, 1939-1945. Princeton: Princeton University press, 1978.
Wolf, Wehr. 2005. Women Airforce Service Pilots. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia [online]. [cited 4 May 2005]. Available from World Wide Web: ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Women_Airforce_Service_Pilots )
World War II
The role that the President of the United States of America played in the entry of America into the II World War is a question that has been debated by historians again and again over the years. The widespread belief is that President Roosevelt, upon becoming aware, by 1937, of the threat being caused to America by Japanese and German expansion, saw no other option but to try to arouse an isolationist nation. The famous speech by the President in October 1937 delivered in Chicago is referred to as the Quarantine Speech. This speech was made about two months after the Japanese invasion of China in order to create awareness of the dangerous situation brought about by the Axis Powers. FDR was also demonstrating, in a landmark decision on America's foreign policy, his stand against the Axis Powers. Due to the widespread opposition to this resolve of…
23. "Introduction to the War in the Pacific"
24. "Introduction to the War in Europe" Retrieved at http://www.worldwar2history.info/Europe/ . Accessed on 03/18/2003
25. "A New Vision of American Omnipotence" Retrieved at http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&showHideToc=0&docId=24132330Accessed on 03/18/2003
The generally accepted reasoning behind that bombing is that thousands of United States troops would have died in a protracted war and a clear message had to be sent. Regardless of how one assesses the issue, the fallout, no pun intended, from Japan's choice was massive.
Depending on how one perceives Weinberg, he did cover all of the normal bases but perceptions of his worldview may lead some to believe that he did not. After all, some may view Truman's choice to bomb Japan as heroic and proper while others may view it as tragic and vile even with the attack on Pearl Harbor and the aggregate actions of both Japan and Hitler over World War II up to and including the Holocaust. No matter how noble and academic someone may seem or portend himself/herself to be, worldview and historical perceptions almost inevitably color the research, perspective and findings of…
Keegan, Richard. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York: Vintage Books, 1995.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York: WW Norton & Company, 1995.
Weinberg, Gerhard. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Columbia: Columbia University Press, 1994.
orld ar II
Japan's wars of aggression and conquest began long before the fascist takeover of the 1930s and the alliance with Nazi Germany in 1940, and the idea that the Japanese were a superior race also had a long pedigree -- as indeed did the Nordic-Aryan racism of the Nazis. Both used the tactics of blitzkrieg and surprise to end up in control of most of Europe and Asia by 1942, before the tide began to turn against them at the battles of Midway and Stalingrad. In 1940 the U.S. armed forces were smaller than those of Belgium and Romania, grew to eleven million by 1944, and became a far more formidable force than the Germans, Japanese, British or Russians would have imagined at the outset. The U.S. military very quickly overcame the deficiencies in training, command and effectiveness it had shown in the early battles like Kasserine Pass…
Dower, John W. War without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War. Pantheon, 1987.
Mansoor, Peter R. The GI Offensive in Europe: The Triumph of American Infantry Divisions, 1941-45 (University Press of Kansas, 1999).
Even before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the U.S. government began targeting Japanese-American businessmen and placing them under arrest. Following Pearl Harbor, the efforts expanded beyond businessmen and targeted the whole of the Japanese community. Executive Order 9066 "set into motion the exclusion from certain areas, and the evacuation and mass incarceration of 120,000 persons of Japanese ancestry living on the est Coast, most of whom were U.S. citizens or legal permanent resident aliens." (Children of the Camps). The conditions faced by these people absolutely contravened the principles of liberty that underlined American participation in the war; they were incarcerated without due process, lost their jobs, had to leave their homes, had inadequate medical care, and were surrounded by barbed wire and armed guards, despite the fact that there was no evidence to suggest than even a single Japanese-American was aiding Japan in the war effort. (Children of the…
The Children of the Camps Project. "Internment History." PBS.org. 1999. PBS. 9 Feb. 2008 http://www.pbs.org/childofcamp/history/index.html .
Davis, Ronald. "Racial Etiquette: Racial Customs and Rules of Racial Behavior in Jim Crow
America." JimCrowHistory.org. Unknown. Jim Crow History. 9 Feb. 2008 http://www.jimcrowhistory.org/history/history.htm.
Harry S. Truman Library and Museum. "Mobilizing for War: Poster Art of World War II."
Source: German Propaganda Archive, Calvin University
This poster translates: "Unshakable, determined to fight, certain of victory! "(German Propaganda Archive). Typical themes in German Propaganda posters were anti-Semitism, a call to the labor force, support and loyalty for Hitler, paper and clothing drives, as well as special programs, such as programs to send children to the countryside for safety.
Many of the themes overlapped with American messages. However, as one examines the collection of war posters as a whole, it becomes apparent that both sides had entirely different agendas and different techniques for getting the message across. American posters were more personal and used imagery that captured the audience and pulled at their heartstrings. German posters were often unrealistic in their presentation.
The Office of War Information
There were several forms of media available during World War II. However, there were several reasons for the choice to use posters as the…
Bytwerk, Randall, www.calvin.eduCalvin College.German Propaganda Archive. Calvin Universtiy. http://www.calvin.edu/academic/cas/gpa/posters2.htm
Ellis, R. Getting the Message Out: The Poster Boys of World War II, Part 2. Government Archives. Summer 2005, Vol. 37, No. 2. http://www.archives.gov/publications/prologue/2005/summer/posters-2.html
Floyd McKay, www.commondreams.orgThe Seattle Times, February 19, 2006.
Herman, E. And Chomsky, N. Manufacturing Consent. Pantheon Books, 1988.
orld ar II - D-Day
D-Day, during orld ar II, June 6, 1944, symbolizes the most significant military accomplishments of this century (Alter, 1994). It was an assault in Normandy, France, between the United States and German Soldiers ("D-Day," 2004). orld ar II was a preventable tragedy and its occurrence represented an immense political failure. It was a national trauma that permanently changed us. The shared experiences of scrap drives rationing, anxiety issues, and personal loss inspired a generational solidarity that still endures. The need to finance the war led to the development of income tax withholding. In 1941, only 7 million Americans filed tax returns and by 1944, 42 million did. Migration of individuals to California and Northern cities was a result of the war (Samuelson, 1994).
According to Charles Richardson, of the North Shore regiment, at the time of war, he and his peers had trained and practiced…
Alter, Jonathon. "A tough act to follow." Newsweek 123.21 (1994): 39-40.
"D-Day: June 6, 1944." American History 39.3 (2004): 48-52.
Humphreys, Jessica. "Remembering D-Day." Beaver 84.5 (2004): 56-57.
Samuelson, Robert. "War and rememberence." Newsweek 123.3 (1994): 39-41.
By the end of the war, over 19 million American women had left the kitchen and gone to work in factories, but Haak's mother was not among them. She did help coordinate a campaign to send letters and cookies to soldiers from the farmhouse in Wisconsin, but the farm required both Haak's father and mother to stay and work the land. A fair percentage of the food (potatoes, tomatoes, carrots and cabbage) raised on the Haak farm was donated by the Haak family to charities and other organization that were assisting injured soldiers and war widows.
Meanwhile, Bill Haak wanted to be in the Pacific theater where the fighting was, but he was ordered to work in England during most of 1942 and 1943, as part of the air effort; naval enlistees found themselves engaged in everything from supply efforts to ship maintenance. It made Haak a bit frustrated, but…
General Eisenhower and his allies had to decide if June 6 was the right day to go notwithstanding the fact that terrible weather was making the seas very rough and reducing visibility for the attack bombers that were to fly over German fortifications on the bluffs overlooking Omaha Beach. June 6th it was. Haak was part of the U.S. 4th Division which got lucky and encountered fewer entrenched German machine gun nests. Haak's job was to assist the assault boats coming out of the back of the ship; it was a hideously scary moment for the troops that boarded the landing crafts, and Haak and his buddies tried to instill some calm and courage to the frightened marines. Each soldier that was bound for the beach in a landing craft was carrying packs on their backs that weighed almost 70 pounds. Some made it safely on shore only to later be killed in battle. Others never made it to shore. Haak could see through his binoculars carnage that was occurring onshore, even as the huge guns of his navy ship blasted the entrenched Germans.
Sixty years later, a gray-haired Bill Haak was talking to his grandson William out on the back porch of his family's farmhouse in Wisconsin. "What is your greatest regret, Grandpa?" William asked. Bill Haak paused and said, "That so many had to die to save the world from Hitler and Hirohito. About 300,000 American soldiers died, to say nothing of the millions slaughtered in those horrific years, including the Holocaust. And my fondest hope William is that you never have to go to war. Let's go in now, I think grandma's got dinner ready."
Kennedy, David M. Freedom From Fear: The American People in Depression and War, 1929-1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999.
Even the established chain of command was seen as being too inhuman to the conscripts because of any arbitrary order from a superior.
In conclusion, this report focused on the frontline battlefield experiences of both American and Japanese soldiers as depicted in the semibiographical but fictional work "The Naked and the Dead" by Norman Mailer and the autobiographical account of World War II experienced by Ooka Shohei in the "Fires on the Plain." Each of these books can be considered a war classic because they each provide insights into the individual lives of soldiers on the frontlines. But deeper than that, these works give reasons that war can be considered as hell. Both books are classics in their respective countries because they give a unique perspective that delivers us right on to the frontlines of the Pacific ealm. I feel I have a better understanding of both winning and…
Mailer, Norman (1948). The Naked and the Dead. New York: Rhienhart & Comapny.
Shohei, Ooka (1969). Fires on the Plain. Baltimore: Penguin Books.
World War II (Innovations)
During wars, innovation was very important. It is defined as a means of introducing new procedures, strategies, responses, and structures as replacements for old, routine organization. Innovation supports structure and behavior aimed at minimizing both external and internal uncertainty sources.[footnoteRef:1] [1: . Rebecca Damm Patterson, "The U.S. Army and Nation-uilding Explaining Divergence in Effective Military Innovation," (Dissertation), 2009: http://www.pqdtopen.proquest.com]
According to Lori Sumner, geography and intelligence have for long been intertwined with the desire or need to wage serious war all through history, to different levels of success. One of the few categories of innovation and intelligence that is intrinsically both strategic and tactical in nature is geographic intelligence. The thoroughness and accuracy of geographical intelligence and its incorporation with the different phases of planning can have very significant effect on the results from both the strategic and tactical operations.[footnoteRef:2] [2: . Lori Sumner, "Know Your…
Patterson, Rebecca Damm. "The U.S. Army and Nation-Building Explaining Divergence in Effective Military Innovation." Dissertation. Washington: Columbian College of Arts and Sciences of The George Washington University, August 31, 2009. http://www.pqdtopen.proquest.com
Sumner, Lori. "Know Your Ground: A Look at Military Geographic Intelligence and Planning in the Second World War." Canadian Military Journal, 2014: 53-63. http://www.isn.ethz.ch
Vleck, Peter. "Rethinking and Relearning Modern Warfare: The Influence of Geography and the Environment on the Process of Fighting World War II in the Pacific." University of Puget Sound. May 17, 2013. http://soundideas.pugetsound.edu .
The components of nuclear prevention have a physical and a psychological character. On the physical level, deterrence necessitates a series of military instruments, sufficient to threaten the opponent in a way that it would not even think of attacking. Successful deterrence is certain, however, only if the will is there to use these weapons. Deterrence is plausible only if a nation is able to successfully convey the first two points to its opponent, that it is capable and willing. Successful deterrence depends on the psychological components of communication and perception (Gaddis, 2010).
The bomb's impact on substantive historical developments has turned out to be minimal. Nuclear weapons are routinely given credit for preventing or deterring a major war during the Cold War era. It is increasingly clear that the Soviet Union never had the smallest amount of interest in engaging in any kind of conflict that would remotely resemble World…
Childress, Vincent W. (2010). Producing Nuclear Power. Technology Teacher. 69(4), p5-10.
Gaddis, John Lewis. (2010). Deterrence. Retrieved March 22, 2010, from Nuclear Files Web
A. Compare and contrast the treatment of minority groups and their responses on the home front during World War II.
For the first time, African Americans began to be taken seriously. The Negro Soldier was released to cinemas during WW2 in an effort to draw blacks into Uncle Sam’s military. The promise of climbing the ranks—i.e., upward mobility—was something they were not used to in America. This appeal to blacks contrasted sharply with the way Germans and Asian Americans were treated during the war: both were heavily suspected as being traitors and spies in the U.S. Asian Americans on the West Coast were rounded up after the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor—an attack which allowed Churchill to sleep “the sleep of the saved and thankful” (Chapter 1, n.d., p. 1) because he knew it would mean America would get into the war and save England. The Executive Order…
World War II
The atomic weapons used in WWII could be viewed as a setback for democracy, especially as Truman made the decision to bomb Japan even though Japan was ready to surrender. It was more about Truman sending a message to the Soviet Union and letting the world know what capabilities America now had (Stone & Kuznick, 2012). A truly democratic approach would have been for Truman to hold a plebiscite on the matter, the way Hitler did in 1933 when he asked the Germans whether they supported his idea to leave the League of Nations (Degrelle, 2012). Truman acted on his own and showed that America’s leaders could operate like tyrants.
US foreign policy during the 1930s somewhat helped to promote WWII, but the actions of England, France and the Soviet Union were more to blame (Degrelle, 2012). The US under Hoover actually tried to come to a…
Degrelle, L. (2012). Hitler Democrat. DC: Barnes Review.
Stone, O. & Kuznick, P. (2012). The Untold History of the United States. NY: GalleryBooks.
Battle of Kursk: A Discussion of its Relevance on Contemporary Warfare
One of the reasons that the Battle of Kursk remains relevant even today revolves around the fact that it remains one of the most intense and greatest battles of World War Two—and of modern warfare some argue. Examining the mere facts that surround this battle that concerned Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia are very telling. “Almost 3 million men, a full eight thousand tanks, and nearly five thousand warplanes broke all records for both the costliest single day of aerial warfare and the largest tank battle in the history of mankind” (Roberts, 2013). One can easily assess that if the Germans had been victorious over the red army, it’s within the realm of possibility that they might have been able to gain a more decisive upper hand, regardless of their more devastating losses in the major cities of…
Glantz, D. M., & House, J. M. (2004). The Battle of Kursk. Lawrence, Kan: University Press of Kansas.
History.com. (n.d.). Battle of Kursk: Outcome and Facts. Retrieved from https://www.history.com/topics/world-war-ii/battle-of-kursk
Roberts, A. (2013, August 31). WWII\\\\'s Greatest Battle: How Kursk Changed the War. Retrieved from https://www.thedailybeast.com/wwiis-greatest-battle-how-kursk-changed-the-war
Showalter, D. E. (2013). Armor and blood: The Battle of Kursk, the turning point of World War II.
Trueman, C. N. (2015). The Battle of Kursk - History Learning Site. Retrieved from https://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/world-war-two/famous-battles-of-world-war-two/the-battle-of-kursk/
Gradually, though, the war effort eroded the practical and theoretical underpinnings of racism in the United States. The war stimulated the domestic economy, particularly in the industrial and manufacturing sectors. Jobs were opening up rapidly, and because so many white men were fighting the war, many black men were available to work. "For black workers orld ar II opened up opportunities that had never before existed," (O'Neil 1). The same was true for women, as the war left gaping holes in the labor market that needed to be filled in untraditional ways. At the same time as the war exposed American prejudice, "orld ar II gave many minority Americans -- and women of all races -- an economic and psychological boost." (Harris 1). The Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded, and overall, the war "jump-started the civil rights movement" in the United States (Harris 1; "Identify the impact of…
Harris, Michael. "How WWII Affected America's Minorities." Los Angeles Times. 13 June, 2000. Retrieved online: http://articles.latimes.com/2000/jun/13/news/cl-40272
"Identify the impact of World War II on minority groups in America." (U.S. History)." Retrieved online: http://share.ehs.uen.org/node/6217
O'Neil, William L. "Minorities and Women During World War II." Retrieved online: http://www.stg.brown.edu/projects/WWII_Women/RA/NCraig/Minorities.html
Takaki, Ronald. Double Victory. New York: Time Warner/Little Brown.
Diversity -- with the exception of homophobia -- was beginning to be commonly accepted and praised. Technology -- such as the use of DNA in criminology and the introduction of the PC -- was becoming more prominent in the lives of everyday Americans. In the Cold War, President Gorbachev asked for openness and economic freedom, while President eagan asked him to tear down the Berlin Wall, which he did. However, the discovery of AIDS had a far more profound impact on the American people than any of these events. In 1981, the first case of AIDS was reported in the United Kingdom, and this eventually caused quite a crisis in the U.S., as it was first noticed among gay men, and then in women and children as well. People became scared because they were not sure what was causing the disease. esearch continued throughout the 1980s, but the fear caused…
Dove, R. (1999). Heroes & Icons: Rosa Parks. Retrieved August 12, 2009, from Time:
"Fascinating facts about the invention of the Internet by Vinton Cerf in 1973." (2007,
May 30). Retrieved August 12, 2009, from the Great Idea Finder: http://www.ideafinder.com/history/inventions/internet.htm
WWII: Battle of Monte Cassino
History has been known to repeat itself. Today in Iraq for example, United States and Allied troops are torn when drawing up plans to win the war in the holy land. The problems stem from their not being able to directly attack certain Muslim holy locations or shrines even though Iraqi insurgents are constantly utilizing these positions as sanctuaries and initiation points for waging battles against the allied forces or the new Iraqi government. During World War II, the Axis powers with Adolf Hitler and the Nazi army also attempted to use similar tactics to fend off attacks by Allied forces.
This report discusses the Battle of Monte Cassino and the pros and cons of the Allied Forces' actions during World War II. A historic shrine was completely destroyed by the events of the Allied forces during the Battle of Monte Cassino in the Italian…
Colvin, David, & Hodges, Richard (1994). Tempting providence: the bombing of Monte Cassino. History Today, Vol. 44.
Eagle19. (n.d.). The Battles for Monte Cassino and the Defense of the Gustav Line. Retrieved October 15, 2004, at http://www.eagle19.freeserve.co.uk/cassino.htm
Griess, Thomas E. (2002). The Second World War Europe and the Mediterranean. The West Point Military History Series.
Hapgood, David, & Richardson, David (1984). Monte Cassino: The Story of the Most Controversial Battle of World War II. Add City: Add Publisher.
Without a doubt, the expansionist policies of Germany, Italy and Japan and a direct attack by Japan on Pearl Harbor necessitated the need for America to enter World War II. However, the real question is not whether America should have entered World War II, but could it have prevented it from happening. As the world's new super power following World War I, America should have done more to restore stability to Western Europe, particularly Germany, a country saddled with huge reparation payments. And, the United States could have taken a more active role in the League of Nations to discourage aggression. Instead, America enjoyed the spoils of World War I and became isolationist in response to the Great Depression. Economic and political instability caused by World War I led the rise of fascism. The Nazi goals of reversing the Versailles Treaty and the establishment of a German Empire by…
'World War II." Wikipedia. Available: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_II#Home_front (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II.," Available: http://web.uccs.edu/history/student%20presentations/heidi/world_war_two.htm (Accessed 3 May 2005).
"World War II." Wikipedia. Available:
Wilson, a student of public administration, favored more governmental regulation and action during a time when large monopolies still existed. He saw the role of public administration as "government in action; it is the executive, the operative, the most visible side of government, and is of course as old as government itself" (Wilson 235). The pendelum swung, though, and the government was blamed for many of the ills that caused the Great Depression. Franklin oosevelt, despite being called draconian, knew that he had to launch programs that would have a quick effect upon the struggling economy; resulting the New Deal -- a complex, interlocking set of programs designed to produce jobs, economic recovery, and fiscal reform of banking and Wall Street -- exactly what was needed, it seems to turn the Titanic in a new direction (Badger). Then, of course, came the war, which stimulated the economy like nothing else,…
Badger, A. FDR - The First Hundred Days. New York: Macmillan, 2009.
Cooper, P. Public Law and Public Administration. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1988.
Fesler, J. "Public Administration and the Social Sciences: 1946-1969." Mosher, F. American Public Administration: Past, Present, Future. Washington, DC & Birmingham, AL: The University of Alabama Press, 1975. 97-142.
Halberstam, D. The Fifties. New York: Ballantine, 1994.
By attacking from the North, Hitler effectively bypassed France's only real defense against invasion. Within two weeks, Paris was under Nazi control, and still seething from the harsh terms of the 1919 Treaty of Versailles that ended World War I, Hitler demanded that the surrender terms be signed in the very same spot as the armistice that ended that war, and in the very same railroad car, which he had brought out from its museum display for that purpose3. Belgium had surrendered to Germany without firing a shot, effectively dooming France to Nazi occupation, and nearly sealing the fate of more than a quarter million British troops sent to support Britain's ally, France. Only a last-
3. Hayes & Faissler p.444 minute scramble saved the British from capture, at the port city of Dunkirk, where the British used thousands of ships, boats, and dinghies to rescue them all and ferry…
Commager, H.S., Miller, D.L. The Story of World War II: Revised, Expanded & Updated from the Original Text by Henry Steele Commager (2002)
Hayes, C., Faissler, M. Modern Times: The French Revolution to the Present (1966)
Kowalick, T.M. The Western Tradition Transcripts (1989)
Lukacs, J. The Last European War (1976)
Today, the Americans fight different insurgent factions, who have limited weaponry, no air force, and no real large scale fighting tactics. Instead, they create havoc with roadside bombs and suicide bombers. Vietnam was fought on the scale of a world war, while Iraq is being fought on a much smaller scale. In addition, there was a draft in place during Vietnam, and no draft in place today, so our forces are stretched much thinner in Iraq and at home.
In contrast, many experts believe there are similarities between the two wars, but there are far more differences that keep the two wars very far apart in perspective. For example, there is no real Communist influence in Iraq; rather the country suffers from domestic unrest and insurgency, rather than large-scale intervention from other countries (except perhaps Iran). Thus, Americans are not fighting a "cold" war but rather a war supposedly based…
Kagan, Frederick W. "Iraq Is Not Vietnam." Policy Review (2005): 3+.
Letters from Iwo Jima. Dir. Clint Eastwood. Perf. Ken Watanabe, Kazunari Ninomiya, Tsuyoshi Ihara, and Ryo Kase. Warner Brothers, 2006.
Lopez, George a. "A Quagmire? Vietnam, Iraq & Other Analogies." Commonweal 16 Jan. 2004: 11+.
May, Elaine Tyler. Homeward Bound: American Families in the Cold War Era. Revised ed. New York: Basic Books, 1999.
World War II
The Use of Atomic Weapons on Japan in WWII
The Second World War officially began in 1939 with the evasion of Poland by Germany. The United States of America did not officially enter this international conflict of epic scale until the Japanese attacked American and European territories in the Pacific in 1941. The war persisted until 1945, culminating with the surrender of Japan and Germany to the U.S. & Allied Forces. During World War II, the world saw the first demonstrations of nuclear weapons -- atomic bombs. There were two infamous attacks on Japan by the U.S. On Nagasaki and Hiroshima, where the atomic bombs were dropped and caused unparalleled damage. The paper will provide a historical and political context within which to consider why the United States of America resorted to the use of atomic bombs upon Japan.
War campaigns waged by Germany and Japan were…
Aviation History. (2006) World War II -- Second Atomic Bomb that Ended the War. Available from http://www.historynet.com/world-war-ii-second-atomic-bomb-that-ended-the-war.htm . 2012 June 25.
Henretta. (2009) Chapters 23 -- 26. Provided.
It is key to understanding the author's view of love and even her own status as a woman and as a thinker. Of course, the book can simply be read as a love story of infidelity and sexual liberty gone wrong in the face of an ever-changing political society in a state of national and European chaos. But the Mandarins de Beauvoir referred to were also the elite, the intellectual elites of Chinese society who held themselves above from the common peasants.
Thus, by calling her fellow Left Bank intellectuals 'Mandarins' De Beauvoir symbolically calls upon her fellow intellectuals to become part and parcel of the political fray, rather than wasting their energies with entangling personal alliances that can be just as dissipating as the betrayals of Vichy and the subsequent alliances that sapped the French nation of its own vital energies. She calls upon the intellectual Mandarins of French…
" Military History. [online]
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Snell, J.L. (1962). The Outbreak of the Second World War: Design or Blunder? Boston D.C.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education esearch, 6(1), p. 117.
Carr, p. 117.
Shevin-Coetzee, M. & Coetzee, F. (2010). The World in Flames: A World War II Sourcebook. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Hickman, K. (2012). "World War II Europe: The oad to War." Military History. [online] available: http://militaryhistory.about.com/od/worldwarii/a/wwiieurcauses.htm.
Hickman, p. 1.
Corum, J.S. (2004, Summer). "The Luftwaffe and Its Allied Air Forces in World War II: Parallel War and the Failure of Strategic and Economic Cooperation." Air Power History, 51(2), p. 4.
Corum, p. 4.
Corum, p. 5.
Bassett, .L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes:…
Bassett, R.L. (2009, Fall). "Sacred Causes: The Clash of Religion and Politics, from the Great
War to the War on Terror." Journal of Psychology and Christianity, 28(3), 281-289.
Carr, F.M. (2005, January 1). "World War I to World War IV: A Democratic-Economic
Perspective." Journal of Economics and Economic Education Research, 6(1), 117-121.
Sonar esearch and Naval Warfare: 1914-1954
During both World War I and World War II, there were a number of informational tactics used by the Navy in order to gain ground on enemy troops. One of those was sonar research, because it provided them with knowledge they would not have otherwise had (Hackmann, 1984). Sonar is not perfect, but a great deal of work has gone into it since its creation, and that has helped it to become a more valuable tool for Naval operations. Sonar is used for navigation, but also for communication and the detection of objects, primarily underwater (Urick, 1983). There are two types of sonar: passive and active. In active sonar, pings are sent out to search for other objects (Hackmann, 1984). Passive sonar does not send out a signal, but only listens for the pings and signals of others (Hackmann, 1984). Both have their place,…
Abbatiello, J. (2005). Anti-submarine warfare in World War I: British Naval aviation and the defeat of the U-boats. NY: Routledge.
Adamthwaite, A.P. (1992). The making of the Second World War. New York: Routledge.
Barber, J., & Harrison, M. (2006). Patriotic war, 1941 -- 1945. In Ronald Grigor Suny, ed. The Cambridge History of Russia, Volume III: The Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hackmann, W. (1984). Seek & Strike: Sonar, anti-submarine warfare and the Royal Navy 1914-54. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
World War II (WWII) Transformed the United States Domestically
World War II was a global military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was the most tragic war in human history. It started in 1939 as a European conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French coalition but eventually grew to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in 1945, leaving a new world that was dominated by the United States and the U.S.S.R.
When the United States became involved with World War II, there were immediate and long-term changes in virtually every aspect of American life. Millions of men and women joined the military and saw areas of the world they would likely never have seen on their own. The labor demands of war industries caused millions more Americans to relocate, mainly to the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts, where most defense plants were located.…
Encarta. World War. Encyclopedia Article. Retrieved from the Internet at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761563737/World_War_II.html.
Sage, Henry. (March 23, 2004). The Postwar United States. The Library of Congress. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.nv.cc.va.us/home/nvsageh/Hist122/topics/PostWorldWarIIDom.htm.
Stravelli, Gloria. (March, 2004). In unexpected ways WWII changed women's lives: Role in war effort helped shift societal perceptions and expectations. New Jersey: The Hub.
The New Georgia Encyclopedia. (2004). Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.georgiaencyclopedia.org/nge/ArticlePrintable.jsp?id=h-2716 .
World War II. World War II was a turning point in world history, and brought together many allies to fight strong opponents for world domination. The War was supposed to be the "last" world war fought, but other conflicts since that time show the world is still a volatile and unsettled place, and it seems there will always be wars fought in this world.
World War II was fought on two major fronts -- Europe and Asia. There was also fighting in North Africa, and many Pacific Islands. The initial war began in 1939 when German dictator Adolph Hitler invaded Poland. England and France had pledged to support Poland as Hitler continued to take over countries in Europe, such as Austria and Czechoslovakia in the late 1930s. When Hitler invaded Poland,
France and England issued ultimatums to Germany which were ignored, and the war had officially begun, even though actual…
Boatner, Mark M. Biographical Dictionary of World War II. Novato, CA: Presidio Press, 1996.
Divine, Robert A., ed. Causes and Consequences of World War II. Chicago: Quadrangle Books, 1969.
Kitchen, Martin. A World in Flames: A Short History of the Second World War in Europe and Asia, 1939-1945. London: Longman, 1990.
In this sense, Stalin decided to extend his influence and to impose certain types of government in countries such as Poland, Hungry, or omania. The same fate would have had Greece and Turkey as well, should the U.S. not have outlined the Truman Doctrine. It can be said that the doctrine itself was a reaction to the tendency of the soviets to extend their influence.
The Marshall Plan can be seen as the economic component of the Truman Doctrine. It was in fact a set of principles pointed out in 1947 at Harvard by Secretary of State George Marshall (American hetoric, 2008). This economic plan too was designed for cater for the economic needs of eastern countries as well, but seeing that the ussian side considered it to be the mere economic arm of the Truman Doctrine, it forced countries under its occupation to reject this reconstruction aid. In fact…
American Rhetoric. "The Marshall Plan 1947." American Rhetoric website. 2008. 30 Jan. 2008 http://www.americanrhetoric.com/speeches/georgecmarshall.html
The Avalon Project. "The Truman Doctrine." Yale University. 2008. 30 Jan. 2008 http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/trudoc.htm
The U.S. emerged as a leading superpower and the sole nuclear power in the world, determined to play a leading role in international politics. The post-Second World War era saw the start of a prolonged Cold War in which the U.S. competed for political domination around the world with Soviet Communism until the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990. The Second World War also helped the country to overcome the economic depression of the 1930s as its wartime industrial production stimulated its economy.
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew ockwell.com. etrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William . (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
Steiner, Z. (2001). 2 the…
Arima, Y. (2003). "The Way to Pearl Harbor: U.S. Vs. Japan." ICE Case Studies:
Number 118, December, 2003. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.american.edu/TED/ice/japan-oil.htm
Dwyer, J.J. (2004). "The United States and World War I." Lew Rockwell.com. Retrieved on May 26, 2007 at http://www.lewrockwell.com/orig3/dwyer3.html
Keylor, William R. (2007). "World War I." Encyclopedia Encarta Online. On May 26, 2007 at http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761569981/World_War_I.html
This is when they would go after some highest officials in the German and Japanese governments that knew about the atrocities. Under this approach they were publically making an example of these individuals and their involvement with these activities. This created the impression that the Allies were doing everything possible to hold ex-Nazis and Japanese officials accountable. (Plesch 101 -- 118)
However, beneath the surface is when the U.S. And Soviet Union, were cherry picking individuals that could help develop new weapons programs (most notably: rocket scientists). At the end of the war, the Germans had developed the V-1 and the V-2 rockets. These were loaded with a simple warhead and fired at England. Moreover, the Germans had been able to create the first jet aircraft. (Ward 34 -- 52)
After the war was over, the Allies were rounding up these scientists and were learning everything about these secret programs.…
Plesch, Dan. America, Hitler and the UN. New York: IB Tarius, 2011. Print.
Ward, Bob. Dr. Space. Annapolis: Naval Institute Press, 2005. Print.
Nazi Propaganda and the Spread of Fascism
orld ar II was precipitated by the rise of fascism throughout Europe. As the mores of socialism began to take root in many parts of the continent, fascism emerged as a powerful counterpoint. For nations like Italy, Spain and Germany, the consequences of a sustained and devastating recession would be a coalescing of support behind strong, self-proclaimed and authoritarian leaders. Certainly, most notorious among them would be Adolph Hitler, whose Nazi party would first occupy Austria and Germany before ultimately pursuing a more global agenda. However, for our discussion, the primary interest is the degree of success that the Nazi party had in ultimately penetrating Germany with its values, ideals and policies. As the discussion here will show, propaganda would play a central role in the ability of the Nazi party to garner support and generate the impassioned loyalty of the…
German Propaganda Archive. (2013). Es Lebe Deutschland. Bytwerk.com.
History Learning Site (HLS). (2012). Propaganda in Nazi Germany. Historylearningsite.co.uk.
Welch, D. (2011). Nazi Propaganda. BBC History.
orld ar II broke out, Russia was not prepared, nor did she manage to be the military threat she could have been, because the nation was weakened by lack of industrialization, the defeat by Japan in 1905, and a lack of support by the people for involvement in this new war. hat seems clear is that Russia was not prepared when the war began and had to work to muster its army, provide war materials, and protect its own territory against the German advance. The fact that Germany was indeed stopped cold in Russia shows how well the Russians did their job, but the issue is why they did not do what they could before the war started given that the whole world could see war coming long before it reached Russia. More recently, though, the question of unpreparedness has been given a new look, and a new theory of…
McTaggart, Pat. "Winter Tempest in Stalingrad." World War II 12(4)(November 1997), 30-36.
Raack, R.C. "Stalin's Role in the Coming of World War II: Opening the Closet Door on a Key Chapter of Recent History." World Affairs 158(4)(1996), 198-211.
Taylor, a.J.P. The Origins of the Second World War. New York: Athenaeum, 1985.
Tucker, Robert C. Stalin in Power. New York: W.W. Norton, 1990.
World War II was carried out on the home front, how it was presented to the American people and conducted in America. World War II never really touched American shored, but it certainly made a difference in American lives.
On December 8, 1941, President Franklin D. oosevelt addressed congress and asked them to declare war on Japan after their unprovoked attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii on December 7. He called December 7 "a date which will live in infamy," and it brought Americans directly into the war, and their lives changed. As soon as oosevelt declared war, thousands of patriotic and emotional Americans hurried to enlist and help fight the war. These young people were angry about the Japanese attacks, and they wanted to defend their country. Young men enlisted in the Armed Forces, and young women signed up as nurses, and even pilots, helping to ferry airplanes from one…
Daniels, Roger. "10 Bad News from the Good War: Democracy at Home During World War II." The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Eds. O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995. 157-167.
O'Brien, Kenneth Paul and Lynn Hudson Parsons, eds. The Home-Front War World War II and American Society. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1995.
Propaganda is an important tool for shaping public opinion during wartime. The United States initially resisted using propaganda, but later established two official government propaganda agencies: the Writers War Board and the United States Office of War Information (Riddle, 2016). The latter became the primary propaganda engine during World War Two. The Office of War Information used multiple media for propaganda dissemination, including the relatively new media like comic books and movies. Posters were a primary means of influencing public opinion, too. Through these different propaganda techniques, the United States government reduced the potential for anti-war sentiments, minimized dissent, and created a normative cultural environment of patriotism. The “loose lips sink ships” message is an example of how the government established norms of behavior, and also used fear as a driving emotive force behind its propaganda (Little, 2016). Propaganda posters were also designed to create a sense of community-driven war…
World War II called out the American troops, the country's economy could have been in grave danger had it not been for the untapped reservoir of human resources. Wives, mothers and sisters picked up where their husbands, sons and brothers left off. Not only were these women brave in their efforts to take on something as foreign as factory work, they also directly affected the outcome of the war. Conversely, without that call to action, women's roles in our society today would also be quite different.
Initially there was broad-based concern about women taking men's jobs, what would happen to the family structure and how society would deal with such a drastic change. However, it was a better solution than putting children to work as in the past.
There was no time to analyze or try and come up with a better solution. Women jump into industry with both feet…
U.S. Economy Since orld ar II
economy is the largest in the world but has the most unequal distribution of wealth among all the developed countries of the world. The major reason for this inequality is that since the Second orld ar most U.S. governments have tended to favor the wealthy and the corporate sector while formulating their economic policies. Such "rich friendly" policies have become more pronounced since the early 1980s and continue to this day to the detriment of the society and the economy. This essay gives an overview of the post-orld ar II U.S. economy and outlines the ways in which various U.S. administrations have enacted policies favoring the corporate sector and the wealthy.
The 18th century British economist Adam Smith advocated the benefits of a Laissez faire economy in his The ealth of Nations (1776) by proclaiming that a "free economy" in which every individual…
'Eisenhower, Dwight David." Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2004. December 17, 2004.
"Harry S. Truman (1945-1953)" American President.org. 8/26/2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.americanpresident.org/history/harrytruman/
"How Unequal Are We, Anyway?." A Statistical Briefing Book. Inequality.org. July, 2004. December 17, 2004. http://www.inequality.org/facts.html
World War II drew to a close, and the planet was forced to recalibrate in unprecedented proportions, the United States began its long emergence as the most expansive super-power that had yet been known. Its influence that would compete virulently with the post-war Soviet influence for half a century, has since disseminated into every facet of the geopolitical theatre. As such, American support can operate as the determining factor in the success of a national agenda. Likewise, American dissent can be the stifling roadblock that sets nations adrift in failure and, consequently, resentment. So it's important to acknowledge that a nation's complaint of American neglect is more than just the bitter rhetoric of the disenfranchised. The emphasis placed on American approval and volition is fairly justified when one considers the weight and implication of the U.S. stance on any given topic. And it's certainly fair to say that American intervention…
5. Maisel, David, The Founding Myths of Israel: Nationalism, Socialism, and the Making of the Jewish State, Princeton, NJ, Princeton University Press, 1998.
6. Rabinovich, Itamar, Waging Peace, New York, NY, Farrer, Straus and Giroux, 1999.
7. Smith, Charles D., Palestine and the Arab-Israeli Conflict, New York, NY, St. Martin's Press, 2001
The demonstration in Tiananmen Square showed that there were alrge semgnets of the population that wanted change, but Deng's response was to crush the movement with violence and to assert the supremacy ofm centalzied rule once more..
These actions show some of the difficulties of independence and of developing a new political structure when many adhere to older political structures and ideas. One response is to try to wipe out the old with violence, but regimes tend to become reactionary about their own ideas as well and to crush any opposition, real of perceived.
9. Arab unity has not materialized for a number of historical reasons related to the different ways in which the countries of the region have developed so that the leaders of some of the states are wary of other leaders, because of differences in economic structures in the various countries, and because of different reactions to…
Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II: Article Review
In the article entitled “Chinese American Women Defense Workers in World War II” by Xiaojian Zhao, the author examines that role that Chinese American women played during WWII when they went to work for the Defense Industry and essentially acted as Chinese American versions of the famous Rosie the Riveter who was popularized during the Women’s Movement of 1970s as a throwback to the wartime era and the empowering position that women assumed on the home front as the men went off to war. Overall the works is very fascinating and provides a lot of details about the lives of many of the Chinese American women who helped make the planes and claim their piece of history in the 1940s. The author’s main purpose in writing the article was to show how Chinese American women were not left out…
discrimination in U.S.
There are people still alive today who remember Jim Crow laws. Half a century ago, segregation of drinking fountains, public restrooms, public buses, and public schools was still legal. Fifty years ago blacks in many states could not make a living except to work in jobs that resembled slavery in their wages and work conditions. The Civil Rights movement ostensibly changed everything. Yet decades of political correctness and affirmative action have all but glossed over the deeply rooted problems of racism and other forms of injustice evident in the daily lives of many Americans. African-Americans are also not the only minority group to suffer from systematic discrimination. Half of all Americans -- black, white, rich poor -- experience daily discrimination at home and in the workplace. Less than a hundred years ago, women could not even vote. Suffrage created twice as many voters and like the Civil…
World War II -- Eastern Front
While the personality of any dictator may significantly influence the military decisions of his/her dictatorship, perhaps the clearest instance of this phenomenon occurred in World War II's arbarossa, an invasion of Russia in the Eastern Front. Obsessed with his messianic delusions, Hitler's personal flaws resulted in the ultimate failure of the greatest invasion in recorded history. The failure of that invasion, in turn, directly resulted in Germany's loss of World War II.
Hitler's Personal Flaws Caused the Failure of arbarossa
Synthesis of reputable historical sources, some of which stress Adolf Hitler's personal flaws while others minimize or ignore them, reveals that Adolf Hitler's personal shortcomings caused the failure of arbarossa and, therefore, caused Germany's loss of World War II. Hitler's warlike personality was apparently dominated by "the three p's": prejudice, paranoia, and perplexity. Though Hitler was famously prejudiced against Jewish people, his prejudice against…
Citino, Robert Michael. The Path to Blitzkrieg: Doctrine and Training in the German Army, 1920-1939. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 1999.
Cooper, Matthew. The German Army, 1933-1945: Its Political and Military Failure. New York, NY: Stein and Day, 1978.
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
The WITE initiative was a collaborative approach that drew upon industry, state, local governments as well as the EPA's isk eduction Engineering Laboratory with the overall goal of developing more effective pollution prevention technologies that could assist the electronics manufacturing industry in developing a "crade to grave" approach to managing these products (appaport, 1999).
Besides these earlier efforts, in more recent years, increasingly rigorous laws and regulations have been implemented by the EPA with the goal of minimizing the impact of electronics and electrical device waste on the environment have began to make a major difference in recovering these toxic substances before they ever have a chance to become waste. For instance, pursuant to the above-mentioned esource Conservation and ecovery Act, it is now illegal for companies in the United States to simply discard hazardous waste, including electronics and electrical devices, in normal trash receptacles (The importance of recycling computers,…
Brown, V.J. (2004). Electronics, lead and landfills. Environmental Health Perspectives,
Gaba, J.M. (2008). Rethinking recycling. Environmental Law, 38(4), 1053-1054.
Gebrewold, F. (1999). Current hazardous waste management and disposal practices among small quantity generators. Journal of Environmental Health, 57(2), 11.
Cornlius Ryan, one of the finest writers of the history of World War II, was born in Dublin in 192. He worked as a correspondent from 1941 to 1945 and covered stories of the battles in Europe for Reuters and the London Daily Telegraph and in the final months of the Pacific campaign.
The first book written, published in 1959, was The Longest Day, that sold four million copies in twenty -seven editions and later in 1962 a film was made on it. However, it is said that The Longest Day was originally published in 1959 and since then it ahs reprinted several times.
Furthermore, another book was published in 1966 The Last Battle, while in 1974, he finished his third book A Bridge Too Far, though at the same time he was undergoing treatment for cancer that killed him in 1976.
Moreover, he was the author was a native…
WW2 Momentum Shift 1942-1944
One of the events that rocked the world and consequently shaped the world was the WWII that commenced effectively in 1939 and ended in 1945. It is however worth noting that some of the conflicts that eventually ended up in the culmination of the WWII started much earlier. The WWII parse involved majority of the nations, including the powerful nations at that time taking sides and aligning themselves and their military and diplomatic allegiance to either the Allies or the Axis, each side forming their combined forces. The commanding forces in the Allies were France, Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States and to some little extent China (odye-Smith J., 2014). One the other side of the divide the Axis were Italy, Germany and Japan. This war was largely seen as a continuation of the WWI bearing the 20 years of unresolved disputes that emanated from…
Rodye-Smith J., (2014). World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/648813/World-War-II
Rogole J.A., (2002). The Strategic Bombing Campaign against Germany during World War II. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://www.google.co.ke/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=10&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CGoQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.lsu.edu%2Fdocs%2Favailable%2Fetd-0413102-132317%2Funrestricted%2FRigole_thesis.pdf&ei=rnTVU7T2HOHj4QTl6YCwCA&usg=AFQjCNGr0G5t3esuMHkyG6efcmsHwe2lVg&sig2=f4uVuDX2XSnYn89JcB0wYA&bvm=bv.71778758,d.bGE
Yale Law School, (2008). The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Chapter 7 - The Attacks. Retrieved July 26, 2014 from http://avalon.law.yale.edu/20th_century/mp07.asp
World War II -- Techniques Adopted by American usinesses to Expand War Production
During World War II, American industry geared up with several highly effective techniques. These techniques included but were not limited to: absorbing factories and workers idled by the Great Depression, building new factories in new geographical areas, attracting workers from rural areas to industrial areas, using blacks and women in significantly greater numbers, and using/improving mass production. Through these methods, U.S. industry met the military demands of World War II and made America rich by the war's conclusion.
American businesses expanded World War II production in several ways, discussed here in no particular order of importance. First, America used existing factories and built many new ones while it also used idle workers and attracted new ones. Post-Depression American was saddled with a significant number of unemployed workers and idle factories; however, by the summer of 1941, more…
Keegan, John. The Battle for History: Re-Fighting World War II. New York, NY: First Vintage Books Edition, 1996.
Overy, Richard. Why the Allies Won. New York, NY W.W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1997.
Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press, 1995.
World War II, which took place from 1939-1945, was waged by the Allied Nations as a struggle for freedom against the evil and totalitarian regimes that existed in Germany, Italy and Japan.
Leaders of the War
There were several leaders that made decisions that contributed to the start and end of WWII. Adolf Hitler, who became the leader of Germany during the Great Depression, is blamed for WWII. He raised German spirits by telling them of a better future and a better Germany. ut in reality, he gave them a war. Hitler planned to expand Germany by taking Austria, Poland, and many other countries. He believed that German people were superior to the rest of the world and wanted everyone to prove this. (Keegan)
efore Hitler, the spirit and nationalism of the German people was very low, but he was able to get the German people to take pride in…
Keegan, John. The Second World War. Penguin Books, 1989.
Allen, Thomas. World War II: The Encyclopedia of the War Years, 1941-1945. Random House, Inc., 1996.
A.J.P. Taylor, The Origins of the Second World War. Atheneum, 1983.
John Keegan. The Face of Battle. Penguin Books, 1987.
ar and Occupation: The Effects of the U.S. Occupation on Japan's Government and Politics
The recent change in the American foreign policy direction which has seen the replacement of its traditional anti-colonialist tilt by the neo-conservative belief of guided nation building evokes a lot of interest in the history of United State's occupation of post world war II Japan. Although each such occupation is different -- the political, social and cultural environment as well as the historical context of every war and country being different-- it is interesting to study how the Americans handled the re-building of Japan in the post-orld ar II period.
There is no doubt that the United State government's influence in shaping the future of Japan was overwhelming. In fact it would not be wrong to state that Japan's current political and economic status as a first world power is a direct result of the guiding…
Bell, P.M.H. "The World Since 1945: An International History.": New York: Oxford University Press, 2001
Dower, John W. "Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II." New York: Norton/Free Press:, 1999
Dower, John W. "Why Iraq is not Japan." Mercury News. Apr. 27, 2003. July 2, 2003. http://www.bayarea.com/mld/mercurynews/news/editorial/5728557.htm?template=contentModules/printstory.jsp
Gordon, Bill. "The Allied Occupation of Japan." May 2000. July 2, 2003 http://wgordon.web.wesleyan.edu/papers/alliedoc.htm
World War 2 Women
World War 2 offered unprecedented opportunities for American women to take up jobs that were previously reserved for men, especially in the defense industry. Before 1940, women were only allowed to work in traditionally female professions like typing or sewing, and they were expected to leave when they gave birth or got married (Anderson). However, World War 2 changed all this and women were allowed to enter into the labor force. Women were mainly taking up the positions that were left vacant by the departing soldiers. World War 2 resulted in many women taking jobs in factories and defense plants across the country.
Due to these jobs, the women had unprecedented opportunities to move into occupations that were exclusively reserved for men. For instance, in the aircraft industry, a majority of workers was women by 1943. There were approximately 350,000 women who joined the military during…
The Nazis, however, were seriously mistaken. According to Thomas D. Morgan, "No group that participated in orld ar II made a greater per capita contribution, and no group was changed more by the war." Native Americans willingly enlisted in the war more than any other group in America. Native American tribes that had a long tradition of warrior culture took up arms to defend the American nation. They also served as communication liaison agents who befuddled German and Japanese code-breakers.
Native American contribution fundamentally changed hite's attitude toward American Indians. Many soldiers referred to Native Americans as "Chefs," as a sign of respect. Holm explains: "hites, who made Indian policies at the time, came out of the war with new, or at least different, images of Indian people. These changed views created an atmosphere in which men of varying motives and goals could institute the termination policy under the cloak…
"America at War: World War II." Digital History. Web. 23 May 2012
Black, Helen K., and William H. Thompson. "A War Within a War: A World War II Buffalo Soldier's Story." Journal of Men's Studies 20.1 (2012): 32-46. Web. 23 May 2012.
Clive', Alan. "Women Workers in World War Ii." Labor History 20.1 (1979): 44. Web. 23 May 2012.
De Graaf, Lawrence B. "Significant Steps on an Arduous Path: The Impact of World War II on Discrimination Against African-Americans in the West." Journal of the West 35 (1996): 24-33. Web. 23 May 2012.
Second orld ar and how the Allied Powers were able to defeat the Axis Powers, ending Nazism, the Holocaust, and Japan's stranglehold on the Pacific. However, fewer people are truly knowledgeable about the beginning of the war. For the United States, orld ar II officially began on December 7th, 1941 with the bombing of Pearl Harbor. For the rest of the world, the war began much earlier and had already produced massive damage of property and people. The series of events that would lead to a world at war began in the early 1930s with the invasion of Manchuria by Japan and the seizing of power in the nation of Germany by Third Reich leader Adolf Hitler.
After the First orld ar, Germany was suffering from a massive depression. Losing the war left the people destitute; many were jobless and many were homeless. hen things are their bleakest, it can…
Paxton, Robert O. Europe in the Twentieth Century. 5th. Fort Worth, TX: Harcourt College,
It was also a pivotal tool in discovering the ussian nuclear missile sites that sparked the Cuban Missile Crisis in 1962. The U.S. also gained spy satellites in 1960, and combined with the U-2 and other tools, American technological superiority began to assert itself. The spy satellites were a direct result of rocketry experimentation during and after World War II, and many German rocket scientists transplanted to America helped create the rockets that would launch the satellites. The scope of the intelligence operations was growing, and so were the technological advances that helped the agencies grow and learn more every day.
There are many who believe that factors such as the Cold War may help develop new agencies, but they have little to do with how the agencies evolve. Author Zegat continues, "The truth is that international factors such as the onset of the Cold War may catalyze the…
Andres, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only. (New York: HarperPerennial), 1996.
Bamford, James. Body of Secrets: Anatomy of the Ultra-Secret National Security Agency from the Cold War Through the Dawn of a New Century. New York: Doubleday, 2001.
Painter, David S. The Cold War: An International History. London: Routledge, 1999.
Powers, Thomas. Intelligence Wars: American Secret History from Hitler to al-Qaeda. New York: New York Review Books, 2002.
Gypsies during World War II [...] treatment of the Gypsies by the Nazi in World War II, concentrating on pre-war treatment, and treatment during the war, including the round up of the Gypsies as compared to the Jews. It will also describe what made a Gypsy and how they were rounded up and transferred to the concentration camps. The Gypsies of Europe lost thousands during the war in the concentration camps, but their history is full of persecution and hatred. Even today, many Europeans look down on the Gypsies. These people have suffered as much as the Jews at the hands of Hitler's Nazis, but their story is far less known.
Who were the Gypsies in Europe? The gypsies, broken into different tribes or bands, first appeared in Europe sometime in the fifteenth century. After studying their language, made up of dialects of Sanskrit, Persian, Kurdish, and Greek and called…
Browder, George C. Hitler's Enforcers: The Gestapo and the SS Security Service in the Nazi Revolution. New York: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Crowe, David, ed. The Gypsies of Eastern Europe. Armonk, N.Y: M.E. Sharpe, 1991.
Friedlander, Henry. The Origins of Nazi Genocide From Euthanasia to the Final Solution. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 1995.
Greenwald, Rachel T. "Genocide as a Category of Analysis." German Politics and Society 20.4 (2002): 151+.