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labor force has always been a prime concern amongst classical political economists, starting with Petty and continuing to theorists such as Adam Smith, icardo, Malthus, and Marx. Labor implies the activity of production that goes into producing the good of value but whilst some theorists, such as Smith, have focused on the outcome of the labor activity, others, such as famously Marx, have considered the conditions of the laborer himself. Some theories too, such as those of icardo have been primarily descriptive. Others, such as those of Marx and Malthus, have included prescriptive components. Ultimately, all classical political economic theories have included prescription of better understanding and dealing with the human race on an economic scheme.
William Petty, observing Dutch laborers at their shipyards, noticed how they performed their work better than anyone else and how employing the method that they used, owners could utilize cheap and unskilled labor thereby…… [Read More]
labor force and explain how the unemployment rate is calculated. Shortcomings of the current methods of measuring labor force participation rate and unemployment
Labor force is people between 16 and 65 years of age either employed or seeking employment. Labor force includes students, retirees, and prisoners, those engaged in gainful employment as well as persons without reported income.
In the United States of America, unemployment rate is calculated from the monthly surveys done by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics. It is estimated by dividing the number of persons without employment by the size of the available workforce that includes the employed and those unemployed.
omer (1986) states that this method used in calculating the unemployment rate also includes; Social Insurance Statistics such as unemployment benefits. He claims that this method is not detailed since some benefits expire before one can find a job. In addition, the other method, employment…… [Read More]
technology, labor force engagement, labor productivity and poverty, there was quite a change in the mining industry in Central Appalachia which greatly affected the people living there. It is significant that from 1945 to 1965, labor force engagement and labor productivity steadily declined in this region. Subsequently, poverty definitely increased during this period as there were fewer men employed in what had traditionally been the most established industry in this region. It is very possible that the decline in men available in this industry coincided with increased technology. However, what was once a fairly stable industry slowly whittled down to one in which the residents of this region could no longer depend. It is also important to realize that this negative trend was also characterized by an increasing number of mines, which peaked in 1957 with 49 mines. As the number of mines was reduced again until the 1972, the…… [Read More]
leadership position mandated reduce department's labor force 8%. What steps identify lay ? What staff roles regulatory requirements staffing patterns, roles assistive personnel, cross training, arriving a viable solution.
In a context in which the managerial team at the organization has decided to downsize its staff members by 8 per cent in a respective department, the manager of the respective department plays an essential role in helping to identify the staffs to be downsized.
The process of identifying people to downsize is highly complex and it could take several forms. For instance, a principle could be implemented of firing the newest members to the team. These have the least experience within the firm and within the project and, from the standpoint of the project, they would be easier to lose than, say, an employee who had been within the project for five years and is highly familiar with it.…… [Read More]
Panels of data from each of the odd-numbered years between 2000 and 2010 -- 2001. 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 -- were used in this research, and though these datasets included many of the same individuals from year to year each individual was counted separately in each separate year. This was considered appropriate for two reasons: first, as this research was not longitudinal in nature, and is attempting to determine specific influences on female labor force participation currently rather than how these forces might change over time, an analysis that controls for individual factors over an extended time period was not deemed necessary; second, because individual circumstances can change, the decision of each individual in each year can be seen as the result of the changing factors, which are for all intents and purposes unique (as is the decision-making process itself) each year. This created a pooled dataset that allowed…… [Read More]
7% Asian-Americans, and 17.3% Hispanic-Americans. The two most prominent changes in these numbers from the other two fields were the lower incidence of Asian-American painters (about 1/3 the rate of accountants or waiters/waitresses) and the higher incidence of Hispanic-American painters (more than three times found in the other two occupations).
Kirschenman and Neckerman explore the issue of race an ethnicity in the eyes of employers. Interviewing Chicago-area businesses, the authors found that employers perceived Black men as being "unstable, uncooperative, dishonest, and uneducated" (311). However, looking across the three fields investigated for this paper, this is not necessarily reflected. If this perception held true, it would follow that there would be far more African-Americans in the lower-skilled, lower-education fields of waiter/waitressing and especially painting, given the high percentage of males in that field. Instead, the percentage of African-Americans in all three fields were fairly even. Although there was a…… [Read More]
Mexican-American Employee: A growing Labor Force
This article suggests that the employment figures for the Mexican-American community is not a pleasant one. The United States has seen its wages for common workers stagnated from 1980's and onwards, this translates into an even more grim picture for those workers who have been living in the country for many decades.
Chicanos also have a very minimal amount of representation at the white-collar or managerial posts and they also get limited opportunities to prove themselves that they are worthy for such a post. It is often termed that newer generation of Chicanos are making steady progress as compared to their parents who immigrated to the U.S. But still they are termed to be falling behind rapidly when judging from the context of the overall opportunity structure that exists in the complete population.
When focusing on the demographics of the U.S., it is seen…… [Read More]
Immigration and Its Effects on the United States Labor Force
During the time period of 1881 and 1924, the First Great Migration shifted about 25.8 million people from across the globe to the United States, boosting the country's population by approximately 50%. Huge numbers migrated from Western Europe. The following Great Migration, proceeding from the 1960s, has given a figure of about 26 million new residents all over the country. It has in an increasing number shifted immigrants into the state from other than European countries. In stark difference to the preceding duration of time, more sians, fricans, and Central and South mericans have made settlement in this particular vicinity. s an initiated happening, immigration is instigated due to financial difficulties, tussle in the political field, lack of stability, or natural catastrophes, existent amidst other factors, in the source country. ny initiative is inclined to be far from economic and…… [Read More]
This is reflected in the fact that over the past 12 months, average hourly earnings have only increased by 1.8%. Additionally, union membership has declined. The BLS reports that the union membership rate -- the percent of wage and salary workers who were members of a union -- was 11.9%, down from 12.3% a year earlier. In 1983, the first year for which comparable union data are available, the union membership rate was 20.1%, and there were 17.7 million union workers. Union jobs typically are higher paying jobs. According to the BLS, union members had median usual weekly earnings of $917, while those who were not represented by unions had median weekly earnings of $717. One reason for the decline in union membership is the decline in public sector employment, especially in education.
U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2011). Employment situation summary. etrieved from http://www.bls.gov/news.release/empsit.nr0.htm.
U.S.…… [Read More]
The more effective such systems of transport, the easier it is for labor to either to commute to work a fair distance from their home. Cities provide concentrated sources of labor that may not need to commute far distances. Also, the willingness of laborers to leave their home communities and relocate is an important cultural factor to remember, as well as the cost of transportation. Finally, in some areas, gas for cats is quite expensive, while public transportation is fairly cheap, which will affect labor patterns of migration and may be different than one might expect from one's experience in America.
Local attitudes to international companies, towards a diverse workforce, and to employing refugees may vary from country to country.
The diversity of the labor force, whether it is primarily skilled or unskilled, diverse or homogeneous in its ethnic, age, or skill composition will affect what types…… [Read More]
The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.
The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.
The basic…… [Read More]
Labor Relations in Public Sector
Collective bargaining in the public sector organizations will be quite different from that of the private sector organizations. The factors that drive the collective bargaining process in the private sector might not be present in the public sector. Private sector organizations are more concerned on the profit maximization philosophy whereas the public sector firms are more focused on serving general public therefore their priorities would be totally different and management approaches to collective bargaining would also be different. Moreover, private sector firms project for long-term budget forecasting, whereas in the public sector it is managed through third party legislature depending on the voters. These create challenges for the public sector to formulate a policy document that looks after the labor relations.
The Public Employees Fair Employment Act, commonly known as the Taylor Law, is a labor relations ruling policy document that covers public employees in…… [Read More]
Surveys have found that the public find business leaders to be more trustworthy than union leaders and many members of non-union families disapprove of unions. Other factors include the increased trend towards smaller sizes of new factories. Moreover, the American workforce has changed significantly in terms of composition, i.e. age, sex, education and race. Some cyclical phenomenon in the political, social and economic environment in the U.S. has also lead to the decline in union membership. These cyclical explanations for the decline include economic factors like the rising unemployment rates in the U.S., the mounting influence of the epublicans since 1952 in national politics, and the drop in class conflicts in the country. The unions also must take a major portion of blame for failure to deploy significant portions of their budgets for organizing new union activities. (Caplow; Bahr; Chadwick; Modell, 1994); (Goldfield, 1989)
As of 2006, only 12.5% of…… [Read More]
he intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.
he major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. hen we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).
he main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory…… [Read More]
Monetary Considerations for the Retirees
Costs to Society
Forcing individuals to arbitrarily retire once they reach a certain age, no matter what that age might be, is not only counterproductive in its contribution to society, but it also serves as a form of discrimination against a particular segment of the population. This argumentative essay will provide clear and unfettered evidence that this policy is both ineffective and unjust. It adversely affects the individuals being forced into retirement both monetarily as well as psychologically. It indirectly affects society as a whole by limiting great segments of the population from employment; many who are often extremely well qualified and experienced. Therefore under no circumstance is this policy a plausible solution.
Monetary Considerations for the Retirees
Retirees are detrimentally afflicted by mandatory retirement financially primarily for two reasons. First, they lose their income potential. This may occur even…… [Read More]
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…… [Read More]
Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.
Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.
Important Components of Labor Economics
Labor Supply and Demand
Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)
Non-Wage Labor Costs
Pay & Productivity
8. Economics of Discrimination
9. Social Accountability
10. Trade Unions…… [Read More]
Forced Early etirement & Employment -- the Catch
etirement & the Changing WorkForce
A logical paradox arising from a situation in which an individual needs something that can only be acquired by not being in that very situation that will allow access to what is needed.
Older American workers are in a quandary and embroiled in a policy making conundrum. Social Security funding is not expected to keep up with the current and future payout to beneficiaries. Fearful policymakers, frustrated economists, and pessimistic actuarial have cobbled together public policy that reflects the multiple and competing exigencies. Older Americans are encouraged to work longer by a Social Security schedule that is lowest at earliest payout and has pushed the official retirement age to 66 -- with regular and loud threats to push it higher still. For someone retiring at age 62 years who was born between 1943 and 1954, the…… [Read More]
This implies that an increase in the wage of one member of the household gives rise not only to changed incentives for work on the market, but also to a shift from more to less time-intensive product on and consumption of goods produced by the household. But as noted by the Nobel-prize winning 20th century University of Chicago economist Gary Becker, as real wages increase, along with the possibilities of substituting capital for labor in housework, labor is released in the household, so that it becomes more and more uneconomical to let one member of the household specialize wholly in household production (for instance, child care). As a result, some of the family's previous social and economic functions are shifted to other institutions such as firms, schools and other public agencies. This creates more jobs, but also means that more luxury jobs may become necessities, such as maids. (Gary Becker,…… [Read More]
Another concern is represented by the fact that the massive imports from China materialize in cheaper consumer products, which render the domestically produced items less competitive. Other issues include currency fluctuations which impact the fiscal stability of the countries, as well as security concerns, as the Chinese gain more access to American resources (Singh, 2012).
The economy of the United States is shaped by a wide array of elements, such as political measures, the economic recession, the access to credits, the socio-demographic changes and so on. One important piece in the economic puzzle is represented by the state of international trade operations completed by the country. In this sense, the current project has assessed the issues of international trade as they relate to the impacts on employment, unemployment, incomes and equality, as well as the national concerns regarding the country's trade partners (Japan, Mexico and China).
At the…… [Read More]
Similarly, the average total costs curve also increases, implying additional costs.
A main theoretical specification that must be made here refers to the long-term relationship between the MC and the average cost curves. This basically states the following:
- if the average cost in decreasing in the quantity produced, or the output, the marginal cost is lower than the average costs
- if the average cost increasing in terms of produced quantities, the marginal cost is larger than the average costs
- if the average cost remains constant, the marginal cost equals the average cost; the situation is similar when the average cost is minimal
- in the case of scale economies, the average cost decreases as the produced quantity increases
- in the case of diseconomies of scale, the situation is reversed as the average cost increases with the increase of the output (Zhao, 2008)
2. Factors in Favour…… [Read More]
External factors that have adversely impacted labor's ability to remain organized include social and political changes in the United States. During the 1960s, labor had the opportunity to join with the Civil ights movement in fulfilling core goals such as the prevention of labor exploitation. Instead, the political turmoil of the 1960s left labor without strong enough leadership. Moreover, "unlike European union movements, American organized labor has avoided the formation of a political party and has remained within the framework of the two-party system," ("The Labor Union"). This may indeed be the most significant factor preventing productive labor union organization: the lack of interest in a labor-based political party. The Democratic Party usually champions labor issues but not with sufficient enthusiasm or clout. To increase their chances for future success, unions need to do the following: reach out to minorities and women; reach out to workers in skilled as well…… [Read More]
While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CS and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CS in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor ights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement (http://188.8.131.52/search?q=cache:MfmUl9ll5pwJ:laborcenter.berkeley.edu/globaleconomy/china_american.pdf+china+sweatshops+unions&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9&ie=UTF-8)."
Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer…… [Read More]
The procedures, rules and regulations for creating the unions are varying in different parts of the world. Moreover, those labors are not accustomed to the working conditions, rules and regulations and provide less desirable attributes for labor works. Hill (2007) also explained with extensive research statistics for the establishment of union programs in different regions such as Mexico.Despite rules and regulations, the labors are forced to work as salves. They are not given the complete incentives that their job description offers. With this in mind, the labor unions continue to present an idea on its rapid growth so that labors can be given their rights with freedoms. According to Hill (2007), labor unions though provide some solutions for immigrant labors however; effective programs and measures are working towards the change that is needed by these unions (Hill, 2007). The formation of labor unions can be useful to control the illegal…… [Read More]
American Labor Market
Darrick Hamilton's assessment of discrimination and how discrimination is measured in the U.S. labor market reveals a number of variables that play a part in determining the nature and extent of inequality in the U.S. hat the study does show is that class dichotomies are apparent and that economic disparity essentially ensures that the two classes remain divided by socio-economic barriers, which prevent the lower class from ever rising beyond the class ceiling that keeps them within their socio-economic status.
Class is an obvious issue in America: classism interacts with racism in various ways but the exact manner of the interaction -- or how it is interpreted -- depends on some degree to the manner in which the interaction is measured. As Hamilton notes, "An individual may experience discrimination and not interpret it as such, or an individual may not experience discrimination but perceive that they were…… [Read More]
Labor Negotiating Practices
The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.
Company's Stance towards Labor Issues
The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing…… [Read More]
Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace." (Steiger, 2007) Specifically written by Justice Ginsburg is that as follows:
worker knows immediately if she is denied a promotion or transfer, if she is fired or refused employment. And promotions, transfers, hirings, and firings are generally public events, known to co-workers. When an employer makes a decision of such open and definitive character, an employee can immediately seek out an explanation and evaluate it for pretext. Compensation disparities, in contrast, are often hidden from sight." (Steiger, 2007)
Steiger reports that…… [Read More]
Labor and Union Studies in ashington and Oregon States
The United States labor movement has its roots in the complex trappings of the industrial revolution. Laborers were just starting to come to the United States from foreign countries because they had learned that there were many jobs available for even the most unskilled worker. People were also moving from rural areas in America to the cities in an attempt ti have a better life also without the uncertainties that governed farm profits. The growth in many industries was a result of new technologies that allowed people to purchase items that had previously been made by hand far cheaper because the products could now be mass produced in the factories. The problem was that the owners of these factories did not care how the workers were treated because there were many more begging to have a low-paying job in a factory…… [Read More]
America is a competitive place and many of the economic and social systems in place reflect this quality. Economically, capitalism and all of its market specific rules apply to the many working people in this nation as well. The purpose of this essay is to describe how labor unions are affecting these economic processes and how they can contribute to the greater conversation revolving around the economy and employment issues. This essay will describe a union election from the standpoint of a campaign manager of union candidate to express my personal feelings and strengths towards this analysis. The second part of this essay will address the GMFC case study and explain my actions with a philosophy on employee relations.
Corporations appear to have much of the political power in the country today as far as labor realations are concerned. Labor unions are dwindling in power every year as…… [Read More]
Labor, GDP and Firm
Labor is an important factor of production for all firms. The most recent unemployment rate is estimated at 9% (January 2011). Economists have identified three types of unemployment. Which type would affect your firm? Explain.
The three types of unemployment include: structural, changes in technology and shifts in tastes. Structural is when there is a lack of demand for workers with particular skill sets. Changes in technology, takes place when innovations and scientific breakthroughs are leading to a shift in the way businesses are operating. This is the point when there is a decrease in the total number of employees working for a particular firm. Shifts in taste are occurring when consumers want to purchase a particular product or service based on the underlying amounts of popularity. During times when there is a change in tastes, is the point that sales will decrease and those employees…… [Read More]
All of the employees on an airplane, for example, could form themselves into a vertical bargaining unit if they chose, the unit including stewards and stewardesses, as well as pilots. Similarly, in a school, teachers, janitors, and office staff could all form a vertical unit. In contrast a horizontal bargaining unit unites all those who perform similar work. The fact that the pilots at Spirit Airlines belong to a pilots union that includes pilots from other airlines means that they constitute a horizontal bargaining unit. As well, teachers in the Chico school could form a horizontal bargaining unit if they joined with other teachers at different schools, and even in different districts. Members of a bargaining unit agree to work together because they share common interests and goals. Bargaining units appear either as elements of unions or as workers uniting for a common purpose. An entire union is also frequently…… [Read More]
Many Chinese workers, including children, are forced to work in poor conditions (Ka Wai, 2004). Many workers are working in the town ship and village factories. According to a government report in 1984, the majority of township and village enterprises in China have at least one major problem that causes occupational disease. Many factory workers are working in dangerous conditions, in which poisonous chemicals, dust, and noise are predominant. As a result, many workers suffer from a variety of preventable health conditions.
Companies like Nike and eebok often subcontract factories in poor countries because they do not have to deal with production. By distancing themselves through subcontracting, benefiting from low production costs without having to take responsibility, they make huge profits.
In Indonesia, United States sportswear company Nike is often at the center of labor concerns (CNN, 2001). Workers at nine Indonesian factories under contract by Nike say they have…… [Read More]
The question is should a worker have the ability to stop work as part of their collective bargaining rights at the expense of the public good. And, how much is the public good actually represented by the interests of the organization the company is striking against vs. its own selfish interests?
Ultimatately wokers should have the right to choose when they will work and under what conditions. The Taft-Harley Act is aply labeled the "slave-labor" bill. As economist Murray Rothbard explains,
There is no moral excuse, in a socity claiming to be opposed to slavery and in a country which has outlawed involuntary servicture, for any legal or judicial action probibiting strings-or jailing union leaders who fail to comply. Slavery is all too often more convenient for the slavemasters."
Further, if the public good is truly at stake, public pressure will help ensure that a strike is quickly resolved by…… [Read More]
"eak protections under U.S. law allow children as young as 12 to work unlimited hours outside of school on tobacco farms of any size, and there is no minimum age for children to work on small farms. Despite the known risks of nicotine poisoning, there are no special provisions in U.S. laws or regulations to protect children from the unique hazards of tobacco work."
I was aware that there were a few exceptions to child labor laws on family farms. This alone is a sensitive issue given the potential for injury with lifelong consequences, along with the conscription of children into farming labor that may detract from their ability to pursue other careers. Yet until reading this passage, I had no idea that child labor was still permitted in a larger context in the United States, especially in large farm contexts. hen it comes to exposure to pesticides, dangerous…… [Read More]
Labor and Monopoly Capital
HAY BAVEMAN's book Labor and Monopoly Capital carries the tradition of Marxist schools. The author focuses on the labor process under the Fordism, arguing that how the work, under the discipline of scientific management, becomes disjointed, dull, and repetitive. According to him, the work is degraded. Like Marx, Braverman is a deterministic and looks into the question of how technological change in Fordism affected the attributes of work and the discrimination of working class.
The labor process under capitalism is one of the central themes of Braverman. Its main emphasis lies in providing a voice to the working-class movement. Taking his insights from Marx, Braverman is considered the latest follower that has accurately appreciated the profundity of Marx's work. Supporting his work from Marx himself, and drawing on his own experience as a trained craftsman, a socialist militant and journalist, and a manager of two publishing…… [Read More]
It would be difficult as a women to try and understand exactly what these women had to live through (in the name of commerce and production), but Morgan is sensitive while making her points, which has to be admired.
Of particular interest in this book is the whole talk of "creolization" -- a term not often heard. Essentially, Morgan discusses creolization and how this event is directly associated with reproduction. The entire Creole history, she claims, required black women's giving birth to these children. This is an area of history that perhaps isn't written about or talked about enough.
Perhaps one of the most original and interesting parts of Morgan's book is that she begins with the women in Africa and she follows them through the Middle Passage and then into America and thus the reader is able to get a real sense of the journal and the cultural differences…… [Read More]
The second step taken may be to convince staff that changes are essential for surviving in the business and this would provide a new force in support which may be called survival with strength of 2. Then there may be an action to convince the workers that new machines would increase variety to their jobs and this would introduce a new positive force with strength of 1. Even existing negatives can be changed into positive and wages can be increased providing a positive of 1 and a simultaneous loss of 2 due to removal of overtime. (Force Field Analysis - Understanding the Pressures For and Against Change)
Another possible change is of filters which would eliminate pollution and this would remove a negative strength of 1. All these actions would make the balance which was against the change by 11 to 10 to a balance in favor of the plan…… [Read More]
But after a military threat from the side of Northern opponents in Canada (French colonies) English colonists had to revise their attitude towards Indians turning some Indian tribes into allies by presenting them gifts and developing trade relations. Ultimately colonists came to the conclusion that they needed temporary cooperation with Indians in order to strengthen their positions in North America: "many Indians became dependent on the manufactured goods the fur trade brought them, and hunted to meet the demands of European markets rather than the needs of their families." (from Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the emaking of Early America, p.15)According to Colin Calloway Indian peoples quickly became involved into the system of colonial trade and ultimately they became an integral part of Atlantic colonial economy which worked only for colonists. European colonists wanted to change Indian culture and system of values which were considered to…… [Read More]
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).
There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…… [Read More]
The dues members pay assist the Union in fighting for their rights, further cementing the bond between member and Union.
The Postal Union has proved there is a positive relationship between the Union and the labor movement, and that its members are important to it while "neither Congress nor the managers of the Postal Service have ever given workers anything out of kindness. Many workers naively have placed their trust in the bosses, failing to realize that the Postal Service is a business where the worker is viewed as an expensive item to be utilized to the fullest for turning a profit (www.postalworkersonline.com)."
The Union has won major victories for its members including "a 40-hour workweek, instead of a 60 plus hour workweek, a decent standard of living, a safe work environment, and respectful treatment (www.postalworkersonline.com)."
The Union and Me
As noted, I have seen firsthand how the…… [Read More]
If the foundations of the NLA are to be supported, the illegal worker will need to be provided with the complete display of NLA solutions. With that said, the tension still remains.
Statistics do show that illegal aliens are accounting for 21% of the foreign born populace in the U.S. In 2000 with that amount snowballing to 30% by 2005(Abraham, 2002). With numbers progressively going up each year, a lot have started asking why. They want to know where are the immigrants coming from and why are there so many of them that are allowed to come into the nation. Statistics display that Mexico is the major distributor of illegal and legal immigrants (http://cis.org/illegal). Statistics show that more than half of the Mexicans that are living in the U.S. In the year 2000 were illegitimate (odriguez, 2006). By 2004, 10.5 million illegal and legal immigrants that were Mexican…… [Read More]
But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.
Wal-Mart…… [Read More]
" (Rouillard, 1987) There was a desire to "humanize the economy" based on the value of work being "more important than capital since the individual had to take priority over the accumulation of goods." (Rouillard, 1987)
VIII. LIERAL HUMANISM & ECONOMIC PLANNING
In 1958 this liberal humanism of the CTCC "manifested itself in a new theme that appeared...economic planning." (Rouillard, 1987) Abuses of the system were corrected by the intervention of the state even though it was symbolic intervention only and it even "further directed the economy toward satisfying the real needs of individuals." (Rouillard, 1987) the CTCC gradually became nondenominational over the years and finally in 1960 the CTCC dropped 'Catholic' from its title and "all direct references to the Church's social doctrine." (Rouillard, 1987)
IX. ETHNICALLY SUMERGED SPLIT LAOUR MARKET
The work of Calliste entitled: "Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market" (1987) states…… [Read More]
Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations
In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.
Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…… [Read More]
status labor movement? Make include viewpoint. eference the current state of the labor movement in contemporary times is somewhat tenuous. Although there are noticeable signs of progress and success within this movement, labor forces, and labor unions in particular, face a number of challenges that they have never had to face before. The primary difficulty that the labor movement faces is how to incorporate white collar workers into labor unions in a substantial manner so that union memberships can be at the levels that they once were at.
To that extent, it is important to discuss the difficulties encountered by labor unions when attempting to recruit white collar workers. These difficulties certainly include media perceptions, as is denoted in Labor elations. The media, which is always ready to vilify its subjects and to shape public perception by scaring it about the current events taking place, has routinely depicted unions and…… [Read More]
In 1981, President onald eagan fired many striking air traffic controllers employed by Federal Aviation Administration. In the face of various challenges confronting labor unions, the union membership drastically, continue to decline. Since support from political party has declined, many workers believe that union's ability to protect their interests has drastically declined, and thus, many private workers belief that it is no longer necessary to be union members.
oberts, (1997) argue that labor unions have faced hard times and sustained membership loss. The hard times ranging from diminishing influence of bargaining to the intense of global competition and technological changes.
Added to the political influence that contributes to the decline of the union, there are other external dynamics affecting labor unions. Globalization has been identified as the one of the external dynamic that has impact on the unions' strategies.
External Dynamics affecting the Labor Unions
One of the external dynamics…… [Read More]
Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)
Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms…… [Read More]
An increase in employee-management teamwork and communication likewise reduced the need for labor union representation. Labor unions, thus, no longer play the critical role they once did in labor-management relations (Encyclopedia of Small usiness, Maxwell).
A New Global Labor Federation
Representatives from trade unions throughout the world organized a new global labor federation to insure that workers' rights are not overlooked in economic globalization (Associated Press, 2006). The new body, the International Trade Union Confederation, replaced the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions. It would adapt itself to the fresh challenges to the rights of unionized workers. It would also take bolder steps against forced and child labor. Appointed head of the new federation was Guy Ryder, who assured everyone that "the strong tradition of solidarity" would continue. He emphasized the importance of trade union unity in the international level in insuring effective representation of workers rights and interests in…… [Read More]
ork Force 2020: ork and orkers in the 21st Century
About the authors
Richard . Judy is a Senior Research Fellow at the Hudson Institute. He is the senior co-author of orkforce 2020, a book about the challenges and opportunities that will face the American corporations and workers in the early years of the twenty first century. Richard . Judy is presently the Director of the Center for orkforce Development at the Hudson Institute in Indianapolis, Indiana. Judy is also an economist specializing in workforce issues and labor economics. Apart from workforce 2020, ork and orkers in the 21st Century, published recently by the Hudson Institute, is another work of Richard . Judy (Hudson Institute).
Richard . Judy's co-author, Carol D'Amico is a former senior fellow at Hudson Institute. D'Amico is a nationally recognized expert on workforce development and education issues. She is a published author, and a frequently requested…… [Read More]
Globalization and Labor
Globalization is a term used in a multiplicity of senses, such as the global interdependence of nations, the growth of a world system, accumulation on a world scale, and the global village (Petras Pp). All of these concepts, as well as many others, are rooted in the general notion that the "accumulation of capital, trade and investment is no longer confined to a nation-state" (Petras Pp). Globalization in the most general sense refers to the "cross-national flows of goods, investment, production and technology," and for advocates, the scope and depth of these flows have created a new world order, "with its own institutions and configurations of power that have replace the structures of nation-states" (Petras Pp). Globalization has deepened and extended the international division of labor, with everything from automobile parts to information collection and analysis now out-sourced to labor in distant nation-states (Petras Pp). Exporting labor…… [Read More]
For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on industrialization. Colonial power structures legitimized the social hierarchies that form the backbone of capitalist infrastructure.
The ways capitalism transformed traditional aboriginal society from being barter-based to being wage labour-based closely resemble the ways capitalism transformed traditional European skilled labour culture. As Kealey points out, the European artisan model of labour persisted until the Industrial evolution. Skilled labourers like coopers and smiths once apprenticed their work, entering into careers that offered a high degree of control over the means of production and…… [Read More]
United States Department of Labor
Department of Labor is a Cabinet branch of government. Its role is to secure occupational safety, wage considerations, and other working conditions of the American workers. The department sets out plans for how the workers and other wage earners in the country are treated. The body was first formed in the year 1884. It was given the mandate and power to manage the workforce by the Congress. It was during a special meeting of the U.S. Congress that the decision to come up with this body was passed. Once started, the body began collecting economic data two years later and has since been using the data to produce economic policies regarding the welfare of the workers in America. The other issues that this body deals with include making up the rules to be played by the workers in a country. Every state has a department…… [Read More]
Define child and labor separately.
Child labor in the United States has long been a subject of concern. The U.S. enacted strict child labor statutes in 1938 (Labor, 2009), and has continued to enforce that law. However, there remain problems at home in the U.S. And abroad. The United States seeks to enforce the law, but there are times when it is difficult to catch perpetrators of violations. However, the U.S. has trade restrictions against countries that do not have strict enforcement of international standards. This research examines statutes in the United States (including their historic antecedents), what is being done to violators, and how trade is affected by citizen outcry against human rights violators and compliance with international law.
Current thinking on human rights dictates that children reach a certain age before they are to be put into the workforce. However, different cultures have different…… [Read More]
The lifeline of any project is labor and over the years, the labor provided by human beings has not been effectively substituted even in the face of heavy mechanization of labor and increase in other technological advancements. Karim A.N., (2013:Pp349) estimates that between 30% and 50% of the costs that are incurred in a project often go to the labor sector. Sadly, there has been little productivity issues address sufficiently especially in the developing nations, hence giving room for a lot of wastage and under productivity in many sectors.
There are several factors that influence the labor productivity depending on the field of application of the project. The general agreement is that productivity is the ratio of outputs to inputs and it is argued that it high productivity depends on how well and individual entity utilizes the resources at hand to produce the needed outputs from the inputs.…… [Read More]
His proposals received a strong opposition from the side of the religious leaders who were dissatisfied both with the fact that women were given the right to vote and the land reforms (idem).
After Khomeini was sent into exile, the shah's leadership, greatly supported by the U.S., became dictatorial. By choosing to put the country under an authoritarian regime with little or no real opposition, Mohammad-Reza Shah, like his father, almost a quarter of a century ago, signed his own end as a leader of ran. Some of the reforms made during those years were restoring women's rights. The Family Protection Law, passed in 1967, brought women's issues related to marriage and divorce closer to the laws of the civilized world. but, the Shah was too much obsessed with building a huge military power, proving himself to the U.S. As the pillar of stabilization in the Middle East.
ranian women…… [Read More]
Marx on Labor
Heilbroner's honesty at the onset of his writing on Karl Marx reveals the flaws and distortion contained within the often complex, if not mystical tone of Marx's philosophy. The admitted sheer immensity of work produced by Marx and his partner Engels cannot be completely understood. The author confessed " the collected works compromise forty volumes, each 700-1000 pages in length. I have no room for many documents of great historical importance." This dismissal is proof of the limited value of Marx and his theory. Cherry picking this and that from any collection suggests an inconsistency, if not cloaking, of the true essence of Marx's art.
Regardless of the irrationality behind the author's analysis, there are still worthwhile ideas contained within the writing. The alignment of Marx and Adam Smith's appreciation for the value of labor and the corresponding explanations of each demonstrated a quality of humanity in…… [Read More]
emaining workers will get jobs at higher than equilibrium wage, the Supply curve shifts to the left, and wage and output stabilize until something else changes like input cost or legislation.
Were firms able to hire workers at less than minimum wage, say like in Figure 4, where the cost of paying illegals including the enforcement cost results in lower demand for legal minimum wage workers, the result would be a total average cost between the two supply lines, increased outcome for the firm, at less than average minimum wage cost. The new Alabama law seems to attempt to drive off the black line "illegals" by mandating stiffer enforcement for services and privileges like business or auto licenses, awls (2011) explains. This creates an interesting distribution of costs if firms derive profit, but the cost of enforcement is being pushed onto others not employing illegals. If the black line in…… [Read More]
International Labour Mobility on Australia
Migration of international individuals across various countries is becoming very common these days, which is imposing many global issues, such as social, cultural and economical, in both the sending and receiving states. The main agenda of migration is to reunite the family, help labour market, develop the nation and strengthen economy. Of all the people moving to Australia, 68% consists of skilled people whereas 32% are migrated through family visa streams. The number of people who migrate and their trends change from time to time, from smaller migration programmes mostly consisting of families in 1993-94 to large scale programme with an increased number of skilled people in 2013-14 (Migration programme statistics, n.d.). This paper explains the latest developments in international labour movement in Australia.
Trends of Australia's International Labour Mobility
The skilled visa stream was introduced for the individuals who have specific skills, education and…… [Read More]
labor policies of the former Soviet Union and how they contributed to the downfall of the Soviet Union. The writer explores the labor policies that were in force at the time and explains their contribution to the eventual downfall. There were ten sources used to complete this paper.
It was one of the more historic moments in recent world history. As the world watched in awe, the Soviet Union began to dismantle itself so that it could rebuild from the ground up. After many decades of communist regime, the government was taken apart from the inside out, the entire nation brought itself to the ground and the process to rebuild began. For years it had been accepted as a superpower and those who lived there felt that the United States was its only rival.
American residents had been raised to fear the Soviet Union and believe that they were the…… [Read More]
forced labor and slavery develop in tropical colonies? How was slavery in the Americas different from slavery in earlier societies?
Forced labor in the tropical colonies was created to support the production of 'cash crops' such as sugar cane. The harvesting of these crops was hard, back-breaking work. "Sugar was far more difficult work than cultivating cotton, tobacco, or rice. So many slaves died within a few years of their arrival in the sugar islands, sometimes only months, that a steady fresh supply was always needed" (Davis 2012). Only slavery could provide an efficient means to render such crops profitable. "Before long, British and French plantations in the West Indies began to dominate. British west coast ports such as Bristol and Liverpool thrived on the sugar cane industry and refineries and packaging factories were set up" (Sugar cane and the slave trade, 2012, Plant Cultures). The slave trade was called…… [Read More]