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Language and Language Practices Language Is the

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7740802

Language and Language Practices

Language is the written and verbal method by which people communicate with one another. It employs sounds or written designs that are understood by others to create words, phrases, and sentences. Other species have language, as well, but it is not believed to be as complex as the language used by human beings (loomfield, 1914; Deacon, 1998). There are many facets to language, and there are nuances and subtleties that are often overlooked. This is especially true with people who are just learning a language, whether they are children first learning to speak or second-language learners being exposed to a new and different language for the first time. People who study languages are involved in what is called linguistics. They may study a particular language, but more often than not they study multiple languages and the construction of those languages. What they do is very different…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bloomfield, Leonard. 1914. An introduction to the study of language. New York: Henry Holt and Company.

Deacon, Terrence William. 1998. The Symbolic Species: The Co-Evolution of Language and the Brain. New York W.W. Norton & Company.

Kandel, ER; Schwartz, JH; Jessell, TM. 2000. Principles of Neural Science (fourth ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Katzner, K. 1999. The Languages of the World. New York: Routledge.
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Language and Thinking Language Is the One

Words: 2480 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 35708581

Language and Thinking

Language is the one aspect, which distinguishes human beings from lower species of life (Faccone et al. 2000). Sternberg (1999 as qtd in Faccone et al.) lists its properties as including communication, arbitrary symbolism, regular structure, structure at multiple levels, generation and production and dynamism. Sternberg assumes that language is most likely acquired naturally from the environment where a person is raised as an infant. The stages seem universal. The first is the cooing stage at two to four months. At this initial stage, an infant seems able to produce and possible phonemes or basic speech sounds. An infant's need to distinguish between phonemes of different languages gradually disappears around 8 months. This is when he recognizes the relationship between sound and meaning in his native language. This is how language begins to have importance to him. The findings of Sternberg's study reveal that human beings are…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Faccone, Claudia et al. The Effct of Language on Thought. The Psychology 20 Course:

University of Carolina, 2000. Retrieved on November 29, 2013 from  http://www.unc.edu/~jdumas/projects/languagethought.htm 

Hampton, James. A. Language's Role in Enabling Abstract, Logical Thought.

Commentary/Peter Carruthers. Psychology Department: University of London, 2002.
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Language Is the Perfect Instrument

Words: 4854 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 34736050

Consider the fact that the Iroquois are said not to have had a strong word for the singular "I," and that they subsequently developed what was arguably the longest lasting communal representative democracy the world has ever known. The Inuit, whose culture revolves around the arctic world, have dozens of words for snow - this sort of technical knowledge allows quick and accurate transmission of conditions and training in survival.

In Western terms, one remembers that Jesus Christ was said to be "The Word," yet in the original Greek this indicates not only a spoken word but also the Logos - the root term for intellectual reason, for Meaning within context (be that the context of a sentence, a life, a history, or a universe); logos was rational order. The difference between saying that a religious figure is the Word (which at its most profound seem to indicate a kind…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Atkins, J.D.C. (1887). Report of the commissioner of Indian affairs. House Exec. Doc. No. 1, Pt. 5, 50th Cong., 1st Sess. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Boston Language Institute. "TEFL FAQ  http://teflcertificate.com/faq.html 

Ethnologue. "English  http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=eng 

Macha, Freddy. "Tanzanian Independence Day Abroad. http://www.unclesamofafrica.com/TanzaniaGuardian.htm
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Language Growth How Does Language

Words: 320 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60530679

These activities help children to learn the difference between contextualized and decontextualized language. "hen we write, read, and have conversations, we often use decontextualized language. This is language that is not tied to the immediate context. It may reflect past events, future events, or fictitious events. For example, decontextualized language is used in everyday dinnertime conversation, when adults tell stories of their childhood, or when children tell about their school day" (Cartwright, 1994).

By definition, reading print is decontextualized language, because children must use their developing mental abilities to represent ideas of things that are not present before their eyes. Thus positive and edifying spoken interactions with parents, teachers, and older children are essential for children to become good readers later in life.

orks Cited

Cartwright, Kelly. (1 Nov 1994). "Reading Development Beings at Birth."

Self-Help. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/literacy.html… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cartwright, Kelly. (1 Nov 1994). "Reading Development Beings at Birth."

Self-Help. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at http://www.self-helpmagazine.com/articles/parenting/literacy.html
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Language Diversity and Education

Words: 337 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 46023537

Language Diversity and Education by Carlos J. Ovando, the author makes the point that the language diversity present in the United States has significant implications for all teachers and all students. He emphasizes the importance of both a person's first language and the dominant language in a culture. He notes the complexity of learning a second language: in addition to the cognitive mastery of vocabulary and grammar involved, fluency in a language involves discourse (structure of paragraphs and larger chunks of written language); appropriateness (adjusting language to the social setting); paralinguistics (body language, gestures, volume, pitch, etc.); and pragmatics (cultural norms involving language, subtle conversation skills). Even though ESL students may seem to be learning English rapidly, those language skills may be largely social and inadequate t the cognitive demands made on it in a classroom.

Ovando gave examples of true dialects in the United States -- creoles, or combinations…… [Read More]

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Language and Literacy

Words: 3722 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 60384444

Language and Literacy

Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.

hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.

Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…… [Read More]

Works Cited

AboutTheAuthor

THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?

The Guilford Press, March 2000

http://www.markpaterson.co.uk/hieducat.htm
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Language and Culture

Words: 979 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2331864

Language and culture are inextricably linked. The ways in which one's culture is directly attributed to language development are well documented in the academic literature, though there seems to be little consensus on the processes involved in language acquisition and the ways that culture is manifested in both socialization and language development. One assertion, however, seems widely accepted; culture is a learned attribute that language helps convey to others. Because people use language to impart cultural beliefs and societal mores, the nexus between language and culture is an important consideration in the field of education and communication, especially concerning the varied pedagogical theories of child development. Much of what has been studied in the field of both communications and education concerning the connection between language and culture is attributed to a ussian born educator named Lev Vygotsky.

Lev Vygotsky

Vygotsky believed that children developed and acquired knowledge through the assistance…… [Read More]

References:

Kyratzis, A. (2005). Language and Culture: Socialization through Personal Story-Telling Practice. Human Development, 48(3), 146-150.

Miller, P.J., Hengst, J. Alexander, K., & Sperry L.L. (2000). Versions of personal storytelling/versions of experience: Genres as tools for creating alternate realities. In K. Rosengren, C. Johnson & P. Harris (eds.), Imagining the impossible: The development of magical, scientific, and religious thinking in contemporary society (pp. 212 -- 246). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Miller, P.J., & Mehler, R. (1994). Personal story-telling, socialization, and self-construction at home and in kindergarten. In A. Haas Dyson & C. Genishi (eds.), The need for story: Cultural diversity in classroom and community. Urbana, IL: National Council of Teachers of English.

Vygotsky, L. (1978). Problems of Method (pp. 52-75). In Mind in Society. (Trans. M. Cole). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
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Language and Cognition Is Relatively

Words: 3138 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 82941920

Initiating joint attention related to activity in the frontal-cortical system, especially the left hemisphere and responding to joint attention to the parietal lobes. Heimann et al. (2006) found that that deferred imitation and joint attention both influence the development of language and communication skills in infancy. Deferred imitation at nine months was the strongest of the predictors of nonverbal communication at 14 months, but the predictive power increased significantly in situations when deferred imitation and joint attention were used together.

ecently studies have been conducted with other areas of cognitive behavior. For example, de Villiers (2007) has been looking at the association of language and what he calls Theory of Mind. Theory of Mind refers to the folk psychological theory humans use to predict and explain others' behavior on the basis of their internal workings: feelings, intentions, desires, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and point-of-view. In other words, people have to create…… [Read More]

References

Bowerman, M., & Levinson, S. C (2001). Introduction. In M. Bowerman & S.C. Levinson (Eds.), Language acquisition and conceptual development. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Delgado, C.E.F., Mundy, P., Crowson, M., Markus, J., & Schwartz, H. (2002). Responding to joint attention and language development: A comparison to target location. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 45, 715-719.

A de Villiers, J. (2007) Interface of language and theory of mind. Lingua 117 1858-1878

Doherty, M.J., 2006. The development of mentalistic gaze understanding. Infant and Child Development 15, 179-186.
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Language Barrier

Words: 933 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 40791686

Sometimes students have obstacles to contend with as they enter school. One such barrier can be language. The student I worked with is a Chinese first year student who is attempting to assimilate to AP class schedules. He is a 14-year old interested in learning the English language and is having problems not only learning the language but balancing out the needs of his identity versus the American culture. English Language Learners often must contend with several influences and deal with a new culture that may seem dauting and stressful[footnoteRef:1]. His name is Bo. [1: Larry Ferlazzo, English Language Learners: Teaching Strategies That Work (Santa Barbara, Calif: Linworth, 2010)]
Bo recently immigrated to the United States with his family two years ago. While Bo has learned conversational English and some grammar, he still has problems writing in English. The way to write simplified Chinese is different than English and so…… [Read More]

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Language Proficiency and Content Understanding

Words: 698 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 18461851

Seamless Bridge

As language may be viewed as a vehicle by which a student can better achieve academic success (Gottlieb, 2006), language proficiency assessments are ways in which the teacher can review whether or not the student is developing language proficiency rather than just content understanding. Thus the idea that students who are learning an additional or second language will seamlessly bridge into grade-level content once they reach the highest level of proficiency is a simple extension of the reality that language affords the user: it is the means by which understanding and success in a culture wherein that language is used can be obtained. Thus, if an ELL develops a true understanding and grasp of the language, the grade-level content that the student should be able to grasp is made available to him: it opens up because the language proficiency acts as the key what would otherwise be a…… [Read More]

References

AdLit. (n.d.). Building Trust with Families. Retrieved from  http://www.adlit.org/media/mediatopics/ells/ 

Gottlieb, M. (2006). Assessing English language learners: Bridges from language proficiency to academic achievement. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.
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Language and Comprehension Are Both

Words: 1763 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 99663052

Ketch asserts that it is through this natural process that students comprehend and become critical thinkers. Likewise, Pinnell seems to share similar beliefs about natural processes and educators allowing children to explore these processes. The author asserts that

"Concentration on skills draws attention away from the normal and self-reinforcing uses of language, and instruction often unnecessarily makes a natural everyday activity seem foreign and stilted. Language studies suggest that efforts should be redirected to take advantage of nature's most powerful incentive for developing facility with language -- the child's intention to communicate meaning to other people, the use of language for a variety of purposes (Pinnell."

Both of these assertions support the importance of oral language. Ketch encourages this by explaining the importance on conversation is developing critical thinking skills. Likewise Pinnell enforces this by explaining the importance of language use among children.

Conclusion

The purpose of this discussion was…… [Read More]

References

Ketch, a (2005). Conversation: The comprehension connection. The Reading Teacher, 59(1) 8-13.

Pinnell, G.S. (1975. Language in primary classrooms. Theory into Practice, 14(5), 318-327.
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Language Autism Language and Children With Autism

Words: 981 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57801154

Language Autism

Language and children with autism:

Sources of cognitive deficits

Deficits in language development are one of the most commonly-noted, early signs a child may be autistic. Autistic children often fail to meet appropriate developmental milestones in language. High-functioning autistics or individuals with Asperger's Syndrome usually do not show developmental delays in using language, but may communicate in an inappropriate manner. "Autism is diagnosed on the basis of three primary areas of impairment: social functioning, language and communication, and repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests or activities...esearch on autism and other neurodevelopmental disorders suggests that the social and communication impairments are unique and specific deficits, that define the autism phenotype" (Tager-Flusberg 2006).

The extent to which social and communicative impairments in autism are interlinked remains hotly debated. It is generally agreed upon and noted by researchers and parents alike that there is a wide spectrum of difference in…… [Read More]

References

ABA therapy. (2011). Bright Tots. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://brighttots.com/aba_therapy.html 

Engaging with the self. (2011). Bio Portfolio. Retrieved November 1, 2011 at  http://www.bioportfolio.com/resources/pmarticle/86890/Engaging-With-The-Self-Mirror-Behaviour-In-Autism-Down-Syndrome-And-Typical.html 

Schoenstadt, Arthur. (2011). Language development in autistic children emedtv.

Retrieved November 1, 2011 at http://autism.emedtv.com/autism/language-development-in-autistic-children.html
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Language Diversity

Words: 314 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 50628534

Language Diversity

Crawford begins the article by highlighting problems associated with second language instruction in American classrooms. According to the statistics cited most approaches used in these classrooms are inadequate to provide students with the necessary skills to communicate in the target language outside of the classroom. The reason for this is a lack of focus on communication skills, combined with an inflated focus on form rather than function. Despite efforts to improve upon this by methods such as the total immersion approach and the audiolingual method, results are still shown to be poor. Chomsky, Krashen and Cummins's theories are shown to have revolutionized language acquisition theories, and thus also language teaching methods. Furthermore Crawford shows that a child's inherent feelings about his or her own culture, and consequently about the culture represented by the target language, have a significant impact upon second language learning. It is then suggested that…… [Read More]

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Language Teaching and Learning Methods

Words: 3071 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98946947

Further, it is in this stage that instructors have the ability to widen the instruction significantly to incorporate many activities that allow students to practice their new knowledge in a variety of different ways and with focus on a variety of different subject matters.

In viewing the basic theoretical and practical-use background of the Natural Approach of Language Teaching and Learning, one can understand that basic functions that allow students the ability to hone new skills in a non-threatening environment. However, despite significant praise in the teaching community regarding the success of the Natural Approach, the method's critics still exist. Due to this, it is crucial to understand the advantages as well as the disadvantages that exist when the Natural Approach is employed in a language learning environment, especially in dealing with English as a second language.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In beginning to understand the overall value of the Natural…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Canale, Michael and Swain, Merrill. 2002. "Theoretical Basis of Communicative

Approaches to Second Language Teaching and Testing," Applied Linguistics: 1(1): pp. 1-47. Retrieved from: https://segue.atlas.uiuc.edu/uploads/nppm / CanaleSwain.80.pdf [Accessed on 17 February 2012].

Clandfield, Lindsay and Meldrum, Nicola. 2012. "One-to-one methodology: advantages and disadvantages for students." Retrieved from: http://www.onestopenglish .com/business/teaching-approaches/teaching-one-to-one/methodology/one-to-one-methodology-advantages-and-disadvantages-for-students/144655.article [Accessed on 19 February 2012].

Gebhard, J., Gaitan, S. And Oprandy, R. 1990. "Beyond Prescription: The Student
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Language Arts

Words: 1287 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 84498426

Language Arts

There is a trend among some colleges and universities recently to cut back or eliminate their humanities major and courses, which includes language arts as well as history and philosophy. This has created a controversy over the importance of these areas of learning. It is not that the decision to include language arts in education is new. Appreciation of such learning stems back to the earliest humans. Among the earliest pieces of prehistoric sculpture is from 30,0000-25,000 BCE. The woman, who had exaggerated female parts, is believed to be a fertility symbol perhaps carried by a male hunter/gatherer as a reminder of his mate back home. Many here have heard of or seen the paintings on the caves in France from 15,000 to 13,000 BCE. Early humans struggled to survive against natural forces, animals, and one another. One of the most essential ways of survival was to pass…… [Read More]

References

Atwell, Nancie. In the Middle: New Understandings About Reading,

Writing, and Learning. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook Publishers,

Inc., 1998.

Burke, Jim. The English Teacher's Companion: A Complete Guide to Classroom,
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Language's Role in Sustaining Inequality Between the

Words: 3164 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 3658115

Language's Role In Sustaining Inequality etween The Sexes

Although it is disputed whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, language does play a part in sexism (Wikipedia). Given that the development of society has gone hand in hand with the development of language, it is unlikely that the causation will ever be determined. However, whether language causes sexism or sexism causes certain language, it is clear that language plays a key role in sustaining inequality between the sexes.

At its most basic, language is a system of symbols used by human beings to communicate with each other. However, language is not simply how humans communicate with one another, but also how humans communicate within themselves. Therefore, if language is sexist, then the actions, and even the thoughts, that it describes are sexist (West). For example, words with gender-based connotations imply that the attributes necessary to perform the duties…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bartlett, K. (1993) Gender and Law: Theory, Doctrine, and Commentary, New York: Little,

Brown & Company (1993).

Feitz, A. (1999) 'Feminist Scholarship: A Classic Oxymoron?', in Enterstageright.com: Enter

Stage Right.  http://www.enterstageright.com/archive/articles/1099femspeak.htm  accessed on January 5, 2005.
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Language Growth What Factors Affect

Words: 351 Length: 1 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 44479804

The percentage of days a student was absent was the strongest negative predictor, however, of poor reading performance. Class size was another important factor in influencing reading achievement, especially amongst ESL students in the elementary grades. Individualized instruction to suit the student's needs was important but specific teacher qualifications had no statistically significant effects.

Early exposure to the written word, being read to as a child, and coming from a stable, reading-friendly environment, as well as participating in preschool and Head Start or other early socialization programs can contribute to reading success later in life. However, although the teacher cannot control all of the factors that help a student learn to read, some factors, such as fostering a positive peer environment and providing individualized instruction, are within the teacher's ability to control.

orks Cited

New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement." (Aug 2003). Research Brief: Public Policy…… [Read More]

Works Cited

New Insights into School and Classroom Factors Affecting Student Achievement." (Aug 2003). Research Brief: Public Policy Institute of California. Issue 76. Retrieved 2 Dec 2007 at  http://www.hewlett.org/NR/rdonlyres/985FC747-BAB7-4E08-8133-F763472A37C8/0/ppicsandiegobrief.pdf
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Language Department Thinking Critically About

Words: 623 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Book Report Paper #: 63729647

Put us in the air and we can't do anything should anything happen to the plane. We, as humans, cannot fly on our own.

A: Chapter eight also talks about assessing intelligence and there are many ways to do so. Intelligence, however, doesn't just refer to more analytical type of thinking. In the article "Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled?" authors Matthew, Zeidner and oberts (2012) discuss how emotional intelligence is a fairly new construct in differential psychology. There are many proponents of this construct and they have made powerful arguments for emotional intelligence's importance in both basic and applied psychology (2012).

Emotional intelligence is a bit different than what we might normally think of as intelligence. It is a collection of aptitudes, skills and competencies for dealing with emotions and emotional encounters (Matthew et al. 2012). Perhaps one of the reasons emotional intelligence isn't considered much -- or when it…… [Read More]

References

Matthews, G., Zeidner, M. & Roberts, R. (2012). Emotional intelligence: A promise unfulfilled? Japanese psychological research,54(2), 105-127.

Myers, G. (2012). Psychology in everyday life. Worth Publishers.
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Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

Words: 1884 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 86392313

Traditional Methods of Language Teaching

The paper discuses the various traditional methods of language teaching, namely:

Grammar Translation Method

The Audio-lingual Method

The Direct Method

The Silent Way

The Communicative Approach

Cognitive code learning

The Natural Approach

Behaviorist approach

Functional-Notional Approach and The task-based approach

The paper discusses each approach in details and describes its various chief principles and how it helps both teachers and students to teach, understand, learn, and practice all the skills they learn through these approaches.

Grammar Translation Method

This method involves the learner to spend a lot of time in understanding the language structure. Though both listening as well as speaking suffer because of it. However, grammar and vocabulary are being stressed throughout the teaching method.

The grammar translation method has been derived from traditional approaches to the teaching of Latin and Greek in the nineteenth century (Selected Lesson Plans). It was originally used to…… [Read More]

References

Benstein, Patricia. Explaining concepts behind the Silent Way. Wanadoo Communiquer. www.wanadoo.fr

Communicative language teaching. Sil International.

A www.sil.org

Capes - History of Language Teaching 2. Club Internet.
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Semantic Memory and Language Production

Words: 1251 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 93859236

In the development of language skills the learning and implementation of semantic memory is therefore vital to the central aims of language and communication. The flowing quotation outlines the function of semantic memory in relation to language production

Semantic memory is the system that you use to store your knowledge of the world. It is a knowledge base that we all have and much of which we can access quickly and effortlessly. It includes our memory of the meanings of words - the kind of memory that lets us recall not only the names of the world's great capitals, but also social customs, the functions of things, and their colour and odour.

( What are semantic memories?)

3. The stages of language production and semantic memory

As has been discussed above, semantic memory is memory that is shared and common to the language users. It enables the understanding and recognition…… [Read More]

References

Learning and Conditioning. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from  http://www.scribd.com/doc/11255529/AP-Psychology-Review-Part-3?autodown=pdf 

Linguistics. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/3920/?200914>

Semantic Memory. Retrieved July 13, 2009, from  http://www.enotes.com/gale-psychology-encyclopedia/semantic-memory 

What are semantic memories? Retrieved July 13, 2009, from  http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/memory/understand/semantic_memories.shtml
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Importance of Foreign Language Education in High School

Words: 2711 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 35822617

Foreign Language Education in High School

The world has about 6,000 different languages, give or take a few. Linguists predict that at least half of those may have disappeared by the year 2050, which means languages are becoming extinct at twice the rate of endangered animals and four times the rate of endangered birds. Predictions are that a dozen languages may dominate the world of the future at best. (Ostler, 2002) For Americans, that's probably a good thing, since we are seemingly genetically engineered to maintain an appalling ignorance of other languages, and have narrowed down the choices we offer our young people to approximately one, Spanish, viewed by many to be the easiest foreign language to learn. It has been described in various places as having an 'impoverished vocabulary,' which means less work for Dick and Jane. The American education system so far is doing nothing to reverse the…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Clark, Leon E. "Other-Wise: The case for understanding foreign cultures in a unipolar world." Social Education, Vol. 64, Issue 7, 2000.

Garrett, Nina. "Meeting national needs: the challenge to language learning in higher education.

Change, 1 May 2002

Gramberg, Anne-Katrin. "German for business and economics." The Clearing House, 1 July 2001.
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Human Language Series Part 1

Words: 679 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 77779143

In real time, the elements occur all at once, thus the rules of language are independent of meaning. A sentence can be grammatical but meaningless, or meaningless but grammatical. Syntax, although it varies from language to language, is what makes language uniquely 'human,' no other animal species uses syntax in its communication system. No matter how different our language systems may seem to one another, all human language systems are more similar to one another than to animal systems of communication. Animals do not communicate on a conceptual level, and their language exists only in time. Human language can convey absence, like the fact there is 'no giraffe next to me,' and people who know a language can figure out the meaning of new words by the place of the word and the meaning of other words in a sentence. Language also changes and grows over time, and within the…… [Read More]

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How Culture and Success are Linked to Language

Words: 793 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Paper #: 23369891

Learning an L2 is important because it gives an individual an opportunity to not only learn the way in which a people communicate but also the chance to understand the culture of the community in which the immigrant lives. Language is the expression of culture and the avenue by which all people advance to social, academic and economic success. This paper discusses the meaning of learning a new language in cultural and socio-economic terms and why it is so imperative that people have the supports they need to acquire linguistic skills.

Culture, Identity, and Language: Uncovering Human and Social Capital

As Cok and Novak-Lukanovic (n.d.) point out, language is not just the way we use words to communicate -- it is an expression of the totality of our personhood: our culture, our experience, our identity and our awareness. When learners do not become proficient in their L2, they lack the…… [Read More]

References

Cox, l. and Novak-Lukanovic, S. (n.d.) Languages as Social Cohesion and Human

Capital. Retrieved from http://www.fm-kp.si/zalozba/ISBN/961dash6486dash71dash3/079dash089.pdf

Hannum, E.C. and Cerug, H.S. (2014). Linguistic Capital, Information Access and Economic Opportunity among Rural Young Adults in Western China. Retrieved from  http://repository.upenn.edu/elmm/11
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Age and Learning a New Language What

Words: 775 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 182326

Age and Learning a New Language

hat is the ideal age for a person to be able to learn a new language? hat are the dynamics (besides age) that contribute to SLA? This paper delves into those subjects using scholarly articles as resources.

The Literature on Learning a New Language and Age

"…Early beginners, through their longer exposure to L2, reach the necessary competence levels in their two languages sooner to allow transfer in both directions…" (Djigunovic, 2010).

hy are very young students especially gifted to pick up new languages quickly? The scholarship shows that younger learners "…have no awkwardness or inhibitions with the new language" and don't get too upset when they make mistakes (Cenoz, 2003, p. 77). As to whether or not younger learners "…soak up new languages" simply because the soak up information like a sponge soaks up water, Cenoz has his doubts. Indeed studies show younger…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Cenoz, Jasone. (2003). "The Effect of Age on Foreign Language Acquisition in Formal

Contexts. In Age and the Acquisition of English As a Foreign Language, M. Mayo, and M.

Lecumberri, Eds. Bristol, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Cummins, Jim, and Davison, Chris. (2007). International Handbook of English Language
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Biological Basis for Language Has

Words: 685 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21125049

The only part of the human body that can really be said to be devoted to speech in a way totally unique to humans is the brain. There are language centers in the human brain that researchers have yet to find any analogs for in other animals. This supports Noam Chomsky's assertion that language did not simply evolve from animal calls. There are, it is true, all of the biological mechanisms required for speech in many other animals, but language is capable of much more than simply making sounds or even communicating. Language can imagine the future, and express ideas that do not necessarily pertain to the current situation. The difference between the language of humans and the communication abilities of animals, as it is not physically based, must be neurologically based, and research both into human and animal brains and a careful examination of language supports this theory.

Chomsky,…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Duke University Neurobiology.  http://www.duke.edu/~pk10/language/neuro.htm
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Brain Mechanisms in Early Language

Words: 626 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Reaction Paper Paper #: 60581008

Thus, lessons can utilize elements learned from understand how the brain naturally learns a language to augment the student's ability to progress more efficiently in learning a second language later on in life. Lessons would produce the environment which calls on the same type of brain functions that were so crucial in language acquisition in early childhood. Thus, teaching can become an extension of pre-existing strategies the students have already used earlier on in their lives without even knowing it. This means lesson plans built on a structure that highlights the importance of language at the phonic level, as this is what the author asserts as the primary vehicle for language acquisition in young children.

Lightbrown & Spada (2006) also provide evidence which would back up Kuhl's claims in the text How Languages Are Learned. In their discussion of early language acquisition, Lightbrown & Spada (2006) explain how the child's…… [Read More]

References

Kuhl, Patricia K. (2010). Brain mechanisms in early language acquisition. Neuron, 67(5), 713-727. Doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2010.08.038

Lightbrown, Patsy M. & Spada, Nina. (2006). How Languages are Learned. Oxford University Press.
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Perceptions of Interlink Language Center

Words: 1381 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Literature Review Paper #: 69964423

These different perspectives were based upon their language learning experiences from the past, their language proficiency, their current academic needs, and also their future career choices. To bridge the gap, the teachers engaged in dialogue with the students to determine the best ways to engage the students individually (Pazaver, and Wang 35).

In a study in the International Journal of English Studies, the authors used ELT materials in order build of a reliable instrument to help in the potential for the promotion of implicit and explicit components in ESL learning by students. The found that implicitness and explicitness were promoted equally by the ESL teaching units in three different textbooks (Criado Sanchez, Sanchez Perez, and Cantos Gomez 129). In an article in the journal of Applied Linguistics, .W. Schmidt analyzes issues that impact upon explicit learning modalities. He concludes that subliminal language learning is impossible. Also, he notes that it…… [Read More]

References

Akakura, Motoko. "Evaluating the Effectiveness of Explicit Instruction on Implicit and Explicit L2

knowledge." Language Teaching Research. 16.1 (2012): 9 -- 37.

Criado Sanchez, Raquel, Aquilano Sanchez Perez, and Pascual Cantos Gomez. "An Attempt to Elaborate a Construct to Measure the Degree of Explicitness and Implicitness in ELT

Materials." International Journal of English Studies. 10.1 (2010): 103-129.
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Ways to Improve Language

Words: 3384 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 18828215

Grammar Error Correction

Grammar Correction Best Practices

The art and science of grammar correction has seismic implications on native and new speakers to English alike. The ability to communicate in a clear and cohesive fashion, both verbally and in writing, whilst using the proper syntax, punctuation, sentence structure and spelling is vital for the message to be clear. Further, it is seen as a sign of intelligence or lack thereof for someone to use the obviously wrong words and sentence structure while communicating in writing or via speech. hile grammar and languages teachers are perhaps fighting a losing battle right now given the fairly sloppy nature of many people including supposed language professionals like writers and journalists, there are indeed some verifiable and known best practices that can and should be used to help combat the grammar failures that pervade the sphere of communication in the United States as well…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chan, Alice Y.W. "An Algorithmic Approach To Error Correction: An Empirical

Study." Foreign Language Annals 39.1 (2006): 131-147. Education Research

Complete. Web. 31 July 2014.

Chodorow, Martin, Michael Gamon, and Joel Tetreault. "The Utility of Article And
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Chinese as a Foreign Language

Words: 4930 Length: 17 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 68701269

The pogam pimaily suppots the local Chinese communities to maintain younge geneation's heitage backgound, and speading Chinese cultue in the U.S. The classes ae nomally held two to thee hous on weekends with Chinese language lessons and othe taditional cultual and at activities. Most students have high levels of oal poficiency in Chinese, but needed to enhance skills in liteacy. Chinese heitage schools ae mainly suppoted by two goups: the National Council of Associations of Chinese Language Schools (NCACLS) which is founded by Taiwan o Hong Kong immigant and heitage communities, and the Chinese School Association in the United States (CSAUS) that is connected with immigant and heitage communities fom mainland China. Accoding to Scott McGinnis's (2005) compiled statistics, the combined enollment of NCACLS and CSAUS was aound 150,000 in 2003. The numbe of students in the heitage schools is lage than in othe CFL pogams acoss the U.S.

Many…… [Read More]

references for the researchers and educators that may lead to some recommendations in developing a better learning environment in future foreign language education. The data collected from the surveys will be treated as confidential by me, and all the collected data will be anonymous. The data will be only applied directly to this study and not in other use, nor is it available for other parties. A letter of consent form will be sent to all participants to be aware to the purpose and the use of this study from the collected data. All collected data will be protected by the researcher during the study.

Instrumentation/Materials

A survey developed by the researcher of this study includes two sections of questions which relate to the foreign language learning. The first part of the questions is based on the participants' background and their children's background relating to their cultural and language background. The second section includes questions about the reason of sending their child to CFL program; what level do they want their child to complete Chinese language learning, and what area do they want their child to apply the language. The participants choose from the options provided that applies to them the best. There are three open ended questions, allowing for free comments. (See appendix a).

Research design

The research is a qualitative research design that investigates the similarities and differences between parental motivations towards CFL learning between diverse ethnicities by using an online survey to explore the two essential questions in this research.
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American Sign Language Interpreters the

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 45296739

This program will be offered in the Leadership Development Seminar in which students are offering challenging experiences as well as the areas of higher-level academic pursuits which includes a historical journey through the history of deafness related individuals.

Merrill Lynch has also developed a program targeting deaf students, which was released in a news announcement earlier this month of March 2005. The Merrill Lynch Entrepreneur Leadership Program is offering a program to prepare those interested in entrepreneurial leadership designed for individuals who are deaf and interested in becoming entrepreneurs. Modern technological online modules for learning will be utilized and will simultaneously deliver the information in both ASL and English.

Conclusion:

It is clear that ASL Interpreters in classrooms is much needed for the student who is deaf if they are to experience a normal and successful education in the classroom setting. And as shown the student who is deaf and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Lawrence, Constance (2001) Using Sign Language in Your Classroom 2001 Apr 19 ED459557.

Belka, Robert W. (2000) 'Is American Sign Language a "Foreign Language" ED339662.

Wallinger, Linda (2000) American Sign Language Instruction: Moving from Protest to Practice ED 449660

Toth, Anne (1999) Improving the Delivery of Sign Language Instruction for Program for Parents of Children Who is Deaf and Receiving Services form a School for the Deaf. ED 437755.
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Teaching the Skill of Listening to Children

Words: 1786 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 36385696

Linguistics

Teach

Teaching the Skill of Listening to Children

This short essay aims to discuss the process of teaching listening skills to children. The main focus is to describe problems that may arise and then to suggest some possible solutions for each in terms of the learning process in general. Listening as a skill set is one of the more critical skills needed by young learners. To show how difficult attaining listening is, consider this from a non-native speaker. "A common complaint from learners on first visiting an English-speaking country is that their listening skills cannot cope with fast spontaneous speech." (Cauldwell) It is believed that of the group of four skills humans use most often, listening should be considered to be by far one of the most frequently used. Consider how in the United States speaking and listening are usually taught in tandem, but from the teaching perspective, speaking…… [Read More]

References

Adams, James A. (1971). "A Closed-Loop Theory of Motor Learning." Journal of Motor Behavior 3:111-150.

Carlisle, Lynn (1988). "Communication Skills." Sacramento: California State Department of Education, Division of Special Education. ED 315-933.

Cauldwell, Richard. (2009). "Grasping The Nettle: The Importance Of Perception Work In Listening Comprehension." Retrieved on December 20, 2009, from  http://www.developingteachers.com/articles_tchtraining/perception1_richard.htm .

Edleston, Charlotte (1987). "A Program of Games and Activities to Increase Listening and Attentional Skills in Kindergarten." Nova University: Ed. D. Practicum, Dissertation/Theses. ED 292-586.
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Standards-Based Curriculum for English Language

Words: 1551 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 51554388

(Farah and idge, 2009)

The successful shift from textbook, memory-based curriculum to a standards-based curriculum is therefore dependent on three things: the development of national standards and goals for curriculum; the development of corresponding assessment tools; and the re-education of teachers towards the objective of altering teachers' attitudes and views of their role in the education system. ather than simply drilling memorized facts, words or phrases into a student's consciousness-as is the case with a memory-based curriculum-teachers in a standards based, student-centered curriculum are responsible for helping students to apply such knowledge to practical situations for social success, over and above academic success.

eferences

English as a Second Language. (2010). etrieved December 30, 2010, from http://www.rong-chang.com/

English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. etrieved December 30,

2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html

Farah, S., & idge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum…… [Read More]

References

English as a Second Language. (2010). Retrieved December 30, 2010, from  http://www.rong-chang.com/ 

English Teachers Network. (2010). Why Have a Standards-Based Curriculum and What are the Implications for the Teaching-Learning Assessment Process?. Retrieved December 30,

2010, from http://www.etni.org.il/red/etninews/issue4/whystandard.html

Farah, S., & Ridge, N. (2009). Challenges to Curriculum Development in the UAE. Dubai
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Formulaic Language in the Year

Words: 1481 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 80963136

acial or ethnically-based teasing and peer pressure has long been associated with academic achievement, as Tyson et al. point out in his 2005 report studying the behaviors of blacks and whites during high school. While Tyson et al. also suggests that "school structures" are somewhat to blame for "stigmas" of "acting white" or "acting high and mighty" (582), he maintains that that teasing and peer pressure and also important components.

Because of the profound social implications of interactions between formulaic speaking and non-formulaic speaking students, teachers in the third year classroom need to be aware of students' interpretation of the formulaic speaking students, monitoring the communication between the groups. In addition to being aware of the situation, teachers should use the problem to educate students about stereotypes and teasing in addition to encouraging formulaic speaking students to express themselves in the language of instruction. Thus, third year students' use of…… [Read More]

References

Hamilton, Kendra. (2005). The Dialect Dilemma. Black Issues in Higher Education. 22

O'Neil and Gish. (2008). Customer did not provide the rest of the citation.

Pearson, David P., Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Kamil, Michael L. (2007). Theory and Research into Practice: Vocabulary Assessment: What We Know and What We Need to Learn. Reading Research Quarterly. 42 (2), 282-296.

Perez, Samuel a. (2000). Using Ebonics or Black English as a Bridge to Teaching
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Communication & Thinking Skills

Words: 936 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 95685626

Language & Intelligence in Psychology

The author of this report is to answer to two general questions relating to psychology and how much (or little) it interweaves with thinking, language and intelligence. Indeed, being able to process information and being able to prod patients in the right way is important. The first question to be answered is how important thinking, language and intelligence are to the field of psychology. The second question is why and how this topic is relevant one's chosen major or concentration and/or future career goals. While thinking, language and intelligence are sometimes overblown, there is no doubt how important it is how important those things are to operating as a psychologist or in the general psychology field.

Analysis

When it comes to language, the class text speaks volumes about language when it speaks about language. Constructing one's speech properly relating to syntax, tone, terms used and…… [Read More]

References

APA,. (2015). Intelligence. http://www.apa.org. Retrieved 17 April 2015, from  http://apa.org/topics/intelligence/index.aspx 

Feldman, R., & Feldman, R. (2011). Essentials of understanding psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill.
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Improving Reading Skills Reading and

Words: 8772 Length: 30 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 33211921



Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.

Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.

Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.

Lunch and a brief recess follows.

First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development

Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.

Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.

Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…… [Read More]

What do Tom and Mary have in common?

Describe Mary

Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
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Learning Problems vs Language Problems

Words: 1303 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 93484975

Learning Problems vs Language Problems

The objective of this study is to examine how learning problems and language problems are related. Specifically considered will be the fact that when students who are learning English as their second language and who are experiencing academic or behavioral difficulties that the teacher and the school's problem-solving teams must examine whether these problems are related to learning a new language or whether the problems may be due to cognitive delays or developmental delay or disability.

The work of Fisher ( nd) entitled "Assessing English Language Learners for a Learning Disability or Language Issue" states that English language learners all "with learning disabilities...too often...fall through the cracks." (p.13) The reason stated for this is that these learners are often considered to be "slow English learners, or they may be in a school district that does not have enough resources to test them in their L1…… [Read More]

References

Recommended Practices for Assessment, Diagnosis, and Documentation of Learning Disabilities (2014) Learning Disabilities Association of Ontario. Retrieved from:  http://www.ldao.ca/documents/Assessment%20Protocols_Sept%2003.pdf 

Special Education and English Language Learners: Guidance for LEA Staff

An Overview of the ELL/SPED Programs and the Identification Process

(Webinar #1) (nd) Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. Retrieved from:  http://dese.mo.gov/sites/default/files/webinar/documents/ELL-QandA-12-09-13.pdf
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Foreign Language as the Culture

Words: 4565 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Dissertation Paper #: 45712302

For both teachers, however, Boxer and Cortes-Conde highlight moments where the teacher talk lends itself to greater student interaction. At these moments, the teachers often fostered group discussions by asking students about their own cultural norms. When teachers took on the role of information brokers, students resumed the role of passive learners. The authors argue that open dialogue is crucial to fostering pragmatic and sociocultural competence, and that teachers can create this open dialogue and a place of comfort and still encourage pragmatic awareness. (Hall & Verplaetse, 2000, p. 15)

Stressing among new and existing foreign language educators the importance of classroom interaction as well as cultural expression is essential, as the manner in which context is delivered, as apposed to content lectured upon creates foundational interest and potential independent motivation to learn. Curriculum, must be inclusive and collaborative to engender individual motivation, which is essential to foreign language learning,…… [Read More]

References

Atanda, R. "Do Gatekeeper Courses Expand Education Options?" Education Statistics Quarterly 1:1 Retrieved October 10, 2007 at  http://nces.ed.gov/programs/quarterly/vol_1/1_1/4-esq11-c.asp  www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570

Belz, J.A. (2002). Social Dimensions of Telecollaborative Foreign Language Study. Language, Learning & Technology, 6(1), 60. Retrieved October 17, 2007, from Questia database:  http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002451570 

Christian, D., Pufahl, I., & Rhodes, N.C. (2005). Fostering Foreign Language Proficiency: What the U.S. Can Learn from Other Countries. Phi Delta Kappan, 87(3), 226.

Creswell, John (1997) Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing From Among Five Traditions. New York: Sage Pulications.
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English Language Arts observations report

Words: 992 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82746474

High school student leader English Language Arts (ELA) observations report

Observations

• Incorporates major content components and aids pupils in applying higher order thinking skills within learning.

• Displays the capability of relating current content to prior experiences, future learning, practical application and other disciplines.

• Displays correct knowledge regarding the topic taught.

• Displays abilities that are pertinent to the lesson.

• Centers teaching on objectives which echo superior expectations and a grasp of the discipline.

• Undertakes realistic time-planning in the areas of pacing, transition and subject mastery.

• Undertakes efficient differentiated instruction planning.

• Ensures pupils' involvement and dynamic learning.

• Builds on pupils' current skills and knowledge.

• Makes use of instructional technology for improving pupils' learning.

• Communicates explicitly and confirms student understanding.

• Applies various valid evaluation tools and approaches relevant to the pupil population and content.

• Employs evaluation tools for summative as…… [Read More]

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Children's Development Early Childhood Language

Words: 1286 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 89179616

esearch states that "As the child develops and goes through the process of assimilation and accommodation, their brain will develop through the natural process of maturation, and therefore their understanding of the world matures and their ability to accurately interpret and predict the world develops," (Oakley ). A whole new understanding of themselves and the word around them is facilitated through preschooler's cognitive developments. Psychologists Jean Piaget places preschool children within the preoperational stage, between the ages of two and six years old. According to his research, this stage in the theory of cognitive development harbors increased language development and imaginative play, hence books chosen for this stage should appeal to both. Expanded memory allows for children to gather and retain much more information than in previous years. However, this rapid new development is limited by egocentrism, where "the child can only view the world from their perspective and finds…… [Read More]

References

Cooper, Janice L. (2009). Social-emotional development in early childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at  http://www.nccp.org/publications/pub_882.html 

This publication explores the factors which influence a child's social development within the preschool years. It gives clear research findings regarding parental and caregiver influences along with social and neighborhood ones as well. It also outlines the potential hazards and issues of a child who develops within a problem area.

Lopes, Marilyn. (1995). Selecting books for children. National Network for Childcare. University of Massachusetts. Retrieved October 10, 2009 at http://www.nncc.org/Literacy/select.books.html

This site is a recommendation-based site which takes proven strategies and concepts developed by child psychologists at the University of Massachusetts. As part of the national network for child care, it aims to help parents make appropriate decisions for their children regarding books based on that child's age.
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Language Instinct How Are the

Words: 1647 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 92591422

Pinker maintains that evolution follows a branching, rather than linear pattern. Many species develop concurrently, each with their own survival instincts. Humans, and their survival instinct of language, are just one branch of the evolutionary process rather than a pinnacle rung.

Holding the belief that we can, or might someday communicate with animals creates empathy, which leads to humane treatment of animals. A belief that animals cannot communicate with us due to inferiority leads to a sense of dominion over them.

This is also a pattern of belief and behavior that is seen with regard to humans who are perceived to have inferior languages or grammars. They are somehow less human, and therefore less deserving of humane treatment.

Pinker states that it is ridiculous to attempt to teach human language to animals. They are not biologically configured for human speech or sign. They have no need for human language as…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Pinker, Steven. The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1994.
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Language Is Not Innate and

Words: 705 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Paper Paper #: 8922248

Due to this reality, language is continually developing in two directions, i.e. To convey our ideas very well and maneuver the globe and to better fix the compositions and roles of our different brain areas (Clark 193-194).

Basically, language is a combination of innate abilities. The capability to utilize language is an extremely significant element of human cognition. Actually, a number of people would dispute the fact that it is this ability which differentiates human from other animals. In spite of one's outlook of the ability of animals to make use of language or language symbols, the reality is that human beings have language abilities that are extremely advanced to those of the rest of the animals which cannot be overlooked. In spite of the widespread human linguistic ability, pinning down precisely how language assists human beings and how human beings make use of is not at all a simple…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Chomsky, Noam. Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social

Order. Boston: South End Press, 1996.

Clark, Andy. Being There: Putting Brain, Body, and World Together Again. Cambridge,

Mass.: The MIT Press, 1997.
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Language Impairment Phonological Memory Deficits

Words: 1733 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 6488698

The focus of academics continues to focus on finding a cause and on developing reliable interventions for children suffering from this condition. It is important to begin intervention as early as possible so that incorrect speech patterns do not become ingrained. In addition, it is important to make certain that other learning complications do not develop as a result of SLI.

The research conducted by ice, Wexler, & Cleave (1995) helped to draw attention to SLI as being different from other language deficiencies. Their work helped to identify and define SLI as its own subset of language delay symptoms. This important step led the way for research that explored causality and intervention. SLI is typically associated with deficiencies in verbal skills. However, research into non-verbal skills was also suggested by these and other study results. This avenue will help to further define and distinguish SLI from other language delays.

eferences…… [Read More]

References

Bishop, D., Bright, P. & James, C. et al. (2000). Grammatical SLI: a distinct subtype of developmental language impairment? Applied Psycholinguistics. 21-92): 159-181.

O'Brien, E., Zhang, X., & Nishimura, C. et al. (2003). Association of specific language impairment (SLI) to the region of 7q31. American Journal of Human Genetics. 72 (6): 1536-1543.

Rice, M., Wexler, K., & Cleave, P. (1995). Specific Language Impairment as a Period of Extended Optional Infinitive. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research. 38: 850-863.

Sajanrimi, N., Suhonen, E., & Kontu, E. (2008). Verbal and non-verbal development in SLI children after early intervention. Early Child Development and Care. 02 May 2008. Abstract.
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Language Impairment Disorder Specific Language

Words: 604 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Research Proposal Paper #: 15198049

The clearest evidence for genetic effects has come from studies that diagnosed SLI using theoretically motivated measures of underlying cognitive deficits rather than conventional clinical criteria (ishop).

Characteristics of SLI

Delay in starting to talk is evidenced by the first words not appearing until two years of age or later. Immature or deviant production of speech sounds is apparent, especially in preschool children. Use of simplified grammatical structures, such as omission of past tense endings or the auxiliary "is," exist well beyond the age when this is usually mastered. Restricted vocabulary, in both production and comprehension with weak verbal short-term memory, is evidenced in tasks requiring repetition of words or sentences. Difficulties in understanding complex language are apparent, especially when the speaker talks rapidly (ishop).

Treatment

Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) help children with the strategies and exercises that will help them navigate language. They are also the ambassadors of language who…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Bishop, Dorothy. "What Causes Specific Language Impairment in Children." 2006. Institute for Applied Psychometrics. 17 March 2009  http://www.iapsych.com/articles/bishop2006.pdf .

Davidson, Tish, Jill De Villers and Thomson Gale. "Specific Language Impairment." 2006. Healthline.com. 17 March 2009  http://www.healthline.com/galecontent/specific-language-impairment .

Ervin, Margaret. "SLI - What we Know and Why it Matters." n.d. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. 17 March 2009  http://www.asha.org/about/publications/leader-online/archives/2001/sli.htm .
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Language Arts Instruction

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 78675790

Teaching Language Arts: Description of How Oral Communication Skill May Be Developed Through Conversation, Storytelling and Oral Discussion

It is reported that the use of language in the early years of childhood teaches children not only about the world around them but how language and its use serves various purposes. This type of knowledge is known as pragmatic knowledge which in part is conversational skills. It is asserted in the work of Weiss (2004) that the development of conversational skills in childhood influences the child's ability to interact with others. Children inherently learn these skills however, the adult teacher or parent's role in assisting the learning of children in the area of conversations skills is critical to the ability of the child as a conversationalist. Storytelling is excellent in its ability to develop language arts among children because it requires them to be good listeners. Storytelling can be followed by…… [Read More]

References

Auditory Discrimination Skills Training Module (nd) Highreach Learning, Inc. Retrieved from: https://www.highreach.com/highreach_cms/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=mgL4impMvYY%3D&tabid=106

Critical Issue: Addressing Literacy Needs in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Classrooms (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/reading/li400.htm

Effective Spelling Instruction: Teaching Children How to Spell and Helping Students Develop Spelling Skills. Right Track Reading. Retrieved from:  http://www.righttrackreading.com/howtospell.html 

Five Components of Effective Oral Language Instruction (2014) Professional Development for Preservice Teachers. Retrieved from:  http://www.pdst.ie/sites/default/files/Oral%20Language%20Booklet%20PDF.pdf
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Skills Journaling the Value of Journaling in

Words: 939 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6498976

Skills: Journaling

The value of journaling in the qualitative research process

When I first began this assignment, my immediate reaction was: why do I need to write down my thoughts and feelings in a journal when I have Facebook and Twitter? Don't I already have social media venues in which to vent a steady stream-of-consciousness? However, over the course of the journaling process, the value of the exercise became very clear: journaling is a unique form of self-expression. Unlike other types of writing, the main purpose of journaling is to better understand one's self, rather than to engage in direct communication with others. In other modes of writing, whether a research paper or an online blog, the writer is always aware that he or she is writing with an audience in mind. Because every audience is unique, the writer must engage in self-censorship, tailoring the content to meet that audience.…… [Read More]

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Skills for Tomorrow's Employees What

Words: 922 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71528848

This makes finding good quality people difficult and ultimately shortchanges the students because the money is not available to acquire the people that will do the most for the students in their care. One of the ways that principals can be assessed is to look at how the students are doing (Ediger, 2002). If the students in a particular school continue to make academic gains and there are few problems with disruptive students and inappropriate behavior then it would appear that the principal is doing his or her job correctly (Peterson & Kelley, 2001). Schools that show poor test scores and many other problems may indicate ineffectiveness on the part of the principal, and this should be examined and studied to determine whether the principal is the actual cause for this or whether there are other problems that the principal is facing in the school (Ediger, 2002).

All of the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Ediger, Marlow. (2002). Assessing the School Principal. Education.

Peterson, Kent & Kelley, Carolyn. (2001). Transforming school leadership. Leadership.

Rice, J.B. (1993, July 15). Transactional and transformational leadership: an analysis of male and female leadership styles in Delaware public schools. The Center for Education, Widener University.
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Language Philosophy Advocates Teaching Children

Words: 1511 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Thesis Paper #: 55574837

.., 2004).

Direct Instruction (DI) is a model for teaching that emphasizes well-developed and carefully planned lessons designed around small learning increments and clearly defined and prescribed teaching tasks. It is based on the theory that clear instruction eliminating misinterpretations can greatly improve and accelerate learning (Stockard, n.d.).

ibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute: http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at NET: http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com: http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml

Reyhner, D.J. (2008, Dec 13). The reading wars. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Jon Reyhner, Northern Arizona…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Clowes, G. (2001, February 01). "Whole Language" faulted for U.S. reading woes. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from the Heartland Institute:  http://www.heartland.org/publications/school%20reform/article/10248/Whole_Language_Faulted_for_US_Reading_Woes.html 

Hanson, G. (1999, February 08). Whole language, half an education? Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Find Articles at BNET:  http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_5_15/ai_53744894 

Jones, J. (n.d.). Learning to read and whole language ideology. Retrieved March 23, 2009, from Parents Raising Educational Standards in Schools: http://my.execpc.com/~presswis/phonics.html

Jones, J. (2004, July 28). What the data really show: Direct instruction really works! Retrieved March 23, 2009, from JeffLindsay.com:  http://www.jefflindsay.com/EducData.shtml
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Skills Development

Words: 1513 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19029149

elaboration upon my experience as an international student of University of Birmingham. At the time I compose this reflection, I have finished my first year as a Business Management student. My reflection will center with the difficulties encountered in a foreign country, language, and culture. The reader will gain insight as to my personal experience my first year. The reader will understand some of my greatest challenges, personal flaws, and sense of accomplish from completing one full year. By the reflections conclusion, readers will understand how obstacles and weakness transformed in to achievement and deep motivation.

At the beginning of the first semester, my most prominent obstacle was my deficiency in the English language. I could not effectively communicate with other people in a professional or informal context. This was not something I was prepared for. I knew it would be a challenge, but more than just the language made…… [Read More]

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Language Barriers Among the Karen People

Words: 4083 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38498576

GAP stands for Guadalupe Alternative Programs and stands to serve St. Paul's Latino youth living on the West Side for the last fifty years. Programs like GAP have existed to promote the wellbeing of St. Paul's, Minnesota's Latino student population by offering services like counseling, educational programs, emergency resources, and job assistance (GAP, n.d.). While GAP still assists the Latino student population, times have changes and the Latino population has decreased, opening GAP services to diverse ethnic backgrounds. This has led to a recent issue of understanding the needs of the current population of GAP students.

The current population consists of English language learners, refugees (Karen refugees), and low income students. Social work interns at GAP recognized external factors that may affect GAP students. This has led to the desire to promote wellness among the current student GAP population. This research study is meant to provide an understanding of what…… [Read More]

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Language and Literacy Lesion Plan

Words: 2798 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 41760761

Progression and Foundation of Language

Concept/topic

Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).

Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…… [Read More]

Bibliography

(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from:  http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf 

(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf 

(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from:  http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf 

Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from:  http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .
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Skills Project Location of Resources

Words: 1238 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 75460933

The bottom line that out of the many sources of information available on Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia there is a percentage that deserves the most trust and focus, and there is much that can be discarded and not used. In making this judgment the trustworthiness of the information needs to be assessed using the series of sources provided in this analysis (Cho, Jang, 2008). Appendix A, a mind map for planning extended travel provides an overview of the issues related to planning and traveling.

Location of esources

The CIA Factbook (https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html) provided an excellent overview of the current cultural, economic, religious, demographic and political landscape of Malaysia in general and Kuala Lumpur specifically. In addition, the CIA Factbook provided insights into how the country is currently experiencing a recession and the political forces at work there that could potentially lead to protests or violence. Malaysia's political risk is well defined in…… [Read More]

References

Cho, M., and S. Jang. 2008. Information Value Structure for Vacation Travel. Journal of Travel Research 47, no. 1, (August 1): 72.

Ing, G., J. Liew-Tsonis, S. Cheuk, and I. Razli. 2010. An Examination Of The Challenges Involved In Distributing A Strong And Consistent Destination Image In The Marketing Of Tourism In Malaysia. The International Business & Economics Research Journal 9, no. 1, (January 1): 31-39.

Lee, J.. 2009. Mobilizing for Social Change in Muslim Societies Amidst Political Turmoil and Conservatism. Development: Special Issue for the 11th AWID International Forum on 52, no. 2, (June 1): 239-245.

Malaysia: Country Analysis Report. September, 2009 Malaysia Country Profile, 1-80.
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Power of Language

Words: 523 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32150651

Language and Communication

The Power of Language in Communication

The ability of humans to speak and utter sounds that creates meaning for understanding of human society is an important skill and capacity that distinguishes us from other living species here on earth. Possessing the power of language, we as humans are able to express our ideas and thought through it, and in the process, conducts communication and interaction with other people as well.

That is why I feel fortunate to be able to speak two languages: English and Taiwanese. Possessing the skill and knowledge to speak two languages allows me to interact with people who belong to cultures that similarly, speak Taiwanese and English. By being bilingual, I am able to converse easily with people, making initial encounters and daily interactions easier and manageable for me. Furthermore, bilingualism provides me with a lot of opportunities to conduct business communications and…… [Read More]

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Assessing Expressive Language Samples of ECE Students

Words: 1325 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Case Study Paper #: 87858703



A sample of 25 intelligible utterances obtained during an observation in the clinic, in which Jay played and interacted with his mother, provided the basis for the language analysis. The following assessments were conducted: MLU, DSS, Correct/Incorrect Form Analysis, and Type Token atio.

Mean Length of Utterance (MLU). Although oger Brown's five stages of language development differ from the scoring used in the MLU interpretation in this paper, Jay is scores within normal limits in this second version, also. Brown describes a MLU score of 3.0 to 3.75 as Stage IV of language development, which corresponds with an approximate age of 35 to 40 months. Jay has reached 41 months of age at the time of this evaluation, which puts him in Stage V of language development, with corresponding ages of 41 to 46 months. Jay's MLU score is 3.5, which may be interpreted to indicate that Jay is moderately…… [Read More]

References

Rice, M.L., Smolik, F., Perpich, D., Thompson, T., Rytting, N., and Blossom, M. (2010, April). Mean length of utterance levels in 6-month intervals for children 3 to 9 years with and without language impairments. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 53(2), 333 -- 349. doi: 10.1044/1092-4388(2009/08-0183) PMCID: PMC2849178 NIHMSID: NIHMS120034
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What Role Does Language and Language Diversity Play in the Critical Thinking Process

Words: 911 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Term Paper Paper #: 32565708

Language and Critical Thinking

Language and language diversity has a significant effect in influencing critical thinking because it shapes the individual's worldview or his/her perceptions of the realities that s/he experiences everyday. One of the most often used comparisons in order to illustrate the influence of language diversity in critical thinking is the differences in worldviews of the Eastern and Western cultures.

Looking into the basic differences in their language, Eastern societies and cultures have greater symbols representing various and subjective meanings in it. Chinese language, for instance, has many symbols or characters for every meaning or interpretation generated by the speaker/writer. This kind of language, in turn, makes the Chinese worldview subjective and varied also. Meanings in Chinese culture are embedded in language, and not explicitly expressed, thereby necessitating the individual to think about the meaning of an utterance in the context of the culture of the speaker.

As…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Dilenschneider, R. (2001). "The coming age of content and critical thinking." Executive Speeches, Vol. 15, Issue 5.

Stern, S. (2002). "Critical thinking in the former Societ Union bloc." Christian Science Monitor, Vol. 95, Issue 11.
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Case Study Improving the Performance of Skill International

Words: 1505 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 17127535

Skills International School: Case Study/Case Study: Improving the Performance of Skill

International

Mission Statement

Distributed Leadership

Fundraising Ideas

Communication plan (To Staff And Parents)

Philosophy of staff development and retention

This paper is a case study on issues that concern Skill International School leadership. Its major aim is to analyze the major approach employed in school leadership for complete improvement that lead to academic success. In an environment that is decentralized, school districts are adopting varied approaches to school leadership cooperation and distribution. They do this with the aim of responding to the pressures that emanate from ebbing school resources and enrolments (Hargreaves et al., 2007).

Introduction

The Skill International School has the lowest performance in the municipality, Title 1 school (89% receive reduced or free lunch), very high staff/faculty turnover ratio, and very low support from PTO/PTA organizations. There is a great need to build on innovative ideas for…… [Read More]

References

BSR. (2015). School Principal Resume. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from  http://www.bestsampleresume.com/sample-teachers-resume/school-principal-resume.html 

Dickinson, B. (2013). How to Prepare a Parent Teacher Communication Plan. Member Hub. Five Points Solution, Inc. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from  http://memberhub.com/blog/parent-teacher-communication-plan/ 

Exforsys. (2006). Sample Resume -- Principal Resume. IT Training and Consulting. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from  http://www.exforsys.com/career-center/sample-resumes/sample-resume-principal-resume.html 

Jeff Career Approach. (2015). School Principal Resume Sample Two. JefftheCareerCoach.com. Retrieved on 7th October, 2015 from  http://www.jeffthecareercoach.com/sample-resumes/school-resume/school-principal-resume-sample-two/
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Speaking in the Target Language Is the

Words: 3146 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76841042

speaking in the target language is the expectation that a proficient speaker will sound like a native speaker. Is this an appropriate or realistic expectation?

Not a long while after the emergence of the subject of second language acquisition (SLA), which most of the scholars think came around the time of initial years of 1970s, there has been a need to develop ways by which to measure the development of the second language, aside from the usage of detailed homogeneous skill tests which were mostly appropriate to fulfill other objectives.

As per Freeman's (2009) information, the first declaration of this need was made by Kenji Hukuta (1976). Kenji Hakuta was concerned in knowing the path of his subject Ugusiu's English language development over a period of time. Besides the aforementioned practitioners, other L1 acquisition scholars had carried out for the pupils learning English as a national language. In the research…… [Read More]

References

Bardovi-Harlig, K., & Dornyei, Z. (1998). Do language learners recognize pragmatic violations? Pragmatic vs. grammatical awareness in instructed L2 learning. TESOL Quarterly, 32, 233 -- 259.

Bialystok, E. (1991). Achieving proficiency in a second language: A processing description. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, & M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/second language pedagogy research: A commemorative volume for Claus Faerch (Vol. 64, pp. 63 -- 78). Clevedon, UK: Multilingual Matters.

Bialystok, E. (1993). Symbolic representation and attentional control in pragmatic competence. In G. Kasper & S. Blum-Kulka (Eds.), Interlanguage pragmatics (pp. 43 -- 59). New York: Oxford University Press.

Bouton, L.F. (1988). A cross-cultural study of ability to interpret implicatures in English. World Englishes, 7(2), 183 -- 196.