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Thomas Kuhn, how does science normally progress?
To one who was less familiar with the philosophies and proclivities of Socrates, it must seem extremely curious that the vaunted Greek philosopher willingly chose to escape his sentence after he was condemned to death on charges that were largely fabricated. Socrates was essentially accused of contaminating the minds of the youth with his teachings, and for that alleged 'crime', he was supposed to drink poisonous hemlock and die. Socrates, however, had no objections to his fate because he was not afraid of death, which is why he did not want to escape from imprisonment or from serving his death sentence.
There are multiple reasons as to why Socrates had no fear regarding death. Nearly all of them pertain to his conception of the soul, and the specific attributes which he believes it possesses. Firstly, Socrates had a strong conviction that the human…
Cox communications has grown due to pushing the perceived envelope of knowledge. The fundamental foundation of the company is the paradigm shift. Technology of any type, particularly high tech such as communications have their progress predicated upon the changes occurring in organizations based on dynamics of this technology.
This is especially true in communications technologies over the internet. Cox Communications got into broadband starting in 2001 after cutting its teeth in basic internet technologies. Then in 2004, they expanded into Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP) and into cable broadband and telephony in 2006.("Cox communications, inc.," 2011).
Cox Communications is now the third largest cable multi-system operator in the U.S. Cox was founded in 1962 in the cable television industry. The company's expanded from initial markets included Lewistown, Lock Haven and Tyrone in Pennsylvania. From then until now, Cox has become a multi-service broadband communications provider and is currently the cable…
Cox communications, inc.. (2011). Retrieved from http://ww2.cox.com/aboutus/our-story.cox
Kuhn, T. (1996). Structure of scientific revolutions. (3rd ed.). Chicago, IL:
University of Chicago Press. Print.
Kuhn's ationale on the Irrationality of Scientific evolutions
"Communities in this sense exist, of course, at numerous levels. The most global is the community of all natural scientists."
~Thomas S. Kuhn, from The Structure of Scientific evolutions
To understand Thomas Kuhn's ideas regarding scientific revolutions, one must have a grasp on Kuhn's ideas relating to the history of science in general. Kuhn's perspective on the history of science is that scientific knowledge is not accumulative. He did not perceive the accumulation of knowledge as linear. Thus, before Kuhn explains the irrationality of scientific revolutions, he explains the irrationality of the historical picture of science in general. The paper will contend that scientific revolutions are irrational because science is irrational. As will be demonstrated by Kuhn and other authors, there is no specific logic as to why some theories and paradigms become popular and other do not. To paraphrase Kuhn,…
Andersen, H., Barker, P., & Chen, X. 'Kuhn's mature philosophy of science and cognitive psychology.' Philosophical Psychology, Volume 9, issue 3, 1996, p. 347 -- 363.
Bird, Alexander, 'Thomas Kuhn', The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Edward N. Zalta (ed.), , 2011 (accessed 2012 March 14).
Budd, J.M., & Hill, H. 'The Cognitive and Social Lives of Paradigms in Information Science.' , 2007 (accessed 2012 March 15).
Eng, L. 'The accidental rebel: Thomas Kuhn and The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.' STS Concepts, , 2011, (accessed 2012 March 14).
Knowledge and truth were considered absolute and immutable by these two, though for very different reasons, which is the complete antithesis to the empirical theories of Popper, Peirce, Kuhn, and James. The progression of knowledge in the face of such certainty could only result in pure growth from previously established claims, as no truth could ever be said to exist that was not thoroughly and absolutely proved by careful extrapolation from a priori conclusions.
Several interesting anthropological occurrences have convinced me that the empirical method, with its possibility for the adjustment of truth based on the framework or paradigm from which the determination of truth is made, is a much better way of understanding truth and the concept of "absolute certainty." Cultures exist that have no concept of, or words for, time. "Yesterday" and "today" are meaningless concepts that do not exist. The extreme difficulty of communication that this presented…
Burch, Robert. "Charles Sanders Peirce." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2006. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/peirce/#dia .
Kessler, Gary. Voices of Wisdom: A Multicultural Philosophy Reader, 5th Edition. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 2003.
Pinter, Harold. "Nobel Lecture: Art, Truth, and Politics." 2005. http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/literature/laureates/2005/pinter-lecture-e.html ,
Thornton, Stephen. "Karl Popper." Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2009. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/popper /' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Two belief systems, then -- true believe, and justified true belief (Hauser, 1992).
Humans, however, according to Pierce, turn justified true beliefs into true beliefs by converting them into axioms. Once we have proven something there is no need to prove it again, and we use the part that was proven before to further extend our study and the inquisition of knowledge. And so it becomes necessary to accept things as the truth without proving them at every single moment. However, does not mean that the belief is an unjustified belief, for it again is the conflictual nature of justified against unjustified that, for scholars like Pierce, outpours a reality he can view as "true" (Ibid).
ene' Descartes' purpose was to make humans analyze the introspective nature of being, and to postulate on the veracity of truth as a nature of thought -- if we think it, it is, and…
Ayer, A.J. (2001). David Hume: A Short Introduction .Oxford University Press.
Billington, M. (2007). Harold Pinter. Faber and Faber.
Cottingham, J., ed. (1992). The Cambridge Companion to Descartes. Cambridge Gould, J. And R. Mulvaney. (2008). Classic Philosophical Questions, 13th ed.. Prentice-
Karl Popper's Proposed Solution To The Demarcation Problem:
Popper vs. Kuhn
According to the philosopher Karl Popper, "the central problem in the philosophy of science is that of demarcation, i.e., of distinguishing between science and what he terms 'non-science'" (Thornton 2009). Colloquially, of course, all of us think we know what science is -- it is the scientific method, or the proving of a hypothesis. But even here there is confusion, given that what constitutes a scientific 'theory' is not what is meant by 'theory' when a layperson speaks. And much of what we intuitively believe to be science may not be science at all, given that it may be based more upon observed correlations and observed, personal experiences than the proving and disproving of hypotheses. According to Popper, what we call science is largely a web of hypotheses, rather than 'truth.'
Popper called the problem of distinguishing between science…
Beisecker, Dave. "Induction." Philosophy 101. [30 Jan 2011]
Bird, Alexander. "Thomas Kuhn." The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. 2011.
Copernican revolution has a pivotal role in the establishment of the modern sciences. We are very much familiar with the fact that the human mind had always been fascinated greatly by the changes taking place around him almost constantly. Human observation and sense of argument and ability to be logical has made him the most intelligent and consequently most powerful species on the planet.
It is very comfortable to believe that Earth is located at the centre of the universe and other planets rotate around it because Earth itself does not seem or feel to be moving and there are only sun, moon and other planets appearing and disappearing at their exact timings. It is quite logical and unless and until something really revolutionary come forward to refute this believe, it looks quite reasonable to carry on believing the same idea (Kuhn, pp 187).
The most significant change…
Brooke, John Hedley. Science and Religion: Some Historical Perspectives. Cambridge University Press, 1991 pp 8-12.
Cesarani, David. Arthur Koestler: the homeless mind. Free Press, 1999 pp 142.
Kuhn, Thomas S. The Copernican revolution: planetary astronomy in the development of Western thought. USA: Harvard University Press, 1957 pp 187.
L'Abate, Luciano. Paradigms in Theory Construction. Springer, 2011 pp 5-8.
65). By controlling these two aspects of a scientific experiment, researchers are able to establish the specific causality of the phenomenon being studied. In this regard, Kahle and iley note that, "Traditionally, causality is established through strict control and randomization over all other factors while experimentally manipulating the variable or variables in question" (2004, p. 165). Finally, Gliner and Morgan (2000) report that the internal validity (discussed further below) and the ability to infer causality based on the results of a study can be enhanced through the random assignment of the participants to intervention vs. control groups.
What is meant by internal validity and external validity in leadership research and discuss three factors within each (internal and external) validity factor?
Internal validity. According to Chandler and Lyon, generally speaking, "Validity refers to the establishment of evidence that the measurement is actually measuring the intended construct. Measures can be reliable…
About VA. (2011). Department of Veterans Affairs. Retrieved from http://www.va.gov / landing2_about.htm.
Avolio, B.J., & Bass, B.M. (2002). Developing potential across a full range of leadership:
Cases on transactional and transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence
A favorite target for conspiracists today as well as in the past, a group of European intellectuals created the Order of the Illuminati in May 1776, in Bavaria, Germany, under the leadership of Adam Weishaupt (Atkins, 2002). In this regard, Stewart (2002) reports that, "The 'great' conspiracy organized in the last half of the eighteenth century through the efforts of a number of secret societies that were striving for a 'new order' of civilization to be governed by a small group of 'all-powerful rulers.' The most important of these societies, and the one to which all subsequent conspiracies could be traced, is the Illuminati founded in Bavaria on May 1, 1776 by Adam Weishaupt" (p. 424). According to Atkins, it was Weishaupt's fundamental and overriding goal to form a secret organization of elite members of Europe's leading citizens who could then strive to achieve the Enlightenment version of revolutionary social…
American Psychological Association. (2002). Publication manual of the American Psychological
Association (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anderson, J. (1981, 1723). The charges of a Free-Mason extracted from the ancient records of lodges beyond the sea, and of those in England, Scotland, and Ireland, for the use of the lodges in London: To be read at the making of new brethren, or when the master shall order it. Reprinted in The Radical Enlightenment: Pantheists, Freemasons, and Republicans, by M.C. Jacob, 279-285. London and Boston: Allen & Unwin in Harland-
Jacobs at p. 237.
Philosophy of Science
Scientific theories allow scientists to organize their observations regarding reality and existence, and predict or create future observations or results. Scientific theories need to be consistent, testable, verifiable and useful in order to be valid and reliable. Theories are typically ideas about the ways in which things work. Scientific theory relates to logical and empirical criteria that can be tested and validated. For science to exist and to be considered valid there must be a logically consistent idea presented to the public that explains certain conditions or realities. To be valid, science must explain something and should be proven via experimentation. Science should also enable the user to have a better understanding of the item or issue it is explaining. This relates to validity.
Thesis) will argue in this paper that science needs to be independently verified to be considered science but also that science does not…
Curd, Martin. Cover, J.A. Philosophy of Science: The Central Issues. New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 1998.
Strauss, James D. "The Heart of Postmodernism" Lincoln Christian Seminary, Lincoln: 2003. Available:
Jones, Roger. "Philosophy of Science." Retrieved November 16, 2003, http://www.philosopher.org/uk/sci.htm
Technology, Society & Politics
The role of technology in society, politics and economics: Analysis of the works of Kuhn, Rhodes, Christensen, Levy and Toulmin
The development of technology with the onset of the Industrial Revolution, capitalism, and modernism created significant changes in the culture and institutions of human societies. Where technology used to be associated with machinery and manufacturing, technology in the 20th century gradually became associated with computer technology. Scientific developments shifted from macro to micro; human power centered from physical labor to intellectual improvement/development. As civilization progressed towards modernism in the 20th century, technology has become more invasive to people's lives. Inevitably, technology has penetrated not only the science sector, but other institutions as well, particularly human society's culture, politics, and economy.
Indeed, the significant role that technology played in the culture, politics, and economy of modern society has been debated and expressed through discourses by famous philosophers…
Christensen, C. (1997). The Innovator's Dilemma: When new technologies cause great firms to fail. Harvard Business School Press.
Kuhn, T. (1962). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Available at: http://www.marxists.org/reference/subject/philosophy/works/us/kuhn.htm .
Levy, S. (2001). Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution. Penguin.
Rhodes, R. (1995). The Making of the Atomic Bomb. Simon & Schuster.
This is one, alternative explanation for the Neoclassical Revolution -- even without Marxism, to help understand the way that producers maximized value in an industrial society, a new way of understanding manufacturing was essential. Still another explanation for Neoclassical economics might follow as thus: Classical economics is fundamentally flawed, but not as Marxists might suggest. Instead, this explanation suggests that Classical theory is based upon an idealized conception of 'economic human' who moderates his or her desires solely according to price, and a producer who perfectly calculates the correct cost or value an item, based upon demand. Phenomenon such as seasonal rises in demand not based upon price or scarcity, consumer psychology, and irrational consumer whims are all not explained in Classical Theory, and even Neoclassical Theory and Marxism only began to scratch the surface of such challenges to pre-existing paradigms. Thus, just as Kuhn asserts, when a paradigm is…
The significance of the nurturance is normal in this phase, it is thus a formative phase suitable for imposing the principles of reformulation that are taking place in the business world. The nurture capital indicates a new strategy for wealth generation. It is a strategy that generates value for the firm and for the society that it serves. The nurture capital strategy redefines priorities and entails a language for addressing such priorities. With application of such principles of nurture capital, efforts can be exerted so as to restructure the game of business, creating and clarifying mutually supporting relationships to construct a sustainable future. (Nurture Capital -- a New Paradigm for Business)
To conclude it may be pointed out the conscious business is on the rise. The differences can better be benefited out of the wise shopping, supporting green business and starting the own enterprises that makes our planet a healthy…
Caldwell, Roger. C. "Paradigms - the Big Changes and Shifts in Society" Retrieved from http://ag.arizona.edu/futures/era/paradigmsmain.html . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Jeantheau, Mark. "Paradigm Shift-How Some Try to Win by Changing the Rules of the Game" Retrieved from www.learnthis.info/articles/trivia/paradigm-shift -- how-some try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html http://www.learnthis.info/articles/trivia/paradigm-shift -- howsome try-to-win-by-changing-the-rules-of-the-game.html Accessed on 2 February, 2005
McNamara, Carter. (1999) "New Paradigm in Management" Retrieved at http://www.mapnp.org/library/mgmnt/paradigm.htm . Accessed on 3 February, 2005
Paradigm Shift" Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved at http://abyss.uoregon.edu/~js/glossary/paradigm.html . Accessed on 2 February, 2005
Jean-Francois Lyotard (the Postmodern condition: A Knowledge eport 1979) describes postmodernism in the context of nature of social bond. He argues that due to the advent of the technology and with the invention of computer, information has been more restricted in the form of procedures and program. According to him some one must have access to all the information to check whether the decisions are madder correctly. He discuss in this paper about the language games which are gaining importance day by day as the communication is becoming so prominent and efficient. We can see the connecting point between Lyotard and Kuhn as well as Popper which also agree that truth is language dependent and textual interpretation vary from person to person so whole truth of knowledge is not absolutely conveyed.
PESONAL EACTION and CITIQUE:
Postmodernism seems to be overwhelmingly push everything into vagueness. The only thing according to postmodernism…
1-Dr. Dave Teague: Introduction to postmodern philosophy: Postmodern preaching
2-Geoff Haselhurst (May, 2005): Philosophy Karl Popper: Discussion Popper's Problem of Induction. http://www.spaceandmotion.com/Philosophy-Karl-Popper.htm
3- Gary Aylesworth First published Fri 30 Sep, 2005: Postmodernism:Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/postmodernism/#8
More especially, neither observation nor reason can be described as a source of knowledge, in the sense in which they have been claimed to be sources of knowledge, down to the present day. (1962, p. 4).
Clearly, discerning "the truth" is a complicated endeavor in any setting, and applying rigid rules of analyses will not always succeed. This point is made by Thomas Kuhn (2000), who advises, "Does it really help to imagine that there is some one full, objective, true account of nature and that the proper measure of scientific achievement is the extent to which it brings us closer to that ultimate goal?"; according to Larmore (2004), Kuhn's answer was no, since "no Archimedean platform is available for the pursuit of science other than the historically situated one already in place" (p. 47).
The research showed that the search for what is true and knowable has received…
Feyerabend, P. (1975). Against method. London: New Left Books.
Kuhn, T.S. (2000). The road since structure. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Lamb, D., Munevar, G., & Preston, J. (2000). The worst enemy of science? Essays in memory of Paul Feyerabend. New York: Oxford University Press.
Polanyi, M. (1997). Personal knowledge: Towards a post-critical philosophy. London: Routledge.
The challenges families face include lack of social support, lack of guidance, lack of information, prejudice, and hostility. Gender roles and norms are entrenched in the society, making it difficult for children and their parents to resist or subvert conformity. The media and all social institutions perpetuate gender roles and norms. Yet when parents are willing to encourage gender fluidity or gender nonconformity, children and their parents are liberated from constraints to their creativity and self-expression. Specific challenges to resisting conformity include locating gender-neutral toys and games for young children, and finding strong social support networks for the child and the parents. Gender neutrality scares people for many reasons, not least of which is its perceived kinship with homosexuality, but also its being symbolic of social deviance. A person who does not fit into the neatly arranged categories of male and female may be viewed as an outright threat…
Duron, L. (2013) Raising My Rainbow. New York: Random House.
Kuhn, S. (2014). Breaking free of gender stereotypes. She Knows. Retrieved online: http://www.sheknows.com/parenting/articles/1033051/raising-a-gender-neutral-child
Lucas-Stannard, P. (2012). Gender Neutral Parenting.
Martin, K.A. (2005). William wants a doll. Gender and Society 19(4), 456-479.
Of course, in recent years, this power has been diluted somewhat thanks to the rise of collective bargaining. Nonetheless, the fact that for so many years baseball has been characterized as a game rather than interstate commerce worked to the benefit of the industry as a whole.
If the exemption were repealed, apparently only possible through act of Congress, players and teams could sue the league if their movements were restricted and limitations placed on their ability to conduct business for themselves (Rovell). MLB could still manage how teams and players moved, but the repeal of the exemption would eliminate their absolute control over these movements. Obviously, this would have a significant impact on the baseball industry, but would not be necessarily devastating. Other sports have persisted despite not having antitrust exemptions, so there is little reason to expect that baseball couldn't adapt as well.
Belth, Alex. "Ending…
Belth, Alex. "Ending Baseball's Antitrust Exemption." Baseball Prospectus. 26 Nov. 2001. 15 July 2008 http://instruct1.cit.cornell.edu/Courses/econ352jpw/readme/Baseball%20Prospectus%20-%20Ending%20Baseball%27s%20Antitrust%20Exemption.htm .
Greenberg, David. "Baseball's Con Game." Slate. 19 July 2002. 15 July 2008 http://www.slate.com/id/2068290/ .
Morrissey, Mo. "Baseball Labor Relations: Anti-Trust Exemptions & the Reserve Clause." Associated Content. 19 Oct. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/421296/baseball_labor_relations_antitrust.html .
Rovell, Darren. "Baseball's Antitrust Exemption: Q & a." ESPN: Baseball. 6 Dec. 2007. 15 July 2008 http://espn.go.com/mlb/s/2001/1205/1290707.html .
Christy Turlington explains to Elle magazine... "Advertising is so manipulative," she says. "There's not one picture in magazines today that's not airbrushed."… "It's funny," Turlington continues. "hen women see pictures of models in fashion magazines and say, 'I can never look like that,' what they don't realize is that no one can look that good without the help of a computer." (Hilary 13)
That's right, the beautiful Turlington, a woman that can be said as fitting the standard ideal of American beauty, admits that it is unachievable even for her. hy? Because even she admits that she has been touched up. In a similar exercise, we can only imagine the remarkable steadfastness this act must have taken, but it shows that there is a realization that this American image is unattainable (Domar 23).
The Trouble with Persisting Ideas
Even if the mechanism behind the spread and adoption of ideas is…
Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. New York: Verso Publishing, 1991. Print.
Chernin, Karen. Hungry Self: Women, Eating, & Identity. New York: HarperCollins Publishers, 2008
Dixon, Violet. "Understanding the Implications of a Global Village." Reason and Respect 4.1 (2008). 1-5. Web. 15 May 2011.
Domar, Allan. (Prof) Harvard Medical School. Parade magazine, October 11, 2003.
The nature of science
A number of scientists have the feeling that philosophical inquiries are well outdated. They purportedly can handle matters in a better way than their social constructivists counterparts. Philosophers and physicists are very different from each other, especially taking into account what some renown physicist recently commented on philosophy. Stephen Hawking for instance is on a campaign to tarnish philosophers. He might not be so convincing in whatever points he puts across, but he is winning the heart of the public by his jokes on philosophers. Jokes have for a long time been known to really move the masses. His most recent book, The Grand Design, co authored by Leonard Mlodinow, starts by scrutinizing the nature of reality, the beginning of all things and the purpose of God. He then claims these to be matters of philosophy, which is in itself dead. Philosophy, according to him, is…
Frankfurter landed on the Harvard law faculty, thanks to a financial contribution to Harvard by Felix Warburg and Paul Warburg..." (Viereck, 1932; as cited by Mullins, 1984)
In the "Federal Reserve Directors: A Study of Corporate and anking Influence" as cited by The World Newsstand publication is that chart one "...reveals the linear connection between the Rothschilds and the ank of England, and the London banking houses which ultimately control the Federal Reserve anks through their stockholdings of bank stock and their subsidiary firms in New York. The two principal Rothschild representatives in New York, J.P. Morgan Co., and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. were the firms which set up the Jekyll Island Conference at which the Federal Reserve Act was drafted, who directed the subsequent successful campaign to have the plan enacted into law by Congress, and who purchased the controlling amounts of stock in the Federal Reserve ank of…
French, Douglas E. (1994) Separating Money and the State, Part I: Eighty Years of Destruction" October 1994. Online available at http://www.fff.org/freedom/1094e.asp .
Mullins, Eustace (1982) Historical Beginnings...The Federal Reserve "The London Connection." The Federal Reserve Bank of Boston, 1982. Online available at http://www.apfn.org/apfn/reserve.htm.
Nathaniel Wright Stephenson (1930) Nelson W. Aldrich, A Leader in American Politics, Scribners, N.Y. 1930.
Charles A. Lindbergh, Sr. (1913) Banking, Currency and the Money Trust, 1913, p. 131
psychological work of John B. atson, B.F. Skinner, and Edward C. Tolman, along with the impacts that these three had on society. This paper will also compare and contrast these three iconic psychologists.
Edward C. Tolman is said by author Bernard J. Baars to have been the "…only major figure" in the emerging field of behaviorism "…who advocated the possibility of mental representation" (Baars, 1986, p. 61). Baars writes that more than any other behaviorist Tolman "anticipated…the cognitive point-of-view… [and] thought it necessary to postulate events other than stimuli and responses" (61). Tolman has made significant contributions to psychology, including: a) the use of cognitive maps in rats; b) the "latent learning" he pioneered though the use of rats; c) the concept of "intervening variables"; and d) the discovery that rats don't just learn their movements "…for rewards" but rather they also learn when no rewards are given, backing up…
Baars, Bernard J. (1986). The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology. New York: Guilford Press.
Geary, Eric. (2002). Psyography: Edward C. Tolman. Psyography. Retrieved October 27, 2012,
from http://faculty.frostburg.edu/mbradley/psyography/edwardtolman.html .
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. (2005). Behaviorism / John B. Watson: Early
Response to Karl Popper’s The Logic of Scientific Discovery
How the Reading Has Affected What I Believe about the Nature of Science and What It Can Tell Us about the World
Popper (2005) rejects the notion that inductive reasoning can lead to the identification of universals, and he uses the white swan as an example: “no matter how many instances of white swans we may have observed, this does not justify the conclusion that all swans are white” (p. 4)—no, and nor should it. However, one could legitimately analyze the swan still further, identify its species and thus conclude that this species of swan is always going to be white. White is one of the characteristics of this type of swan—so why should it not be viewed as a universal characteristic of this specific species? Popper’s approach to the nature of science is rooted in the empirical analysis—in deduction rather…
Experimental esearch Methods in Business
Experimental esearch Methods
The author provides a survey of the literature illustrating applied experimental research methods in cross-sections of business and organization types. The advantages and disadvantages of the experimental research methods are discussed for each of the examples provided which run the gamut from depression-era agricultural economics to research conducted for the National Science Institute. While the article focuses on business research methods, the range of examples from multiple disciplines serves to demonstrate the adaptability of various methods to distinct contexts, the importance of thoughtfully developed research questions, and perceptions in the field regarding scientific rigor. The article is intended to guide students in their exploration of the breadth and depth of experimental research methods and to convey a sense of the challenges of applied scientific inquiry.
The study of business topics has not always been inherently scientific. Certainly the work of Max…
Campbell, A. (2004). A quick guide to research methods, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Family Therapy, 25(3), 163-165.
Cooper, D.R. And Schindler, P.S. (2011). Business research methods. New York, NY: McGraw Hill.
Demarco, T., Hruschka, P., Lister, T., Robertson, S., Robertson, J., and McMenamin, S. (2008). Adrenaline junkies and template zombies: Understanding patterns of project behavior. New York, NY: Dorset House Publishing Co., Inc.
Elliott F.F. (1929, October). Experimental method in economic research, Journal of Farm Economics, 11 (4) 594-596. [Oxford University Press on behalf of the Agricultural & Applied Economics Association]. Retrieved http://www.jstor.org/stable/1229899
Somehow his scientific side needs to make sense of the horrors that are taking place about him, regardless that everything seems completely insane. He states he had "the curiosity of the naturalist who finds himself transplanted into an environment that is monstrous but new, monstrously new." He adds that he "thought too much" while in Auschwitz, which only made him continually vacillate back and forth from hope to despair.
Throughout all of his ordeals, Levi continues his writing and scientific analysis for rational answers, to no avail. His goal of finding answers to the cruelty remains unattained. When one of the guards denies even an icicle to decrease a child's thirst, Levi asks in his broken German, 'Warum?' (why?). The guard replies, 'Hier ist kein warum' (there is no why here). At times Levi's observations are so unemotional that he is almost too objective, as if he is going to…
Levi, Primo. Survival in Auschwitz. New York: Touchstone, 1996.
Experimental Research Argument
y examining Einstein's statement on research - "if we knew what we were doing, It would not be called research, would it?" - one can see that he means research is designed as a way to learn and experiment. It is used to find things out and discover things, which is why people spend so much time on it. They do not always know what they are doing, many believe, but they know what they want to discover. They have to use various methods to find what they want to know, and sometimes there is a great deal of trial and error involved in finding the answer to the question. Einstein believed that there were many ways in which people could discover the world around them, and it was clear by his life's work that he was dedicated to doing all he could to advance science and…
Cooperstock, F.I. 2009. General relativistic dynamics: Extending Einstein's legacy throughout the universe. World Scientific.
Freedman, D.A. 2009. Statistical models: Theory and practice, Second edition, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Hinkelmann, K. & Kempthorne, O. 2008. Design and analysis of experiments, volume I: Introduction to experimental design, Second edition, New York: Wiley.
Kupelis, T., & Kuhn, K.F. 2007. In quest of the universe. New York: Jones and Bartlett Publishers.
Financial Analysis of Lehman rother
The history has been full of financial collapses and financial scandals and one of the biggest financial collapses that a company has ever seen was that of Lehman brother. The collapse of a firm as huge as Lehman rother and a firm which has such great experience of over a hundred years lead the world into a shock. It created doubts in the minds of people regarding the condition of other financial institutions. The history of Lehman rother is rich which is further discussed.
The history of Lehman rother dates back to 1844, when a boy named Henry who was a 23-year-old son of a cattle merchant who immigrated to the United States from Germany and he settled in Alabama State of the United States where he opened dry goods store. In 1847, when Henry Lehman's elder brother arrived to Alabama, the firm…
1. Bebchuk, L.A., Cohen, A., & Spamann, H. (2010). The Wages of Failure: Executive Compensation at Bear Stearns and Lehman 2000-2008. Yale Journal on Regulation,27(2), 257+.
2. Blake, D. (2000). Financial Market Analysis. New York: Wiley. Cetorelli, N., Mandel, B.H., & Mollineaux, L. (2012). The Evolution of Banks and Financial Intermediation: Framing the Analysis. Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, 1+.
3. Dwyer, G.P., & Tkac, P. (2009). The Financial Crisis of 2008 in Fixed Income Markets.Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta, Working Paper Series, 2009(20), 1+.
4. Fitzpatrick, T.J., & Thomson, J.B. (2011). How Well Does Bankruptcy Work When Large Financial Firms Fail? Some Lessons from Lehman Brothers. Economic Commentary (Cleveland), (2011-23), 1+.
Social Advocacy in Counseling
Social advocacy has been described by some counseling theorists as a "fifth force" paradigm that should be considered to rival if not replace other major counseling psychology paradigms regarding behavior and mental illness (atts, 2009). This paper briefly discusses what social justice/advocacy is, the debate regarding its status as a paradigm in counseling psychology, and how social advocacy can enhance both the client's experience and life and the professional counselor's personal, professional, and ethical obligations to helping others.
Social justice is fairness or impartiality exercised in society, specifically as it is implemented by and within different levels of social classes of a society. A truly socially just populace would be based on the principles of solidarity and equality, would consider and maintain values, human rights, and the dignity of every person in the society (Bell, 1997). Social justice/advocacy theories have in recent years been…
American Counseling Association. (2005). ACA code of ethics. Alexandria, VA: Author.
Bell, L. (1997). Theoretical foundations for social justice education. In M. Adams, L. Bell, & P. Griffin (Eds.), Teaching for diversity and social justice (pp. 3-16). New York: Routledge.
Betancourt, J.R., Green, A.R., Carrillo, J.E., & Park, E.R. (2005). Cultural competence and health care disparities: Key perspectives and trends. Health Affairs, 24, 499 -- 505.
Carlson, N. (2011). Foundations of behavioral neuroscience (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Taiping ebellion vs. Boxer ebellion
The last two centuries are considered as the golden age of millenarianism in the sense that they brought about a change in the existing system, by means of overthrow of the system which existed. And the new system which evolved was considered as better than the old system which existed and was brought about by overthrowing the powerful. The reason is simple. As the sociologists and historians of the millenarianism say, one does not become sensitive to such ideas simply being oppressed or miserable. But instead, these ideas develop from those of whose expected and traditional lives have been destroyed and disrupted, uprooted and rendered rootless, even if they were having an unpromising and unpleasant life earlier.
As a result of the industrial revolution, many such people came to North America and Europe, but the nations which Europe was trying to bring under its control…
Boardman, E. Christian Influence upon the ideology of the Taiping Rebellion, 1851-1864. Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, (1952). pp. 52-81
Chesneaux, Jean; Marianne, Bastid; and Bergere, Marie Claire. "China: From the Opium Wars to the 1911 Revolution" Pantheon Books, (1976) pp. 44-51
Ch'en, Jerome 'The nature and characteristics of the Boxer movement: a morphological study', Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies vol. 23, (1960) p.20-26
Ch'en, Jerome 'The Origin of the Boxers', in Jerome Ch'en and Nicholas Tarling (eds.), Studies in the Social History of China and South East Asia Cambridge, (1970) pp.45-57
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
KILMANN'S CONFLICT Management MODEL
assessment of conflict and style
Conflict management assessment using the Thomas Kilmann Mode
According to Kuhn and Poole (2000), conflict management style entails the consistent and general orientation towards a conflict situation or the other party. It manifests in the behaviors observable forming a pattern and sharing a characteristic that is common over time (Kuhn & Poole, 2000).
The conflict mode instrument by Kilmann assesses behavior of individual in a conflict situation. The mode instrument looks at conflict situations as those where individuals have differed incompatible concerns. In these situations, behaviors of individuals fall in two distinct dimensions. One is assertiveness where an individual seeks to satisfy strongly his or her own needs. Second is cooperativeness where the extent that an individual makes attempts to meet the other party's concerns. These two distinctions on observable behavior among individual in a conflict situation yield to the five…
Deutsch, M., Coleman, P.T., & Marcus, E.C. (2006). The handbook of conflict resolution: Theory and practice (2nd ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kuhn, T., & Poole, M.S. (2000). Do conflict management styles affect group decision making? Human Communication Research, 26(4), 558-590.
Thomas, K.W., & Kilmann, R.H. (1974). Thomas-Kilmann Conflict MODE Instrument. Tuxedo, NY:: Xicom.
9% to 734 units (Khun, 2009)
Additionally, James Moss, of Curzon Investment Property, has commented (Khun, 2009) that Dominos and Subway have been successful in the UK market as a result of their franchise models that are almost recession proof. In addition many investors (who want to own a franchise) have found these two chains to be exceptional investments. Additionally, many "Britons are also shunning posh business lunches and choosing instead to head to Eat or Pret for a sandwich (Khun, 2009,9)." The report also explains that "Independent operators (with fewer than five outlets) have increased their market share by 2.2% across the UK's top 10 cities to further fuel the feeling that many high streets are turning England into 'fried chicken Britain'(Khun, 2009,9)." The following chart illustrates the most popular cities for Fast Food in the UK.
Number of Fast Food Restaurants by City
London (central) (847 outlets)
"About the Company." Available at: http://www.pret.com/us/about_our_company/about.htm [Accessed 11 August 2011].
Business: Junior fat; obesity and advertising. 2005. The Economist, 377(8457), 68-58-61. R
Jones, P.; Hillier, D., Shears, P.,Clarke-Hill, C. 2002 . Customer perceptions of services brands: A case study of the three major fast food retailers in the UKManagement Research Review25. 6/7: 41-49
Kuhn, K 2009. UK's fast food sector is up 8%. Caterer & Hotelkeeper199. 4605 (Nov 27-Dec 3, 2009): 9
For Santiago, there is nothing that gives him more pleasure than baseball so he uses it to preserve himself and give him the strength he needs to survive one more day. He is not thinking about pleasing Christ when he refuses to resort to despair but his goal is a more earthly one. He wants to be able to make DiMaggio, his baseball hero, proud. Santiago is an ordinary fisherman and for him, a dream of DiMaggio is far more accessible than pleasing Christ. He just wants to be "worthy of the great DiMaggio, who does all things perfectly even with the pain of the bone spur in his heel" (68)
Similar in order to survive, Santiago keeps thinking about baseball. For example when the fish finally surfaces, it conjures up images of baseball in his mind as he muses: "his sword was as long as a baseball bat" (62)…
Hemingway, Ernest. The OM Man and the Sea. New York: Scribner's, 1995.
Killinger, John. Hemingway and the Dead Gods: A Study in Existentialism. Lexington: U. Of Kentucky P, 1960.
Kuhn, Christoph. "Hemingway and Nietzsche." Nietzsche in American Literature and Thought. Ed. Manfred Putz. Columbia: Camden House, 1995. 223-238.
Petite, Joseph. "Hemingway and Existential Education." Journal of Evolutionary Psychology 12 (1991) 152-164.
Knowles stated "The richest resources for learning reside in the adult learners themselves" (p. 66). n instructional strategy like gaming may help to facilitate tapping into the adult learner's experience. Through collaboration during the play of a game, learners may discuss prior experiences to aid in discovery of the correct answer. Gaming activities also permit peer feedback to be given to students based on their previous experiences. The millennial student desires immediate feedback and integrates their experiences into their learning (Tapscott, 1998). gain, through group discussion and collaboration, learners share previous experiences with others to confirm or not the correct answer.
By not tapping into the experience of adult learners, negative effects may result (Knowles, 2005). The adult learner identifies their experiences as who they are. In other words, their experiences help to define them as a person. dult learners, who perceive their experiences as being ignored or devalued, perceive…
A somewhat controversial and negative environmental outcome identified from the review of literature was the competitive component to gaming. In an evaluation conducted by Gruendling et al.(1991), some learners (5%) felt threatened by competitive nature of gaming (N = 40) and stated that gaming can cause unnecessary anxiety and stress. Bloom and Trice (1994) stated that too much competition can take the fun out of the process of learning for some and perhaps discourage student participation.
Psychosocial outcomes were also identified from the review of literature. Gaming was found to have encouraged and enhanced active participation and communication-social interactions, improve peer relationships, promote teamwork and collaboration, as well as decrease participants fear, tension, stress, and feelings of intimidation (Ballantine, 2003; Bays & Hermann, 1997; Berbiglia et al., 1997; Bloom & Trice, 1994; Cowen & Tesh, 2002; Dols, 1988; Fetro & Hey, 2000; Gifford, 2001;
In this way, it has a consistency since, not measuring itself against fluctuating essences such as physics, biology, psychology, and the other sciences; it asserts that existence can be gauged only by the human's reaction and response to his own existence. And that each human has to work out for himself how to live his life (Flynn, 2006).
On the other hand, existentialism can be inconsistent since, history seems to indicate that it has often followed the fashion of the moment and country. There have been times when existentialism has been more Christian (such as with Kierkegaard) and times when it was not only atheistic but contra- religious too (e.g. Nietzsche). These moods seem to correspond with the religious mood of the moment. 'Authenticity' it seems has been defined by the social, historical, and political aspects of the country and moment. In that way, existentialism could become Christian (Kierkegaard or…
Flynn, T., 2006. Existentialism: A Very Short Introduction, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Harrison, P., 2004, Elements of Pantheism; Religious reverence of nature and the universe, Coral Springs, Florida: Llumina Press, 2nd edition.
Kuhn, T (1962) the Structure of Scientific Revolutions 3rd ed. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press
Buddhism vs. Quine vs. Crowley
The research intends to compare Buddhism, vs. Quine vs. Crowley by examining some of the philosophy put across by the two Buddhist and other two contemporary philosophers. The research will spell out each philosophy one by one giving each a critical analysis and interpretation. The research intends to start by looking at Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory to be followed by the other Buddhism philosophy of Nagarjuna known as the philosophy of the middle way of Persons. The third and the fourth section will look at Quine's relativism, and Crowley's idea of crossing the abyss respectively. Lastly after a thorough look at each of the four philosophies the conclusion will give the comparison between each of the philosophy so as to satisfy the objective of the research.
Vasubandhu's Indian Buddhist Theory of Persons
Vasubandhu own contribution is the refutation or proving of the theory of self…
Bechert, Heinz & Richard Gombrich the World of Buddhism: Thames & Hudson, 1984.
David Kalupahana, (Ed) Nagarjuna, and Nagarjuna: Albany: State University Press 1986.
Davidson, Ronald M. Indian Esoteric Buddhism: A Social History of the Tantric Movement. New York: Columbia University Press, 2003.
Donath, Dorothy C. Buddhism for the West: Theravada, Mahayana and Vajray-na; a comprehensive review of Buddhist history, philosophy, and teachings from the time of the Buddha to the present day. Julian Press, 1971.
This leader must have subordinates who are trustworthy and the leader must be able to discern when it is appropriate to use this style. The most effective leader knows how to use a little bit of each style, and conversely the poor leader will stick to only one style despite the situation.
A study by Hautala in 2006 investigated the association between personality and leadership style5. In this study, a quantitative analysis of appraisals was taken from leaders and their subordinates. Leaders were asked to rate their effectiveness in their positions, and subordinates were ask to review leader effectiveness as well as personality traits. This study indicated a relationship between personality and leadership exists. According to leaders' self-ratings, those who were extraverted, perceiving and intuitive were more likely to favor the transformational leadership style. Subordinates noted a relationship between sensitivity, openness and an effective form of leadership.
Kuhn's6 study on…
Memory and Aging Center, University of California. Accessed via the internet at http://memory.ucsf.edu/Education/Topics/socialbehav.html
Kristina M. DeNeve (1999) Happy as an Extraverted Clam? The Role of Personality for Subjective Well-Being. Current Directions in Psychological Science 8 (5), 141-144.
Bass, Bernard (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics, 18 (3), 19-31
Pauley J. (2004) Skywriting: A life out of the blue. Random House. New York.
Madoff Investment Securities LLC (BLMIS) committed one of the greatest financial frauds in U.S. history. Investigations revealed that Mr. Madoff operated an elaborate "Ponzi Scheme" that started operating in 1980s.Even though Madoff was initially supposed to invest all of his clients' money in the securities markets, he never did so. Instead, he deposited the whole amount in a certain bank account that he held with the Chase Manhattan Bank. He therefore fulfilled his client's redemption requests using his own money. The fraud value was estimated at $50 billion and became a matter of public knowledge only after Madoff confessed to the crime. It can be regarded as the biggest financial fraud in U.S.'s history and it affected a large number of investors.The financial industry blamed the investors as well as regulators for neglecting the various warning signals that enabled Maddoff to continue with the fraud for several decades.
Akhigbe, A., Martin, A., and Whyte, A., (2005). Contagion effects of the world's largest bankruptcy: the case of WorldCom. The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance
45 (2005) 48 -- 64
Haque, F., Arun, T., and Kirkpatrick, C (2008) "Corporate Governance and Capital Markets: A
Conceptual Framework," 'Journal of Corporate Ownership and Control', 5(2)
A Long and Tangled History
The Daimler car company, under various different names and throughout various configurations, has been around almost as long as the history of the automobile itself. It has seen good times -- including some very good times -- as well as some very troubled times. While Daimler, like any other company, has been to some extent purely at the mercy of chance and external forces, it has also risen and fallen a number of times because of the company's internal culture. This paper examines that organizational culture and how it has both helped and hindered the company during its recent history, relying primarily on the theoretical model of the cultural web. While "culture" is most accurately understood as an element of an integrated human community rather than a corporation (which includes elements of a wider human community but is much narrower in function and scope),…
Bak, P. (1997). How Nature Works: The Science of Self-Organized Criticality. Oxford: University Press.
Capra, F. (1997). The Web of Life: A New Synthesis of Mind and Matter. London: Flamingo.
Dooley, K.J. & Van de Ven, A.H. (1999). Explaining Complex Organizational Dynamics. Organization Science 10(3): 358-372.
Douglas, M. (1985) Introduction in J.L. Gross & S. Rayner, Measuring Culture: A Paradigm for the Analysis of Social Organization. New York: Columbia University Press.
security behavior, a concept that touches on the behavior of consumers in regard to information technology systems is an important one to the global IT industry. Johnston and Warkentin (2010) for instance studied the influence of elements of fear appeal on the level of compliance of various end-users with the specific recommendations aimed at enacting specific individual IT security actions towards threat investigation. The authors performed an in-depth examination that yielded into the development as well as testing of a conceptual framework that represents an infusion of the concept of technology adoption and the theories of fear appeal. In this paper we investigate the concept of information security behaviors with a specific focus on consumer behavior and its related theories.
Extant literature has been dedicated to the concept of consumer behavior. The human information behavior has for a long time been studied under different environments and circumstances. Consumer…
Allen, C.T. And Madden, T.J. (1985), "A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning," Journal of Consumer Research, 12, December, pp. 301- 315
Barry, T.E. And Howard, D. (1990), "A review and critique of the hierarchy of effects in advertising," International Journal of Advertising, 9, pp. 121-135
Elliot, R. (1996), "Discourse analysis: exploring action, function and conflict in social texts," Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp. 65-68
Feinberg, R.A. (1986), "Credit Cards as Spending Facilitating Stimuli: A Conditioning Interpretation," Journal of Consumer Research, 13, December, pp. 348-356
This help in solving conflicts between patients in a hospital.
In nursing practice, there are quite different in between clinical nursing specialist and nurse practitioner in the scope of operation. Therefore, a clinic nurse specialist works under the legislated scope of practice for a registered nurse but has advanced education. While nurse practitioner works under a separate scope of practice and can perform certain functions and tasks that are outside of the scope of practice of registered nurse, including clinical nurse specialist. However, nurse practitioner generally provide primary care, and clinical nurse specialists act more a s consultants in their roles as expert clinicians, clinical leader, educators, collaborators and researchers.
Many researches have written that emotions sometimes can influence ethical decision making in a health care system. Therefore, nurses are equipped with knowledge to make decision without any kind of influence. The model demonstrates that certain emotional states influence the…
Royal of nursing college (2010). Advanced nurse practitioners, an RCN guide to the advanced
Nurse, Practitioner role, competences and program accreditation
Marie-Laure Delamaire, Gaetan Lafortune (2010). Nurses in Advanced Roles
A description and evaluation of experiences in 12 developed countries
The Implicate Order and Explicate Order can be compared to a piece of holographic film and the image it produces. The film corresponds to the enfolded, or hidden, Implicate Order. The image, or hologram, (what is humanly perceived) is the Explicate Order. Thus, the tangible "reality" of our everyday lives is a kind of holographic image being projected from the "film" or source -- the Implicate Order (Dunlap, 2000).
The flow of time is part of the dynamic process of enfolding and unfolding. "As the present unfolds and becomes part of the past, it does not cease to exist, but simply returns to the cosmic storehouse of the implicate" (Talbot, 1990, p. 200). The event we call death is another example of what he is saying. Death is not the end -- it is simply moving out of the Explicate and into the Implicate.
Bohm (1987) suggests that consciousness flows…
Bohn, D. (1980). Wholeness and the implicate order. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Carson, R. (1962, 1994). Silent spring. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.
Dunlap, C. (2000). The rhetorical construction of God: Mary Baker Eddy's journey. Doctoral dissertation. Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.
Herbert, N. (1987). Quantum reality: Beyond the new physics. New York: Anchor.
Hume believed that we couldn't really see what tied one event to the other, and that cause-and-effect does not hold up as an infallible rule, which means that by eliminating cause we can not guarantee that we are eliminating effect (Rich, 169). Perhaps Hume is more flexible on this point than Buddhism.
According to your understanding of Kuhn's writings, would an acceptance of an Eastern worldview in nursing constitute a paradigm shift by the profession? Explain.
A strict interpretation of Kuhn might lead one to believe that the incorporation of Eastern philosophy would indicate a revolution that would cause a paradigm shift in nursing. But because nursing already has elements of Eastern philosophy, it would be difficult to say a shift will occur, and perhaps more appropriate to say it already has occurred. The empathetic nature of nursing, and the role of nurse as educator, are not new. In fact,…
Naef, Rahel (2006). "Bearing witness: a moral way of engaging in the nurse-person relationship." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
Rich, Karen (2003). "Critical Response to Rodgers and Yen's Article: Rethinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 4.
Rodgers, Beth L. And Yen, Wen-Jiuan (2002). "Re-thinking Nursing Science Through the Understanding of Buddhism." Nursing Philosophy, Issue 3.
It is crucial to study the structural behavior within organization so that the effectiveness of the organization can be improved. (obbins & Judge, 2013) The employer needs to be aware of the duties and tasks within the organization so they can be managed in a proper way. Along with managing tasks and maintaining the work output, special care needs to be given to the security measures within the company. In the competitive world today, organizations are making using of the smallest information they can attain from their rival companies. Just recently, separation of duty and role based access control (BAC) were discovered as the new mechanisms to improve the security measures within an organization.
Separation of Duties
Separation of duties is very important when it comes to keeping control. It appears that separation of duties is difficult and sometimes very difficult to manage. The main task is attained…
Blaze, M., Ioannidis, J., Keromytis, A. And Feigenbaum, J. (1999). The role of trust management in distributed systems security. Computer Science Volume, 1603 pp. 185-210. [Accessed: 14 Sep 2013].
Chang, H. And Lin, G. (2008). Effect of personal values transformation on leadership behaviour. Total Quality Management, 19 (1-2), pp. 67 -- 77.
Clark, D. And Wilson, D. (1987). A comparison of commercial and military computer security policies. 184 p. 194.
Coleman, K. (2008). Separation of Duties and IT Security. [online] Retrieved from: http://www.csoonline.com/article/446017/separation-of-duties-and-it-security [Accessed: 14 Sep 2013].
Covey, 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
Stephen R. Covey was born in 1932 in Salt Lake City, Utah; he has his undergraduate degree (in business administration) from the University of Utah, an MBA from the Harvard Business School, and a Doctorate in Religious Education from Brigham Young University. (Covey is a practicing Mormon). He is currently a professor in the Jon M. Huntsman School of Business at Utah State University. Covey is perhaps best known for his 1989 bestseller The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People: to date the book has sold more than fifteen million copies worldwide. It seems worthwhile to ask, therefore, what does this book have to say which has gained it such broad popularity?
The biggest clue lies in the title. Covey believes that behavior can be defined as a set of habits, essentially, but he likewise presents his own lessons in the form of…
Covey, Stephen R. The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. New York: Free Press, 1989. Print.
James, William. The Principles of Psychology. New York: Dover, 1950. Print.
The Effect of the Flappers on Today's Women
The 1920's in the U.S. And UK can be described as a period of great change, both socially and economically. During this period the image of the women completely changed and a "new women" emerged who appears to have impacted social changes occurring in future generations of both men and women. This new symbol of the women was the Flapper. The Flapper was a new type of young woman that was rebellious, fun, bold and outspoken (Zeitz, 2006). This research paper explains the rise and fall of the Flapper in the 1920's, explores its historical and current impact on women in terms of culture, work, gender and social behavior and reflects on its long-term impact of the position of today's women.
Evolution of the Flapper
Flappers, most often characterized as the "New Woman," originally emerged in the 1920s in the…
Allen, F.L. (1957). Only yesterday: An informal history of the nineteen-twenties. New York:
Harper and Row.
Baughm J.S. (1996). American decades: 1920-1929. New York: Manly.
Bliven, B. (1925, September 9).FlapperJane. New Republic, pp. 65-67.
Ecstasy vs. Heroin overdoses -- treatment and diagnosis
For many EMTs, depending on the city and time they are stationed in, one of the most common problems they will have to cope with is dealing with a drug overdose. However, although all drug overdoses are dangerous, not all illegal drug overdoses are the same, symptomatically or in their treatment. A great deal of misinformation exists regarding drug overdoses and their treatment in popular culture -- even the popular film "Pulp Fiction" which depicts a 'successful' treatment of snorted heroin is in fact inaccurate -- ephedrine to the heart would not have saved a victim of a heroin overdose in real life. (Kuhn, 2003)
hen dealing with any suspected drug overdose, the first thing to determine is in fact the victim's symptoms are indeed due to the ingestion of a drug, rather than of alternate cause. This is especially…
Ecstasy Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com. Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/heroin.htm
Heroin Overdose." (2004) Drug Overdose.Com Retrieved on June 17, 2004 at http://www.drug-overdose.com/ecstasy.htm
Kuhn, Cynthia, et al. (2003) Buzzed: The Straight Facts about the Most Used and Abused Drugs from Alcohol to Ecstasy. Second Edition. New York: W.W. Norton & Co.
Thomas Pynchon: Annotated Bibliography
Kolodny, Annette and David James Peters. "Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49: The Novel as Subversive Experience." Modern Fiction Studies 19.1 (Spring 1973): 79-87. eb.
The authors of this article suggest that the heroine of the novel is undergoing a learning experience, and that the novel's sudden ending without revealing whether the Trystero conspiracy is real or imaginary is actually a way of demonstrating the heroine's personal growth. Kolodny and Peters argue that the function of the conspiracy in the book is to help the heroine realize that she is alienated from American life in the 1960s, and as a result the sense of waiting for a religious experience at the end of the book is a positive thing: Oedipa has finally understood herself through this process. In other words, the novel's ambiguous ending is actually a "subversive experience" for the reader, and this…
Kolodny, Annette and David James Peters. "Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49: The Novel as Subversive Experience." Modern Fiction Studies 19.1 (Spring 1973): 79-87. Web.
Mendelson, Edward. "The Sacred, the Profane, and The Crying of Lot 49." Pynchon: A Collection of Critical Essays. Ed. Edward Mendelson. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1978. 112-46. Print.
Palmeri, Frank. "Neither Literally nor as a Metaphor: Pynchon's The Crying of Lot 49 and the Structure of Scientific Revolution." English Literary History 54.4 (Winter 1987): 979-99. Web.
Decision Making with Providers
The scenario facing Mike, the lab technician, is that of lateness, which attracted a reprimand from his supervisor. Seemingly, lateness had become a trend to Mike while reporting to work and that is why the supervisor had questioned him. He had made a promise that he would be punctual, the last time his supervisor questioned him. Mike's promise pegged on the importance he attached to his job because he was the sole breadwinner for his wife and newborn baby. Mike was overwhelmed by the thought that his job would be terminated in the possible reoccurrence of his tendencies to come to the workplace while late. He had received the assurance his supervisor (Grand Canyon University, n.d.).
On this day, Mike tries his best to reach work on time. Therefore, he leaves home twenty minutes before time but unfortunately, there was an accident on his commute. Although…
Dlugacz, Y.D., Restifo, A., & Greenwood, A. (2004). The quality handbook for health care organizations: a manager's guide to tools and programs. San Francisco (CA): Jossey-Bass.
ECRI Institute. (July 2009). Risk Management, Quality Improvement, and Patient Safety. Healthcare Risk Control .
Grand Canyon University. (n.d.). Allied Health Community. Retrieved September 5, 2014, from Scenario: Critical Decision Making for Providers. Mike, Lab Technician: http://lc.gcumedia.com/hlt307v/allied-health-community/allied-health-community-v1.1.html .
Kuhn, A.M., & Youngberg, B.J. (2002). The need for risk management to evolve to assure a culture of safety. Qual Saf Health Care, 11 (2), 158-62.
Onassis devoted most of her time to plan social events that were to be at the White House as well as other state properties. Frequently she could invite poets, writers, artists, musicians and scientists so that they could mingle with diplomats, statesmen and politicians, Molly Driscoll, (2011). She as well started to let guests at the White House drink cocktails, in an attempt to give the mansion a more relaxed feeling.
Onassis proved to be very popular among international dignitaries, and the reasons could be her skill at entertaining. Prior to her visit to France, a television special was shot in French house having First Lady on the White House lawn. In this visit, the public was really impressed with her ability to speak fluent French, and also her extensive knowledge of French history. Jacqueline learnt her French language through a prominent Puerto ican educator "Maria Teresa Babin Cortes."
Jesse Kornbluth" Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis: An Autobiography in Books" 2010. Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://headbutler.com/books/biography/jacqueline-kennedy-onassis-autobiography-books
Jone Johnson Lewis "Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis" (2012). Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://womenshistory.about.com/cs/firstladies/p/p_jackieo.htm
Molly Driscoll," Jackie Kennedy interviews are full of surprises," 2011. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://www.csmonitor.com/Books/chapter-and-verse/2011/0912/Jackie-Kennedy-interviews-are-full-of-surprises
Thomson Gale, "Encyclopedia of World Biography on Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis" 2012. Retrieved October 26, 2012 from http://www.bookrags.com/biography/bouvier-kennedy-onassis/
Business Financing and the Capital Structure
In finance, capital structure is used to refer to the manner in which a corporation finances its assets through some mixture of equity, debt, or hybrid securities (Atrill & McLaney, 2011). A firm's capital structure is the configuration or structure of its long-term liabilities and each firm can choose a different configuration depending on its industry and/or its specific needs. Basically, a company has two choices in traditional capital financing.
The company can either sell equity, usually through the issuance of stocks or bonds, or it can sign a note with more of a traditional lender such as a bank in which a specific payment structure will be associated with the loan. Each manner of financing capital has different strengths and weakness that be relevant to a company depending on their circumstances and their goals. This analysis will briefly outline some of…
Atrill, P., & McLaney, E. (2011). Finance and accounting for managers. Harlow, UK: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Kuhn, R. (2011, June 21). What Do Investment Banks Do? Retrieved from Chief Executive: http://chiefexecutive.net/what-investment-banks-do
To, H. (2006, October 22). The Importance of the "Roll Return" in Commodity Futures Returns. Retrieved from Market Thoughts: http://www.marketthoughts.com/z20061022.html
Group Wiki: Introductions
Hello fellow group members. My name is Stephen Hawking and I am delighted to be part of this Group Wiki. I have had great academic experience in writing as I have undertaken a scholarly course in writing. I hope to receive support from you in this project process and offer feedback to actions taken in all activities I undertake. In the same manner, I am inclined and willing to offer healthy feedback to each and every one of you to the best of my ability and experience. I have had experiences in strategic planning which I am look forward to share and offer insight into this aspect.
My academic qualifications include writing as I have undertaken a course in writing. In this duration of time, I have had academic experiences in the field of strategic planning. This is because in writing, there is need for strategic thinking…
Barksdale, S., Lund, T. (2006). 10 Steps to Successful Strategic Planning. America: American Society for Training and Development.
Grunig, R., Kuhn, R. (2011). Process-based Strategic Planning. Berlin: Springer-Verlag Berlin.
Mental therapy using non-intense video games and how it affects brain health among the aged population showing early symptoms of dementia.
The deterioration of cognitive abilities and brain tissue due to age could have several adverse effects on mental systems and could even lead to dementia. Thus, researchers are trying to discover methods which could help keep brain function, independence, health and cognition among aged people in its best shape. Usually, with age, the white and gray matter of the brain shrivels with this action seen more in its prefrontal cortex than other regions. Other affected brain parts are the cerebellum, the prefrontal cortex on the side as well as the central temporal lobe structure which includes the hippocampus. Despite this, the occipital cortices and the entorhinal do not experience any form of shrinkage (Ballesteros et al., 2015). Common symptoms of this shrinkage include reduced memory strength, lower mental processing…
The jokes range form the raunchy to the almost unbearably corny, but the actors all acquit themselves in a remarkably deadpan and unaware attitude when required, which is often, waiting out the audience's laughter with extreme -- and extremely repetitive -- aplomb. Christian Conn is more than suitably nimble with his tongue and his movements as he dances ever on the precipice of being trapped in his incessant and incorrigible untruths, and Erin Partain and Miriam Silverman as the pair of friends and deceiving would-be lovers to Conn's Dorante meld an ingenue-ish innocence with a modicum of wicked devilry, taking Ives words and making them both delicious to mouth and to hear. None of the actors fails to play their part perfectly to the hilt, hitting all of the extremes that the period and the modern script demand, demonstrating the extent of the wonderful theatrical talents that this city has…
So, they have the best chance of isolating the underlying cause from the non-underlying causes. They are well-versed in the structure and classification of the ICD-9 codes as well and this helps them to better report the mortality.
Another reason is ANPs have the independence to handle their case load and they are able to better understand the patient's health problems. This gives them a close interaction with the patient and a better understanding of the case history helps them to diagnose ICD-9 codes better. They also get an opportunity to interact with the family members of the patients and this can sometimes help to identify the right causes. These are some of the reasons why ANPs are better-suited to diagnose ICD-9 codes so that it can help the family to claim any reimbursements.
How do ANPs decide the best diagnosis?
ANPs work closely with the patients to diagnose and…
DeLaune, Sue C.; Ladner, Patricia K. (2002). Fundamentals of Nursing: Standards & Practice.
Publication: Albany, NY Thomson Delmar Learning.
Groenwald, Susan L. (1997). Cancer Nursing: Principles and Practice
Publication: Boston Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Inc.
Both dissenters and innovators are outsiders -- thinking and acting outside the box. The very qualities that make these individuals annoying (e.g. arrogance, single-mindedness) are also part of the types of qualities (passion, drive, confidence) that are needed to keep ideas alive and vital. A good manager can deal with the package and manage the wheat with the chaff.
Usually impossible to get the type of innovators one wants without getting some of their own negatives (arrogance, inability to compromise, etc.).
Managing means eliciting the needed strengths out of each individual employee, and harkens back to the idea that not all employees are equal.
Managers often have the urge to tame the wild nature of a dissenter; to "bring them into the fold."
There are people who provide dissent because they are simply unhappy -- regardless of the situation. These types of dissenters rarely contribute innovation, but instead…
Cited in www.fastcompany.com.
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning
Tichy, N. And a. McGill, eds. (2003). The Ethnical Challenge: How to Lead with Unyielding
The use of support vector machine learning is widely supported to be used to notice micro calcification clusters in the digital mammograms. It is indeed a learning tool that originated from modern statistical theory of learning. (Vapnik, 1998). In the recent past years, SVM learning has got a large range of real life applications. This includes handwritten digit detection (Scholkopf et al., 1997), recognition of object, (Pontil&Verri, 1998), identification of speaker (Wan&Campbell, 2000) and detection of face in images,(Osuna et al.,1997) . Categorization of text is done by SVM. (Joachims,1999). SVM learning formulation has its basis on structural risk minimization principle. It does not minimize an object function on the basis of training examples but on the contrary, SVM tries to minimize leap on generalization error. This is usually the error that is done by the learning machine on the test data that is not used while undertaking…
Abraham, a., Nath, B., and Mahanti, P.K. (2001). Hybrid intelligent systems for stock market analysis. Computational Science, pages 337 -- 345.
Aliferis, C., Tsamardinos, I., and Statnikov, a. (2003). Hiton, a novel markov blanket algorithm for optimal variable selection.
Berger a., a Brief Maximum Entropy Tutorial
Chickering, D.M. (2002). Learning equivalence classes of bayesian-network structures. Journal of Machine Learning Research, 3:507 -- 554.
But that is partly because what I have to suggest is not a method but a stance towards one's teaching. This stance requires a sort of doubleness: an awareness that one's course is part of an ideological structure that keeps people from thinking about their situation, but also a belief that one can resist this structure and help students to criticize it' (Myers 172). Even while using collaborative learning techniques, Myers does not want students to lose their individuality. This is also Holt's goal but it is unclear if this as easy in 'theory' as it is in fact, based on the experiences she chronicles. Holt calls the Bruffee approach 'democratic' but in a perfect democracy there can be a loss of valuable minority opinions.
riting, it could be argued, is designed to express individualism. But not all authors agree with this idea. John Trimbur's "Consent and Difference in Collaborative…
Bruffee, Kenneth a. "Collaborative learning and the 'Conversation of Mankind'." College
English, 46. 7 (Nov., 1984): 635-652
Holt, Mara. "The importance of dissent in collaborative learning." The Writing Center Journal,
Lawrence Stenhouse (1975) spoke 'initiation' and 'induction' as learning functions and held that these forms of learning effectively reached further than 'training' and 'instruction' which are instrumental learning. The initiation stage of learning is an independent learning stage where the learner grasps and understands for themselves the object of learning and in which the learner's dependence upon both the teacher and upon learning structures are lessened. A higher stage of independent learning was referred to by Stenhouse as 'induction' and is a stage of learning in which the learner has come to the place of owning, valuing and believing in the object of learning for themselves. Stenhouse affirmed the need for foundational knowledge upon which the higher learning skills can be constructed and held that the functional knowledge must be solidly in place before higher learning functions could begin.
Curriculum, according to the work of Grundy "is often written and…
Butts, Robert Freeman (1971) The College Charts Its Court: Historical Conceptions and Current Proposals. Ayer Publishing, 1971.
Fenner, David E.W. (1999) Ethics in Education. Routledge, 1999.
Moles, Joanne (2005) You Say Potato Implications of a Prescribed Curriculum on Three Irish Physical Education teachers. Paper Presented at the British Educational Research Association Annual Conferences, University of Glamorgan, 14-17 September 2005.
Murphy, Anne (2008) The Interface between Academic Knowledge and Working Knowledge: Implications for Curriculum Design and Pedagogic Practice. Dublin Institute of Technology 2008.
76). As automation increasingly assumes the more mundane and routine aspects of work of all types, Drucker was visionary in his assessment of how decisions would be made in the years to come. "In the future," said Drucker, "it was possible that all employment would be managerial in nature, and we would then have progressed from a society of labor to a society of management" (Witzel, p. 76). The first tasks of the manager, then, are to coordinate an organization's resources and provide a viable framework in which they can be used to produce goods and services effectively and efficiently. The second set of tasks concern guidance and control. In Drucker's view, this role is almost entirely proactive: "Economic forces set limits to what a manager can do. They create opportunities for management's action. But they do not by themselves dictate what a business is or what it does" (Drucker,…
Not only is a challenge present for Muslim teachers in attempting to standardize this curriculum but as well "this is compounded by the fact that curriculum materials related to teaching about Islam produced overseas - even for Arabic language studies - are viewed as irrelevant or unsuited to young students' lives and culture in the U.S. And Europe." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004)
Guidelines have been provided in recent years concerning teaching religion in public schools in the U.S. And it is stated by Douglass and Shaikh that "general adherence to the guidelines and their implementation in textbook development has done more than anything else to improve the accuracy of textbook depictions of the basic beliefs and practices, origin stories and subsequent cultural and institutional history of various religions." (Douglass and Shaikh, 2004) Stated as primary among the changes is "the consistent use of attributive phrases, combined with greater factual accuracy."…
Akhir, Jamadil (2008) Islamic education after independence and the impact of National Educational Policy. Social Issues. Online available at http://www.hijrahmedia.com/proto/iidl2/artikel/edu4.php
Coulson, Andrew (2004) Education and Indoctrination in the Muslim World - Is There a Problem? What Can We Do about it? Policy Analysis 11 Mar 2004. No. 511.
Delic, Zijad)(2001) Hermeneutics of Islamic Education and the Construction of New Muslim Cultures in the West: Faithful by t Reformed. University of Oregon (2006)
Douglass, Susan L. And Shaikh, Munir a. (2004) Defining Islamic Education: Differentiation and Applications. Current Issues in Comparative Education Vol. 7(1) Teachers College, Columbia University.