Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Labor Markets and Their Many Aspects
The negative aspects of a loosely-regulated labor market:
The dangers of under-regulation
The labor laws of the state of Pennsylvania are still highly influenced by the unionization movement that began in the steel mills of the state. It is said that "no state in America has a richer labor history than Pennsylvania" (Pennsylvania labor history, 2011, IAP). The AFL and CIO were founded in the state. "The 1877 railroad strike, the 1892 battle of Homestead, and the 1919 steel strike" are all nationally famous incidents that were highly influential upon the development of the modern labor movement and remain potent, collective state memories (Pennsylvania labor history, 2011, IAP). However, "the struggle against child labor, sweatshops and oppressive working conditions unfortunately continue today in the global economy. Workers' rights to form unions and collectively bargain, to have a safe and healthful workplace, and to have…
About labor-management cooperation. (2011). PA Department of Labor & Industry. Retrieved October 21, 2011 at http://www.portal.state.pa.us/portal/server.pt/community/labor-management_cooperation/10484
Bernhardt, Annette Ruth Milkman & Nik Theodore. (2009). Working without laws. The Nation.
Retrieved October 21, 2011 at http://www.thenation.com/article/working-without-laws
Fischer, Charles. (2010). Labor's laboring effort. The Berkley Blog. Retrieved October 21, 2011
These positions generally pay well. The outlook for financial analysts is good, as openings are expected to increase rapidly over the coming years. However, there is strong competition for the position as well, meaning that candidates will need to have substantial qualifications. Candidates should have at least a bachelor's degree, but often an MBA in finance and/or a CPA designation as well. For most openings, experience is required. Many financial analyst positions are specialized, so a candidate would need expertise in a particular industry or country in order to qualify for the position.
Three different companies were surveyed. Goldman Sachs had the greatest number of openings. Most of their openings were at the entry level, and they indicated that there was strong competition for these openings such that candidates would need to have the highest possible qualifications. Of the three companies surveyed, Goldman Sachs offered the highest starting wages and…
Occupational Outlook Handbook. (2010). Retrieved March 14, 2010 from http://www.bls.gov/oco/ocos301.htm
labor market in Harlan County, Texas, was monopolistic in the sense that Duke Power had a significant amount of wage-setting power at the time that Harlan County, USA was filmed. The company and its subsidiary, the Eastover Mining Company, were one of the largest employers within the county. Moreover, the sort of people that the company hired did not have a lot of other career prospects. Most of them were relatively uneducated by contemporary standards and had high school diplomas or did not finish high schools. As such, the work afforded by this company was fairly important to their livelihoods, which is why the laborers were willing to endure a strike for as long as they did.
Since Duke Power was one of the larger employers within Harlan County, they were able to set wages in the region. A testament to this particular fact is the scab replacements that the…
Krundt, R. (2011). "Cinematic Journalism at its best." The New York Times. Retrieved from http://community.nytimes.com/rate-review/movies.nytimes.com/movie/21576/Harlan-County-USA/overview
Long, C. (2006). "Harlan County USA dvd review." Movie Metropolis. http://moviemet.com/review/harlan-county-usa-dvd-review
Schneider, D. (2010). "You can't topple Kopple." Culture Wars. Retrieved from http://www.culturewars.org.uk/index.php/site/article/you_cant_topple_kopple/
This paper looks at the concepts of the labor market, wage growth and income inequality in the U.S. and discusses them in terms of inflation (caused by the injection of $4 trillion worth of liquidity into the financial markets by the Federal Reserve after the global economic crisis threatened to derail capitalism). It describes what has been written in three news articles in recent years and months, and discusses them with a view to showing that the “best economy ever”—as it is described by President Trump—should not be dependent upon a rate-cutting Fed. A good look at the labor market, wage growth and income inequality may help to explain why the president is so worried about the central bank maintaining loose monetary policy.
While President Trump has often insisted that this is the best economy ever (BBC, 2019), there are signs that this might not be true—and those…
("2004 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics," 2010) However, when you compare the unskilled immigrant with the skilled immigrants, it is clear that you are seeing a similar kind of scenario occurring. Where, they have lower costs of labor in comparison to those educated native workers. In those situations where the immigrants are unskilled, means that many state and local governments will face increased growth in the population. (Car, 2001) Yet, because the overall level of wages are small, means the revenues that are generated will have a limited impact on the community (as far as the government is concerned). Conversely, those immigrants who are more educated will make a larger contribution to the local economy. This is because their specialized education allows them to work in fields that have the potential for greater contributions, to the community and the government. In this particular case, the contributions that they would make towards…
2004 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics. (2010). Retrieved March 16, 2010 from Office of Immigration Statistics
The Role of Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market. (2010). Retrieved March 16, 2010 from Congressional Budget
Labor Market, Unemployment
Defining and classifying Unemployment
There is a level of unemployment in any economy, which is not automatically a bad thing, as most people would think. The presence of a level of unemployment, which usually is presented as a percentage, indicates that at any one given point in that economy, there are people looking for work and managers looking for better employees. In economics, the only important factor to look at while determining the level of unemployment is the number of employees who are eager to work but who cannot find work. Unemployment refers to circumstances where there are unwanted job losses and willing workers without jobs. The jobless are those individuals who are currently unemployed but who are actively seeking jobs. A person cannot be referred to as unemployed when they are not looking for a job. Consequently, in economics, not everyone who is not employed is…
Acocella, N., Bartolomeo, D., and Hibbs, DA., (2008), Labor market regimes and the effects of monetary policy, in: Journal of Macroeconomics, 30: 134-56.
Arestis, P., (1986), Wages and Prices in the UK: the post Keynesian view, Journal of Post Keynesian Economics, 8, 3, p339
Azariadis, C., (1975), Implicit contracts and unemployment equilibria, Journal of Political Economy 83, 6, 1183-1202.
Barlevi, G., (2001), Why Are the Wages of Job Changers so Procyclical? Journal of Labor Economics, 19, 837-878
Subway: The Labor Market
Demand for labor
The most obvious source of an increase of a demand for labor by an organization is an increase in the demand for the product or service provided by the firm. In the case of Subway, the organization provides both a product (food) and service (food preparation). When demand for sandwiches increases, the need for more workers to take orders, make sandwiches, clean the premises and mange the store will also increase. Another possible reason demand for labor might increase is a change in the types of goods and services offered. When Subway offered new types of sandwiches, such as hot hoagies or Panini, the more labor-intensive nature of such preparations may require an increase in workers (Carlinio n.d). Similarly, improvements in technology sometimes result in a decreased need for labor.
Is labor a fixed or variable cost in the short run? What are…
Bradley, Stephen. (2010). Who knows better? You or your customers? Retrieved:
Carlino, Bill. (n.d). Subway's hot sandwiches: quick thaw for cold days; chain's winter ad campaign spotlights hot selections. Nation's Restaurant News. Retrieved: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3190/is_n48_v23/ai_8185557/
Fast food careers. (2009). Kellogg Forum. Retrieved:
The labor market determines the price of labor (wages) at an equilibrium level. The number of workers in the market will be determined in part by the opportunity cost of not working. Thus, lower wages will mean that more workers will be voluntarily unemployed. As the supply of workers falls, it becomes lower than demand. Thus, firms will increase the wages in order to bring more workers back into the workforce. The point of natural unemployment, where no workers are voluntarily unemployed, is the long-run equilibrium point.
Prices are related to the equilibrium point because the cost of workers will be factored into the price of goods. In addition, the price of goods will impact the opportunity cost of being unemployed. Short-run equilibrium is achieved at any point where the price of goods is sufficiently high as to lower the opportunity cost of being unemployed that, in combination with…
No author. (2011). Labor markets and unemployment. University of Colorado. Retrieved February 1, 2011 from http://www.colorado.edu/Economics/courses/econ2020/section5/section5.html
Statistics of the Labor Market (Miami: 2013 to 2015)
There are three metropolitan Divisions in Miami. These are identified separately as centers of employment in the larger Metropolitan area. The three areas added 61000 positions in the labor market. The situation was much better in 2014 because the three areas added 83000 jobs to the labor market. The market gained up to 38000 jobs from Miami-Miami Beach -- Kendall, while Beach-Deerfield Beach division added 2600 new jobs to the labor basket. aton-Delray beach division in West Palm Beach-Boca came on with 19000 jobs. Miami-Miami Beach-Kendall; which is the largest of the labor divisions constitutes 45% of all employment in the area. The region added 21000 new jobs from last September. The Beach Deerfield division at Fort Lauderdale Pompano produced 22-800 positions. This was 32% of the total positions. Boca-aton-Delray beach division in West Palm produced over 23% of all the…
BLS.gov. (2015, November 3). Miami Area Employment -- September 2015. Retrieved from Bureau of labor Statisitics: http://www.bls.gov/regions/southeast/news-release/areaemployment_miami.htm
BLS.gov. (2016). Southeast - Labor Force Statistics. Retrieved february 8, 2016, from U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics: http://www.bls.gov/regions/southeast/data/xg-tables/ro4xg02.htm
Marketinfo. (2013). LAUS 2013. Retrieved March 8, 2016, from Florida Department of Economic Opportunity: http://www.floridajobs.org/labor-market-information
Working Experience in the Labor Market
Labor standards cover aspects like minimum wage, overtime pay, maximum and minimum work hours, statutory holidays and parental leave. They represent an employee's minimum labor rights -- a base below which organizations aren't allowed to go. They are essentially a collection of labor laws, which enable employees to protect personal time, have a better job-family balance, and receive a decent wage under acceptable working conditions. These standards hold significance for unionized workers as well, since they imply that the collective bargaining approach can help secure improvements above as well as beyond the minimum standards for all workers (Fairey).
Ever since the seventies, the Canadian industrial unionism has been experiencing a mounting crisis. Contrary to the post-war years of economic boom, real wage rise in Canada has undergone stagnation, combined with a union density decline in the sectors of mining, transportation and manufacturing. On the…
Fairey, David. ERODING WORKER PROTECTIONS. Vancouver: CCPA, 2005.
Heron, Craign. The Canadian Labour Movement: A Short History. Toronto: James Lorimer & Company, 1996.
Kealey, Gregory. "THE HONEST WORKINGMAN AND WORKERS9 CONTROL: The Experience of Toronto Skilled Workers, 1860-1892." 1975.
Right, Tessa and Anna Pollert. "The experiences of ethnic minority and migrant workers in hotels and restaurants: strategies and necessities." Working Lives Research Institute (2006).
Labor Negotiating Practices
The issue of labor negotiating practices is one of the most important issues that companies must address. This is because the sensitiveness of labor problems is reflected in their legal implications. The battle between employers and employees becomes more and more difficult and requires advanced negotiation skills.
Company's Stance towards Labor Issues
The company that is analyzed in this case is represented by the companies that joined their forces in order to purchase Twinkies and other important brands from Hostess in their attempt to invest in their revival. These companies are represented by Metropoulos and Co. And Apollo Global Management. The potential of these brands has been acknowledged by the two companies that are interested in opening up new production plants. This means that they will hire a large number of employees. However, the issue in this case is that these companies are not interested in allowing…
1. Feintzeig, R. (2013). New Twinkie Maker Shuns Union Labor. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved May 20, 2013 from http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424127887324474004578443062380660262.html .
2. Farrell, J. (2013). Twinkies and Labor Unions: Explaining the Hostess Collapse. Retrieved May 21, 2013 from http://www.policymic.com/articles/19288/twinkies-and-labor-unions-explaining-the-hostess-collapse.
The more effective such systems of transport, the easier it is for labor to either to commute to work a fair distance from their home. Cities provide concentrated sources of labor that may not need to commute far distances. Also, the willingness of laborers to leave their home communities and relocate is an important cultural factor to remember, as well as the cost of transportation. Finally, in some areas, gas for cats is quite expensive, while public transportation is fairly cheap, which will affect labor patterns of migration and may be different than one might expect from one's experience in America.
Local attitudes to international companies, towards a diverse workforce, and to employing refugees may vary from country to country.
The diversity of the labor force, whether it is primarily skilled or unskilled, diverse or homogeneous in its ethnic, age, or skill composition will affect what types…
Reference for Business. Business Encyclopedia. Published by Thomson, Inc. Available 21 Nov 2006 at http://www.referenceforbusiness.com/management/Gr-Int/International-Management.html
Goodyear which effectively denied employees the right to sue for wage discrimination after the passing of 180 days that "Justice Ruth ader Ginsberg was so incensed she read her scathing dissent aloud from the bench. She defended Lilly Ledbetter's right to sue her employer, Goodyear Tire & Rubber Co., Inc. For pay discrimination on the basis of sex, giving a not-so-gentle reminder of the realities of the American workplace." (Steiger, 2007) Specifically written by Justice Ginsburg is that as follows:
worker knows immediately if she is denied a promotion or transfer, if she is fired or refused employment. And promotions, transfers, hirings, and firings are generally public events, known to co-workers. When an employer makes a decision of such open and definitive character, an employee can immediately seek out an explanation and evaluate it for pretext. Compensation disparities, in contrast, are often hidden from sight." (Steiger, 2007)
Steiger reports that…
Abrams, Jim (2009) House Approves Bill to Fight Wage Discrimination. Yahoo News. 9 Jan 2009. Online available at http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20090109/ap_on_go_co/pay_equity
Barko, N. (2000. June 19). The Other Gender Gap. (Online) Available http://www.prospect.org/archives/V11-15/barko-n.html .
Bland, T.S. (1999, July). Equal Pay Enforcement Heats Up. HR Magazine, p. 138-145.
Bland, T.S., Nail, T.N., Knox, D.P. (2000, May). OFCCP, White House push comparable worth. HR News, p. 22-24.
The Department of Labor is present today to promote, foster and develop the welfare of the employees or the labor force in the United States. The labor system focuses on the improvement of the working conditions and the fulfillment of opportunities for more profitable employment. As it would be known, rules and regulations are there to keep things in order. Similarly, the Labor system in the country is guided by laws that guarantee the rights and privileges of the labor force of the country.
The Department of Labor has made laws concerning working conditions, minimum hourly wage, and freedom from employment discrimination, worker's compensation and unemployment insurance. The labor system also aids in job training programs and it helps workers find jobs. Everyone needs a decent source of income and if a person has some sort of skill or talent, they should definitely make use of it.
Baron, J.N., Jennings, P.D. & Dobbin, F.R. (1988). Mission control? The development of personnel systems in us industry. American Sociological Review, pp. 497 -- 514.
Bronfenbrenner, K. (1996). Role of union strategies in nlrb certification elections, the. Indus. & Lab. Rel. Rev., 50 p. 195.
Democratizing the Global Economy: Empowering Workers, Building Democracy, Achieving Shared Prosperity. (2005). [e-book] Available through: AFL-CIO http://www.aflcio.org/content/download/6904/74567/file/res_6.pdf [Accessed: 21 Feb 2014].
Lindsey, A. (1964). The pullman strike. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press.
he intersection determines the amount of investment in education / productivity factors by all individuals and institutions.
he major criticisms to the Neoclassical model come from the assumption competition holds, namely that individuals act to maximize profit in all scenarios; factor mobility is unlimited; marginal returns to labor don't increase with wage rates, and other simplifications which rarely hold true in the workforce. Nor are all workers the same to the firm (discrimination), and workers' productivity and labor supply decisions change at different wage levels. hen we have to consider frictional unemployment; information asymmetry; product substitution; any number of real constraints that complicate the pure "Marginal Demand for Labor" theory (Kaufman & Hotchkiss, 2000, p. 31).
he main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory…
The main counter to the Neoclassicals arose in the early-mid-20th century Institutional school after Veblen, Commons and Mitchell, ironically at the University of Wisconsin 1920-30. Institutionalist focus on real evidence counters the Neoclassical theory where institution effects went ignored (New School n.d.). The more sociological approach recognizes 'market failures' of discrimination, collective bargaining and incorporation. Evidence surrounds us today in the form of monopolistic energy provision, embedded in every price on every shelf including wages, for example. One criticism on an Institutional line would be the persistence of poverty. If poverty is unwanted, either we allow poverty to persist, it is necessary for Neoclassical models to hold, or the model is flawed. The Institutional thread leads eventually via the London School to the modern "Post-Keynesian," "Behavioral," "Environmental," and other heterodox schools.
Comparing share of population to share of workforce for groups with a particular characteristic reveals discrimination if a group is underrepresented in a firm or industry. or, we identify where a category is overrepresented in the total labor market relative to other workers. If productivity is the same between groups, lower wages must be explained somehow. The heterodox perspective recognizes potential effects within the market, and before workers apply for a job. Some workers are less competitive than others before they apply, education being a common reason, which depends on access outside the workplace. Market discrimination enters the realm of individual aversion to classes of workers by the employer or other workers, usually over ethnicity, religion or gender, but any reason can provide empirical evidence if wage differentials persist.
Prejudice is real, and it results in lower wages for minorities (Kaufman & Hotchkiss 2000, p. 469). In the aggregate, equally
Labor and Monopoly Capital
HAY BAVEMAN's book Labor and Monopoly Capital carries the tradition of Marxist schools. The author focuses on the labor process under the Fordism, arguing that how the work, under the discipline of scientific management, becomes disjointed, dull, and repetitive. According to him, the work is degraded. Like Marx, Braverman is a deterministic and looks into the question of how technological change in Fordism affected the attributes of work and the discrimination of working class.
The labor process under capitalism is one of the central themes of Braverman. Its main emphasis lies in providing a voice to the working-class movement. Taking his insights from Marx, Braverman is considered the latest follower that has accurately appreciated the profundity of Marx's work. Supporting his work from Marx himself, and drawing on his own experience as a trained craftsman, a socialist militant and journalist, and a manager of two publishing…
Harry Braverman, "Automation: Promise and Menace," The American Socialist, October, 1955, pp. 7-12.
Harry Braverman, "The World of Work," The American Socialist, June 1959, pp. 12-18.
It is likely that there would be no direct effect on marketing caused by a change from batch to line processing. However, depending on what was happening outside the company, there could be an effect. If, as is arguably the case, line processing is more costly than batch processing, it might be necessary to market the product without discounts and so on. This could be problematical if there was a demand for lower costs from major clients (Cohen, 1994, p. 24+). On the other hand, it is probable that a perceptive marketing function could use the new 'flexibility' and customize-ability as a marketing tool. The concern for marketing might involve the potential delay in shipping and/or smaller lots of product available.
A change from batch to line processing is likely to have several effects on finance, arguably most of them adding costs and potentially diminishing the…
A batch processing approach to packaging. (2005, Sept.) Packaging World, p. 82
Albright, T.L. (1998) The effect of deviations from optimal production schedules on batch-level cost drivers, Journal of Management Issues, 10(3), p. 267+. Retrieved October 11, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Cohen, H.B. (1994) The Forgotten element of quality programs. SAM Advanced Management Journal, 599(3), p. 24+. Retrieved October 11, 2005 from www.questia.com.
Hirst, P. And Zeitlin, J. (1992) Flexible specialization vs. post Fordism, in A. Scott and M. Storper (eds.) Pathways to Industrialization, London: Routledge.
emaining workers will get jobs at higher than equilibrium wage, the Supply curve shifts to the left, and wage and output stabilize until something else changes like input cost or legislation.
Were firms able to hire workers at less than minimum wage, say like in Figure 4, where the cost of paying illegals including the enforcement cost results in lower demand for legal minimum wage workers, the result would be a total average cost between the two supply lines, increased outcome for the firm, at less than average minimum wage cost. The new Alabama law seems to attempt to drive off the black line "illegals" by mandating stiffer enforcement for services and privileges like business or auto licenses, awls (2011) explains. This creates an interesting distribution of costs if firms derive profit, but the cost of enforcement is being pushed onto others not employing illegals. If the black line in…
Rawls, P. (2011). Ala. GOP leaders have 2nd thoughts on immigration. The Associated Press, 8
Dec. 2011. Financial News, Bloomberg Businessweek Retrieved from http://www.businessweek.com/ap/financialnews/D9RGJL8G1.htm
Other employment prospects in fields such as petty trading, retailing, transportation and domestic service also developed simultaneously in urban areas. In the nineteenth century, when the industrial working class became much larger and more important in the social structure they begin to assert themselves socially, politically and economically, evolving into the social order we see today.
Growth of Cities
According to Jeffery G. Williamson (1990) Britain grew at an unusually rapid growth rate during the first part of the nineteenth century. Census data of the period indicates that some nineteenth-century cities grew at rates "that would bring cold sweat to the brow of twentieth-century housing committees" (p.2). Glasgow grew at 3.2% annum in 1830's, Manchester and Salford at 3.9% in the 1820's; Bradford at 5.9% in the 1830s, and Dukinfield nearly tripled in size the 1820's. These were the fast-growing cities and towns in the industrializing north.
The British population…
Comanor, W.S. (2005). Life during the Industrial Revolution. World book. irthebest.com. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.irthebest.com/industry_Industrial_life.html
Emsley, C., Hitchcock, T., & Shoemaker, R. (2011, March). Communities -- Irish London. Old Bailey proceediongs online. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.oldbaileyonline.org/static/Irish.jsp
"Industrial revolution: The industrial revolution in Great Britain." (2006) The Columbia electronic encyclopedia. Pearson Education Publishing as Infoplease. Retrieved November 16, 2011, from http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0858818.html
Kreis, S. (2001). The origins of the industrial revolution in England. The history guide. Retrieved November 19, 2011, from http://www.historyguide.org/intellect/lecture17a.html
Labor is a commodity that needs to be purchased for business activity. In the uncivilized world of the past labor could be exploited to the extreme, but in modern times trade union movement, increased public consciousness, health, safety and environmental regulations and labor regulations have meant that the near slavery condition of the past are totally unacceptable.
Nevertheless, labor remains a commodity requiring efficient, humane and cost effective management to increase profitability and balance human rights and investors' interests. This effort has resulted in labor economics developing as a branch of microeconomics. This paper reviews labor economics and its importance in the modern day economic and business activities.
Important Components of Labor Economics
Labor Supply and Demand
Quality of Labor (Investments in Human Capital)
Non-Wage Labor Costs
Pay & Productivity
8. Economics of Discrimination
9. Social Accountability
10. Trade Unions…
1. What is Labor Economics-Economics 150 Course Outline, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~dackerma/labsyllabus.pdf#search= 'What%20is%20Labor%20EconomicsEconomics%20150%20Course%20Outline'
2. Engels, F., Introduction to Karl Marx's Wage Labor and Capitol, Retrieved from Internet on 12 October 2005, http://www.marxists.org/archive/marx/works/1847/wage-labour/Ch04.htm
3. Labor Economics, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://www.oswego.edu/~economic/eco350/chap2.htm
4. From Encyclopedia Wikipedia, Retrieved from Internet on 12 Oct 2005, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Labor_%28economics%29
One example is when Teamsters president Ron Carey, during the UPS strike, was scheduled to stand for reelection against James P. Hoffa (Baird pp). Shortly before the UPS strike, questions were being raised by government officials regarding alleged illicit campaign donations to Carey's campaign in exchange for Teamster donations in the congressional and presidential elections of 1996 (Baird pp). Many believe that the strike diverted attention from Carey's legal problems and helped to solidify the political support and create the illusion that he was securing significant gains for the rank-and-file (Baird pp). Union officials routinely claim that the strike-threat system makes unionized workers much better off than nonunion workers, however the data from EPF disputes such claims (Baird pp).
Yet labor strikes have played an important role in the economic, political and social life throughout its history (Labor pp). From strikes by shoemakers, printers, bakers, and other artisans in the…
Baird, Charles W. "Who Wins in Strikes?
Thousands of Hotel Workers Poised to Strike for Health Care. http://www.aflcio.org/aboutunions/ns09172004.cfm
In 2007, it established that about two thirds of Canadians concur that immigration has a very affirmative or rather affirmative influence on Canada. Immigrants' view their choice to come to Canada as affirmative as well. While those coming into the country in 2000 were not pleased about their financial outcomes, the majority of the two thirds who stayed had a fairly affirmative feeling about their choice to come to Canada and to have stayed there (Picot, 2008).
On the whole, immigration for the country of Canada is a good thing. It helps to aid the economy in a very positive way. This can be seen in Canada's decision to increase their immigration efforts during the current recession as opposed to what a lot of other countries have done, which has been to decrease the effort. It has been shown that even those immigrants are often faced with adverse financial circumstances…
Canada welcomes largest number of immigrants in 50 years. (2008). Retrieved February 23,
2011, from Web site: http://www.workpermit.com/news/2011-02-22/canada/canada-welcomes-largest-number-of-immigrants-in-50-years.htm
From Generation to Generation: Utilizing the Human Capital of Newcomer Parents to Benefit
Families. (n.d.). Retrieved February 23, 2011, from Web site:
While cases such as that of Kukdong graphically illustrate the importance of CS and codes of conduct, anti-sweatshop activists continue to display considerable hesitation and equivocation as they wrestle with implementing CS in China. In the words of the late activist Trim Bissell of the Campaign for Labor ights, China has become a "planetary black hole" attracting global production with its cheap labor, but "the anti-sweatshop movement has been without a China strategy."9For example, in January 2000, the University of California (UC) announced that it would not allow any university-licensed products to be produced in countries that do no tallow freedom of association and collective bargaining, in effect banning products made in China (China and the American Anti-Sweatshop Movement (http://22.214.171.124/search?q=cache:MfmUl9ll5pwJ:laborcenter.berkeley.edu/globaleconomy/china_american.pdf+china+sweatshops+unions&hl=en&gl=us&ct=clnk&cd=9&ie=UTF-8)."
Efforts are underway to accomplish several things when it comes to China's sweatshops. The first thing that the union and labor leaders are demanding is that the world pay closer…
Frequently Asked Questions About Sweatshops and Women Workers
http://www.feminist.org/other/sweatshops/sweatfaq.html (Accessed 5-25-06)
US union to tour China factories (Accessed 5-25-06)
Pharmaceutical industries have to operate in an environment that is highly competitive and subject to a wide variety of internal and external constraints. In recent times, there has been an increasing trend to reduce the cost of operation while competing with other companies that manufacture products that treat similar afflictions and ailments. The complexities in drug research and development and regulations have created an industry that is subject to intense pressure to perform. The amount of capital investment investments required to get a drug from conception, through clinical trials and into the market is enormous. The already high-strung pharmaceutical industry is increasingly investing greater amounts of resources in search of the next "blockbuster" drug that can help them gain market position and profits. Laws, regulations and patents are important to the industry while spending billions of dollars in ensuring the copyright of their products.
It is the intention of this…
Ansoff, H.I. (1957). Strategies for diversification. Harvard Business Review, 35(5), 113-124.
Ansoff, H.I. (1965). Corporate Strategy. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Ashour, M.F., Obeidat, O., Barakat, H., & Tamimi, A. (2004). UAE Begins Examination of Patent Applications. Tamino.com. Retrieved January 18, 2004, from the World Wide Web: http://www.tamimi.com/lawupdate/2001-01/intprop.htm
Bain, J.S. (1954). Economies of scale, concentration, and the condition of entry in twenty manufacturing industries. American Economic Review, 44, 15-36.
An important contribution to the market ideology is that the authors recognized the existence of a relationship between employment and the market. This relationship was based on that the employment, the division of labor and the "human material progress had proceed in parallel with the growth of the market." Otherwise put, there existed a direct relationship between the market and the employment, with the market being the feature which set the tone. An increase of the market would generate an increase in employment and vice versa. However, an increase or decrease in employment would not affect the market as the relationship between the two is unilateral.
Engels, Moore and Jones believed that the future successful implementation of the communist policies would see no major use of the market; "in the society of the future, there would be no mediation through the market. Wealth would satisfy needs directly. It would be…
Callinicos, a., 2004, the Revolutionary Ideas of Karl Marx, 3rd Edition, Bookmarks Publication Ltd.
Engels, F., Marx, K., 2006, Socialism: Utopian and Scientific, Mondial
Groenwegen, P.D., 2003, Classics and Moderns in Economics: Essays on Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Economic Thought, Routledge
Marx, K., 2005, the Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, Mondial
American Labor Market
Darrick Hamilton's assessment of discrimination and how discrimination is measured in the U.S. labor market reveals a number of variables that play a part in determining the nature and extent of inequality in the U.S. hat the study does show is that class dichotomies are apparent and that economic disparity essentially ensures that the two classes remain divided by socio-economic barriers, which prevent the lower class from ever rising beyond the class ceiling that keeps them within their socio-economic status.
Class is an obvious issue in America: classism interacts with racism in various ways but the exact manner of the interaction -- or how it is interpreted -- depends on some degree to the manner in which the interaction is measured. As Hamilton notes, "An individual may experience discrimination and not interpret it as such, or an individual may not experience discrimination but perceive that they were…
Hamilton, Darrick. "Issues Concerning Discrimination and Measurements of Discrimination in U.S. Labor Markets." Perspectives, 98-111. Web.
Market Model Patterns of Change
Market Model Pattern of Change
The market model industry I research on is the rental movie industry, which the Blockbuster video was the dominant product. This industry has undergone through gigantic market change over many years. Hollywood video is the national competitor; however, they often compete with the local and regional movie rental industries. The use of the new technology has significantly led to the competition among different companies. The market model pattern of change shows that the industry has competitors or not, also, the costs in the company.
Explain the industry and outline the overall wave of change of the specific market structure
The Blockbuster video once dominated the movie rental industry; this has changed enormously due to the competition in the entertainment market. The evolution of the new technology has led to multiple competitions and has changed the consumers' purchase of the rental…
Blockbuster LLC, 47). Company Overview. Blockbuster Corporate.
Michael, R.J. (2011). Transaction and Strategies; Economics for Management. Mason, USA
The Motion Picture Association of America. (2011). Mpaa statement on strong showing of support for stop online piracy act. The Motion Picture Association of America. Washington, D.C.
Ford, A.(2009). Modeling the Environment, Second Edition.New York: Island Press
arket Analysis of House of Fraser
House of Fraser was founded in 1891 by James Arthur in Glasgow. Originally a drapery shop, the store quickly expanded and by the end of 1891, the entire Fraser family was investing in the company. At this point, the store was renamed to Frasers & Sons. Over time, the store expanded from selling draperies to selling clothing, shoes and other department store apparel.
The company has continued to grow through the purchase of smaller companies. In 2005, House of Fraser aquaired Jenner's department store and in 2006 it took over Baugur. In 2008, the company had three new openings in London, Belfast and Bristol. The company continues to grow and is a ripe competitor.
House of Fraser is ranked high in the market overall with its six major competitors being arks & Spencer, John Lewis, Harrods, Debenhams, Selfridges and Fenwick. John Lewis is by…
Mintel (2011), Department Stores Retailing-UK-March 2011, http://academic.mintel.com/sinatra/oxygen_academic//display/&id=545274
Office for National Statistics (2012), Consumer Prices Indices- RPI Annual Percentage Changes 1948 to 2011, http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/datasets-and-tables/data-selector.html?cdid=CDKQ&dataset=mm23&table-id=2.2
Wikipedia (2012), House of Fraser, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/House_of_Fraser
America is a competitive place and many of the economic and social systems in place reflect this quality. Economically, capitalism and all of its market specific rules apply to the many working people in this nation as well. The purpose of this essay is to describe how labor unions are affecting these economic processes and how they can contribute to the greater conversation revolving around the economy and employment issues. This essay will describe a union election from the standpoint of a campaign manager of union candidate to express my personal feelings and strengths towards this analysis. The second part of this essay will address the GMFC case study and explain my actions with a philosophy on employee relations.
Corporations appear to have much of the political power in the country today as far as labor realations are concerned. Labor unions are dwindling in power every year as…
Griswold, D. (2010). Unions, Protectionism and U.S. Competitiveness. Cato Journal, 30 (1), Winter 2010. Retrieved from http://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato - journal/2010/1/cj30n1-10.pdf
US Department of Labor. Unions and Union Members. Viewed 2 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/compliance/topics/unions-elections.htm
US Department of Labor. Conducting Local Union Officer Elections. Viewed 2 Aug 2013. Retrieved from http://www.dol.gov/olms/regs/compliance/localelec/localelec.htm
Labor, GDP and Firm
Labor is an important factor of production for all firms. The most recent unemployment rate is estimated at 9% (January 2011). Economists have identified three types of unemployment. Which type would affect your firm? Explain.
The three types of unemployment include: structural, changes in technology and shifts in tastes. Structural is when there is a lack of demand for workers with particular skill sets. Changes in technology, takes place when innovations and scientific breakthroughs are leading to a shift in the way businesses are operating. This is the point when there is a decrease in the total number of employees working for a particular firm. Shifts in taste are occurring when consumers want to purchase a particular product or service based on the underlying amounts of popularity. During times when there is a change in tastes, is the point that sales will decrease and those employees…
US Consumer Confidence Plunges to Recessionary Levels. Telegraph. Retrieved from: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/finance/economics/8848977/U.S.-consumer-confidence-plunges-to-recession-levels.html
US Unemployment Rate Forecast. (2011). Forecasts. org. Retrieved from: http://www.forecasts.org/unemploy.htm
Moffat, M. (2011). What are the Three Types of Unemployment. About. Retrieved from: http://economics.about.com/od/typesofunemployment/p/three_types_of_unemployment.htm
For this type of customers, Diesel should create a special line of clothing items, different from the one for the primary target customers. For the primary target customers the central piece is the jeans. For the secondary target customers Diesel designers should combine jeans with other clothing items that are best suitable for 25-35 aged customers, that have good jobs and that are present in high social circles. For the secondary target customers the price should be significantly higher than the price for the primary target customers. The secondary target customers are trying to buy a certain status together with the clothing items they buy, so the higher the price of the clothes, the higher the status they are achieving. Other than this, the price should reflect the work invested in creating these clothing items, which require extra care for the secondary target customers.
As mentioned above, the communication strategy…
Nordas, H.K. (2004). The Global Textile and Clothing Industry post the Agreement on Textiles and Clothing. World Trade Organization. Retrieved July 8, 2007 at http://www.wto.org/english/res_e/booksp_e/discussion_papers5_e.pdf .
Diesel History (2007). Diesel Clothing. Retrieved July 8, 2007 at http://www.diesel.com/#/dieselinfoandpress/ .
Profile of General Demographic Characteristics: 2000. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 8, 2007 at http://www.census.gov/main/www/cen2000.html .
Consumer Buying Behavior Notes. Retrieved July 8, 2007 at http://www.udel.edu/alex/chapt6.html#personal .
The open and free market economies proved successful from a management perspective, and government supported the primacy of the profit motive.
The consequences of these fluctuations has been a system that favors management in the United States. Labor unions have been systematically ridiculed socially, lumped together with communism and therefore derided by the American public. Similarly, labor unions have lost their political clout to a certain degree, and management has secured political power over laborers. Wages have remained deplorably low, so low that income disparity in the United States resembles that of Third World nations. Income disparity in the United States is the steepest of any other industrialized nation. Countries with strong labor laws such as the nations of northern Europe tend to be more egalitarian societies with fewer class distinctions and less of a wealth gap. The American model allows unbridled business growth at the expense of social justice.…
Freeman, R. (1996). Solving the new inequality. Boston Review. Retrieved April 13, 2007 at http://bostonreview.net/BR21.6/freeman.html
The question is should a worker have the ability to stop work as part of their collective bargaining rights at the expense of the public good. And, how much is the public good actually represented by the interests of the organization the company is striking against vs. its own selfish interests?
Ultimatately wokers should have the right to choose when they will work and under what conditions. The Taft-Harley Act is aply labeled the "slave-labor" bill. As economist Murray Rothbard explains,
There is no moral excuse, in a socity claiming to be opposed to slavery and in a country which has outlawed involuntary servicture, for any legal or judicial action probibiting strings-or jailing union leaders who fail to comply. Slavery is all too often more convenient for the slavemasters."
Further, if the public good is truly at stake, public pressure will help ensure that a strike is quickly resolved by…
Foner, Eric. Give Me Liberty!: An American History. New York: W.W. Norton, 2004.
Gordon, Jerry. "The Taft-Hartley Act: Why the American Labor Movement Called it a "Slave Labor Bill. http://www.owcinfo.org/campaign/ILWU/Slave%20Labor%20Act.htm
Harry S. Truman." The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=12675
Taft-Hartley Act. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taft-Hartley_Act "Taft-Hartley Labor Act http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/bus/A0847620.html
3. How the quality of service changed and why?
The quality of service increased significantly as all practices areas of the hospital better aligned to the cultural norms, values and needs of each ethnic population represented by the segments served. The quality also increased because the staff also began to better understand the unique needs of the patients being served, with more emphasis on interpersonal communication than had been the case in the past. This personalization aspect of leadership works both ways; the hospital staff had a much better appreciation and understanding of the unique needs of the population they were serving, and the potential patients and customers developed familiarity and trust with the providers. The next step for the hospital is to create a means to continually evaluate the level of satisfaction they are delivering to patients. The hospital could use the SEVQUAL metrics to evaluate the level of…
Barrett, H., Balloun, J., & Weinstein, a.. (2009). How variation in management perceptions affects organizational performance. Quality and Quantity, 43(3), 451-461.
Paul Hughes-Cromwick, Sarah Root, & Charles Roehrig. (2007). Consumer-Driven Healthcare: Information, Incentives, Enrollment, and Implications for National Health Expenditures. Business Economics, 42(2), 43-57.
Ravichandran, K., S. Prabhakaran, and S. Kumar. 2010. Application of Servqual Model on Measuring Service Quality: A Bayesian Approach. Enterprise Risk Management 2, no. 1, (January 1): 145-169.
Wrenn, B.. (2006). Marketing Orientation in Hospitals: Findings from a Multi-Phased Research Study. Health Marketing Quarterly, 24(1/2), 15.
Highs and Lows
A New Innovation in Car Manufacturing Industry
In 1982, General Motors (GM) decided to counter the challenge of the Japanese car manufacturers who were continuously enjoying the lion's share in the U.S. market. The consumers had started loving and appreciating the small but high-class Japanese cars. Seeing this, General Motors aimed to change their strategies.
The story began when the General Motors produced The Chevrolet Vega as an answer to Japanese challenge in 1970. A number of problems were identified with this model. Later in 1975, they produced another small car, the Chevette which too had discouraging results. They then produced the Chevrolet Spectrum with Japanese assistance. This model was not up to the mark as well. These disappointing outcomes made people think that the General Motors do not have the capability to manufacture small and…
, . "Saturn Corporation." Funding Universe. ., Web. 20 April 2011. .
, . "Saturn History." We love Saturns. . G-Biz Unlimited, Web. 20 April 2011. .
French, Thomas D. . Partington, Michael. Court, David. Moguire, Tim I.. "Marketing in 3-D." The McKinsey Quarterly . . (1999): 6. Web. 20 April 2011. .
Guzda, Henry p.. "Lessons in Co-management." Monthly Labor Review . 125. 8 (2002): 33+. Web. 20 April 2011. .
Another concern is represented by the fact that the massive imports from China materialize in cheaper consumer products, which render the domestically produced items less competitive. Other issues include currency fluctuations which impact the fiscal stability of the countries, as well as security concerns, as the Chinese gain more access to American resources (Singh, 2012).
The economy of the United States is shaped by a wide array of elements, such as political measures, the economic recession, the access to credits, the socio-demographic changes and so on. One important piece in the economic puzzle is represented by the state of international trade operations completed by the country. In this sense, the current project has assessed the issues of international trade as they relate to the impacts on employment, unemployment, incomes and equality, as well as the national concerns regarding the country's trade partners (Japan, Mexico and China).
Aradhyula, a., Rahman, T., Seenivasan, K., (2007). Impact of international trade on income and income inequality. http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/9999/1/sp07ar03.pdf accessed on January 17, 2013
Feenstra, R.C. (2000). The impact of international trade on wages. University of Chicago Press.
Mcteer, B. (2008). The impact of foreign trade on the economy. http://economix.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/12/10/the-impact-of-foreign-trade-on-the-economy / accessed on January 17, 2013
Singh, P.P. (2012). U.S.-China relations: trade flashpoints. BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/business-20177210 accessed on January 18, 2013
This implies that an increase in the wage of one member of the household gives rise not only to changed incentives for work on the market, but also to a shift from more to less time-intensive product on and consumption of goods produced by the household. But as noted by the Nobel-prize winning 20th century University of Chicago economist Gary Becker, as real wages increase, along with the possibilities of substituting capital for labor in housework, labor is released in the household, so that it becomes more and more uneconomical to let one member of the household specialize wholly in household production (for instance, child care). As a result, some of the family's previous social and economic functions are shifted to other institutions such as firms, schools and other public agencies. This creates more jobs, but also means that more luxury jobs may become necessities, such as maids. (Gary Becker,…
Gary S. Becker. (2004) Nobel Prize. Official Website. Retrieved 8 Feb 2005 at http://home.uchicago.edu/~gbecker/Nobel/nobel.html
But after a military threat from the side of Northern opponents in Canada (French colonies) English colonists had to revise their attitude towards Indians turning some Indian tribes into allies by presenting them gifts and developing trade relations. Ultimately colonists came to the conclusion that they needed temporary cooperation with Indians in order to strengthen their positions in North America: "many Indians became dependent on the manufactured goods the fur trade brought them, and hunted to meet the demands of European markets rather than the needs of their families." (from Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the emaking of Early America, p.15)According to Colin Calloway Indian peoples quickly became involved into the system of colonial trade and ultimately they became an integral part of Atlantic colonial economy which worked only for colonists. European colonists wanted to change Indian culture and system of values which were considered to…
Morris, R. The Emergence of American Labor available on web resource: http://www.dol.gov/asp/programs/history/chapter1.htm
Convict Servants in the American Colonies, Artilce available on web resource: http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=3614090&place=home03
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998), 15.
Calloway, C. New Worlds for All: Indians, Europeans, and the Remaking of Early America (Johns Hopkins University Press,1998), 69.
Similarly, the average total costs curve also increases, implying additional costs.
A main theoretical specification that must be made here refers to the long-term relationship between the MC and the average cost curves. This basically states the following:
- if the average cost in decreasing in the quantity produced, or the output, the marginal cost is lower than the average costs
- if the average cost increasing in terms of produced quantities, the marginal cost is larger than the average costs
- if the average cost remains constant, the marginal cost equals the average cost; the situation is similar when the average cost is minimal
- in the case of scale economies, the average cost decreases as the produced quantity increases
- in the case of diseconomies of scale, the situation is reversed as the average cost increases with the increase of the output (Zhao, 2008)
2. Factors in Favour…
Mixon, J.W., Tohamy, S., Cost Curves and How They Relate, Berry College, Campbell School of Business, http://csob.berry.edu/faculty/economics/CostCurves/CostCurves.htm last accessed on September 29, 2008
Wilcox, J., 1999, Judge Calls Microsoft a Monopoly, CNET News, http://news.cnet.com/2100-1040-232565.html last accessed on September 29, 2008
Zhao, R., 2008, Intermediate Microeconomics, University at Albany, State University of New York, http://www.albany.edu/~rzhao/300/n8.html last accessed on September 29, 2008
Monopoly and Economic Efficiency, Tutor2u, http://tutor2u.net/economics/revision-notes/a2-micro-monopoly-economic-efficiency.html last accessed on September 29, 2008
To ensure that none of this was taking place, many state regulatory commissions would set prices and monitor the industry. Then, during the 1980's is when deregulation would occur, as many economists felt that they were stifling economic growth. As a result, the different laws were changed, allowing for electric producers to have greater freedoms in: setting prices and determining how it would be distributed. With a host of electric companies, beginning to own others producers in different states and they began to actively trade it. This is important, because it shows how the overall level of government regulation would be reduced. Yet, the various state regulatory commissions would still be able to maintain oversight and control inside their borders. As a result, there was a reduction in the overall amount of regulations, while allowing certain controls to remain in place. When you put these different elements together, this meant…
Aharoni, Yair, 1997, 'Government Intervention in Services,' Changing Roles of State Intervention, State University of New York Press, Albany, pp. 3- 24.
Griffin, James, 2005, 'Electricity a Natural Monopoly,' Electricity Deregulation, University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp. 2-5.
Klein, Jeffrey, 1996, 'Shall the Elite Inherit the Earth,' Mother Jones Magazine, pp. 3 -- 6.
Harvard Format. http://libguides.library.uwa.edu.au/data/files2/49275/Harvard%20LibGuide%20-%20All%20Examples%20PDF.pdf
The Great ailroad Strike of 1877 was the nations' first major rail strike and witnessed the first general strikes in the country's history. The strikes and the violence it brought about temporarily paralyzed the country's commerce and led governors in ten states to mobilize sixty thousand militia members to reopen rail traffic. The strike would be broken within a few weeks, but it also helped set the stage for later violence in the 1880's and 1890's, including the Haymarket Square bombing in Chicago in 1886, the Homestead Steel Strike near Pittsburgh in 1892, and the Pullman Strike in 1894 (1877: The Great ailroad Strike, 2006).
There have been many protests in American history against corporations, industrialists, bankers, Wall Street and the economic devastation their unregulated activities including the 19th-century labor movement that featured thousands of strikes and protests. The current protest that can be compared to that of the Great…
1877: The Great Railroad Strike. (2006). Retrieved from http://libcom.org/history/articles/us -rail-strikes-1877
Hogarty, R.A. (2001). Leon Abbett's New Jersey: the emergence of the modern governor.
Philadelphia, PA: American Philosophical Society.
Mullen, S. (2011). The Strikes of 1877 & 1886: Historic Precedents For Occupy Wall Street.
A collective bargaining dispute was recently settled between Major League Soccer (MLS) and its players, on the eve of the 2015 season. The league had just finished averting a dispute with its officials, who formed a union in 2012, when the dispute with the players arose (Parker, 2014). The MLS Player's Union (MLSPU) and MLS had just seen their prior five-year deal expire, and the union was seeking more flexibility for its members. The structure of Major League Soccer is that the league owns all of the contracts for the players. The teams are franchises, and negotiate deals with the players, but ultimately the league has final say over player movements. This restricts the rights of the players with respect to free agency. Soccer players in Europe, where several leagues act as competitors with MLS for playing talent, players enjoy full free agency when their contract ends. In…
Cohen, J. (2015). MLS' CBA negotiations: Federal mediation, salary cap and steps toward free agency. Law in Sport. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://www.lawinsport.com/articles/item/major-league-soccer-s-collective-bargaining-negotiations-federal-mediation-salary-cap-and-steps-toward-free-agency
Parker, G. (2014). MLS hopes of growth, grandeur could be slowed by contract negotiations. Al Jazeera. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://america.aljazeera.com/articles/2014/4/18/mls-union-contract.html
Brenner, S. (2015). Will MLS players go on strike? The CBA dispute explained. The Guardian. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://www.theguardian.com/football/2015/feb/16/will-mls-players-go-on-strike-the-cba-dispute-explained
Carlisle, J. (2015). The details of Major League Soccer's new collective bargaining agreement. ESPN FC. Retrieved April 5, 2015 from http://www.espnfc.us/major-league-soccer/19/blog/post/2332341/the-details-on-major-league-soccers-new-collective-bargaining-agreement
" (Rouillard, 1987) There was a desire to "humanize the economy" based on the value of work being "more important than capital since the individual had to take priority over the accumulation of goods." (Rouillard, 1987)
VIII. LIERAL HUMANISM & ECONOMIC PLANNING
In 1958 this liberal humanism of the CTCC "manifested itself in a new theme that appeared...economic planning." (Rouillard, 1987) Abuses of the system were corrected by the intervention of the state even though it was symbolic intervention only and it even "further directed the economy toward satisfying the real needs of individuals." (Rouillard, 1987) the CTCC gradually became nondenominational over the years and finally in 1960 the CTCC dropped 'Catholic' from its title and "all direct references to the Church's social doctrine." (Rouillard, 1987)
IX. ETHNICALLY SUMERGED SPLIT LAOUR MARKET
The work of Calliste entitled: "Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market" (1987) states…
Calliste, Agnes (1987) Sleeping Car Porters in Canada: An Ethnically Submerged Split Labour Market. Canadian Ethnic Studies. 1987 Canadian Ethnic Studies Association.
Gindin, Sam (1987) Globalization, Nationalism, and Internationalism (1987) the Modern Era (1960-1990).
Iacovetta, Franca (1987) From Contadina to Workers: Southern Italian Immigrant Working Women in Toronto, 1947-1962. The Modern Era. (1960-1990)
McDowell, Laurel Sefton (1987)the Formation of the Canadian Industrial Relations System During World War Two. Labour/Le Travail 1987 Memorial University of Newfoundland.
labor movement in the United States started due to the need for protecting the common interest of workers. For those in the industrial sector, the labor unions normally fought for various things including reasonable working hours, better wages and safer working conditions. The labor movement led efforts in stopping child labor, providing aid to workers that were injured or retired and even giving health benefits to them. The origins of this labor movement lay in the formative years of the American nation when there was the emergence of a free wage labor market in the artisan trades during the late colonial period. The earliest documented strike took place in 1768 when the New York journeymen tailors expressed their dissatisfaction with the wage reduction.in 1794 the Federal Society of Journeymen Cordwainers in Philadelphia was formed which marked the beginning of sustained trade union organization among the workers in America ( A&E…
A&E Television Networks, LLC.(2014).Labor Movement.Retrieved May 13,2014 from http://www.history.com/topics/labor
Teamsters for a democratic union.(2014).Building Solidarity Beyond Your Workplace or Local. .Retrieved May 13,2014 from http://www.tdu.org/resources/building-solidarity-beyond-your-workplace-or-local
Implications on a Call Centre
During the last two decades Contact or call centers have emerged as the answer to cost effectiveness for all sort of businesses that require back end customer services (Boreham et al., 2007). These call centers hailing from different countries are very similar with respect to markets, offered services, structure of the organization and type of workforce. This industry has flourished very quickly but usually these call centers are about ten to twelve years old hence still in infancy. Despite the similarities that exist across the globe in standards, processes and customers; are these call centers actually catering to the emotional side of this work.
Being a repetitive task with only a set of responses most of the time with no creativity and innovation in the services process added with long hours and no formal education on the subject, do these call centers affect…
Ashforth, B.E., & Humphery, R.H. (1993). Emotional Labor in Service Roles: The influence of Identity. The Academy of Management Review, 18(1), 88-115.
Blau, P. (1989) Exchange and Power in Social Life, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Chu, K.H. -L. (2002) The Effects on Emotional Labor on Employee Work Outcomes. Unpublished Dissertation, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia.
Hochschild, A.R. (1983) The Managed Heart: Commercialization of Human Feeling. Los Angeles, California, United States of America; University of California Press.
Role of Labor Unions in Industrial Relations
In their definition, labor unions have always been known as organizations that have always aimed at getting their members both financial and non-financial benefits. The role of labor unions is however bigger than that and they have been known to aid in helping employers improve the productivity and discipline of their workers. Labor unions respond to issues differently. This is explained by the differences in industrial relations contexts and also policies of different states as well as strategies of the various employers around the country.
Employees come together to form a labor union to achieve a common goal. Labor unions have several goals. Some of the goals include agitating for higher retirement benefits as well as other benefits for its members. They also seek to increase the number of workers assigned for specific job tasks. They ensure that employees work under good and…
Baglioni, G. And C. Crouch (eds.) (1990) European Industrial Relations. The Challenge of Flexibility (London: Sage).
Barrow, C. (2013). Industrial Relations Law. New York: Routledge.
Blanpain, R. (2007). Decentralizing Industrial Relations and the Role of Labor Unions and Employee Representatives. New York: Kluwer Law International.
Blanpain, R., & Baker, J. (2010).Comparative Labor Law and Industrial Relations in Industrialized Market Economies. New York: Kluwer Law International.
organizations customer markets fundamental business models • In a 3- 5-page paper, apply framework -market analysis (external labor markets, internal labor markets, capital markets, customer markets) conduct a compensation strategy analysis competitive landscape organizations • In addition, organization, highly influential, large population job organization apply question, "What economic difference organization performance job, poor, mediocre outstanding?" Post a multiple market analysis.
Competitive Landscape Analysis on Three Companies
Coca Cola Competitive Landscape Analysis
External Labor markets
Coca Cola is one of the most well-known companies on international level. The company is an established brand with high popularity. Coca Cola has built in time significant emotional attachment to this brand from customers, employees, and business partners. Therefore, it is expected that numerous individuals want to work for the company. Coca Cola has developed a recruitment and selection process oriented towards external sources of recruitment especially regarding entry level and mid level positions. This…
1. Russell, K. (2012). Internal Recruitment: Right or Wrong? HR Magazine. Retrieved May 6, 2013 from http://www.hrmagazine.co.uk/hro/news/1073667/internal-recruitment-wrong .
During that time he was director of labour market policies, coordinated technical work in eastern Europe following the collapse of the erlin wall and was director of the ILO's Socio-Economic Security Program. In 1998-99, he served as a member of the transition team of the new Director General Juan Somavia. It would be fair to say that he knows the ILO inside out. Now Professor of Economic Security at the University of ath in the UK, he is well placed to reflect on the organization's potential and failings. (Standing)
Focus of the ILO
The roots of the ILO's current problems began in the 1970s, according to Standing, with the rise of economic philosophies that tended to view any kind of regulation as a 'market distortion'. It was not long before the ILO was seen as a symbol of an antiquated way of thinking. The U.S.A. actually pulled out from 1977…
Alston, Philip 2. "Core Labour Standards' and the Transformation of the International Labour
Rights Regime." 2004. Oxford Journals. 29 January 2009 http://ejil.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/15/3/457 .
Alston, Philip. Facing up to the Complexities of the ILO's Core Labour Standards Agenda.
Working Paper. New York: New York University School of Law, 2005.
For instance, in Season 2, Hard Cases (Episode 4) explores the idea of individuals who are repeat offenders, and the difficulty for the police to even come close to managing crime. Just as one crime is potentially solved, three more pop up that may never be. The police must count on people from the neighborhood to assist them, but these same individuals are torn between helping the police and being part of the community. The idea of hopelessness is summed up when one of the characters, Nick, asks his father if he misses his work at the dock (the shipyards are closed, and the father now spends much of his time at a local bar, drinking to dull his pain). His father replies, "ouldn't matter if I did" (the ire 2005).
Also apparent is some real systems thinking with the ire that goes to the heart of inner city labor…
Franzese, Covey and Menard. Youth Gangs. Springfiled, IL: Charles C. Thomas, 2006.
"The Wire." HBO. June 2005. http://www.hbo.com/the-wire/episodes#/the-wire/episodes/index.html&isVideoPage=true&g=u&subcategories=none&order=date-desc&limit=none (accessed March 2012).
Traister, R. "The Best TV Show of All Time." Salon.com. September 15, 2007. http://www.salon.com/2007/09/15/best_show / (accessed March 2012).
How do the theories of Marable and eich argue that racism is helpful (eich) and even essential (Marable) to capitalism?
According to Manning Marable the society that we live in is divided according to social, ethnic, political and religious groups. This division is further dramatized due to the economic facets and needs of society. acism thus furthers the divide of economy and capitalists structures in a competitive society require racism to ensure high profits. [Marable, 2003] acism allows low wages to be paid and hence promotes growth for less capital.
According to Michael eich's Segmentation Theory or the Divide and ule, the ultimate goal for any firm in the society is to increase profits by any means whether exploiting a certain class, weakening the bargaining powe or promoting prejudice. As a result there is a difference in wages that creates a 'corporate ladder' which allows a disunity to grow and…
Gnseli Berik, Yana van der Meulen Rodgers and Joseph E. Zveglich International Trade and Gender Wage Discrimination: Evidence from East Asia Review of Development Economics, 2004, vol. 8, issue 2, pages 237-254
Marable, Manning How Capitalism Underdeveloped Black America Updated Edition Problems in Race, Political Economy, and Society Volume 4 in the South End Press Classics Series 2003
Reich, Michael Racial Inequality (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1981)
Status of the Labor Movement
While labor movements are not as conspicuous today as they were in previous years, they still assume an essential part in representing and protecting the American workforce. Sweatshop conditions that were eradicated at some point are back to the U.S. workplace. Poor workers from foreign countries have been continuous victims of sweatshops. As a result, unions, social activists, and labor groups have reacted by mobilizing campaigns on awareness and lobbying political leaders for action about employee contracts.
Labor movements are essential in the current labor market through the reporting and monitoring of exploitative working conditions. This is because they permit representatives to viably bargain for their wages and provide an emotionally supportive network for workers. Unions provide a check against employers who attempt to infringe the privileges of laborers. The destiny of the labor movement is premised on the destiny of American democracy. Lack of…
Dubofsky, M. (2009). The state & labor in modern America. Chapel Hill u.a: Univ. Of North Carolina Press.
Sloane, A.A. & Witney, F. (2010). Labor relations (13th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Wheeler, H.N. (2012). The future of the American labor movement. Cambridge [u.a.: Cambridge Univ. Press.
GOP Aacks on NLRB
Labor Movemen & Srucure of he NLRB
In his paper I explore he sae of he curren relaionship beween he Republican Pary and he Labor movemen in he Unied Saes. In par one I briefly race he hisory of he labor movemen in he Unied Saes and he passage of he Naional Labor Relaions Ac and he emergence of he Naional Labor Relaions Board. . In he paper's second secion, I discuss he GOP's sraegy a he sae level-wih special aenion paid o Wisconsin and Ohio. In par hree, I discuss he GOP's sraegy a he naional level wih respec o heir aacks on he Naional Labor Relaions Board, focusing specifically on he House's refusal o appoin and approve anymore Board Members and heir recen passage of he Proecing Jobs from Governmen Inerference Ac. Finally, I explore boh he fuure prospecs of union busing sraegies and…
to the Board's duties and mission. The site houses a copy of the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 and its subsequent amendments, in addition to an explanation of the duties of the NLRB, its dispute resolution process, directions regarding how to file a complaint, and the life cycle of labor law violations.
Zieger, R.H., & Hall, G.J. (2002). American workers, american unions: The twentieth century. (pp. 13-56). Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
Zieger and Hall catalogue the history of the American Labor Movement by beginning with a frank look at the state of unregulated industry in the first quarter of the twentieth century. They move on to catalogue the rise and fall of the American Labor Movement including the emergence of the strikes, the legal battles, the issue of race and labor, and finally the nature of labor in the United States at the beginning of the 21st Century. Zieger and Hall provide an extensive historical and legal overview of the rise of the unions.
In 1981, President onald eagan fired many striking air traffic controllers employed by Federal Aviation Administration. In the face of various challenges confronting labor unions, the union membership drastically, continue to decline. Since support from political party has declined, many workers believe that union's ability to protect their interests has drastically declined, and thus, many private workers belief that it is no longer necessary to be union members.
oberts, (1997) argue that labor unions have faced hard times and sustained membership loss. The hard times ranging from diminishing influence of bargaining to the intense of global competition and technological changes.
Added to the political influence that contributes to the decline of the union, there are other external dynamics affecting labor unions. Globalization has been identified as the one of the external dynamic that has impact on the unions' strategies.
External Dynamics affecting the Labor Unions
One of the external dynamics…
ASHHRA (2010). The Workplace Multigenerational Strategies & Solutions for healthcare employers. American Society for the Administration of Healthcare Human Resources (ASHHRA)
Devinatz V.G.(2011). U.S. Trade Unionism Under Globalization: The death of Voluntarism and the Turn to Politics. Labor Law Journal. 62 (1).
Estreicher, S. (2010). Trade Unionism Under Globalization: The Demise of Voluntarism. Saint Louis University Law Journal .54: 415-426.
Griswold, D. (2010). Unions, Protectionism, and U.S. Competitiveness. CATO Journal. 30 (1): 181-196.
Emotional labour is a common phenomenon, especially in service industries. Broadly speaking, emotional labour means that an individual at the workplace displays positive or organisationally-acceptable emotions regardless of their true emotional state (Hochschild, 1983). When interacting with customers, for instance, a customer service employee is required to treat customers with empathy, kindness, and calmness irrespective of how the employee is feeling or how the customer behaves or talks. Portraying negative emotions such as anger, frustration, and hostility would potentially injure the reputation of the organisation or negatively affect customer confidence in the organisation. Fundamentally, emotional labour means that while at work, the experience and articulation of feelings should be separated in the sense that one is expected to display the desired emotions, not the emotions they are actually experiencing (Ward and McMurray, 2016).
Does emotional labour mean that service organisations must consider employees with the ability to manage their emotions?…
Human esources: Fair Labor Standards Act
An Examination of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 and Its Implications for American Workers Today
Although most Americans take for granted the wide range of social programs that are in place for their protection, many of these initiatives are fairly recent in origin, but one that has been around for quite some time is the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. The legislation established a minimum standard wage and a maximum work week of 40 hours in industries that were engaged in interstate commerce. The implications of the Act were profound, and today, in what has become a classic pattern over the years, calls for increases to the federal minimum wage are followed by impassioned cries from industry leaders that such an initiative will do more to harm business than it will to help minimum-wage workers. ather than routinely bankrupt America's businesses,…
An overview of the Fair Labor Standards Act. (2005). U.S. Office of Personnel Management.
Retrieved May 12, 2005 from http://www.opm.gov/flsa/overview.asp .
Black's law dictionary. (1990). St. Paul, MN: West Publishing Co.
Cocheo, S. (2004). Banks Must Labor to Comply with New Overtime Rules; Fair Labor
For the aboriginal population of British Columbia, industrialization and capitalism threatened and later undermined traditional ways of life. Trading was soon replaced by wage labour systems. Shifting from barter to a labour market unraveled the essential social institutions of traditional aboriginal society. Potlatches once served as a "bulwark which enabled the aboriginal people to resist acculturation," (p. 252). Lutz, unlike Kealey or DeLottinville, examines the effects of colonialism on industrialization. Colonial power structures legitimized the social hierarchies that form the backbone of capitalist infrastructure.
The ways capitalism transformed traditional aboriginal society from being barter-based to being wage labour-based closely resemble the ways capitalism transformed traditional European skilled labour culture. As Kealey points out, the European artisan model of labour persisted until the Industrial evolution. Skilled labourers like coopers and smiths once apprenticed their work, entering into careers that offered a high degree of control over the means of production and…
DeLottinville, P. "Joe Beef of Montreal: Working-Class Culture and the Tavern, 1869-1889." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 190-214.
Kealey, G.S. "The Honest Workingman and Workers' Control: The experience of Toronto Skilled Workers, 1860-1892." In Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 112-142.
Lutz, J. "After the Fur Trade: The Aboriginal Labouring Class of British Columbia 1849-1890" in Canadian Working Class History: Selected Readings, pp. 235-259.
Amico, Deborah.(2011).Providing Worker Education and Building the Labor Movement: The Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1)
In this paper, D'Amico discusses the provision of worker education as well as the building of the labor movement activities that takes place at Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York (CUNY).This educational facility is dedicated to the provision of worker education as well as the building of the city's labor market. The author indicates that the institute is active in the provision of workers access to education as well as advancement should they seeks it. The article also mentions that the institute is also involved in the coalescing of the labor-management education funds as well as academic departments with the widely accepted industry expertise in order to create the best programs that can adequately serve the union members.
D'Amico, Deborah.(2011).Providing Worker Education and Building the Labor Movement: The Joseph S. Murphy Institute of City University of New York. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1) p12-17
Martin, Larry C., Smith, Regina O (2011).Pre-Apprenticeship Urban Workforce Training Programs. Adult Learning; Winter2011, Vol. 22 (1), p23-27
Maslow, A.H. (1998). Maslow on management. New York: Wiley.
Thus, some suggest that the competition between the workers was crucial. More precisely "competition between high-wage white workers and low-wage Asian workers explains racial exclusion (...) labor competition was the central feature of ethnic division in the working class, and exclusion was the only viable strategy under these circumstances." (Creese, 1988, 294)
Despite this possible explanation there were other factors as well that determined the white workers to exclude Asians. However, there was a sense of lack of organization at the level of immigrant workers especially because they were considered to have no desire for such an organization. Even so, in some cases, there was also a fear of the extremist workers who were considered to be capable of radicalism (Creese, 1988, 294). Other opinions suggest that economic factors as well as ideological ones are also viable for offering an explanation. In this sense, there were irreconcilable differences in terms…
Creese, G. (1988) "Exclusion or solidarity? Vancouver Workers confront the 'Oriental Problem." BC Studies, University of British Columbia Press.
Heron, C. (1984) '"Laborism and the Canadian Working Class." Labor / Le Travail. Memorial University of Newfoundland.
Marks, L. (1991) "The Knights of Labor and the Salvation Army: religion and working-class culture in Ontario, 1882-1890." Labor / Le Travail, 28, 89-127.
Phelan, C. (2000) Grand Master Workman: Terence Powderly and the Knights of Labor. Westport: Greenwood Press.
However, when child labor is burnt the entire economy may be deflected towards another equilibrium that may not be inferior to the first equilibrium (Basu, 2003). The global labor standards should therefore not ban child labor whenever it is deemed to be happening but ensure that conditions for banning child labor are compatible with adherence to the Pareto principle.
It is a fact that certain contracts, unanimously accepted by both sides, can lead to Pareto improvement. Nevertheless, if the contracts were to be allowed and used by the masses, there would be significant changes in market parameters that would leave some people worse off. Global labor standards should use the large numbers principle to justify banning of certain kinds of contracts like unjust labor practices.
In as much as the international labor organizations would want to use the above named principles to check against unjust labor laws a lot of…
Basu, K. (2003). Global Labor Standards and Local Freedoms. Retrieved from www.wider.unu.edu/publications/.../en.../annual-lecture-2003.pdf
Neeman, Z. (1999). The Freedom to Contract and the Free-Rider Problem. Journal of Law, Economics and Organization 15(3): 685-703.
Wage and Benefit Determination
Individuals supply labor to the market at a price called the wage rate of labor. How much labor an individual supplies is related to his level of non-labor income, and cost benefits determination of time spent at leisure, vs. work.
A union can raise the wages of those who continue to be employed in a competitive labor market at the expense of the level of employment. So if the competitive equilibrium is at E0 and the wage is w0 employment is q0. If a union enters this market and sets a wage of W1, a new equilibrium will be established, e1. The supply curve has become w1xs0. At the new wage, W1, there will be q1q2 workers who would like to work but whom the industry will not hire. Employment will be q1. The decrease in employment due to wage increase is q1q2
Minimum wage is…