Labor Force and Explain How the Unemployment Essay

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labor force and explain how the unemployment rate is calculated. Shortcomings of the current methods of measuring labor force participation rate and unemployment

Labor force is people between 16 and 65 years of age either employed or seeking employment. Labor force includes students, retirees, and prisoners, those engaged in gainful employment as well as persons without reported income.

In the United States of America, unemployment rate is calculated from the monthly surveys done by the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics. It is estimated by dividing the number of persons without employment by the size of the available workforce that includes the employed and those unemployed.

Romer (1986) states that this method used in calculating the unemployment rate also includes; Social Insurance Statistics such as unemployment benefits. He claims that this method is not detailed since some benefits expire before one can find a job. In addition, the other method, employment office statistics, is not helpful as it involves monthly collection information of people without jobs who access employment offices.

Compare the perspectives of Marx (Alienated Labor) and Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs).

Marx theory of alienation is in reference to the disassociation of things that belong together. He means it from a social perspective that people are separated from things that they need. For instance, labor separates one from his family or freedom or alienation of one from self.

Maslow's theory also regards needs. He claims that there are things that man needs naturally andThe most important of his pyramid he called deficiency needs which includes friendship and love, security, and physical needs So both theories address human needs.

Contrast the perspectives of Marx (Alienated Labor) and Maslow (Hierarchy of Needs).

Marx theory of alienation is based on capitalism and refers to work as through capitalism as an impediment to needs satisfaction. Maslow theory on the other hand only mentions human needs and not in relation to other engagements. He places the fundamental level at the bottom, and self-actualization at the top of the pyramid (Maslow, 1954).

Marx's alienation focuses on the effect work has on workers and this can take the form of alienation from self, work, family and so on. This robs the workers their right to control the value of their preventing from benefiting from the products they produce (Langman & Fishman, 2006), while Maslow's hierarchy of needs illustrates humans need respect and the desire to be valued by others. They engage in activities to give them the sense of contribution.

Is it possible for a worker to be both satisfied and alienated?

A worker can be alienated and satisfied without much realization. This depends on where the need is placed. The need has to be satisfied and deprivation of the need results in alienation. For instance, one can be satisfied with family but alienated to work, but if the work is not of value then they will not mind the alienation, they might not realize it.

List and discuss three (3) ways unions have fought for workers rights.

They have made the labor market competitive. Competition results in proper allocation of resources, in the labor market resources constitute individuals with varying skills. In the competitive markets, laborers are compensated according to their value in the market. When competition is perfect, wages include compensation of unfavorable working conditions.

Unions help in controlling the wage imbalance in the markets. Worker use unions to air their grievances regarding unfair wage distribution. The unions protect worker against wage inequalities such as the one experienced during economic crises (the great depression of 1930).

The unions not only give the workers a "voice" within their workplaces, but also provide them with options to express their issues regarding internal disputes. Workers have a formal way of settling their dissatisfaction with the employers, the unions help in resolving issues related to payments,…

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