Last Supper is an extremely pivotal and tense event and moment. "The Last Supper" is supposedly the last meal that Jesus took with his disciples before he was killed. At this final meal, Jesus alerts his disciples of his knowledge that one of them will and has betrayed him. The painting depicts the moments supposedly that immediately followed Jesus' words.
Da Vinci's Last Supper is depicted in this ritual meal as a religious ceremony. Christ is very much the focal point of the entire piece and we have a sense of asymmetrical symmetry as he is flanked by his disciples…It is interesting to note, that with Christ as the center piece, how he is in fact well framed by the doorway. This provides contrast between his figure and the outside, as well as bringing out eye to the most important figure on the piece. His arms, head and body form…… [Read More]
In conclusion, Heinrich Wolfflin, an art critic of the early 1950's, points out that Leonardo's the Last Supper exhibits all of the classical elements of Western art and those of the High Renaissance. Also, the three major trends of 15th century painting, being monumentality and mathematically ordered space at the expense of movement and the freedom of movement at the expense of monumentality and controlled space, are all harmonized and balanced in the Last Supper which stands as the penultimate example of Leonardo da Vinci's long career as a painter and artisan. This painting also symbolizes the synthesis of the artistic developments of the 15th century and represents one of the first artistic statements of the High Renaissance style in the form of a religious icon which tells the tale of a man caught between physical life and death and the demands of a jealous and often mysterious celestial father.…… [Read More]
Analysis of "The Last Supper"
Overview of Leonardo da Vinci
Analysis of "The Last Supper"
The selected piece of artwork of Leonardo da Vinci's and it is one of the most popular paintings that depict the Jesus Christ with his twelve disciples at the dinner table. This painting is briefly providing a clear picture of both history and religion due to which it has always been fascinated with its unique imaging features. This painting illustrates the story from the Bible and is also providing a chance to its audience to view this piece of art in the town of Wieliczka in Poland. This replica is hand carved into the stone wall unlike the original painting on the wall of a church (Schramm, Schwarte and Lazardzig 2008, Dominiczak 2012). This paper provides a critical and theoretical aspects of "Last Supper" to understand the uncovered meanings of historians…… [Read More]
Leonardo da Vinci was born in 1452, and studied the laws of science. He is famous for his sketches and drawing depicting the human form and fantastical devices such as flying machines that were revolutionary at the time. He was also a master painter, and his work spanned from portraits to religious works. As an apprentice for another artist, he learned a wide range of skills that would later be applied to his different works (Biography, 2015). As a polymath, da Vinci was able to execute a wide range of subjects and his art took many different forms. This paper will look at three of his most famous works, The Mona Lisa, Ultima Cena and Lady with an Ermine, outlining how each of these works came about and what their significance is.
Probably his most famous work is the Mona Lisa. This painting is on display at the…… [Read More]
Leonardo's Last Supper (1495-1498) does something very different from the other Renaissance portrayals of this scene from the Gospel. Unlike Andrea del Castagno's or Domenico Ghirlandaio's Last Supper versions, Leonardo's is at once more earthly (neither Christ nor the Apostles wear halos) and chaotic than the others -- and yet at the same time it is substantially more divine and imposing in its stark simplicity. This paper will trace the compositional, stylistic and symbolic development of the story of the Last Supper as it is told by Leonardo da Vinci in his masterpiece of the same name.
The first thing to note about the composition of Leonardo's Last Supper is that there is a distinct separation between the space occupied by Christ and the Apostles and the viewer. They exist together, cramped, huddled, literally on top of one another on one side of a long table covered like an altar…… [Read More]
Lord's Supper by authors Oscar Cullmann and Franz Jehan Leenhardt
One of the most perplexing issues facing any Christian today is the issue of how to view the taking of the Lord's Supper every Sunday. The ancient images of wine, bread, and physical and spiritual sacrifice have undergoing extensive debate and reinterpretation throughout all of Christianity. These images, despite the controversy they have inspired, however, still are central to Christian ritual and communal life and doctrine today.
Their controversial nature has spanned from the doctrine of transubstantiation established in the early Catholic Church, to the more flexible and metaphorical definition of some of today's Christian communities. In their book, Essays on the Lord's Supper the authors Oscar Cullmann and Franz Jehan Leenhardt offer their own faith perspectives on the issue. Their duality of perspective is particularly instructive, not simply from a theological point-of-view, but because Oscar Cullmann was a professor…… [Read More]
The short story "A Faimily Supper" by Kazuo Ishiguro is not a simple piece of literature about a family gathering for a meal. A young Japanese man has returned home to Tokyo after spending years in California with a girl, though that relationship has now failed. He learns the cause of his mother's death two years earlier: posioning from a fugu fish. His father's business has recently collasped into ruin, and the father's business partner commited suicide. They are joined for dinner by Kikuko, the sister, who studies at a university. A fourth additoinal family member, the now dead mother, also appears in the story as a spectre. The brother and sister reminise about the sighting of a ghost in the garden when they had been children, while the father guides his son through the house of empty rooms, reminiscing about the life that once was there before…… [Read More]
The last supper is what gives the basis of the Eucharist according to the scriptures Therefore Leonardo used this tradition to form the basis for his painting.
Leonardo's painting the last supper was principally divided into three groups the first group was made up of Bartholomew, James the lesser and Andrew from the first group of three, here they ball appear surprised and Andrew holds his hands up in front of him in a gesture that depicted that he was frightened. The second group is made up of judas, simon peter and John .Judas here is holding a silver bag in his right hand and at the same time reaching with his left hand a piece of bread.simon peter leaning over Johns shoulder and holding a knife in his right hand symbolizes his readiness to defend Jesus while John appears to be swooning. This goes against the tradition since Judas…… [Read More]
plea to the hearts and minds of people who are being knowledgeable of the distinctive qualities and assert from the Episcopal Church. The charm from the Church tends to be realized all over our land. Its extensiveness of empathy for every situations of people, the highly convincing perspective regarding the joys of life, the liberty from peculiarity of practice and faith, have unveil the Episcopal Church to the awareness of a lot of people whose religious association have been interfered with or destabilized. e always come across some evident problem, Steve Klein (2007), which makes a lot of people not to join the Episcopal Church. The Church tends to be rather odd, or cold, or complex. It tends not to fulfill the condition that training which is done earlier results to majority anticipation in a church. The services are somehow rigid and obscure; the ways are complex; it has strange…… [Read More]
Works of religious art have gone through changes during different art periods. The paper will look at three different works of religious art. These works of art will be from the Early enaissance period, the High enaissance period and the Baroque period.
The Early enaissance period
One artist who did religious art in the early enaissance period Domenico Ghirlandaio .the title of this art work was the last supper. This work was done in 1480's within the 15th century. The medium that was used in this painting was fresco. Currently the painting is located in Ognissanti, Florence.
This work of art was very large the dimensions being Height: 400 cm (157.5 in). Width: 880 cm (346.5 in).the artist uses the existing shape of the rom to create extra space. The view in the background, painting of the ceiling in the work of art and the shape of the…… [Read More]
The Aztecs believed 13 to be a sacred number. The Aztec week was thirteen days long and the number was respected as a measure of time and completion (Number 13, 2010). The Aztec calendar year was 260 days long, which was calculated as 20, thirteen day periods, called Trecenas. The goddess Tlazolteotl was the ruler of the 13th Trecena, who was the goddess of sin and could forgive sins (Number 13, 2010). In Hinduism, the thirteenth night of the waning moon in the month of Maagha is sacred to Shiva, and notes a cause for celebration of creation and preservation (Number 13, 2010). For those reading tarot cards, the tarot 13 is the card of death. In Scandinavia, the day of the Saint Lucia celebration is December 13th (Number 13, 2010). egarding United States currency, the number 13 is seemingly glorified. On the one dollar bill, there are 13 leaves…… [Read More]
enaissance and Baroque Periods
The term enaissance describes, not only a movement in art, but also a corresponding social and cultural movement that moved through Europe at the conclusion of the Middle Ages. The enaissance period lasted from the 1400s to the 1600s, and spread through most of Europe, though it is probably the most heavily associated with Italy. The term "renaissance" means revival or rebirth, and the enaissance did mark a period of significant cultural revival. In order to truly understand the enaissance, it is important to understand that the Middle Ages, the time period preceding the enaissance was a period of retraction largely due to political instability. However, as Europe emerged from the Middle Ages and became more stable, the surrounding social landscape became supportive of an explosion in the arts and learning. The movement began in Italy in the 1400s and spread into France, northern Europe, and…… [Read More]
Western Art and Christianity
During the past millennium, Western art has been heavily influenced by Christianity. Art is an extension of the many complex thoughts and images that swim within an artist's mind. Because many Western artists have traditionally been raised in a Christian environment, it is difficult for their religious beliefs to be fully separated from their artwork, and oftentimes it is embraced in the works, or a patron has requested it be the specific subject matter. Although this heavy Christian influence would see a swift departure during the Renaissance, it would remain engrained in Western culture until the present day.
The Reformation heralded a swift separation between Christians in Europe, as Roman Catholics and Protestants divided roughly along a North to South split. Protestants seemed to dominate the North while the South remained dominated by Catholic countries. While much of the art in Protestant countries retained a secular…… [Read More]
The poems Catullus wrote to the woman Lesbia are among his best known. How would you characterize their affair?
Catallus describes a conflicted and stormy affair with the women of Lesbia. Sexual tension is evident in his poems, which have a strong erotic content. Therefore, his affairs were passionate and physical.
If the gender roles were reversed and the woman were the narrator, do you think this series of poems would read differently? Explain.
The poems would read differently not because their content would have changed but because they would subvert social norms. As a male, Catallus is allowed, almost expected to write such explicit details about his physical affairs including references to love and hatred. Females would have been more subtle because of the widespread social persecution they might suffer if they admitted to promiscuity or tumultuous romantic interludes especially with married people.
Catullus ends up calling his lady…… [Read More]
An Exegesis of John 15:1-27
John 15:1-27 recounts Christ's last words to His disciples the night before His execution on Calvary. Beginning with His identification of Himself with the "true vine" and ending His exhortation that His disciples "bear witness," Christ both states clearly and explicitly what union with Him is like and what those who are in union with Him can expect from the world. This paper will give a line-by-line exegesis of John 15:1-27.
Leon Morris (1989) notes that "in the Old Testament the vine is often a symbol of Israel, sometimes of degenerate Israel" (p. 120). Thus, when John relates a scene in which Jesus says, "I am the true vine, and My Father is the Vinedresser. Every branch in Me that does not bear fruit, He takes away; and every branch that bears fruit, He prunes it so that it may bear more fruit"…… [Read More]
Cultural Tour of the National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
Andrew William Mellon, an art collector and investor hailing from Pittsburgh, designed and presented Washington's famed National Gallery of Art to American citizens. Mellon came to the U.S. capital in the year 1921 and took up the post of U.S. "Secretary of the Treasury." He felt the nation ought to have an art gallery just like other major States. Consequently, in the year 1936, he contacted President Roosevelt and offered to contribute his splendid art collection to a new national museum, which he proposed he would construct using his personal funds. Hence, with Congressional and Presidential support, the Washington National Gallery of Art was opened in March of 1937 (National Gallery of Art, 2016).
Tour of the Gallery
I undertook a virtual visit to Washington, DC's National Gallery of Art on September 4, 2016 at approximately 11:30am. The gallery's entryway…… [Read More]
An additional type of offering was the peace-offering, which represented a feast where God was a guest and the host. Peace offerings were accompanied by meat and drink offerings. For all offerings, repentance was necessary.
In chapter seven, Edersheim describes a night in the temple. Edersheim points out the connection between Temple services and the Book of Revelations, which he suggests indicates that the Book of Revelation and the Fourth Gospel were written before Temple services actually ceased. Edersheim indicates that there was an evening service in the Temple. Accounting was also done in the evening. The Temple guard worked at night and consisted of ten men. The captain of the guard patrolled and beat any sleeping guards. The priests cast lots for the services of the day. Those who drew the first lot cleansed and prepared the later. Those who drew the second lot were to offer the sacrifice,…… [Read More]
The paper will focus on Luther and Zwingli and their views of the Lord's Supper. It will not cover the views of other reformers though they may be mentioned briefly because of their relationships to Luther and Zwingli. The Catholic Church's view of Transubstantiation will not be covered in depth though it must be discussed in relation to the theology of Luther and Zwingli.
Luther was and is to the Church of the Reformation: the great theologian of the Sacrament of the Altar"
Martin Luther's doctrine of the Lord's Supper was built on his strong belief in the Word of God. As a young man struggling with what today we would call depression, his professor directed him to an extensive study of Scripture. Luther began to study Augustine and the other church fathers, but once Luther moved beyond the writings and commentaries of others to the biblical text,…… [Read More]
The Jews, of course, were as antagonistic to hearing Stephen preach the life of Christ as they were to Christ Himself -- ho is the way of salvation, and hom they have rejected. Stephen's speech is fiery and full of love and fury -- love for Christ, fury for the Jews who rejected Him: "You stiff-necked people! Your hearts and ears are still uncircumcised." (Here Stephen as much as says, "You are not real Jews. Real Jews would have recognized their Redeemer.) "You are just like your ancestors: You always resist the Holy Spirit!" The reaction of the Jews is to stone Stephen to death. Stephen accepts his martyrdom and dies as Christ died, with a prayer for his persecutors -- and out of that prayer comes (through the mercy of God) the conversion of St. Paul.
In conclusion, "we may say that perseverance as a Christian is the only…… [Read More]
religion-focused works from literature, theatre, music, or art (such as painting and sculpture). How do they call a religion into question?
eligion is a common theme in literature, art, and music. For example, the book The Da Vinci Code is about the Catholic Church. Although the book does not discuss serious theological issues, the author Dan Brown does talk about the political hierarchies in the Church. Therefore, Brown calls into question the legitimacy of the Church due to its being a highly secretive and powerful organization that potentially uses its power as a means of social control. The book also explores the possibility that there are other narratives that can be equally as valid as the dominant narratives people have been taught.
eligion in one way or another has inspired most art throughout history and in cultures around the world. In some cultures, art is inseparable from religion, as with…… [Read More]
There is no greater religious food in the Catholic religion than the Eucharistic Supper that is given at Mass when the priest consecrates the bread and wine into the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. This act is called transubstantiation, and for Catholics it is a religious miracle because while the Body and Blood retain the appearance of bread and wine, their substance is believed to contain the body, blood, soul and divinity of Jesus Christ. Those who receive the Eucharistic during Mass and said to consume the Body of Jesus Christ. The priest announces this during Mass when he says to the people what he is doing during the consecration. Catholics believe this practice first occurred at the Last Supper, which is an account recorded in the New Testament, when Jesus turned the bread and wine used for the Pasch (the Jewish feast celebrating the Passover from…… [Read More]
The painting is shocking because of its dramatic perspective. First and foremost the table is not situated in the centre of the painting, nor is Jesus. In a symbolical manner this transmits the idea that God is no longer in the centre of man's world and this accounts for the chaos that seems to be omnipresent. The lower side of the painting is dominated by human figures and an atmosphere of panic and confusion seems to be dominating. The upper side of the painting is filled with angels. There is a clear separation lien between the scared world of the divine and the one of the people. The dark colours, as well as the composition succeeded into transmitting the desired message, managing to appeal to the viewer's emotions.
As opposed to the simplicity that the Protestants supported, a new style emerges, that is the aroque. This new artistic…… [Read More]
Synoptic Gospels: A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels: The Synoptic Gospels
A Comparison of John and the Synoptic Gospels
Matthew, Mark, Luke (Synoptic Gospels)
These cover some important episodes in Jesus; life and ministry that are notable excluded from John. These include the institution of the Lord's Supper (Matt 27: 17-25; Luke 22: 7-14; Mark 14: 12-20), the Transfiguration (Matt 17: 1-13; Mark 9: 2-13; Luke 9: 28-36), and the Temptation of Jesus (Mark 1: 12-13; Matthew 4: 1-11; Luke 4: 1-13)
These provide examples of Jesus casting out demons (Matt 8: 28-34; Mark 5: 1-17; Luke 8: 28-37)
Narrative parables are presented (such as the parable of the sower in Matt 13: 1-23; Mark 4: 1-25 and Luke 8: 4-18), as well as the Lord's Prayer (Matt 6: 6-13; Luke 11: 1-4) and the Sermon on…… [Read More]
Jesus' Teachings, Prayer, & Christian Life
"He (Jesus) Took the Bread. Giving Thanks Broke it. And gave it to his Disciples, saying, 'This is my Body, which is given to you.'" At Elevation time, during Catholic Mass, the priest establishes a mandate for Christian Living. Historically, at the Last Supper, Christ used bread and wine as a supreme metaphor for the rest of our lives. Jesus was in turmoil. He was aware of what was about to befall him -- namely, suffering and death. This was the last major lesson he would teach before his arrest following Judas' betrayal. Eschatologically speaking, the above set the stage for the Christian ministry of the apostles, evangelists and priests. Indeed, every Christian is called to give of him or herself for the Glory of God and the Glory of Mankind. The message at the Last Supper was powerful. People have put themselves through…… [Read More]
(Kleiner, 2010, pg. 360)
While Giotto's Christ Entering Jerusalem, is a depiction of Christ entering the Jerusalem. In this situation, he is trying to instill a sense of history and righteousness by showing Christ entering one of the holiest cities in Christianity. At the same time, he is embracing the same kind of basic painting style that was most commonly used during the time. This is important, because it shows how Giotto is taking more a historical approach about various events that are occurring. ("Christ Entering Jerusalem," 2009)
When you compare the two works side by side, it is clear that the 13th century ible is telling a story about how everyone should be acting within society, by highlighting how the King is viewed in same light as other religious symbols. While Christ Entering Jerusalem is showing a historical approach, based upon past events (giving everyone a sense of respect…… [Read More]
Thus, the invention of perspective by the artists of the Renaissance reflected the emergence of science and the mathematical ordering of man's observations of the physical world.
The manifestation of perspective can clearly be observed in the paintings of many Renaissance artists. For instance, da Vinci's masterpiece the Last Supper, rendered between 1495 and 1498 as a wall fresco, portrays the figure of Jesus Christ sitting in the center of the picture with his body framed by a central window in the background and a curved pediment, the only curve in the architectural framework serving as a halo, arching above his head which serves as the focal point for all the perspective lines/axis in the composition, a system not invented by da Vinci but one copied from earlier master painters.
Another earlier example is Christ Delivering the Keys of the Kingdom to St. Peter by Perugino, rendered as a wall…… [Read More]
This ritual takes place on the eighth day after birth and the ceremony itself involves both religious and surgical elements and may be performed by a surgeon of a specially-trained Mohel who has both surgical and religious knowledge. After the circumcision is performed, a festive meal almost always follows as a symbol of thanks to God and to the prophet Abraham.
One of the most complicated religious rituals of Judaism is the ar Mitzvah for boys and less frequently, the at Mitzvah for girls. These words mean "the son or the daughter of the commandment and mark the coming of age of a male or female child" (Harvey, 325) who is then seen as an adult and is responsible for observing the commandments set down by Moses and to fill adult roles in the congregation of the synagogue. This ritual traditionally occurs on the Sabbath following the child's thirteenth birthday…… [Read More]
Leonardo wanted the ability to change things as he worked, and so he developed this method. The work is another religious work that depicts Christ supping with his disciples and discovering Judas is his betrayer. It is a powerful work that communicates the downfall of Christ by one of his own supporters, and it elicits emotional reactions from many who view it. The composition and color of the work have faded during the ages, and many restoration projects have resulted. However, the power and craft of the work are clear in the facial and clothing details, and even the details of the room, the table and setting, and the view through the windows behind the group. The composition is famous, with Christ at the center of the table, symbolizing his power and leadership, and the other disciples reacting at horror at the news one of them is a traitor. The…… [Read More]
Jesus to Luther
A Review of the Course "From Jesus to Luther"
Key Ideas of the Course
The key ideas of the course were those which were emphasized by each of the ten sessions. Each session helped break the history of Christianity into sections, beginning with Christ Himself and how He was the fulfillment of the Old Testament prophecies. I found Fulton Sheen to be a complementary source when it came to understanding this sense of fulfillment: Fulton Sheen (1990) makes clear in his "Life of Christ" that the sacrifice of the Old Law finds its ultimate perfection in the sacrifice of the ew Covenant established by Jesus Christ during the Passover of His 33rd year. Sheen explains the relation between Jesus' words at the Last Supper and the Passover by explaining how the Passover itself signified a new sacrifice for the Jews: "The old promise made to Israel in…… [Read More]
However, in general the author relies on strong nouns and verbs to tell the story.
1. Verb choices are particularly strong and vibrant: the author uses words like "prompted," "wrapped," and "poured," which makes for a compelling and dramatic narrative and corresponds with the suspenseful atmosphere.
2. The author uses many complex sentences consisting of both dependent and independent clauses, but the author uses varied sentence structure to create rhythm.
3. The author uses subtle repetition: "not just my feet but my hands and my head as well," (John 13: 9).
4. The author uses parallelism also to create rhythm. For example, "he got up from the meal, took off his outer clothing, and wrapped a towel around his waist," (John 13:4).
5. Foreshadowing is one of the hallmarks of this passage. For example, "Jesus knew that the time had come for him to leave this world and…… [Read More]
The beauty of God’s covenant with us is that each and every day we have the opportunity to renew our faith and reinvigorate our lives through love. Participating in the sacraments is an act of true communion, for when we participate in the Eucharist we are engaging in a two-way dialogue with God. A covenant is a commitment, a bilateral agreement between God and each of you. Christ made it possible for us to cultivate this special relationship, for it is only through His sacrifice that it becomes possible for us to experience the power of the covenant in a direct way. When you participate in the Eucharist, try to remember its deeper meaning, to consider the importance and value of the covenant and what it means for the salvation of humanity.
The Eucharist is the direct extension of the new covenant between God and His people. Let us consider…… [Read More]
" Communicants are also required to fast in preparation to receive Communion. Currently, this requirement is a fast of one hour prior to Communion of all food and drink other than water and medication. A longer fast of at least three hours, or from midnight, is preferred. Understanding the seriousness of these guidelines helps instill respect for taking Communion in students. This helps students understand that this isn't something that they just do at Mass without thought. Instead, they must prepare themselves physically and spiritually.
Lastly, students should be taught why Communion is taken so frequently. The Eucharist facilitates a union between Man and Christ. Through this lesson, students learn that Communion is a spiritually nourishing event, while also obeying the Lord's instructions to eat and drink His Body and Blood. Each time a communicant takes part in Holy Communion, this brings an increased level of sanctifying grace to their…… [Read More]
Artistic works are often referenced in categorized by their particular genre or style. For example, in painting there are a number of different genres such as Abstract, Impressionism, Modernism etc. (Harrison, 2009). The term "history paintings" or sometimes called "historical paintings" refers to a particular genre of painting where the genre is defined by the subject matter as opposed to the artistic style of painting (Wolfflin, 2012). The distinction between "history paintings" and "historical paintings" is a fine one; however, historical paintings are typically considered to be scenes from secular history, whereas history paintings can include depictions from history, mythology, or can simply contain allegorical material. Thus, most of the works of art that would be classified as his store coal paintings most likely are subsets of history; however, history paintings are not limited to the depiction of historical scenes. The term "history painting" has been traced back to the…… [Read More]
Most scholars agree that Mark's Gospel was written between 60 and 75 AD and that Mark's account served as a source for Matthew's Gospel, which was written at around the same period. However, while Mark wrote his Gospel for the Gentiles, Matthew wrote to the Hebrews in and around Palestine. Thus, their audiences were completely different with very different needs. For the Hebrews, it was important to understand how Jesus was God -- and that is the overall point of Matthew's Gospel: to show that "God is present in Jesus."[footnoteRef:1] [1: Mark Allan Powell, Introducing the New Testament (MI: aker Academic, 2013), 58.]
The Gospel of Matthew gives an account of the history of Jesus Christ and is composed for the benefit of the inhabitants of Palestine in the time-period shortly after Our Lord's death. As one of the Apostles, Matthew had an intimate knowledge of Jesus. In…… [Read More]
In his book, "Western Ways of eing Religious," (Kessler, 1999) the author Gary E. Kessler identifies the theological, philosophical and societal ramifications of the evolution of religion in the West. Christianity, Judaism and Islam can be traced to a single origin but their divergence has been very marked. Kessler sets his thesis very early in the book. He avers that there are two approaches to religion. One is to be immersed in it -- as a practitioner; the other is to study it as an objective observer, looking in from the outside. This work is unique. The author challenges the traditional notions with his own opinions then follows it with the views of an expert on that notion (in the form of a speech or an essay). He avers that a student of religion has to approach the topic with honesty and openness. This often involves imagining the…… [Read More]
If children are repeatedly exposed to certain portrayals of an ethnic group, they may develop corresponding beliefs about the group" (Horgan, et. al., 2001)
Because there are very few advertisements that use the minority groups as the product endorsers, children are made to believe that these minority groups are not part of the "elites" and are just second-class citizen. This then cultivates the idea to children that minority groups do not deserve to receive the same attention that what other citizens are receiving, thus a clear indication of racism.
Intentionally or not, controversial advertisements do affect the psychological, emotional, physical and sociological state of the children. Children are very susceptible to various effects presented by the advertisements because they can easily be swayed to change their perceptions and even their behaviors. This is the very reason why there must be strict control over the contents and implication of the…… [Read More]
The Gospel of Mark is one of the most important Gospels in the New Testament. It is considered so important because it provides a canonical account of the life of Jesus, and narrates the Ministry of Jesus from his baptism from John the Baptist all the way to the death and resurrection. (Bright, 2006) The gospel focuses on the last week of the life of Jesus in Jerusalem. It deals mainly with the attempts of Jesus to perform miracles while maintaining a sense of secrecy about his own divinity, and after he predicts the events that are about to unfold, his disciples misunderstand the immanency of Jesus' demise.
Mark's Gospel does not discuss Jesus' birth or his life before his baptism. It simply refers to Jesus as the man from Galilee. The baptism of Jesus is portrayed as an interesting affair where Jesus' position had not…… [Read More]
Search of Jesus of Nazareth
The Four Gospels, Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John are four of the most controversial books in what makes up what we know as the modern Bible. They are the first four books of the New Testament and depending upon the view of the interpreter, form the basis of the modern Christian religion itself. There are two conflicting views of the four Gospels. The first is the fundamentalist view, which takes the incredible happenings contained in these books on faith. They contend that the miracles performed are indeed factual and literal accounts of the events that transpired. The other view is the historical-critical view of the four Gospels. This view presents the happenings in the four Gospels as a type of myth. It takes the viewpoint that the happenings are allegorical, or political satire, as opposed to being factual accounts of the events and that Jesus…… [Read More]
Oscar Cullmann, Nolan, and Genezio Boff. Oscar Cullmann can be described as a Christian theologian within the Lutheran tradition. His most notable work involved the ecumenical movement. He was in part accountable for the formation of dialogue between the oman Catholic and Lutheran traditions.
Nolan was born in the city of Cape Town, South Africa. He is of English descent and is a fourth-generation South African. Influenced by Thomas Merton, Nolan became fascinated to the idea of spiritual life. Ultimately, Nolan joined the Dominican Order by 1954, studying in ome and South Africa eventually receiving a doctorate.
Born with the name Genezio Darci Boff, Boff hails from Concordia, Santa Catarina. Boff entered the Franciscan Order by 1959 being ordained as a Catholic priest by 1964. He spent subsequent years studying to earn a doctorate in philosophy and theology at the University of Munich, in 1970. His doctoral thesis studied measures…… [Read More]
It did not permit them to provide medical or humanitarian aid to the enemy side, which was common in other wars. More than 2,000 Mennonites were drafted, and, for the first time, spent time in military camps. Another 600 to 800 left the United States for Canada. Finally, in 1918, the Farm Furlough Bill allowed COs to do farm labor in lieu of military duty due to the extensive labor shortage (ibid)
Not every CO could change his status, however. Each situation was taken by itself and evaluated separately to determine if the individual was truly a conscientious objector. In fact, about ten percent of those Mennonites who declined all service to the military were court-martialed and sent to jail, sixty percent found some other option of service such as farm labor or reconstruction work, and thirty percent of those drafted remained in army camps without opportunity to meet with…… [Read More]
Drug addiction is not merely a failure of will or weakness in character, however having this 'brain disease' does not absolve the addict of responsibility for his or her behavior, but it does explain why an addict feels compelled to continue using drugs (Leshner 2001). Environmental cues that surround an individual's initial drug use and development of the addiction, actually become "conditioned" to the drug use and thus are critical to the problem of addiction (Leshner 2001).
Therefore, when those cues are present at a later time, "they elicit anticipation of a drug experience and thus generate tremendous drug craving" (Leshner 2001). This type of cue-induces craving is one of the most frequent causes of drug use relapses, independently of whether drugs are available and even after years of abstinence (Leshner 2001).
In March 2006, it was reported that researchers from Liverpool, England discovered a gene that directly affects the…… [Read More]
An Analysis of the Priesthood "in persona Christi" and "in nominee ecclesiae"
The questions that surround the functions of the priesthood and the diaconate today appear to be part and parcel of the greater uncertainty that surrounds ancient Church customs. This paper will attempt to analyze the meanings of the phrases "in persona Christi" and "in nomine ecclesiae" as they have reflected the functions of the ministers of the Church both in the past and in today. The conclusion of this research is that while the traditional Church maintained a clear definition (and reverent propriety regarding the mystery of the priestly aspect), today's Church is less sure of the role and function of the minister in relation to Church hierarchy and Church laity.
In Persona Christi
Historical Background: the Vestments
Pius XII's (1947) encyclical Mediator Dei describes for us the aspect of the priest in relation to Jesus…… [Read More]
Art During Renaissance
The Evolution of Art During the Renaissance
The Renaissance period is defined as a cultural movement that spanned approximately from the 14th to the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the Late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe (rotton 2006, p. 6). This period in the history of art included the painting, decorative arts and sculpture of the period and for many was considered a reawakening or rebirth of historic and ancient traditions based on the classical antiquity and the inclusion of more recent developments by applications of contemporary scientific knowledge.
The Renaissance was seen as a bridge between the Middle Ages and the modern era. The period also marked a cognitive shift from religious perspectives to a more intellectual and social focus. Classical texts previously lost to European scholars became readily available and included science, drama, poetry, prose, philosophy, and new considerations…… [Read More]
..."(hite, p. 106). This goes beyond religion into metaphysics, but he brings it back to a more understandable realm, the realm of the church service arguably, by noting that those 'same' waitresses had begun washing their hair frequently, in imitation of things they had seen in the movies.
By the end of the page, hite has returned to the mystical, building an implied comparison to the entirety of Christianity to an almost musical crescendo: "Summertime, oh summertime, pattern of life indelible the fade proof lake, the woods unshatterable, the pasture with the sweet fern and the juniper forever and ever, summer without end...." (hite, p. 106).
On the following page, hite is immersed in memories of earlier times, times that bear a resemblance, in his retelling, of the early Christian ideas of community, everyone joyously committed to a single purpose, taking pleasure in seeing others of like mind, conducting the…… [Read More]
The TV series M*A*S*H holds a special place in the history of American popular culture. M*A*S*H ran for eleven seasons beginning in the autumn of 1972 with a total of two hundred and fifty-one episodes, and the series finale of M*A*S*H in 1981 remains the most watched series television episode of all time. Yet from the standpoint of critical analysis, there are a number of curious issues about the show and its popularity. For a start, what genre is it? The 1970 Robert Altman film upon which the series is based is usually described as a "black comedy," but the reality of the series is slightly stranger than that. Budd and Steinman, for example, define the genre as something they call "warmedy" -- "comedy overlaid with empathetic audience identification." This is an important concept as to how the show worked (and we will return to it later in discussion)…… [Read More]
Giotto's Kiss Of Judas
Giotto's depiction of the Kiss of Judas, on the wall of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, was painted in the early years of the fourteenth century -- it is a religious illustration, meant to gloss the moment in Christ's Passion depicted in three of the four synoptic Gospels (Matthew 26:47-50; Mark 14:43-45; Luke 22:47-48), wherein Judas Iscariot identifies Christ in the Garden of Gethsemane, so that he may be arrested. Judas has decided to signal Christ's identity by kissing him warmly, and the "Judas kiss" has thus become extended as a kind of metaphor for the treacherous hypocrisy of a betrayer or an informant. The eye-catching central portion of the painting here depicts Judas, with his left arm extended and the scalloped folds of his bright orange cloak hanging down like a theatrical curtain: Judas' arm more or less eclipses most of Christ's body, so we…… [Read More]
females and their plights. The writer explores the films Fried Green Tomatoes and Stepmom to discuss the way gender of the film is affected by gender. There were four sources used to complete this paper.
Fans of the silver screen have enjoyed the entertainment value of movies since the industry's infancy. Whether it is a desire to laugh, to cry, to yell or to spend quality time with children, movie goers have been able to find it during a day at the theater. While the industry by and large is there for the purpose of entertainment, the movies have also been used to send messages to the world. Political trends, fads and other things important to society have worked through their evolvement on the screen for the viewers. One of the more recent trends that has been finding its way on the silver screen in the past few decades is…… [Read More]
Mormonism was founded by Joseph Smith in the early 19th century in New York. Its formal name is the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. During the Second Great Awakening (a Protestant movement in America in the early 1800s), Smith generated and drew support for his vision of America's privileged place in the history of Christianity. Smith's vision was rooted in the reformist movement of the Great Awakening and the doctrines that Smith taught were of the omantic spirit that fueled the Awakening, attracting many people of the time who looked forward to the return of Christ to the world as foretold in the New Testament (Smith, 2004). The new message that Smith gave to his followers was that "on the morning of the 22nd of September 1827 the Angel of the Lord delivered" to him "a series of records of the aboriginal inhabitants of North America" -- records…… [Read More]
He does not, however, say where the text came from.
Another main way of seeing the problem is to claim that the writer has used different sources to create his gospel. These sources preceded him in the Christian tradition, and may have included both the synoptic gospels and other non-canonical or lost texts. In putting different sources together, he has been forced to make decisions. When he relied on tradition and not his own account, he is not able to make a coherent well-flowing narrative. It comes out disjointed.
Schnackenburg proposes perhaps the most satisfactory solution. His view is that John 15-16, and John 17 separately, were later insertions to the text done by an editor. He accepts that there is some continuity of content in the discourses following 14:31, which makes chapters 15-17 appropriate. ut he accepts also that the transition is overly abrupt, and that the more original…… [Read More]
The eye moves easily around the painting and its different elements. People are the focal point of "The Marriage Feast at Cana." However, the bright blue sky and the cheerful trees in the background suggest that the party is not merely a debauch occasion. There is a genuine sense of joy in the painting. Ricci emphasizes a few elements to let the viewer understand the subject matter. The table is the focal point of the marriage feast. Unlike the Last Supper, this is a joyous occasion at which wine flows copiously and music fills the air. Ricci places a few young musicians in the foreground for this very reason. With the color red, the eye is naturally drawn as well towards the musicians in the sky box.
Contrast is one of the visual elements that make "The Marriage Feast at Cana" outstanding. Shadows allow many elements to come to the…… [Read More]
It is the context of Catholic Ireland (and not so much the Hays Production Code) that allows Ford's characters to enjoy the light-heartedness of the whole situation.
Such context is gone in O'Neill's dramas. O'Neill's Irish-American drinkers have left the Emerald Isle and traded it over for a nation where religious liberty denies the right of any religion to declare itself as true and all others as false. The Constitution, in fact, has been amended to keep government from declaring the truth of any religion. If no religion is true, how can the Tyrone's be expected to know the difference between Baudelaire's "spiritual drunkenness" and "physical drunkenness"?
O'Neill has Edmund quote Baudelaire in Long Day's Journey into Night as an attempt to rationalize his characters' drunkenness: "Be always drunken. Nothing else matters: that is the only question. If you would not feel the horrible burden of Time weighing on your…… [Read More]
The second section of the Jonah story is that which is contained in the third chapter, where Jonah preaches to the people of Nineveh and they quickly turn back to God and away from their errant behaviors. The main subject of this section is God's compassion, which is willingly bestowed upon the deserving. Whereas the previous section contained immediately present and observable threats to the very lives of the people involved, in this section it is merely Jonah's admonition that is required to turn the people of Nineveh back on to the path of righteousness. Upon hearing his words, even the king reduces himself to fasting and sackcloth, and requires the same turning to God of all the citizens and even the livestock that live within the city. This total devotion to God from a mere reminder of his due is enough to restore God's compassion and dissuade him from…… [Read More]
"The body of a bloodied Christ is divinely displaced from its sepulcher" and transferred to the est, where it must regain its rightful place, symbolically making Christianity's ownership of Jerusalem rightful and just."
Allen, Charlotte. "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009.
Hughes, Linda K. "Reinventing King Arthur: The Arthurian Legends in Victorian
Culture." Victorian Studies, 48. 3 (April 1, 2006): 559-560. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed December 16, 2009).
Miesel, Sandra. "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004. Accessed December 16, 2009
from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
hitman, J. "Transfers of Empire, Movements of Mind: Holy Sepulchre and Holy Grail." MLN,
123. 4 (September 1, 2008): 895-923,978. http://www.proquest.com / (accessed
December 16, 2009).
Charlotte Allen, "The real grail tale," Belief Net, December 16, 2009, p.2. http://www.beliefnet.com/Entertainment/Movies/The-Da-Vinci-Code/The-Real-Grail-Tale.aspx
Sandra Miesel, "The real Holy Grail," Crisis Magazine, 2004, Accessed December 16, 2009 from Inside Catholic at http://insidecatholic.com/Joomla/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=6747&Itemid=48
Allen, p.2…… [Read More]
He is one of the few artists that were recognized for his work while he was still living.
One of Michelangelo's most exquisite pieces is Pieta. In this sculpture, we can see how Michelangelo was moving away from the traditional form of sculpting. Creighton Gilbert notes that how Mary and Jesus are depicted in the statue is not typical of Michelangelo's day. Mary is seated with the dead Jesus in her lap and this image "first emerged as an abbreviation of the scene of Christ mourned" (160). Harold Keller maintains that the piece is filled with contrasts, horizontally and vertically. e also have the opposites of the clothed and the naked. The position of Jesus' body is different from most pietas of the day in that it is horizontal, producing a "step-like composition based on the sharp right able between the corpse and the upper body of the Madonna towering…… [Read More]
The same thing can be said of painting and other forms of aesthetic art. Art allows us to feel. For example, when we look at DaVinci's Last Supper, we feel something. Claude Monet's ater Lilies provides us with another example of how art can make us feel something. It is important to note that these feelings can be almost anything. They do not have to be positive or negative - it all depends on the artist and the audience.
Art allows us to feel. Tom Anderson maintains that we make art to "make sense of things, to give meaning to our existence" (Anderson). Anderson also states that another reason why we make art is to "communicate something that counts to someone else" (Anderson). "Making art is an attempt to bring order into being, to create something meaningful where nothing existed before" (Anderson). He contends that the "artist's goal is to…… [Read More]
This includes the need to maintain chastity, a test Perceval passes when he "has a close call with sexual temptation: slipping into bed with a demon in alluringly feminine form, he is only saved when his glance falls on the red cross inscribed on his sword pommel. The 'lady' and her silk tent disappear in a flash and a puff of smoke, leaving the tell-tale sulphurous stench of hell. A distraught Perceval stabs himself through the left thigh in penance" (Kaeuper 258). Such ability to resist is the mark of a knight, though many of the stories also suggest that the knight often fails this test at some point and then has to do penance to make up for his failure.
hether the Grail derives from Christian ideas first or from Celtic images and stories, over time the idea of the Grail did become more associated with Christian symbols so…… [Read More]
Like Pope John Paul II, Pope enedict wanted to emphasize the mystery of the Eucharist, and to help the Church community put the Celebration of Mass and Sacraments into a context by which to move forward in time.
It is clear that both Pope John Paul II and Pope enedict XVI stand firm on maintaining the Traditions of the Church, both Sacramental and political, and with as little change to them as possible. It has long been the position of the Church that consistency in Tradition follows the path of God (YOUR TEXT TITLE, EDITOR, DATE).
There is certain symbolism associated with the liturgy that serves to link the community or laity to the tradition of the Celebration of the Eucharist; and that symbolism is the altar, the minister or priest, the cup that holds the wine or the lood of Jesus; the read that is the ody of Christ;…… [Read More]
Humanities are Important:
An analysis of the Da Vinci Code, Beethoven's 9th, and 1984.
A novel by George Orwell (pseudonym), real name Eric Blair
Published in 1949
A reaction to the totalitarian state engulfing the global community
The Da Vinci Code
A (2006) film by on Howard
Based on the novel by Dan Brown
obert Langdon follows a series of clues that link Leonardo's masterpieces, the mystery of Jesus Christ, and a totalitarian regime in the guise of the Catholic Church
Beethoven's 9th Symphony
Completed in 1824 after the composer (Ludwig van Beethoven) had gone completely deaf, this -- his final symphony -- is often considered to be one of the greatest musical masterpieces of all time. The fourth movement is based on Schiller's "Ode to Joy" and invokes a chorus of universal brotherhood. If you listen long enough, you will hear the music swell into a magnificent burst of…… [Read More]
A good example of this can be seen with Sistine Chapel in the Last Supper. In this piece, he is using color and his imagination to understand what is happening. The use of bright and dark colors added to the sense of realism by giving the appearance as if these events were happening at the moment. In the future, this technique would be utilized by artists to create a sense of appreciation and underscore the emotions of the work itself.
Furthermore, the article that was written by Oremaland (1980), is discussing how pieta has often been used throughout many different building projects in the world (with the original at St. Peter's Cathedral). Since that time, various churches have used this dome like structure to create designs that mirror those of Michael Angelo. These different elements are important, because they are showing how this technique was continually embraced by various contractors…… [Read More]
This was even though he received no immediate remuneration, in terms of money or benefits, from developing such interests. Leonardo's notebooks of this period of his life reveal a spirit of scientific inquiry and a mechanical inventiveness that were centuries ahead of his time.
Ivor Hart makes it clear that Leonardo was far more than a great artist: he had one of the best scientific minds of his time. Perhaps Leonardo's great talent was in observing -- he made careful, painstaking observations of the natural world, such as birds in flight. Such careful observations of the natural world are critical, of course, to the eye of a great artist. But Leonardo's eye enabled him to carry out research of precision as well as beauty, in science as well as art.
Perhaps the real paradox is how separate art and science have become in the modern construction of the disciplines. Leonardo…… [Read More]