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Latin American Politics
United States-Latin American relations have under went many changes during the 20th century, a time of intense U.S. involvement in the region. Describe the shifts as evidence by Gunboat Diplomacy, Good Neighbor Policy, Alliance for Progress, and The Reagan Doctrine. Explain the reasons behind each shift and also the underlying consistencies of U.S. Policy.
Because of its geographic proximity to the United States, Latin America has been a key concern for the United States. In the twentieth century, the U.S. intervened in Latin America to keep peace in its countries, build a transcontinental canal, attend to economic interests, and keep communism from invading the world. The United States used its political and economic superiority and its strong military force to work toward these goals.
During the late 19th century, the United States declared victory over the Spanish empire, establishing the nation's status as the dominant power in…
The developmentalism of the Somoza era (over 40 years of repressive government) was "part of a comprehensive strategy" by the U.S. to: a) keep the Somoza family in power; b) to ward off influences by Cuba and the U.S.S.R.; and c) create "internationally backed institutions" like the "Nicaraguan Investment Corporation" (Cervantes-Rodriguez, 200).
Meanwhile, another updated view reflects that today a few Latin America nations are emerging from "traditional agrarian to an urban industrial economy" (Riesco, 2009, p. S22) -- but other Latin American countries are just "taking early steps," Riesco explains. There have been two distinct development strategies employed in Latin America, including "state developmentalism" in the period between the 1920s roughly to the 1980s, which Riesco explains has been successful in terms of meeting economic and social progress (S22).
And in the last few decades several Latin American countries adopted what Riesco refers to as "the Washington consensus" which…
Cervantes-Rodriguez, Margarita, 2009, 'Nothing (Entirely) New under the Sun: Developmentalism and Neoliberalism in Nicaragua', in Beyond Neoliberalism in Latin America?: Societies and Politics at the Crossroads, J. Burdick, P. Oxhorn, and K. Roberts, Editors. Macmillan: New York.
Draibe, Sona, and Riesco, Manuel, 2009, 'Social Policy and Development in Latin America: The Long View', Social Policy & Administration, vol. 43, 328-346.
Riesco, Manuel, 2009, 'Latin America: a new developmental welfare state model in the making? International Journal of Social Welfare, vol. 18, S22-S36.
Wynia, Gary W., 1990, The Politics of Latin American Development, Cambridge University Press: New York.
While this may not sound controversial now, at the time it was, as Brazilian scientists and doctors would typically attempt to conform to whatever had recently been discovered in Western Europe without trying to generate any of their own original contributions to their fields. The Escola Tropicalista Bahiana, on the other hand, would attempt to merge tropical medicine with the latest European advances, in an effort to producing medical advances that catered particularly to the denizens of northeastern Brazil. In doing so, they effectively challenged the dominance of Rio de Janeiro in the medical field. Since they had no official medical base, they utilized the charity hospital in Salvador, where they began teaching and publishing an influential medical journal. They were thus able to make a powerful and effective contribution to medicine from a uniquely Latin American - and specifically Brazilian - perspective.
Part II, Question B
After the coup…
Latin American Movement
Just recently, ocas del Toro, a city of Panama, has been wrought with civil unrest, riots, protests and police violence. The cause of these disturbances is the new law that the Panamanian Assembly approved, called Law 30, or more aptly nicknamed "The Chorizo (Sausage) Law." To pass this law without public scrutiny, the National Assembly held three days of extraordinary meetings -- behind closed doors -- with no public hearing and closely guarded by the National Police (Joubert-Ceci). The driving force behind passing the law is President Ricardo Martinelli, who came into power in 2009 as a conservative candidate, full of ideas for change and betterment for his people by "cutting crime and corruption." (rockwehl)
Since that time it has become increasingly clear to Panama, the United States and the United Nations that President Martinelli had no such plans for change or betterment. Instead of upholding his…
Arosemana, Yasser Williams. "Interpreting Law 30: The "sausage Law" a Challenge to Democracy." HOME | Newsroom Panama - Panama News and Events in English. 15 July 2010. Web. 21 Jan. 2011. .
Brockwehl, Alexander. "Panama's Unraveling Democracy: The Social Cost of Martinelli's Chorizo Law." Centre Tricontinental - CETRI. 30 July 2010. Web. 21 Jan. 2011. .
Joubert-Ceci, Berta. "State Repression Awakens Worker Resistance in Panama." Workers World. 14 July 2010. Web. 21 Jan. 2011. .
Singer, Olivia. "Labor Unrest in Central America: The Growing Divide between Economic and Labor Policy." Center for Strategic and International Studies. 20 July 2010. Web. 21 Jan. 2011. .
Latin American History
What were the main external and internal threats facing the Spanish Empire in the Americas from the 16th -19th centuries? The Spanish Empire, by virtue of the timing of the discovery and placement of colonies in the New World, was the first global empire. Spain, however, was very dependent upon the resources it could export in order to battle England and France for hegemony on the seas and in the New World. Essentially, the Empire was too large to manage effectively and Spain was engaged almost continually in multi-front wars for control over territory without the resources to adequately hold those territories. During the Habsburg Golden Age, roughly 1516-1643, Spain controlled the Holy Roman Empire and, from the political capital of Seville, ruled the world. Rather than a more modern approach to investment, the wealthy of Spain invested in public debt rather than in production, manufacturing and…
Latin America: Political or Apolitical
Forrest Colburn argues in his book, Latin America at the End of Politics that ideological conflicts between the conservative and liberal ideologies have lost their pull in Latin America and a new more apolitical consensus about government has emerged regionally. This work will analyze and evaluate Colburn's claims regarding the new ideology of Latin America. Specifically, the work will compare Colburn's theories with the case material about Guatemala, Mexico, Cuba, Nicaragua, Chili and Brazil that can be found with Harry E. Vanden and Gary Prevost's book, Politics of Latin America: The Power Game. Colburn's core ideas are bolstered and contradicted within the case work mentioned but the overall impression of the work has much merit in the foundation of the political climate within Latin America.
Colburn's theories revolve around the idea that through the dramatic changes both within Latin America and around the world that…
Colburn, Forrest D. Latin America at the End of Politics. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 2002.
Vanden, Harry E., Gary Prevost. Politics of Latin America: The Power Game. New York:
Oxford University Press, 2002.
Latin American History
For the first two generations of Latin America's radicals, liberals and democrats, the legacy of the colonial past was a terrible burden that their countries had to overcome in order to achieve progress and social and economic development. That legacy included absolutism, arbitrary rule, aristocracy, feudalism, slavery, oppression of the indigenous peoples, lack of public education and the overwhelming power of the Catholic Church, backed by the state. Almost all of them, including Francisco Bilbao, Jose Mora, Andres Bello and Jose Lastarria hoped for a break with the past, either through gradual reform or revolutionary upheaval, and they often placed great emphasis on the need for a secular system of public education. Their basic assumption was that feudalism should be replaced with free market/free trade capitalism, although as early as the 1840s the most advanced thinkers were already becoming familiar with the new socialist ideas in Europe.…
Bello, Andres. "Speech Delivered at the Installation of the University of Chile, September 17, 1843" in Humphrey, Ted and Janet Burke (Eds). Nineteenth-Century Nation Building and the Latin American Intellectual Tradition. Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2007: 53-62.
Bello, Andres. "Response to Lastarria on the Influence of the Conquest" (1844) in Humphrey and Burke, 62-73.
Bilbao, Francisco. "Chilean Sociability" (1844) in Humphrey and Burke, 104-23.
Bolivar, Simon. "Address to the Angostura Congress, February 15, 1819" In Humphrey and Burke, 3-22.
Latin American economies suffered military dictatorship nationalist government delivered promises developing economies. Compare contrast countries: Brazil Mexico. In comparison, detail destabilizing role "inflationary finance" How countries attempt squeeze structural inflation gripped economies decades? current prospect?.
Latin American economies -- Brazil and Mexico
Brazil and Mexico are part of the same global region, traditionally challenged by autocratic leadership and dictatorship. The states are however found at different stages of economic development, sign of different contexts and responses. Mexico has for instance benefited from its proximity to the United States, which has materialized in numerous outsourcing contracts. Brazil on the other hand has created a strategy of attracting tourists and improving its infrastructure.
Brazil is the most economically developed country in South America and this is pegged to its sustained investments in agriculture, mining, services and manufacturing. In the most recent years, the country has even been characterized by an increased emphasis…
Gould, J.E., Mexico inflation slows to lowest level in four months, Bloomberg, 2011, http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2011-02-09/mexico-inflation-slows-to-lowest-level-in-four-months-update2-.html last accessed on May 3, 2011
Lyons, J., In Brazil, inflation haunts officials, The Wall Street Journal, 2011, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052748704364004576132273933954678.html last accessed on May 3, 2011
The world factbook, Central Intelligence Agency, 2011, https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook / last accessed on May 3, 2011
Latin Music Industry Problems
The global music industry has suffered a three fold attack on its profitiabiithy in the recent years. From three separate sectors new technology has affected the abilty of the music industry to make a profit, and continue to support the artist which make the industry possible. If these three areas are not addressed in the political, and legal arena in the near futre, the health and well being of the entire industry, expecialy in developing regions such as Latin America could be doewn graded from satisfactory to critical. Without intervention, the industry could be force onto life support in the near futre, with its overall existence threatened.
These three factors have affected all areas of the Latin American and global music distribution businesss. The problem has become one of increasing importance in Latin America because the market was previously one of the fasted growing music markets…
Buckley, Cara. One-third of CDS around the world are copies. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service; 10/2/2000
Chmielewski, Dawn C. Music industry to try new copy-protection measures. Knight Ridder/Tribune News Service; 1/20/2003.
Cobo, Leila. Latin music: Even pirates can't stall the sales spiral Billboard; 12/30/2000;
Cobo, Leila. Latin markets struggle as illicit product thrives Billboard; 2/1/2003;
Critical Book Review
Civantos, Christina. Between Argentines and Arabs: Argentine Orientalism, Arab
Immigrants, and the Writing of Identity. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 2006.
Orientalism was a term coined by the postcolonial theorist Edward Said to describe the reduction of Middle Eastern or East Asian culture to a kind of exotic literary trope. Said discusses this development mainly in relation to European powers and their colonial possessions, but Christina Civantos in her 2006 text Between Argentines and Arabs: Argentine Orientalism, Arab Immigrants, and the Writing of Identity examines the phenomenon of Orientalism specifically in a Latin American context. Argentina was one of the most ethnically diverse societies of Latin America. The debate over colonialism, Nationalism, Orientalism took on a unique character in the country because of its cross-section of identities. European, Indian, and Arabs were all determined to create their unique subjectivity in relation to…
These indicate that they will not assimilate into the American way of life like European predecessors or Asian immigrants. Huntington estimates that, at worst, America will divide into an English-speaking "Anglo-American" and a Spanish-speaking MexAmerica. In addition to immigration woes, the second threat consists of identity politics and cultural relativism, which will undermine the current "Anglo-American" culture. The Mexican wave will reject individualism and uphold group rights. The last threat to American identity is the declining patriotism among leading bureaucratic, business and intellectual elites. Their new values oppose the traditional patriotism of the majority of the American public. This opposition is detrimental to political trust and solidarity.
Most recent U.S. Census data substantially confirm massive immigration from Mexico.
The growth of the Hispanic population is almost half of the growth of the total U.S. population. This translates to one in 7 who has Hispanic roots. Recent statistics say that 40%…
Citrin, Jack et al. Testing Huntington: Is Hispanic Immigration a Threat to American Identity? Journal Perspective in Politics: American Political Science
Association, 2007. Retrieved on October 24, 2010 from http://www.apsanet.org/imgtest/PerspectivesMar07Citrin_etal.pdf
Hanson, Gordon H. And McIntosh, Craig M. The Great Mexican Emigration.
School of International Relations and Pacific Studies: University of California
Future of the Latin American Music Recording Industry
A recent television commercial for the Honda motor cars complete the dialogue of features and benefits of new products with three words from the product spokesperson. "This changed everything" is uttered in astounded disbelief as the person discovers that the new products and services are a breakthrough in the particular product line. The same astonished statement must be applied to the music industry, in the wake of Napster's success, home digital recording equipment, the Internet's ability to distribute music globally with the click of a mouse button, and the technological toys which empower this new digital music distribution platform.
The music industry can no longer operation in a 'business as usual' frame of mind. The music industry must not only adapt, but significantly create a new distribution system which includes the ability to regulate and profit from internet music distribution. Otherwise the…
Anderman, J. (2/23/2003) CD Stores May Fall Victim to Rapid Music Industry Changes. Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News.
Cepeda, M. (2000). Mucho Loco for Ricky Martin; or the Politics of Chronology, Crossover and Language within the Latin
Popular Music and Society, Vol. 24.
Cobo, L. (2003, Nov 29) RIAA ups ante and piracy haul. Billboard New York
Top Ten Latin American Cities for usiness
The objective of this study is to examine the top ten Latin American cities to do business in and then to answer as to what variables or factors are key for appearing in the list of the best Latin American cities for doing business. What other variables might be considered? As well, this work will answer as to whether all the cities identified are located in Latin America and why or why not. Secondly, this study will analyze the effects of the influx of Mexican business people into cities such as Miami and how this has affected Mexico's economy. Part three of this study will state a conclusion.
Variables on Ease of Doing usiness
It is reported that variables for ease of doing business in Latin American countries are divided into categories including: (1) ease of starting a business; (2) ease of dealing…
Mexico's Well-To-Do Move North (2012) Global Perspectives. April 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.realtor.org/sites/default/files/publications/2012/global-perspectives/global-perspectives-2012-04-mexicos-move-north.pdf
Regional Profile: Latin America (2012) Doing Business. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank. Retrieved from: http://www.doingbusiness.org/reports/~/media/FPDKM/Doing%20Business/Documents/Profiles/Regional/DB2012/DB12-Latin-America.pdf
On the other hand, the liberalization in Latin American countries was still relatively limited during the 1980s, which meant that most of the industries were either controlled by central authorities or private initiative was generally not encouraged that much. This translated to the commercial segment as well, with private initiatives for import and exports being still relatively rare.
At the same time, foreign companies were not encouraged to penetrate the Latin American market and this was still a trend at the beginning of the 1990s. Only during the 1990s the U.S. companies and some of the European ones (notably from Spain or Italy) began to invest in Latin American countries and to benefit from the large internal market that Latin America was offering.
The reasons that the trade between Latin American countries and the U.S. And the EU experiences such a boom during the 1990s can be found in the…
1. Georgiu, George (September 1989). Changing Pattern of U.S.-Latin American Trade. Atlantic Economic Journal. Volume 17, No. 3.
2. Hornbeck, J.F. (May 2007). U.S.-Latin America Trade: Recent Trends. CRS Report for Congress. On the Internet at http://ncseonline.org/NLE/CRSreports/07Jun/98-840.pdf.Last retrieved on September 5, 2008
3. EU-Latin America relations on the eve of the Lima Summit. May 2008. On the Internet at http://europa.eu/rapid/pressReleasesAction.do?reference=MEMO/08/286&format=HTML&aged=0&language=EN&guiLanguage=en.Last retrieved on September 5, 2008
4. Latin America and the Caribbean. On the Internet at http://ec.europa.eu/trade/issues/bilateral/regions/lac/index_en.htm.Last retrieved on September 5, 2008
The French evolution was widely propagated by the inequality that the French Feudal system had propagated, the bankruptcy of the government brought about by the spend thrift habits of Louis XIV and the heavy influence that American evolution had on the French themselves after the writings of Montesquieu, Voltaire, and ousseau and others became too famous hence influencing the French to go against their own king.
The Latin American evolution
This refers to various revolutionary wars that took place in the Latin America in the period between the 18th and the 19th century whose results were creation of various countries in the Latin America which account for more than 20 states that are in existence in the current Latin America (Zbigniew Marcin Kowalewski, 2005). The Latin America revolutions followed closely the American and the French evolutions which had impacted in a profound manner the French, Portuguese and Spanish colonies throughout…
American Revolutionary War, (2011). American Revolutionary War. Retrieved May 24, 2011 from http://www.americanrevolutionarywar.net/
David Cody, (2010). French Revolution. Retrieved May 24, 2011 from http://www.victorianweb.org/history/hist7.html
Haitian Treasures, (2011). The Republic of Haiti: The French colonization. Retrieved May 24, 2011 from http://www.haitiantreasures.com/HT_republic.of.haiti2.htm
Martin Kelly, (2011). Causes of the American Revolution: The Colonial Mindset and Events That Led to Revolt. Retrieved May 24, 2011 from http://americanhistory.about.com/od/revolutionarywar/a/amer_revolution.htm
The faster recovery of industrial production in emerging economies can be partially explained through the rebuilding of inventories, which were initially low and required replenishment when it became clear that the global economy would slow its freefall. Still, developing countries have shown significant heterogeneity in relation to the countries of Eastern Europe and Central Asia, much worse than emerging Asia. The results from Latin America were located in the middle of these two regions.
Even more significant is the fact that emerging economies were more resistant to the crisis with respect to its own past, but not with respect to developed countries. During the global crisis, emerging economies were able to resemble a little more developed countries and magnified the external impact.
While past crises harder to hit emerging economies to developed, this time the two groups of similar countries fell as a result of the financial system and the…
Aswicahyono, Haryom Kelly Bird, and Hal Hill. 2008. 'Making Economic Policy in Weak, Democratic, Post-crisis States: An Indonesian Case Study. World Development 37(2): 354-370.
Bernd Spahn, Paul 2008. 'Fiscal Decentralisation in SEE in the Context of the Global Financial Crisis'. NALAS Round Table. 23 November. Tirana, Albania. PPP.
Bird, Kelly, Hal Hill, and Sandy Cuthberston. 2008. 'Making Trade Policy in a New Democracy after a Deep Crisis: Indonesia'. CCAS Working Paper. No. 14. May. Center for Contemporary Asian Studies, Doshisha University.
Brajshori, Behxhet. 2009 'Economic and Financial Development in Kosovo and the global crisis' http://www.scribd.com/doc/15437138/Country-Responses-to-the-Financial-Crisis-Kosovo .
First Confession by Latin American writer Montserrat Fontes
The idea of the Christian confessional and its ultimate inability to give spiritual or societal healing in the presence of perpetual societal injustice and class inequities gives rise to the major themes of the novel First Confession by the Latin American author Montserrat Fontes. In the novel, two children, the privileged cousins Andrea Durcal and Victor Durcal, are about to make their first confession at the end of the summer of 1947. They are living on the Mexican border, living a carefully controlled life "designed" by their mothers, a life where servants serve, and the wills and the needs of the upper classes of Mexican society hold sway.
But then, sin and disorder intrudes upon their family's neatly structured existences. First, their maid Alicia is murdered. Then, Andrea's father accidentally runs over a night watchman, a man of the lower orders. Seeing…
Fontes, Montserrat. First Confession. New York W.W. Norton & Co, 1992.
Both films irritated their relevant critical establishments, and in this way, De Palma's remade was truest to its source. Scarface 1983 savagery and energy united with its political portrait of the illicit drug trade form a memorable and powerful evocation of 1980s narco-corruption (Prince 231).
One of the most striking disparities amid the 1932 Scarface and 1983 Scarface is between Tony Camonte, who makes a fortune through selling bear, but never drinks it, and Marielito Tony Montana, shown at one point collapsing in a pile of his product, undone as much through consuming as by selling cocaine ( Leitch 45) . The 1983 Scarface trades on the forbidden glamour of drug as an indication of the economic achievement that both confirmed the main characters arrival among the upper classes and prepared for their breakdown. The audience proves similarly conflicted in the attitudes towards screen violence. The drugs that mark his…
Aguirre, Carlos. Reconstructing criminality in Latin America. New York: Rowman & Littlefield, 2000.
The book explores how different Latin American societies have been identified, described, viewed and responded to criminal conduct. Crime in Latin America is assessed in terms of class, race, gender and criminological theory. The book highlights how Latin American culture is constructed and the author cites several movies among them, Scarface 1983 to show how the characters in the movie represent the Latin American culture.
Bender, Steven. Greasers and gringos: Latinos, law, and the American Imagination. New York: NYU Press, 2003.
The book highlights negative stereotypes of Latinos, which is evident in the American popular culture. The author ascertains why Latinos are portrayed as drunken, lazy, violent, criminals and drug users by the media and the society. The book looks at how Latinos are treated by police, vigilantes, and prosecutors among other people in the mainstream society. The book is relevant to the research topic as it highlights the Latin American culture.
Human Capital in Latin American Economic Development
HUMAN CAPITAL IN LATIN AMEICAN ECONOMIC Developtment
The concern for the economic development in the developing countries has been an issue for several decades. Many policy makers around the globe in various developing countries have formulated development strategies for their economies in consultation with the developed countries and international bodies. The central focus of all the policies have been on the development and investment on the following areas which will lead to the economic strengthening of the developing economies.
a) Investment in human and physical capital
b) Technological change transfers
c) Assistance from foreign development
d) Private capital flow
e) Creative investments which lead to increased return on investments
f) Investment in research and development.
g) Encouraging the environment of entrepreneurship
h) Institutional framework of the economy
Positive contribution of political freedom and infrastructure in structuring economic development framework.
Economic Outlook of Latin…
Haar, Jerry & Price, John- Can Latin America Compete?: confronting the challenges of globalization.
Kahn, Strauss, D. (2011) Latin America's Twin Challenges -- Increasing Rate of Growth and Managing Volatility. Retrieved April 12, 2011 from
Roosevelt M. (2003) Social, Human and Spiritual Capital in Economic Development
U.S. and Latin American Relation: A review
US and Latin American Relations: A Review
US and Latin American Relations
Review of U.S.-Latin America Relations: A New Direction for a New Reality, by Charlene Barshefsky and James T. Hill (2008), Council on Foreign Relations, Inc.
Thesis of the supporting points of the article
This article takes into account the current state of affairs in Latin America along with the opportunities and challenges that govern the relations between the U.S. and Latin American society in general. Latin America has in the recent past adopted many of the democratic values that are the norm in the governance of the U.S. There is increased democratic space and a wider scope of economic activity. Many of the Latin American countries are in full pursuit of these changes to strengthen their democracies, expand economic space and deliver better service to their citizens.
It is noted that…
This leads to many false stereotypes and assumptions about cultures which most of us have never experienced.
2) When the structure of colonialism set in on Latin America, the Catholic Church established Counter-Reformation initiatives ordered by Spain's Holy Inquisition. The Counter-Reformation discouraged cultural endeavors in Latin America if they were not directly affiliated to specific Church celebrations. This resulted in much illiteracy and general ignorance of advances being made in the world during the 17th and 18th centuries, specifically the Enlightenment. Additionally, the Catholic Church, in this role, was less involved in being true missionaries, but rather functioned as a cultural censor that enforced regulatory social practices. Peninsular bureaucrats seemed to have no interest or care for the vast lands of Latin America, and developed an increasing disdain for the growing mixed Spanish and indigenous population (Mestizo). They were suspicious of indigenous and mestizo people, and also of Spanish people…
Latin American Revolution: New Tactical Approach
The transition in how revolution occurs in Latin America can be explained by a growing awareness of the inefficiency of modern bureaucracy and/or government. In the past, revolution has occurred primarily through the overthrow of one government and the establishment of another. Today, however, revolution is more cultural—it is rooted more in the living of lives and less in the dynamic of governmental oversight. As Holloway states, “We are flies caught in a spider’s web…We can only try to emancipate ourselves, to move outwards, negatively, critically, from where we are” (Holloway 5). What this means is that it is useless to attempt to act as the spider acts—which is what replacing one government with another essentially signifies in the modern age. The web is what needs to be avoided—and so revolution is now centered on escaping the web—the web of politics, the web of…
Latin America Revolutions
Except for the glaring exception of razil, the Latin American revolutions established republics from Mexico to Argentina, although the new governments were never particularly liberal or democratic. They certainly did not grant equal citizenship to, much less social and economic equality, while women, slaves, servants, and indigenous peoples mostly remained under traditional patriarchal controls. Some revolutionaries like Jose Morelos in Mexico and atista Campos in razil did demand a more liberal or radical social order in which the racial caste system had been abolished, but in most parts of Latin America this has not really occurred yet. Morelos did not intend to abolish the class system or even the economic power of whites, but he did call for the end of slavery, the elimination of titles of nobility and equal education for all. In the early-19th Century, such ideals as equality of citizenship regardless of color counted…
Andrews, G. Reid. "Argentina's Black Legions" in James A. Wood and John Charles Chasteen (eds), Problems in Latin American History: Sources and Methods, 3rd Edition. Rowman and Littlefield, 2009, pp. 10-14.
Chambers, Sarah C. "What Independence Meant for Women" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 18-24.
Chasteen, John Charles, "The Brazilian Path to Independence" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 15-17.
Krause, Enrique. "The Vision of Father Morelos" in Wood and Chasteen, pp. 7-10.
Latin Americans in the United States
Labor immigrants formed the bulk of foreign workers in search of menial and low paying jobs. Mexicans occurred as the dominant Latin group in this category. The level of the minimum wage, approximately $4.25, about six times higher than that in Mexico lured most of the laborers from their native lands (Portes and Rumbaut 20). Demand for foreign laborers, especially those from Mexico depicts the desired attributes of the laborers that include motivation, reliability, diligence, and willingness to work for low pay. The higher wages in the U.S. enables immigrants to plow back in various investments, and the support of families left back at home. 'Yield' obtained through wages also goes to consumption and upgrade of the social status of the immigrants. After accumulation of enough savings, most of the immigrants return home to gain a position of social respectability.
Logan, John. How Race Counts for Hispanic-Americans. pp 471-484
Portes, Alejandro and Rumbaut, Ruben. Chapter 1 "Who they are and why they come" in Legacies: The Story of the Immigrant Second Generation. California: University of California Press, 2001: 1-27
System of castas/Latin American History
Among many contributions of Mexico to the present American culture few are considered more significant than the concept of Mestizaje referring to the racial and cultural and synthesis. Mexico came out to be a fusion of the old and new world, particularly after the Spanish invasion during 16th century. Ever since the inception of the conquest the interracial sexual unions among Indians, Europeans, Africans and Asians appeared common, however, interracial marriage was allowed only during the later half of the 17th century. The frightened white elite treatened of the growing tide of Castas -- many racially mixed people- during 18th century formulated a caste system in order to institute status distinctions between the sub-groups so as to divide them and strengthen the Spaniards' sense of their own exclusivity. (An Unsettling acial Score Card)
The commissioned paintings of many groups of castas have remained to be…
Early Latin America. Retrieved from http://occawlonline.pearsoned.com/bookbind/pubbooks/stearns_awl/chapter25/objectives/deluxe-content.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Fulopp, Tomas J. Latin America and the Concept of Social Race. Retrieved from http://www.vacilando.org/index.php?x=810 Accessed 7 November, 2005
Montalvo, Frank. Danzon and Mexico's Caste System. Retrieved from http://www.webcom.com/~intvoice/montalvo3.html Accessed 7 November, 2005
Poverty alleviation program for minority communities in Latin America: Communities of African Ancestry in Latin America history, Population, Contributions and social attitudes social and economic conditions. Retrieved from http://enet.iadb.org/idbdocswebservices/idbdocsInternet/IADBPublicDoc.aspx?docnum=479869 Accessed 7 November, 2005
The crux of his research focused on the technological aspects of CM supporting is the essence of rising above all these other forms of unwanted communication and staying relevant for the long-term to prospects and customers.
The proposed research design will focus on interviewing approximately 500 customers of Latin American tourism providers in the last twelve months and assessing their relative levels of satisfaction using a survey designed using the SEVQUAL methodology. Using a series of questions included in the SEVQUAL instrument to focus on the ten aspects of service quality including reliability, responsiveness, competence, access, courtesy, communication, credibility, security, understanding the customer and tangibles of service. Consistent with the goal of this study to focus on the gap between service delivery ad expectations (Huang, Sarigllu, 2008) the research design will be stratified by originating nation of the respondent. This stratification of responded by country will be useful…
Josh Bernoff, Charlene Li. 2008. Harnessing the Power of the Oh-So-Social Web. MIT Sloan Management Review 49, no. 3 (April 1): 36-42. http://www.proquest.com (Accessed January 20, 2009).
Jeffrey G. Blodgett, Aysen Bakir, Gregory M. Rose. 2008. A test of the validity of Hofstede's cultural framework. The Journal of Consumer Marketing 25, no. 6 (September 20): 339-349.
U.S. Foreign Policy
The Law of Unintended Consequences -- Iraq ar Aftermath
Notwithstanding the outcome that the George . Bush Administration had hoped for and planned for, the Iraq ar " ... had a broad destabilizing effect across much of the Middle East" (ong, 2008). The toppling of Saddam Hussein was one objective of the Bush Administration that was achieved. But the justifications given to the public -- in strong, unrelenting terms through many venues including the United Nations -- for the invasion into Iraq was that Hussein had " ... chemical, biological and nuclear weapons" (ong, 2008). However, no such weapons were ever found. Additional unintended consequences of the Bush invasion (and the unintended consequences of the "surge") include: a) the launching of the sectarian war between the Sunni Arabs and the Shiites; b) a body count by the Lancet Medical Journal tallied 655,000 people had died resulting from…
BBC News. "Iraq Body Count: War dead figures." Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://news.bbc.co.uk . 2006.
Democracy Now. "Harvest of Empire': New Film Recounts How U.S. Intervention Caused
Mass Latin American Migrations." Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://www.democracynow.org . 2012.
Harris, Paul. "A picture made him a hero. Then his life fell apart." The Guardian. Retrieved April 28, 2016, from http://www.theguardian.com . 2006.
omen played an unheralded, unsung role in the history of Latin America. Just as women's roles in global history has been relegated to domestic servitude, much of what women did in Latin America was household-related. Farming was also a female duty (Chasteen). Given the importance of farming and childrearing to the cohesiveness of a society, though, women did play an important role in the history of Latin America. Even if many of the most influential women did not get recognized for their deeds, the role of women should never be downplayed. Some women, though, do make their names known even within the patriarchal structure of Latin American society and within the patriarchal hegemony of historiography. For example, Rigoberta Menchu was raised in a gender-egalitarian native society that enabled her to become a political activist. Menchu's activism earned her a place in the history of her people and Guatemala…
Chasteen, John Charles. Born in Blood and Fire: A Concise History of Latin America. W.W. Norton, 2001.
Fraser, Nicholas and Navarro, Marysa. Evita: The Real Life of Eva Peron. Norton, 1980.
Menchu, Rigoberta. I, Rigoberta Menchu. Verso, 1984
Townsend, Camilla. Malintzin's Choices: An Indian Woman in the Conquest of Mexico. University of New Mexico Press, 2006.
In the construction of Panama Canal, Roosevelt's primary objective was to curtail his fears that another nation would come up with the idea of building a passageway, wherein trade between the U.S. And other countries would be detrimentally affected, blocking the U.S.'s access to trade goods from Atlantic to Pacific Ocean and back. Through the Roosevelt Corollary, the then president implemented the Monroe Doctrine, which posits that European nations shall not force Venezuela to pay its debts. Roosevelt's assertion that the U.S. shall take action should the doctrine be violated by the concerned parties. As with the Panama Canal construction, the implementation of the Roosevelt Corollary was imposed by Roosevelt for fear that a European nation shall control or overpower a Latin American nation, which may lead to increased European power, and ultimately, decrease the power and control of America over the Latin American region.
Many are unaware that in the United States today, people are blessed with a variety of Spanish-language and other Latin American cultures that are in the midst -- which were brought to the country by individuals from numerous different parts of the hemisphere. In attempting to understand and appreciate these cultures, we can learn much from their music Mexican-American music is something that has high regards in their culture. Over the years it has been expanded crossing over into many cultures ith that said, this essay is intended to analyze the many methods and styles of music and musical cultures that have been able to make their way into the United States from Latin American nations.
Surprisingly, Latin American music is a subject where there has not been a lot written about it. There is very little research on Latin music perhaps because many are not interested.…
Gonzalez, J.P. "Third latin american conference of the international association for the study of popular music." Popular Music 20.9 (2009): 269-274.
Loza, Steven. Barrio Rhythm: Mexican-American Music in Los Angeles. University of Illinois Press, 1993.
Moehn, F. "From tejano to tango: Latin american popular Music/Musical migrations: Transnationalism and cultural hybridity in Latin/o america, volume I/Situating salsa: Global markets and local meaning in latin popular music." Ethnomusicology 49.1 (2010): 137-142.
y contrast, this was not found to be true for the Colombian couples. Instead, their level of relationship satisfaction was predicted by having a similar level of expressiveness between spouses, irrespective of whether the level was high, medium, or low (Ingoldsby, 1980). Likewise, Colombian women and men were determined to be are equally likely to say what they feel and to express themselves at the same level as North American males. In the United States, female spouses are typically significantly more expressive as a group than are their male counterparts (Ingoldsby, 1980).
In a significant recent paper, ailey (2006) focuses on biotechnological discoveries in birth control methods that offered women greater power to choose the timing of childbearing. This power may have translated into higher investments in education and increased labor force participation of women. In an excellent paper, among other things, Goldin (1995) focused on technological International Research Journal…
Aptekar, L. (1990). "How Ethnic Differences Within a Culture Influence Child
Rearing: The Case of Colombian Street Children." Journal of Comparative
Family Studies 21(1):67 -- 79.
Balakrishnan, R. (1976). "Determinants of Female Age at Marriage in Rural and Semi-Urban Areas of Four Latin American Countries." Journal of Comparative Family Studies 7(2):167 -- 173.
As was the nature of the Cold ar, the United States responded by quashing new governments that were likely to lead to communism, even where this constituted an undemocratic or even brutal instituted government (Kort 80).
Democratically elected officials from Brazil, Guyana, and Uruguay were overthrown by internal revolutionaries who were funded and trained by American forces (Parenti 44). These and other leaders and governments in Latin America were targeted by American forced as having communist leanings. Foreign policy followed, with more than two decades of the Cold ar focusing not only on the major publicized events of Korea and the Soviet Union, but on many small, third world countries. These small nations were poised to become players in the larger Cold ar struggle depending on where their allegiance and governments ended up after declaring their independence. ith the Soviet Union attempting to exert force and pressure on the United…
Eisenhower, Dwight D. Inaugural Address. Washington, D.C. 20 Jan. 1953.
Geertz, Clifford. "What Was the Third World Revolution?" Dissent 52.1 (2005): 35-45.
Freidel, Frank. Roosevelt. New York: Little Brown and Company, 1990.
Kort, Michael G. The Cold War. Brookfield, CT: Millbrook Press, 1994.
Marx's interpretation of Twentieth-Century Capitalism, as described by Miller, describes the changes in the American dream. The American dream was initially one linked to the idea of land ownership. Immigrants came from Europe, where land ownership had been a privilege of the wealthy. However, when America was relatively unsettled, almost anyone could theoretically come to America and claim land, and many people did just that. Of course, some of these early Americans did so in a grand way, traveling westward from the cities and establishing homesteads in the wilderness. The idea of home ownership, however, was not limited to those frontiersmen. Instead, only 100 years ago, someone could come to America and, because of the cheap price of land, afford to build his own home if he worked hard enough to do so. However, the nature of the home, itself, was different. Those homes were centers of production: at the…
Medaille, John. The Vocation of Business: Social Justice in the Marketplace. New York:
Continuum International Publishing Group, 2007
Miller, Vincent Jude. Consuming Religion: Christian Faith and Practice in a Consumer Culture.
New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2004.
Neo-liberal policy theories are best understood when delineating Williamson's (1990) "Washington's Consensus" that first introduced and pioneered the concept.
Williamson sought to transfer control of the economy from the public to the private sector believing that this would improve the economic health of the nation and make for a more efficient government. His 10 points included the recommendations that: tax reform would encourage innovation and efficiency; that by governments running large deficits they were, potentially, ruining themselves; that public spending should be redirected to more humane systems such as pro-growth and pro-poor services; that there should b trade liberalization policies as well as encouraging opportunities for investment in foreign projects; privatization of state enterprises; fianncialiaziton of capital; deregulation of restrictions that hamper competition; and privation of state enterprises.
Whilst on first blush, neoliberalism seems to cohere precisely with pragmatism in that it encourages private competition and seeks to transfer power…
Felkins, L. (1997) Introduction to Public Choice Theory,
James, W. 1907. Pragmatism: A New Name for some Old Ways of Thinking, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
-- -- 1909. The Meaning of Truth, Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1975.
hile Indian women and those of mixed races were certainly lower class citizens, they could easily become elite through their marriage to a white male of Spanish decent (Mabry 1990). Marriage was often seen to transcend any race or class issue, and thus prompted many women to act in non-virtuous ways in order to secure a future (Johnson 1998).
This difference in virtuous intent also relates to the very real danger for women in Bahia who committed acts considered to be sexually outlandish or improper, whether married or single. For married women, the punishment for adultery could include death until 1830. Prior to that time, men who killed their adulterous wives were often acquitted, since they were defending their honor in the eyes of the social system of the time (Caulfield 2000). Further, even single women found to be concubines could be killed by their families, to prevent a loss…
Arrom, Silvia Marina. 1985. The Women of Mexico City, 1790-1857. Stanford, CA: Stanford University.
Burns, Kathryn. 1999. Colonial Habits: Convents and the Spiritual Economy of Cuzco, Peru. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Caulfield, Sueann. 2000. In Defense of Honor: Sexual Morality, Modernity, and Nation in Early-Twentieth-Century Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Fisher, John. 2003. Bourbon Peru, 1750-1824. Liverpool, England: Liverpool University Press.
I do not think Hollywood would accept many Latina performers if they did not play to this exotic idea of Latina women. It seems to be a stereotype that has held on from even before Carmen Miranda, and she just underscored it. Americans accept and promote stereotypes like this, and the performers mold to them, either consciously or unconsciously, in an attempt to broaden their careers and become famous, and even infamous. Lopez is so well-known for her sexy dresses and her music, and it is interesting that she seems to play to a Latin crowd, while promoting the stereotypes of Latina women. It seems like Latina women may never be able to shake off that stereotype of sex and exaggeration if they do not shake off their acceptance of it in their performers and lives.
Editors. "Biography." CarmenMiranda.com. 2005. 31 Aug. 2007. http://www.carmenmiranda.net/about/biography3.htm
Editors. "Jennifer Lopez." JenniferLopez.com. 2007.…
Editors. "Biography." CarmenMiranda.com. 2005. 31 Aug. 2007. http://www.carmenmiranda.net/about/biography3.htm
Editors. "Jennifer Lopez." JenniferLopez.com. 2007. 31 Aug. 2007. http://www.jenniferlopez.com/
Stam, Robert. Tropical Multiculturalism: A Comparative History of Race in Brazilian Cinema and Culture. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997.
Latin America's problems owe a great deal to a tradition of caudillism, personal politics and authoritarianism." It will also give definitions for eight terms associated with Latin American studies: caudillism, liberalism, The Export oom, Neocolonialism, Import Subsidizing Industrialization, ureaucratic Authoritarianism and Privatization.
Latin America currently faces many problems, with diverse causes and manifestations, for example, huge external debts, lack of development in infrastructure, low levels of education for children, and low levels of health care for the population (with concurrent high infant mortality rates and low age expectancies). Many authors (such as Juan Manuel de Rosas, author of Argentine Caudillo, John Reed, author of Insurgent Mexico, and Jacobo Timerman, author of Prisoner Without a Name, Cell Without a Number) have argued that Latin America's current problems stem from a period of history (the National period), following independence, during which caudillismo was popular, and personalistic politics and authoritarianism were the rule.…
Encyclopedia Britannica. 2002 DVD-edition for Macintosh.
Williamson, E. (1992). The Penguin History of Latin America.
American National Character
America can almost be thought of as a massive experiment in culture. Here we have a nation inhabited almost entirely by immigrants; all with different languages, customs, beliefs, and appearances who are forced to somehow reach a common understanding and identity. Through the over two hundred years of American history many differences have threatened to unravel our diverse nation, but still, many commonalities have ultimately held it together. Amidst such a range of economic, political, and racial mixtures it is a daunting task to identify what characteristics are uniquely American.
Yet, what can be considered "American" can also be traced to the roots of the nation. The place now called the United States was founded by puritan settlers who valued the notion of all men's equality in the eyes of God. Accordingly, the authors of the U.S. Constitution included equality under the law as one of its…
Bellah, Robert N., et al., eds. Habits of the Heart. Los Angeles, California: University of California, 1985.
Cochran, Thomas C. The Puerto Rican Businessman: A Study in Cultural Change. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania, 1959.
Hacker, Andrew. The End of the American Era. New York, New York: Atheneum, 1968.
Klausner, Samuel Z. "A Professor's-Eye View of the Egyptian Academy." The Journal of Higher Education, Vol. 57, No. 4 (Jul.-Aug., 1986): 345-369.
history seems only like a carefully curated set of facts, figures, and events that when taken together promote a specific ideology or worldview. Thus, Americans focus almost exclusively on people, places, and events that uphold the idea of American exceptionalism. ars and the conquests of men overshadow the lives of women, and Europeans are given precedence. The quote by .E.B. DuBois underscores the inherent falseness in approaching history, given that on some level there will always be editorializing. Howard Zinn also reassembles American history in a way that subverts the paradigm that had been taught related to the supremacy of capitalism and the white-washing of key turning points. A People's History of the United States gives voice to those who were systematically suppressed or oppressed. Likewise, Loewen's Lies My Teachers Told Me undoes the brainwashing that schoolchildren in the United States endure.
Loewen and Zinn take up .E.B DuBois on…
Loewen, James W. Lies My Teacher Told Me. New York: Touchstone, 2007.
Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. Online version at: http://www.historyisaweapon.com/zinnapeopleshistory.html
American Corporations and the Media, 1890-1940
American corporations have never been reticent to use available media to reach their goals, and in the years between 1890 and 1940, there are impressive examples of how U.S. corporate interests have utilized various media to realize additional profit and power -- sometimes employing unorthodox and unethical methods. This paper delves into instances of corporate use of media, and points to the dynamics that allowed those associations to flourish.
"Today's critics of media conglomerates fail to grasp the reality that corporate power, in league with the state, [has] made a mockery of prospects for a democratic global media system… [and it's vital to recognize that] the U.S. radio industry subsequently followed a similar pattern of monopolization in the 1920s…" (Peterson, 2004, p. 86).
Author James Schwoch points to the fact that the American radio industry had a profound impact on Latin American activities between…
Belrose, John S. (1994). Fessenden and the Early History of Radio Science. The Radioscientist,
Forrest, Wilbur. (1925). Political Notes: Ford Speaks. Time Magazine. Retrieved June 17,
2011, from http://www.time.com/time/printout/0,8816,720534,00.html .
"Coffee is King": The rise and fall of coffee in Colombia, economic growth and social change.
Colombia first became an exporting area in the sixteenth century, under the Spanish arrangement of mercantilism. Spanish imperial rule defined a great deal of Colombia's social and economic development. The colony became an exporter of raw materials, predominantly precious metals, to the mother country. ith its colonial position came a highly planned socioeconomic system founded on slavery, indentured servitude, and restricted foreign contact. Colombia's contemporary economy, based on coffee and other agricultural exports, did not materialize until well after its independence in 1810, when local entrepreneurs were free to take advantage of on world markets other than Spain. The late nineteenth century saw the development of tobacco and coffee export industries, which really enlarged the merchant class and led to population growth and the enlargement of cities. ealth was concentrated in agriculture and…
"Colombia -- Economy." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
"Colombia History." Mongabay. Library of Congress, n.d. Web. 3 May 2012.
Negotiating National Identity
The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the book "Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil" by Jeffrey Lesser. Specifically, it will contain a scholarly review of the book. Lesser pens a defining look at the ethnicities that make up Brazil, and this book is a necessary read for anyone interested in Brazilian history or social and ethnic identity. While most readers might assume the ethnic divisions are based on traditional European, African, and Brazilian roots - that is not the case. The author makes a clear point that ethnicity is one of the major issues facing many of the world's largest and most influential countries.
Early in the book, the author offers his thesis and purpose for writing this treatise. He notes, "Brazil remains a country where hyphenated ethnicity is predominant yet unacknowledged."
The "hyphenated ethnicity" he refers…
Lesser, Jeffrey. Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999.
Jeffrey Lesser, Negotiating National Identity: Immigrants, Minorities, and the Struggle for Ethnicity in Brazil (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1999), 3.
It was during the same period that hostilities with the communist leadership culminated into the bombing of Libya, loggerheads with the Soviet Union and a stiff arms race with the U.S.S.R.
It is also significant to note that it was during the same time that he successfully engaged Mikhail Gorbachev who was then the Soviet General secretary and culminated into the signing of Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces (INF) treaty that signaled the end in arms race and both countries agreed to decrease in nuclear weapons in their custody.
Upon ascending to presidency, Reagan was bent on introducing new political as well as economic dispensations radically. He advocated more for supply-side economics which saw him push for reduction of tax rates to speed up economic growth, money supply control to check inflation, reduction of regulation on the economy particularly business to encourage competitive and free-market free for all which as a matter…
But the U.S. must also set an example to the world on human rights, and that begins with a rejection of the kind of abuses that were carried out at Abu Ghraib in Iraq during the U.S. occupation of that sovereign nation.
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov.
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Butler, Desmond. (2010). Lawmakers stretching out Russia nuke pact debate. The Seattle
Times. Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://seattletimes.nwsource.com.
Cardenas, Sonia. (2009). Human Rights in Latin America: A Politics of Terror and Hope.
Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Hamid, Shadi, and Brooke, Steven. (2010). Promoting Democracy to Stop Terror, Revisited,
Policy Review, No. 59, 45-58.
McCain, John. (2010). National History and Universal Values: Prioritizing Human Rights…
Biden, Joseph. (2009). Biden Lays Out U.S. Foreign Policy Goals, Approaches. America.gov.
Retrieved Dec. 16, 2010, from http://www.america.gov .
Blanton, Shannon Lindsey. (2005). Foreign Policy in Transition? Human Rights, Democracy,
and U.S. Arms Exports. International Studies Quarterly, Vol. 49, 647-667.
Human development and evolution across all cultures mean that there will be a gap between older generations, who tend to cling to outdated ideals and paradigms, and younger generations, who tend away from the traditional and towards new developments. While there are merits in both positions, subscribers to each respective position seldom see the value in the viewpoint of the other. Hence, the conflicts that arise are often difficult to manage and impossible to overcome.
Such conflict is clearly portrayed in Nash Candelaria's "El Patron," and also to a degree in Oscar Hijuelos's "Visitors, 1965. n the former, the traditional viewpoint is represented by Lola's father, Senor Martinez, while the more progressive viewpoint is represented by the other three major characters in the story; Lola, her brother Tito, and her husband, the narrator of the story. The difference in viewpoints can be seen on a variety of platforms, including…
In "Visitors, 1965" on the other hand, the differences between respective generations, traditions, and paradigms are far more complex and multi-dimensional than in Candelaria's story. The story begins with an atmosphere of hope and joy as a result of Fidel Castro assuming power in Cuba. One of the main characters, Alejo, is a cook and the time, and chosen to be in charge of the dessert for Castro's visit to the United States. Alejo observes that "Only in America could a worker get so close to a fat little guy with enormous power" (295).
This event represents the difference in power relations as observed in the United States and in Cuba. The contrast is further strengthened as time increasingly reveals the suffering brought about by Castro's rule. American citizens have enough to eat and receive fair trials, along with humane treatment in prisons, while the same could not be expected in Cuba.
Another dichotomy is the one between cultures as represented by language. This is particularly embodied in the character of Hector. As the story progresses, so does Hector's feeling of displacement between cultures. He is not sufficiently confident to speak his native Spanish, nor is he happy in the United States, which he associates with feelings of loneliness and despair. He relates best to his displaced aunts and cousins from Cuba. In this way, the story offers a vision of the displaced and the necessity of adjustment amidst war and uncertainty.
He also observes the poignant problem of racism that arises here, which is also his reason for calling the new cult "white" Buddhism: in spite of the fact that the hite Buddhists may adopt all the traditional Asian customs- from their name to the food they eat or to the rituals as such, they will still be part of the "mainstream of the white culture." (Allitt 1999, 459). That is to say, the racial differences, still linger no matter what, and are emphasized by the American racism, which is the dark side of American culture.
Finally, Eldin Villafane analyzes the way in which the Catholicism of Spain was imposed to the Native Americans in Mexico, emphasizing the great religiosity of the Hispanic people. The author discusses the differences between Christendom and Christianity, the first being the powerful and complete assimilation of all life-matters into the religious frame.
Thus, all these…
Allitt, Patrick. Major Problems in American Religious History: Documents and Essays. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1999
Moore, Laurence R. Touchstone Jesus. The Mixing of Sacred and Secular in American History. Westminster: John Knox, 2003
American evolution Was Modeled After evolutions in France and England
The American quest for freedom, modeled after reform movements in England and France, has resulted in the most revered democratic society in the world. We are free of the religious and political tyranny that plagued Europe in the 18th Century and early colonialists would approve of our government in 2002.
While the American evolution and the quest for freedom was modeled after revolutions in France and England, the United States has done something that its European relatives admire - it achieved a stable democracy free of aristocratic and religious tyranny - and this was accomplished in a relatively bloodless fashion.
Our success would meet with accolades from European philosophers and historians including Jean-Jacques ousseau, Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, Thomas Paine and Francois Furet. However, our success has also many developing nations and Middle East nations to regard us as arrogant…
1. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
2. F. Furet, paraphrased from Interpreting The French Revolution, 1970
3. F. Bastiat "What is Seen and What is Not Seen," in Selected Essays, pp. 1-50.
4. J. Rousseau, The Social Contract, 1762, Chapter 18
All human beings are considered corrupt and sick and, because of the original sin, are in close relations with the powers of evil, rending them unable to make a significant contribution to their liberation. Ironically in some way, it can be said that Lutherans believe in faith. Faith is understood as trust in God's love and is viewed as the only appropriate way for man to answer to God's initiative. "Salvation by faith alone" is the distinctive and criticized (by catholic adepts) slogan of Lutheranism. Opponents of this doctrine argued that this position does not do justice to the Christian responsibility to do good works; the answer was that faith has to be active in love and that there is an indivisible connection between good works and faith: the former follow from the latter as a good tree produces good fruit.
Worship. The Lutheran church is, by its own definition,…
http://www.newadvent.org/-Articles on the Reformation and Martin Luther
2. Encyclopedia Britannica - Articles on Protestantism and Zwingli, 1997 Edition, Vol. 26 and 12
3. Encarta Encyclopedia - Articles on Calvin and Zwinlgi
Angels Wear Brassieres? By Olive Senior, and "ADJ, Inc.," by Ana Lydia Vega. Specifically, it will discuss the use of language in the two works, and comment on the authors' use or rejection or variation of what for recognition's sake we will call standard English, or comment on features of local literary traditions that are preserved in translation. Language is a powerful tool in storytelling, and these two short stories are excellent examples of the disparity of language, and what an important part it can play in the telling of a tale, especially a regional one. Language is so important; it can almost be considered another character in these two stories.
LANGUAGE IN TWO STOIES
In "Do Angels Wear Brassieres?" The language for the children is the dialect of Jamaica, imitating the rhythmic and singsong way Jamaicans have of speaking, and the author uses this dialect almost from the first…
Senior, Olive. "Do Angels Wear Brassieres?" Modern Literature of the Non-Western World: Where the Waters are Born. Jayana Clerk and Ruth Siegel eds. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1995, pp. 1115-1124.
Vega, Ana Lydia. "ADJ, Inc." Modern Literature of the Non-Western World: Where the Waters are Born. Jayana Clerk and Ruth Siegel eds. New York: HarperCollins College Publishers, 1995, pp. 1147-1155.
59-84). A lack of rule of law equates to lawlessness and high levels of violence and theft.
In aggregate the factors of investment, fertility, schooling, and socio-political openness to new venture create statistically significant differences in economic performance between the regions. What De Gregorio (et. al.) also found was Latin American nations are continually coming in and out of economic crises, which makes their banking system, money supply and balance-of-payments highly risky and difficult to invest in even when there is a growth opportunity. Latin America's greatest challenge will be in overcoming the tendency to continually cycle from one economic crisis to another.
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth…
De Gregorio (2004) - "Growth and Adjustment in East Asia and Latin America"
Econom'a Journal. Jose De Gregorio - Volume 5, Number 1, Fall 2004, pp. 69-134.
Brookings Institution Press. Accessed from the Internet on February 7, 2007 from location: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/economia/toc/eco5.1.html
De Gregorio (1992). "Economic Growth in Latin America." De Gregorio, Jose Journal of Development Economics 39(1): 59-84.
After some ineffective negotiating with the police both Sandro and a passenger on board of the bus get killed.
The main concept of the movie revolves around the unjust system; the blind Brazilian authorities that single-handedly create criminals by neglecting and aggressing most of the poor people instead of creating ways of improving their lives.
Favela Rising" is yet another motion picture intended to expose the truth concerning the Latin-American slums. The action again takes place in Rio de Janeiro, but the intriguing part about the film is that it is a documentary which tells the story of Anderson Sa, a former drug dealer from the Vigario Geral district.
Anderson had been living in a favela in Rio de Janeiro when he heard that his brother has been accidentally shot in the middle of a gang war. Just as the characters in the previous movies and in Carolina's book, Anderson…
De Jesus, Carolina Maria, and St. Clair David. Child of the Dark. Signet Classic, 2003.
Bus 174. Dir. Jose Padilha. 2002.
City of God. Dir. Fernando Meirelles. Miramax, Buena Vista International. 2002.
Favela Rising. Dir. Matt Mochary, Jeff Zimbalist. HBO/Cinemax. 2005.
It had been complicated for Cubans to be assimilated by the American community right away, as the fact that they came in large numbers prevented them from socializing with U.S. citizens to a large degree. Determined to keep their cultural identity, the first people to immigrate into the U.S. did not want to learn English. Instead, they taught their children and grandchildren Spanish, so that they would take their family traditions further.
Americans have had the inclination to treat Cubans differently from other immigrants coming from Latin America because of the circumstances that lead to each ethnic group leaving their respective country. While most Latin Americans had been coming to the U.S. because they wanted to escape the poverty in their homeland, matters had been different when concerning the Cubans. They left their country because they could not survive there knowing that they were supporting a corrupt political ideology.…
People in Cuba had been desperately trying to emigrate to the U.S. And in 1965, at the time when the Cuban government had announced that "any Cuban with relatives in the United States was free to go there after October 10" (Victor Andres Triay, pp. 100), matters went berserk, with some people even perishing because they attempted to leave the island with unseaworthy boats.
Several waves of immigrants followed throughout the twentieth and the start of the twenty first century. My mother came with the 1980 Mariel boatlifts, which were part of a mass-immigration action performed by people that could not live in the conditions imposed by Fidel Castro. The Cuban leader took advantage of the fact that his people were leaving him in favor of democracy and the U.S. And sent along a large number of criminals from Cuba's prisons.
Adults actually had more trouble adapting to the U.S. environment than children. For children, the U.S. seemed like a place of wonder, where they had access to everything that they dreamed of. "It was only a few weeks until I moved in with the family with whom I lived for two years. They are a very, very nice family" (Aimee How'd). A large number of American families did not hesitate to offer shelter to the children immigrants coming to their country.
Accusing both of possessing communist sympathies and of allowing themselves to become tools of leftist propaganda, a staunch Reagan ally, Ambassador Rivas from El Salvador, argues that "'serious efforts' were being made to stem armed forces abuses and that this was the 'type of story that leads us to believe there is a plan' to discredit the ongoing electoral process in El Salvador, and to discredit the armed forces 'or to take credit away from the certification President Reagan must make to Congress." (Danner, 188)
The claims here are unwittingly revealing in retrospect, tying the degree to which the massacre at El Mozote had discrediting the American cause in El Salvador with the concern now experienced by the Reagan Administration at gaining the necessary Congressional support to continue its war. The result would be a massive cover-up on the part of the Reagan Administration, which would never officially acknowledge the…
Arnesen, E. (1986). El Salvador: Reminders of War. Monthly Review, Vol. 38.
Danner, M. (1994). The Massacre at El Mozote. Vintage.
Golden, R. (2000). Oscar Romero: Bishop of the Poor. Salt of the Earth. Online at
Harper, L. (2003). Colombia's Civil War: Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. Online Newshour. Online at http://www.cocaine.org/colombia/farc.html
Cotton must be picked within a very narrow harvest time. If it is not harvested when the time is right much of the production will be lost. It was the intent of the workers to time the strike so that it would have the greatest impact on owners in hopes that it would force them to raise wages for workers. However, many of the owners did not see the migrant workers as American citizens and treated them much as slaves were treated in the old South. They used tear-gas, saw-off shotguns, and arrested workers that participated in the strike (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 121).
Schools were closed and children were used to make up for the lost workforce. They also recruited cotton pickers from Texas to fill the labor gap (Guerin-Gonzales, p. 128). These substitutions reduced the impact of the strike and many migrants lost their positions as a result. The strike…
Guerin-Gonzales, C. Mexican Workers and American Dreams: Immigration,
Repatriation, and California Farm Labor, 1900-1939. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, NJ. 1994.
Hamilton, N. Central American Migration: a Framework for Analysis. Latin American Research Review. Vol. 26. No. 1. 1991. pp. 75-94.
Sanchez, G. Becoming Mexican-American: Ethnicity, Culture, and Identity in Chicano Los Angeles, 1900-1945. Oxford University Press. New York.
... They were accustomed to living in the open, to enduring great fatigue and hardship, and to encountering all kinds of danger."
The war against Spain and for the liberation of Cuba was one that would prove the superiority of America and its ideals. The United States, too, could join the nations of Europe as a major world power, with interests in every corner of the globe. Roosevelt became a hero as a result of his exploits in the Spanish-American War - a modern day crusader. He used his standing to vault to the governorship of the State of New York. As Governor he now headed the wealthiest most populous state in the nation, enjoying a position of influence and power unparalleled in his career. New York was the great melting pot, the entry point for the vast waves of immigrants that were arriving from Europe. Immigration in this era…
Brantlinger, Patrick. "Kipling's "The White Man's Burden" and Its Afterlives." English Literature in Transition 1880-1920 50, no. 2 (2007): 172+.
Burton, David H. The Learned Presidency: Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, Woodrow Wilson. Rutherford, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1988.
Burton, David H. Theodore Roosevelt, American Politician: An Assessment. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1997.
Collins, Michael L. That Damned Cowboy: Theodore Roosevelt and the American West, 1883-1898. New York: Peter Lang, 1991.
John Burdick in “The Lost Constituency of Brazil’s Black Movements” questions the narrative that race mixing, or mestizaje, is a solution to the problem of race in Brazil. Burdick states that “in Brazil the social perception of race exists along a continuum that encourages passing toward whiteness, making it difficult to forge a unified nonwhite identity” (139). What Burdick implies is that many Brazilians lack a distinct racial identity because of race mixing. The Black Identity in particular is negligibly felt socially in Brazil, and Burdick’s research indicates as much, with thirty participants claiming “to have used, for most of their lives, one or more of the ‘middle-range’ color terms,” such as moreno, marrom, mulato, mestico or pardo (140). Another 42 participants identified in varying degrees of blackness, using terms like black, very black, or dark. In short, race as an identifier was relatively lacking in Brazil. What this shows…
Finally, the two works have different purposes, so it is difficult to rate them to the same standards. McPherson has more on his mind than the institution of slavery; he is discussing an entire war and its aftermath, while Elkins is solely concerned with slavery in America and why it occurred. While the authors do share many similar views, many simply do not apply to each other.
In conclusion, both of these books play a vital role in understanding the complexities of the Civil War and race relations during and after the Civil War. One takes a more scholarly approach, while the other takes a more storytelling approach. Both use intensive research and knowledge of the Civil War period to make their cases, and both belong on the bookshelf of any serious Civil War historian. McPherson's work is a bit easier to read, simply because he gears it to a…
Elkins, S.M. (1976). Slavery: A problem in American institutional and intellectual life. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
McPherson, J.M. (2001). Ordeal by fire: The Civil War and reconstruction. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Roberts, K. African-Virginian extended kin: The prevalence of West African family forms among slaves in Virginia, 1740-1870. Retrieved 8 Feb. 2008 from the Virginia Tech Web site: http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-/unrestricted/etd.pdf .
The politics were simple. The Government and the settlers had all the power, ultimately the Natives did not, and so, the settlers and the government subjugated the Natives and forced them into treaties that only served the European settlers. Another writer notes, "In 1983 ichard White argued in the oots of Dependency that Euro-Indian relations in various parts of North America had in common the 'attempt... By whites to bring Indian resources, land, and labor into the market.'"
Of course, they brought them into that "market" on their own terms most often, rather than that of the Natives.
Joseph Brant - Mohawk leader - British Army officer - Studied at "Moor's Indian Charity School - Translator for Department of Indian Affairs - esponsible for restoring lands to the Mohawk people.
Wampum belt - Fashioned from seashells - Used as money or for trade - Given during times of peace making…
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), ( http://www.tfo.org/television/emissions/rendezvousvoyageur/en/world/context/firstnations.html ) 9 Feb. 2009.
Hatfield, April Lee. "Colonial Southeastern Indian History." Journal of Southern History 73, no. 3 (2007): 567+.
Konkle, Maureen. Writing Indian Nations: Native Intellectuals and the Politics of Historiography, 1827-1863. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2004.
Editors, First World. Voyager's World, (2009), (
A Critique of Democracy: the Latin American Left
The Latin American Left was mainly inspired by the idealism of Marx. Marx (1873) believed that “the ideal is nothing else than the material world reflected by the human mind and translated into forms of thought.” For the Left, the main problem has always been rooted in class—as materialism is the basis of their worldview, class and class struggle was the biggest issue, and equality and egalitarian principles enacted and served in society were the goal. Marx wanted the workers to own the means of production and thus end the rule of the bourgeoisie over the laborers. This was his ideal—and the Latin American leaders on the Left made it their priority to nationalize private industry and for the state to take control of the means of production. Whether it was Evo Morales in Bolivia, Chavez and Maduro in Venezuela, Castro…
Admittedly, these two teams were faced with a daunting challenge in acquiring and interpreting those works of art that were most appropriate for their exhibition goals, and interpretive efforts must use some framework in which to present the resources in a fashion that can be understood and appreciated by the targeted audiences.
Nevertheless, there is little or no discussion concerning the fusion of artistic styles in the two catalogs, with a preference for a neat and orderly, date by date, presentation of representative works that typify the points being made by the exhibition. Despite these shortcomings, both catalogs were shown to be authoritative references that were supported by relevant citations and imagery. Likewise, both catalogs provide useful overviews of the materials that are being presented preparatory to their interpretation, helping place the information in its historical context.
The research showed that interest and appreciation in colonial Latin American art…
Bailey, Gauvin Alexander. Introduction in Art of Colonial Latin America. New York: Phaidon
Paz, Octavio. Metropolitan Museum of Art: Mexico: Splendors of Thirty Centuries. Los Angeles: The Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Pierce, Donna, Gomar, Rogelio R. And Bargellini, Clara. Painting a New World: Mexican Art