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Providing fast and open communication is a crucial component of law enforcement's role in any emergency situation, particular natural disasters in which the circumstances of the danger can change rapidly and seemingly without warning.
In fact, most emergency management situations will require fast responses from law enforcement personnel and agencies. A HAZMAT situation is one such example, in which it is crucial that individual members of the law enforcement agency are well-trained in how to respond to the presence of a hazardous material in order to limit the damage or threat to public safety that such an incident can cause. Though the track record of the transportation industry is excellent, it is a simple fact that accidents with hazardous materials will occur. The primary role of law enforcement in a situation like this is to operate at the first-responder and awareness level of management (Donahue, 1993).
Law enforcement agencies must…
Cloud, R., Cohilas, a. And Lowe, B. (2006, January). Evacuation fundamentals. Fire Engineering, 159(1), pp. 111-113.
Collins, L. (2005, October). Tsunamis: a wakeup call for the U.S., part 2. Fire Engineering, 158(10), pp. 89-94.
Donahue, M.L. (1993, November). Hazardous materials training. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 62(11), pp. 1-5.
Fickes, M. (2002, January). Expect the best, plan for the worst: disaster planning, prudent steps and cooperation with government law enforcement characterize the future direction of many colleges and universities in response to the September 11 terrorist attack. College Planning & Management, 5(1), pp. 22-26.
On September 11, 2001, almost a decade past, the world was not only shocked by the events surrounding the terrorist actions against the United States, but the basic mission of law enforcement; local, regional, state, federal, and international, has dramatically changed. Since 9/11, the most basic mission of law enforcement has been to both uncover and anticipate potential terrorist targets and attacks and do anything and everything to prevent them. The events of 9/11 showed that the United States was also vulnerable to attack, causing post-9/11 law enforcement to focus more on planning, communication and prevention of any future attack.
One of the most visible paradigm shifts since 9/11 has been that law enforcement has been forced to being reactive to a complete switch -- not quite proactive in planning, execution and development. This ensues several challenges faced by law enforcement. Despite new legislation, for instance, it is…
Combs, C. (2010). Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century. New York: Prentice Hall.
Sales, N. (2010). Mending Walls: Information Sharing after the U.S.A. Patriot Act. Texas
Law Review. 88 (7): 1795-86.
Simmons, R. (2010). Searching for Terrorists: Why Public Safety is Not a Special Need.
Q: Do you think continual education and/or training in police ethics would reduce incidents of police corruption?
A: Again, it depends entirely on the type of continual education and training we're talking about: repeating simplistic ethical training scenarios originally presented in the academy is even less effective with respect to seasoned police veterans than with respect to rookies or trainees. On the other hand, if we're talking about a well-designed program that really reflects the realities of policing and that fundamentally distinguishes legitimate issues of corruption from trivial matters and unrealistic standards that are all but ignored on the street by veteran officers, then yes, I think continual education and training is essential in police ethics just as it is in other police services and functions.
Q: Thank you very much for your time Sergeant, I really appreciate your participation.
A: You're very welcome. I'd let you buy me a…
Law Enforcement Interview
Imagine studying the opinion of another law enforcement officer. What could one learn from that individual? Does he or she have any recommendations that are worth mentioning? How is discipline issues handled? One will discuss the various questions asked to Daniel Heinze with much analysis.
Why are ethics and character so important in the field of law enforcement?
Daniel (2011) believes that ethics and character is quite important in the field of law enforcement. He said, "From all the years of work I have done in the community, I have seen officers exploit their power by speeding and abusing innocent people" (Heinze, 2011). ecently, in the news, one has exploited another as a means of harming an innocent individual. This person has faced fines and termination from the police department. Everyone in Saline County was disappointed (Heinze, 2011).
One needs to explain how someone gets to work…
Heinze, D. (2011, May 5). Salina Police Department Sheriff. (E. Mattke, Interviewer).
Goal setting techniques also reduce stress, as a sense of purpose is now both part of time and personal management within the police department.
Collaborative policing through electronic communication can also serve as a time-saving device. Police departments can now collaborate to a certain extent without the cost of travel or long telephone conversations. These collaborations can act as a time saving device in cases where specialized advice is required, or where certain databases not available locally need to be accessed (Toch & Grant, 1991, p. 45).
It is important to recognize the various aspects of time management within policing. oth personal, professional and community issues are at stake. The police provides a very important service to the public, and should therefore be at its optimum level of performance. Performance can only be optimized through careful planning and strategizing techniques. These should then include a consideration of needs within the…
Hopson, Barry & Scally, Mike. (1993). Time Management: Conquering the Clock. Amsterdam: Pfeiffer
Mancini, Marc. 2003. Time Management. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Sewell, James D. (2003, August). "Handling the stress of the electronic world." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Database: FindArticles.com
Sewell, James D. (2002, March). "Managing the stress of organizational change - law enforcement agencies." The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Federal Bureau of Investigation. Database: FindArticles.com
Law Enforcement Culture
Organizational Cultures within Law Enforcement
Are there organizational cultures within law enforcement that can prove positive and/or negative to an agency? Provide examples that support your thoughts
Today's society is incredibly diverse and this level of diversity also requires that law enforcement organizations incorporate diversity into their organization as well to handle these challenges. By incorporating diversity into the law enforcement organization, it is possible to improve race relations, public attitudes towards police, police professionalism as well as minimize the potential for racial profiling. However, there are many law enforcement organizations that have a great deal of racism within their organizational cultures.
This can definitely affect the law enforcement agency in a variety of negative ways. Even if the policing organization is just perceived as racist then they are likely to receive a different treatment from the public than would be optimal. Joseph McNamara observes that "Learning…
U.S. Department of State. (2011, April). Ethics and Effective Policing. Retrieved April 2, 2013, from U.S. Department of State.
Law Enforcement and Police Calls
Police Services, Keeping the Peace or City Services Hotline?
As a society, it is collectively understood that contacting the police is a community service available to citizens. The phone number to connect emergency service dispatchers is the ubiquitous, '9-1-1,' digits. hile there are additional channels in which non-emergency calls may be routed, the '9-1-1' option is the most memorable and universally known means for a citizen to connect with emergency services.
The types of calls that police respond to are generally categorized into four categories that correlate with legitimate functions of law enforcement and fighting crime. However, there is also a fifth class of requests that falls outside of police duties. This paper discusses the categories of police service requests, as well as considering the less conspicuous implications of prostitution and call-services on law enforcement and crime fighting.
John C. Meyer specifically cites four areas…
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Farlex, Inc. (2012). callgirl and streetwalker definition. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Free Dictionary by Farlex Web site: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/streetwalker
Community policing calls for decentralization both in command structure and decision-making. Decentralized decision making permits officers on the front line to take responsibility for their job. When an officer is given more power to create solutions to problems and take risks, they feels more accountable for those solutions and assumes a greater responsibility for the well being of everyone in the community. "Decentralized decision making involves flattening the hierarchy of the agency, increasing tolerance for risk taking in problem solving efforts, and allowing officers discretion in handling calls" (Community Policing Defined, 2008).
I think that even with the availability of more real time information that managers will continue to follow the Community Policing Model. I feel this way because I believe that the Community Policing Model is a good idea. It allows for the officers on the street to have more control over the decisions that they make. It empowers…
Community-Oriented Policing. (n.d.). Retrieved April 6, 2009, from Web site:
Community Policing Defined. (2008). Retrieved April 5, 2009, from U.S. Department of Justice,
Web site: http://www.cops.usdoj.gov/default.asp?item=36
For example, the hierarchical system of management may not be the most effective method and more collaborative practices might prove more effective in eliminating corruption. The "haphazard," "limited" and "marginally effective" training in ethics must also be improved and targeted toward the current generation of officers (6). The review panel also notes a startling lack of ethics education during police officer training programs (7).
The lack of coherence between the formal ethical codes and the street "cop codes" has downgraded public confidence in law enforcement officers and in the ability of the department to meet the needs of the community. Low confidence in law enforcement is especially prevalent in minority communities. The ethical responsibilities of the police force must be revamped to include a greater awareness of the issues affecting minority communities. Unfortunately, the lack of confidence in the LAPD has meant that local residents are less than enthusiastic and…
Report of the Rampart Independent Review Panel (2000)
Law Enforcement After 911
Since September 11, 2001, the United States has faced an unprecedented level of terrorist threat, forcing the U.S. Government to allocate additional resources and energy for combating and preventing terrorism. In the face of every terror threat or attempted terrorist acts against American civilians, many critical observers and media commentators criticize the law enforcement agencies for their inability to successfully combat terrorism. The hypothesis of this paper, however, is that the law enforcement agencies have become better equipped to handle terrorist threats since 9/11 and were able to prevent terrorist attacks against the United States. Statistical data on foiled terrorist plots as well as the new strategies adopted by the FBI, CIA, the Department of Homeland Security and other agencies show that America today is better protected from terrorism than ever before. The increasing level of terrorist threat is due to increasing level of willingness on…
Dana, M. (March 22, 2004) FBI Budget Squeezed After 9/11. Washington Post. Retrieved January 26, 2011, from EBSCOhost.
Kallstrom, J. (January 11, 2010) Op-Ed on FBI's Post-9/11 Counterterrorism Efforts. New York Post. Retrieved January 26, 2011, from
Law Enforcement and Hiring Laws
Types of Policing
Community policing primarily consists of law enforcement through police patrol and presence. Problem oriented policing is very similar to community policing, except that instead of merely patrols actions are directed to address a specific problem. A problem oriented policing response is exemplified by increased patrols at problem traffic intersections or enforcement of pedestrian crossing from speeding traffic. Problem oriented policing is noted to have reduced burglaries in Newport News, Virginia (alker & Katz, 2008, p. 340). Both community and problem oriented policing is aimed at developing trust and interaction with local communities, in which the contributing social factors that contribute to crime is countered.
The potential shortcoming of community policing is the reality that studies have shown it does not necessarily reduce crime, but does improve the perception of safe neighborhoods (alker & Katz, 2008, p. 321). In the case of problem…
U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (2012). Equal Employment Opportunity Act of 1972. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from U.S. EEOC Web site: http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/history/35th/thelaw/eeo_1972.html
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Gaines, L., & Schram, P. (2012). National Criminal Justice Reference System. Retrieved October 10, 2012, from U.S. Department of Criminal Justice Web site: https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/publications/Abstract.aspx?id=193361
Law Enforcement Patrols and Gangs
hen the Police Are Called
A call for police response by citizens is a service call, in which the public has an implicit assumption for immediate solutions. The motivations for citizens to call upon police intervention are cited falling into four classifications as; maintain social boundaries, relieve disrupting situations, counter-punching (the caller's own suspicious activities), or obtain emergency response services (alker & Katz, 2008, p. 238). In addition to the four classifications, the ease of calling '911' can compel citizens to use the police emergency line to communicate disruptions of traffic or malfunctioning city services.
The assumed duty of the police, by the public, is that the cause of the situation precipitating the call will be negated. The public may desire for a resolution, however the police are typically limited to diffusing situations. Although an officer may lack the legal authority to compel a citizen…
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Dept. Of Justice. (2010, September). Crime in the United States, Offenses Cleared. Retrieved October 3, 2012, from United States Dept. Of Justice: http://www2.fbi.gov/ucr/cius2009/offenses/clearances/index.html
Factors Influencing Hiring of Law Enforcement Officers
Government funding agencies primarily dictate the recruitment process for a department, while the local police chief has only a minor influence in the methodology or content of training officers. More recently, departments have taken an active role in recruiting, and the overall education level of the force is on the rise. In recent times, arbitrary and discriminatory restrictions upon officer recruits and hiring have been eliminated, particularly physical attribute parameters (alker & Katz, 2008). The profession still suffers from a perception that the career necessitates masculine attributes and strict physical demands (alker & Katz, 2008, p. 131). ithin some social groups, the police force is not perceived in a positive light, and as a result may dissuade some from entering the force. However, the make up of the police force is evolving to better reflect the diversity of the communities it…
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Police Officers Part I: Entering Police Work and Part II: On the Job. (2012). Retrieved September 20, 2012, from Excelsior College Web site: https://mycourses.excelsior.edu/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_group=courses&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2FdisplayLearningUnit%3Fcourse_id%3D_7212_1%26content_id%3D_405970_1%26framesetWrapped%3Dtrue
Both of these cases indicate that police deviance continues to exist, partly because the stakes are so high, and the rewards are so great for officers who successfully steal or become corrupt in the system. Most of the corruption stems from money and greed, and when it is present every day in the officers' lives, it is difficult for at least some to resist temptation. It also seems that officers are paid relatively little in the terms of the risks they take, and seeing so many opportunities for corruption around them may tempt some of them to engage in illegal and deviant activities simply because the opportunities are so great, and risk of being caught much smaller than if they were not on the force.
There seem to be several different methods of controlling this deviance. First and foremost, supervisors and administration need to keep closer watch on officers, especially…
Editors. (2000). Report of the Rampart independent review panel. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2007 from the LAcity.org Web site: http://www.lacity.org/oig/rirprpt.pdf .
Muir, J. (2006). Police admit planting evidence. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2007 from the Orange County Register Web site: http://www.ocregister.com/ocregister/homepage/abox/article_1371805.php .
Murphy, S. (2006). Boston police corruption case detailed. Retrieved 2 Nov. 2007 from the Boston Globe Web site: http://www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2006/08/19/boston_police_corruption_case_detailed/ .
This is known among police as "professional courtesy," and violating it has been known to result in the cited officer's commander's contacting the issuing officer's commander with an (informal) complaint, expected to be addressed by an (informal) lecture on the topic of professional courtesy. Occasionally, a "ticket war" will erupt between neighboring police departments, sparked, initially, by the issuance of summonses by officers from one department to off-duty officers from another that phone calls between their respective commanders fails to resolve. Certain neighboring departments have a long-standing animosity between them, and more generally, state troopers and highway patrol agencies sometimes ignore any notion of professional courtesy toward local police agencies.
Where professional courtesy is observed, it extends even to DUI enforcement, provided no injuries, major property damage, or civilians are involved (either as victims or witnesses). An officer who pulls over an intoxicated driver with police
ID is much more…
Law Enforcement Patrolling
Kansas City Gun Experiment and the Kerner Commission Report
The Kansas City Gun Experiment of 1992 and 1993 illustrates a police strategy that was responsive to the fact that a particular area was responsible for a very high rate of firearm related homicides (University of Maryland; University of Texas, 2012). The intensification of police patrols represents a hybridization of the traditional "law enforcement" and "crime fighting" police functions. The case study is significant because it provided the basis to test the theory that reducing the number of guns in an area would prevent crime, and counters the argument that more guns would result in less incidences of crime (Sherman, Shaw, & Rogan, 1995, p. 2). The most differential aspect of the patrols is that they were mobilized as a preventative measure to a specific type of crime (University of Maryland; University of Texas, 2012). Officers engaged in…
City of Oakland. (2012). Oakland's 100-?Block Community Initiative to Reduce Violence . Retrieved September 28, 2012, from City of Oakland Web site: http://www2.oaklandnet.com/oakca/groups/mayor/documents/pressrelease/oak033035.pdf
University of Maryland; University of Texas. (2012). Kansas City Gun Experiment -- Kansas City, MO. Retrieved September 28, 2012, from U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs Web site: http://www.ojjdp.gov/pubs/gun_violence/profile20.html
United States Kerner Commission. (1968). Excerpts from the Kerner Report. Retrieved September 28, 2012, from History Matters Web site: http://historymatters.gmu.edu/d/6545/
New Orleans Police Department. (2012). History Of The New Orleans Police Department. Retrieved September 28, 2012, from New Orleans Police Department Web site: http://www.nola.gov/GOVERNMENT/NOPD/NOPD%20Home/History%20of%20the%20NOPD/
Many times, police officers are attacked or the prisoners themselves are injured during this booking process. The deaths and injuries, specifically of prisoners belonging to ethnic minorities, have triggered conflicts between the police and the community in recent years. Studies showed that the separation of the arresting officer and the suspect appeared to lessen the rate of reoccurrence. The studies recommended an evaluation of procedures and reinforcement (Community Relations Service).
The police also get into trouble with the way they deal with the mentally impaired (Community Relations Service 2003). They need to become more familiar with current-day approaches in the field of mental illness. One way this need can be met is to obtain training from area health professionals on what to do when encountering mental illness cases while fulfilling their police functions. The channels of communication should remain open, upgraded and active among the police, the mental health professional…
American Law Library. Racial Profiling: Should Police Practice Racial Profiling?
American Encyclopedia, Vol 8. Net Industries, 2009. Retrieved on May 15, 2009
Community Relations Service. Principles of Good Policing: Avoiding Violence between
Case Study Analyses
Unit 5 sought to examine the extent to which the unsuitable conduct of law enforcement officers has impacted the reputation of not only the profession of policing but also that of corrections. From the readings and unit discussion, I learnt that lapses in the recruiting process (whereby persons not fit to serve are nonetheless recruited and assigned sensitive duties) has in the past resulted in the recruitment of some ‘bad apples’ who proceed to engage in inappropriate behaviors and ultimately give the professions a bad name.
One of the things that engaged me most about the material was the fact that there have been numerous instances of sheer incompetence and gross negligence on the part of those entrusted with the mandate of maintaining law and order. The murder of James Mongeon is one such instance. What appears even more surprising is that if such negligence and incompetence…
Amidst scarce resources and unlimited needs, it is imperative for law enforcement and criminal justice organizations to allocate resources efficiently. The budgeting process must ensure resources are allocated to the most critical or pressing areas (Doss, Guo & Lee, 2012). There are proposals by the state government to cut the police department’s operations budget. If not well thought out, the proposed budget cuts may hinder the organization from realizing its goals and objectives. It is imperative for the state government to be properly aware of the forces that influence the law enforcement market. Cutting the budget at a time when there is increased demand for law enforcement services is not a sensible thing to do. Crime levels in the city have increased significantly in the last few years. This has meant deployment of more police officers, addition of equipment and facilities (e.g. police cars), and even more rigorous…
Doss, D., Guo, C., & Lee, J. (2012). The business of criminal justice: A guide for theory and practice. Boca Raton: CRC Press.
Mitchell, M., & Casey, J. (2007). Police leadership and management. Annandale, NSW: The Federation Press.
Currently there are no federal laws governing employment contract of law enforcement, and in fact, law enforcement has yet to be professionalized or federalized in any way. This situation may change in the future as the quality of law enforcement in the United States is being increasingly called into question due to incidents like the one described in the sample scenario in which an officer has been repeatedly accused of unnecessary force and brutality. As an administrator, I would like to see this officer’s contract immediately terminated. I will be constrained mainly by the general Department of Labor fair labor standards, as well as any employment law considerations that appeal to specialized personnel. If the members of my department are members of a police union, then there could be some serious repercussions I would need to consider. For example, Friedersdorf (2014) points out that faulty arbitration procedures sometimes hinder a…
Chen, S. (2009). What does ‘person of interest’ mean? Nothing. CNN. Retrieved online: http://www.cnn.com/2009/CRIME/09/17/yale.person.of.interest/index.html
Shepard, A.C. (2009). A person of interest. NPR. Retrieved online: http://www.npr.org/sections/ombudsman/2009/09/a_person_of_interest.html
Vogel, J. & Baran, M. (2016). In a trap: what it means to be a ‘person of interest.’ APM Reports. Retrieved online: http://www.apmreports.org/story/2016/09/27/what-it-means-to-be-a-person-of-interest
Purpose of presentation: comparing LEAD with The Herring Problem Solving Method
The Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) happens to be a grant-funded program aimed at rehabilitating low-level drug crimes and prostitution in Belltown, Seattle, Washington along with King County’s Skyway area. Initiated and administered by a group of law enforcement agencies, public representatives, along with community groups, the program aims to enhance public safety and reduce crime by offering job training, housing, mental health treatment, and healthcare to low-level prostitutes and drug offenders (LEAD, 2017). The program’s focus on rehabilitation as opposed to conventional, punitive methods is one of its major strengths. This presentation compares this program with the problem solving model presented in the video presentation from Week Two, which depicts “The Herring Problem Solving Method.”
The Herring Problem Solving Method
Identify the problem
Quantify the problem
Describe the problem
Select the best solution
LEAD. (2017). LEAD - Home. Retrieved from http://leadkingcounty.org/
Ethical Decision Making in Law Enforcement
The life of a law enforcement agent is surrounded by many duties. Duties which they are often trained to carry out over several months. Unfortunately, the curriculum designed to train law enforcement agents does not capture the challenges of ethical dilemmas and how to deal with them. This put the officers in a precarious position leading to inability to cope up with a challenging career.
According to the objectives of the article, it talks about the best possible ways to get out of an ethical dilemma. First, getting out of an ethical dilemma situation is to initially recognize that it exists and appreciating that such situations demand critical decision making. Thereafter, the officer needs to select his alternative to action. The choice is made based on the most appropriate way to handle the ethical situation at hand. This can be best achieved by making…
Developing Ethical Leaders in Law Enforcement
At any point in time but especially during periods of social and political unrest, American citizens look to law enforcement authorities to provide them with the informed guidance and support they need to navigate their ways through these challenging times successfully. It is therefore incumbent upon law enforcement agencies at every level to create an organizational culture that places a high priority of ethical policing practices and to develop ethical leaders that can model the way for their subordinates. To this end, the purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the relevant literature to explicate the importance of ethical leadership and to identify strategies for developing ethical leaders in law enforcement today. A summary of the research and key findings concerning these issues are presented in the paper’s conclusion.
Review and Discussion
Importance of Ethical Leadership in Law Enforcement
Preventing Bias-Based Profiling
Law enforcement officers can sometimes reflect personal and cultural bias in the exercising of their duties as a law enforcement agent. For example, when developing a criminal profile, victim profile or geographical profile, preconceived notions of what certain people from certain backgrounds—whether ethnic, religious or socio-economical—are like can alter the officer’s perception of reality. In order to mitigate the influence of bias in policing, law enforcement agencies have to be conscious and mindful of strategies that can be used to prevent bias-based profiling. This paper will propose two strategies for dealing with the law enforcement subculture, as it relates to bias-based profiling. One strategy will be from an ethical perspective and the other will be in terms of preventing bias-base discriminations from creating adverse social conditions that impede the peaceful functioning of social systems and society as a whole.
From a utilitarian ethics standpoint, society should pursue…
Driver, J. (2014). History of utilitarian ethics. Retrieved from https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/utilitarianism-history/
Fridell, L. A. (2016). Racial aspects of police shootings: Reducing both bias and counter bias. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(2), 481-489.
In the United States, policing has been an evolving concept given the desire to strike a balance between keeping law and order and the need to safeguard citizen’s rights granted by the constitution. There are three eras of policing history recognized in the US with the first termed the Political Era, which occurred between 1840 and 1930 (Edwards, 2011). During this period, the role of the police was to offer a range of social services to the community. The police force was organized in a decentralized structure, and there was a close relationship between the police and the community. Moreover, they conducted patrols on foot and bicycles. With the strategy, police officers established and built close relationships with business owners and citizens who lived, worked and played in the neighborhood. Overall, officers were effective in serving the local community and meeting the needs of the political leaders.
This was followed…
Barak, G., Leighton, P., & Flavin, J. (2010). Class, race, gender, and crime: The social realities of justice in America. Lanham, Md: Rowman & Littlefield.
Edwards, C. (2011). Changing policing theories for 21st-century societies. Annandale, N.S.W: Federation Press.
Miller, L. S., Hess, K. M., & Orthmann, C. M. H. (2011). Community Policing: Partnerships for problem-solving. Australia: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Palmiotto, M., & Unnithan, N. P. (2011). Policing & society: A global approach. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Cengage Learning.
Truth about police code of silence revealed
The terms ‘Blue Code’, ‘Blue Wall’ or ‘Code of Silence’ refer to the law enforcement departmental rule of refraining from reporting on the misdemeanors, mistakes and offenses of fellow police officers in the event they are interrogated, in official investigations, about any act of misconduct that involves a coworker. This Blue Wall is symbolic of the loyalty between law enforcement officials in any given police force. For maintaining this loyalty, even scrupulous officials might be coerced into turning a blind eye to law enforcement brutality cases that may cause further harm to innocent civilians by ensuring they don’t get their due justice. Furthermore, law enforcement culture defends and promotes this code, along with police brutality. All cities and states have police departments in place for maintaining public peace and enforcing city and state laws. Within democratic republics, law enforcement officials are required to…
Grisham, C. J. (2016). What is \\\\"The Blue Wall of Silence\\\\"? Retrieved September 18, 2018, from https://priceofbusiness.com/what-is-the-blue-wall-of-silence/
Trautman, N. (2000). Police code of silence facts revealed. In Annual Conference of the International Association of Chiefs of Police, available at http://www. aele. org/loscode2000. html.
Workman-Stark, A. L. (2017). Inclusive policing from the inside out. Springer.
The future of law enforcement
The contemporary world has seen evolution of virtually every sector of the society, from communication to trade, from food production to medical care procedures and from foreign wars to the inland security. This same revolution needs to be fully implemented in the law enforcement which looks forward to being effective in the highly globalised society. There is need therefore to critically evaluate and analyze areas in which pertinent factors like technology, leadership/organizational culture, community policing and police training can be improved and modernized in order to make them palatable to the current society, with the current law adherence challenges.
The USA law enforcement officers face challenges in handling and effectively resolving the contemporary crimes and the ever changing faces of criminal tendencies. The main problem that perpetuates this status quo is the stagnation in the approach to combating crimes, despite the fact…
Chassan A., (2008). Collective Efficacy: The Key to Community Change? Retrieved October 05, 2015 from https://shelterforce.org/2008/05/15/collective_efficacy_the_key_to_community_change/
Crank J.P., (2003). Institutional theory of police: a review of the state of the art. Retrieved October 05, 2015 from http://www.observatoriodeseguranca.org/files/p186.pdf
Griffith D., (2015). 25 Ways to Make Police Training More Effective. Retrieved October 05, 2015 from http://www.policemag.com/channel/careers-training/articles/2015/04/25-ways-to-make-police-training-more-effective.aspx
Fortenbery, J. (2016). Law enforcement organizations: Possibilities and challenges for the future. FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin. Retrieved October 05, 2015 from https://leb.fbi.gov/articles/featured-articles/law-enforcement-organizations-possibilities-and-challenges-for-the-future
Lucik S.D., (2014). Community Policing and Community Security: Theory and Practice in Timor-Leste. Retrieved October 05, 2015 from http://www.lse.ac.uk/internationalDevelopment/research/JSRP/downloads/JSRP16.Djurdjevic.pdf
Reynolds B., (2014). How to change culture in your police department. Retrieved October 05, 2015 from https://www.policeone.com/chiefs-sheriffs/articles/6969415-How-to-change-culture-in-your-police-department/
Suro R., (1999). FBI Lagging Behind on Cyber Crime. Retrieved October 05, 2015 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/daily/oct99/cyber7.htm
US Department of Justice (2017). Community Policing Defined. https://ric-zai-inc.com/Publications/cops-p157-pub.pdf
Arizona Revised Statutes
A.R.S. 13-3881, Arrest:
A. An arrest is made by an actual restraint of the person to be arrested, or by his submission to the custody of the person making the arrest.
Arrests may be done in the following ways: (1) through the arrester putting his/ her hands on or touching the arrestee; (2) through any action suggesting the arrester’s intent to detain the arrestee and subjecting the latter to the former’s actual will and control; or (3) through the arrestee’s consent. All arrests involve restraint, which needs to be under pretended or actual legal authority. But it is not necessary for formal words suggesting arrest or for a booking at a police station for the act to be considered an arrest. An objective test helps ascertain whether or not an arrest has occurred in a given case, resting on whether reasonable individuals under such a circumstance would…
Marroquin, B. (n.d.). Laws Regarding Citizen\\\\'s Arrest in Arizona. . Retrieved from http://legalbeagle.com/8592494-laws-regarding-citizens-arrest-arizona.html
An effective police officer must be truthful. Increasingly, there is frustration informed by lack of integrity and support for the actions of discipline that are taken by the senior officers against those who breach the rules. Integrity and ethics must be at the center of an internal investigation. In case an officer is not truthful regarding their actions, positive reinforcement should be employed. Still, it must be made clear from the onset that untruthfulness is sufficient ground for termination of duty. If a law enforcement officer behaves or acts untruthfully, it damages the effectiveness of their work of policing. This paper seeks to point out the correct action to be taken against an officer who acts untruthfully in the case provided.
After 1963’s decision by the Supreme Court on the Brady case, prosecutors are obliged to make evidence available to the defense, even evidence that would favor…
Abel, J. (2015). Brady\\\\'s blind spot: impeachment evidence in police personnel files and the battle splitting the prosecution team. Stan. L. Rev., 67, 743.
Ekman, P., O\\\\'Sullivan, M., & Frank, M. G. (1999). A few can catch a liar. Psychological science, 10(3), 263-266.
Lie. (n.d.) In Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary. Retrieved from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/lie on 13 December 2018
Noble, J. (2003). Police Officer Truthfulness and the Brady Decision. The Police Chief, Vol. 70, no. 10.
Policy Regarding the Disclosure to Prosecutors of Potential Impeachment Information Concerning Law Enforcement Agency Witnesses (“Giglio Policy”), Office of the Attorney General (12/9/1996).
Reimund, M.E., (2013). Are Brady Lists (aka Liar’s Lists) the Scarlet Letter for Law Enforcement Officers? A Need for Expansion and Uniformity. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 3: No. 17; 1-6.
Brady v. Maryland, 373 U.S. 83 (1963).
What Contributes to Unethical Conduct?
In the past, public inquiries have been established with an intention of investigating and unearthing unethical conduct amongst law enforcement officers. In the end, individual officers end up being put on trial and the reputation of the profession as a whole suffers immensely. The readings and the unit discussion have been a very important learning opportunity with regard to what exactly triggers unethical behavior in an organizational setting, and most specifically in police departments.
I was particularly intrigued by the fact that unethical conduct is in most instances triggered by strong emotions that have been left unchecked. This is more so the case given that the very nature of police work could invite feelings of victimization, isolation, as well as exploitation. For instance, when a law enforcement officer views himself as a victim of the system, he or she feels entitled to better treatment and…
Despite the fact that there has been visible progress in the classification and documentation of different interrogation techniques, there is very little information about the manner in which police officers are trained and equipped with interrogation techniques and how often they apply various techniques (Cleary, H. M. D., & Warner, 2016). Little is also known about how the police officers employ the techniques with juveniles and with adults. This research examines the modern interviewing and interrogation principles and purposes for police officers. The report will examine both informal and formal interrogation techniques as well as other techniques used by the police for interrogation in the modern day and age.
The interrogation and interviewing techniques used by the police communicate some psychological intensity spectrum where various information gathering skills were employed. The tactics may involve high pressure tactics used less frequently and the frequently used tactics. Officers with Reid training are…
Buckley, J. P. (2013). The Reid Technique of interviewing and interrogation. In Investigative Interviewing: Rights, Research and Regulation (pp. 190–206). Taylor and Francis. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781843926337
Cleary, H. M. D., & Warner, T. C. (2016). Police Training in Interviewing and Interrogation Methods: A Comparison of Techniques Used with Adult and Juvenile Suspects. Law and Human Behavior, 40(3), 270–284. https://doi.org/10.1037/lhb0000175
Gordon, N. J., & Fleisher, W. L. (2011). Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques. Effective Interviewing and Interrogation Techniques. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/C2009-0-62838-5
Gudjonsson, G. H., & Pearse, J. (2011). Suspect interviews and false confessions. Current Directions in Psychological Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721410396824
McConnell, B. (2017). Criminal Interview and Interrogation in Serious Crime Investigations.
Meissner, C. A., Redlich, A. D., Bhatt, S., & Brandon, S. E. (2012). Interview and interrogation methods and their effects on true and false confessions. Campbell Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.4073/csr.2012.13
Orlando, J. (n.d.). Interrogation Techniques, OLR Research Report. Retrieved 31 December, 2018 from https://www.cga.ct.gov/2014/rpt/2014-R-0071.htm
Reid J.E. & Associates (n.d.). The Reid Technique. Retrieved 31 December, 2018 from http://www.reid.com/educational_info/critictechnique.html
Security threats have become more sophisticated and common in contemporary society because of globalization and rapid technological advancements. As criminals continue to develop sophisticated means for carrying out their activities, local and international law enforcement agencies are constantly seeking for measures to prevent and thwart criminal activities. One of the measures that play a critical role in achieving this is intelligence. National security intelligence agencies and law enforcement agencies has enhanced their collaboration to help deal with domestic and international security threats. Even though intelligence plays a critical role in modern security, its place in a free society continues to be a controversial issue that evokes a series of passions and responses. This paper examines the role of intelligence in the modern world as a critical component of geostrategic developments.
What is Intelligence?
Intelligence is a term that is used to refer to the collection and evaluation of internal and…
Carter, D.L 2009. Law Enforcement Intelligence: A Guide for State, Local and Tribal Law Enforcement Agencies, U.S. Department of Justice, viewed 18 January 2019,
Carter, D.L 2015. Law Enforcement Intelligence Analysis and Crime Analysis: Understanding their Differences and Cooperative Value, Michigan State University, viewed 18 January 2019,
Coyne, J.W. & Bell, P 2011. Strategic Intelligence in Law Enforcement: a Review, Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, vol. 6, no. 1, pp.23-39.
Derencivonic, D. & Getos, A 2007. Cooperation of Law Enforcement and Intelligence Agencies in Prevention and Suppression of Terrorism, CAIRN, viewed 18 January 2019,
Federation of American Scientists n.d. Law Enforcement Intelligence Classifications, Products, and Dissemination, Federation of American Scientists, viewed 18 January 2019,
Friedman, D 2010. TECH Cops: How Technological Advances are Changing Police Work, Greenwich Time, viewed 18 January 2019,
Lemieux, F 2018. Intelligence and state surveillance in modern societies: An international perspective. Emerald Publishing Limited: Bradford, United Kingdom.
McCahill, M 2002. Rounding Up the Usual Suspects? Developments in Contemporary Law Enforcement Intelligence, Crime Prevention and Community Safety, vol. 4, no. 3, pp.73-74.
Effect of Multiculturalism Education on the Police Force
Cultural issues affect law enforcement more than most government workers. Every day, the police come into contact with several people from practically every culture in the areas they police. This reality creates a need for policemen and women to understand the dynamics of multiculturalism. Indeed, the success of community policing depends significantly on how law enforcement relates to people of different cultures (Hendricks and Byers, 2000). An interesting dynamic when it comes to community policing is that the power law enforcement has can make them an oppressor or a friend of the community based solely on the optics of their operations. This makes multicultural education quite important to the police (Hennessy, n.d).
When designing a multicultural curriculum for a police department, it should be specifically tailored to the community being impacted and the police department in question. Carl Jung (1974) theorized on…
Hendricks, J. E., & Byers, B. (2000). Multicultural perspectives in criminal justice and cultural awareness training for police in the United States criminology (2nd ed.). Springfield, Illinois: Charles Thomas publisher, ltd.
Hennessy, S.M. (1998). Thinking cop- feeling cop: A study in police personalities (3rd ed.). Gainesville, Florida, Center for the Application of Psychological Type.
Hennessy, S. M. (n.d). Cultural awareness training for police in the United States: A look at effective methodologies. Retrieved from http://www.minneapolismn.gov/www/groups/public/@civilrights/documents/webcontent/wcms1p-149102.pdf
Jung, C.G. (1974). Psychological types. (R.F.C. Hull Translation.) Zurich. Rascher Verlag. (Original work published in 1921).
Wilkins, D.F. (1996). Are we using the wrong teaching method in our criminal justice classes? Journal of criminal justice education, 7(1).
Ethics, Values, and Self-Awareness: What Was Lacking in Tulsa
The deplorable shooting of an unarmed man named Eric Courtney Harris was precipitated by unethical and ineffective leadership practices and policies used in the Tulsa County Sheriff's Office. One of the key issues in this case is that the Tulsa County Sheriff's Office relies on public elections of their sheriffs, inviting potential corruption and preventing law enforcement from being independent from politics. Another issue in this case reflects poorly on almost every other police department in the nation: ineffective training. Finally, the Tulsa case reveals the problems with entrenched organizational cultures that condone violent responses to conflicts rather than inculcating nonviolent conflict resolution strategies. All of the problems in the Tulsa case can be traced to leadership failures, ethical violations, a lack of self-awareness, and a lack of strong values.
Former Tulsa deputy Robert Bates was an insurance salesman who was…
Huberts, L., Kaptein, M. & Lasthuizen, K. (2007). A study of the impact of three leadership styles on integrity violations committed by police officers. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management 30(4): 587-607.
Jones, C. (2016). External review of Tulsa County Sheriff’s Office cites ‘system-wide failure of leadership. Tulsa World. Retrieved online: http://www.tulsaworld.com/news/crimewatch/external-review-of-tulsa-county-sheriff-s-office-cites-system/article_dab8b68c-09d3-50d1-86b3-cc94b41cdd0e.html
O’Connor, B. (2015). Tulsa sheriff to resign over shooting by deputy who bought his way into police. Gawker. Retrieved online: http://gawker.com/tulsa-sheriff-to-resign-over-shooting-by-deputy-who-bou-1733946773
“Report: Tulsa County to Pay Ex-Deputy $138k to Settle Suit,” (2017). U.S. News and World Report. June 24, 2017. Retrieved online: https://www.usnews.com/news/best-states/oklahoma/articles/2017-06-24/county-tallies-550k-in-costs-related-to-2015-shooting
Spears, L.C. (2010). Character and servant leadership. The Journal of Virtues and Leadership 1(1): 25-30.
Law enforcement and corrections can be influenced by several external threats. These consist of external communication gaps and many environmental influences. One of the key external threats that impacts both corrections and law enforcement is politics. In delineation, politics is the art of wielding one's authority and power over the government or public affairs. In particular, political action can give rise to the imposition of one's interests within the government, in positions of leadership within the government, with regard to the control over resources, as well as in terms of holding government office. Politics influence law enforcement and corrections by impacting the individuals that will hold different positions in criminal justice, for instance the police, judges, prosecutors as well as correctional executives. Law enforcement, administration, and corrections are linked with politics on various extents and levels. Prevailing political philosophy and ideology influence the structure, organization, as well as anticipation of…
"ccording to a 2001 Department of Justice survey, 20% of students aged 12 through 18 reported that street gangs had been present at their school during the previous 6 months. More than a quarter (28%) of students in urban schools reported a street gang presence, and 18% of students in suburban schools and 13% in rural schools reported the presence of street gangs. Public schools reported a much higher percentage of gang presence than private schools." These gangs were often responsible for selling drugs in schools, and used the profits gained from the trafficking of drugs to garner new recruits, soliciting dealers from the student population with the promise of profits. The gangs thus begat violence, just as the users whom they sell their drugs to also begat violence in their attempts to get enough money to buy more drugs.
According to the annual Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) cited by the Justice Information Center, there is a strong correlation between drug and alcohol abuse and violent crime. Data collected from male arrestees in 1998 in 35 cities showed that the percentage testing positive for any drug ranged from 42.5% in Anchorage, Alaska, (the lowest percentage) to 78.7% in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (a rather staggeringly high percentage). ( http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/publications/factsht/crime/index.html ) Additionally, 27% of Federal prisoners admitted committing their offense to get money to buy drugs.
Gangs and drugs
Drug-related crimes are not merely the result of desperate actions of individuals in thrall to their addiction. Drug-related crimes also often have an organized source, and organized sources of drugs also are a source of violent crime. According to the FBI ( http://www.usdoj.gov/ndic/pubs11/13157/index.htm#relation ) one must look at the organized face of drug-related crime to gain a full picture of the negative impact drugs have on society. "According to a 2001 Department of Justice survey, 20% of students aged 12 through 18 reported that street gangs had been present at their school during the previous 6 months. More than a quarter (28%) of students in urban schools reported a street gang presence, and 18% of students in suburban schools and 13% in rural schools reported the presence of street gangs. Public schools reported a much higher percentage of gang presence than private schools." These gangs were often responsible for selling drugs in schools, and used the profits gained from the trafficking of drugs to garner new recruits, soliciting dealers from the student population with the promise of profits. The gangs thus begat violence, just as the users whom they sell their drugs to also begat violence in their attempts to get enough money to buy more drugs.
Second, I would look at whether I had provided my subordinates with a common purpose, and whether I had taken the time to explain that purpose to my subordinates. Third, I would determine whether I had ensured that my subordinates understood priorities, both my priorities and the priorities of my superiors. Fourth, I would examine my methods of confliction resolution to determine whether I had been using a win-win method of conflict resolution or if I had been adhering to older, punitive means of conflict resolution. Fifth, I would examine my policy towards my subordinates; did I listen to them when they came to me with problems, or did I try to offer solutions without really hearing what they had to say. Sixth, I would look at what I had done to promote synergy; whether I had done anything to actively encourage community cooperation with my organization. Finally, I would…
Franklin Covey. "The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People for Law Enforcement." Franklin
Covey.com. 2007. Franklin Covey. 3 Aug. 2008 http://www.franklincovey.com/lawenforcement/7H%20FOR%20LAW%20ENFORCEMENT%20FLYER.PDF .
Harris, John. "Picking and Keeping Law Enforcement and Corrections Officers in Florida."
Florida Department of Law Enforcement. 2008. Florida Department of Law Enforcement. 3 Aug. 2008 http://www.fdle.state.fl.us/FCJEI/SLP%20papers/Harris,%20J.pdf.
While it is a felony to flee the scene of an accident, a police office is ethically bound to report the issue if he himself is in such an accident. The same is with drunken and disorderly behavior or destruction of property. In "Choirboys" the police officers would congregate in a park after hours to engage in drunkenness, disorderly behavior and sexual orgies with women. And this park was supposed to be out of bounds and closed to the public after hours.
The introduction in this essay already alluded to the "blue wall of silence" that accompanies every police organization. This is an exclusive fraternity and officers are required to look after and out for each other. In fact, beat cops see themselves as removed from the detective squad, whom they refer to as suits. Certainly, most police hate the Internal affairs squad, though they were once beat cops…
BusinessWeek. (2004). Who will Fastow Implicate.
Retrieved April 22, 2008, at http://www.businessweek.com/bwdaily/dnflash/jan2004/nf20040115_1433_db035.htm
Gilmartin, K.M., & Harris, J.J. (1998). Law Enforement Ethics: The Continuum of Compromise. Police Chief Magazine
Retrieved April 22, 2008, at http://www.rcmp-learning.org/docs/ecdd1222.htm
These gratuitous cookies are simply a show of appreciation to the police force in general and enhance the job satisfaction factor for officers.
On the other hand, the Code of Ethics states that "Officers will refuse to accept any gifts, presents, subscriptions, favors, gratuities or promises that could be interpreted as seeking to cause the officer to refrain from performing official responsibilities honestly and within the law" (n.d.). With this in mind, it would not be acceptable for an officer to accept a free oil change, in exchange for him not reporting the fact that he noticed a stolen car in the back of shop. Even when gratuities are given without a specific 'favor' in mind, it could be implied that that officer will give special treatment to the person at a later date, and for this reason, in general, gratuities should not be accepted.
Code of ethics online.…
Code of ethics online. (No date). Retrieved July 21, 2006, at http://ethics.iit.edu/codes/coe/Law_Enforcement_Code_of_Ethics.html.
Law Enforcement Officers and Gratuities
Law Enforcement Introduction
The Modern Police Forces
Prior to the formation of the Philadelphia force in 1833, policing primarily consisted of "night watches" and sheriffs recruited from the community (Sabeth). The role of law enforcement was ad hoc in nature to fight crime, night watch patrols, and not an organized or uniform organization. Incidentally, the rural nature of the country did not necessitate an established and robust policing force until the urbanization and industrialization of the 1830s and 1840s. In response to a growing need to maintain law and order on city streets, a significant and visible presence was needed to counter riots and avert crime.
Philadelphia, and later New York, first established polices forces whose jurisdiction and duties were attended twenty-four hours a day (Sabeth). The significance of the modern police force was that it was developed to prevent crime, law enforcement, and maintain order by being visibly present…
Walker, S., & Katz, C.M. (2008). The Police in America: An Introduction (6th Edition). New York, New York: McGraw-HIll.
Sabeth, D. (n.d.). The Evolution of American Policing. Retrieved September 8, 2012, from American Federation of Police & Concerned Citizens: http://www.aphf.org/hist.html
"Accountability refers to the mechanisms by which both law enforcement officers and the agencies they serve are held responsible for promoting social order, reducing crime, and treating each individual fairly and within the limits of the law" (Chambliss, 2011). The three dimensions of police accountability are accountability to the public, accountability to the law, and accountability to each other (other members of the police force. If one were to look at the most fundamental dimension of police accountability, such as accountability to the public, one would see just how crucial this is: "It both defines and protects citizens' rights while also promoting a collective sense of faith in the larger criminal justice system" (Chambliss, 2011).
The three E's are "Effectiveness -- whether police accomplish what they are supposed to do: A. Do they effectively control crime? B. Are they successful in arresting offenders? Efficiency-- whether they accomplish their tasks…
Chambliss, W. (2011). Police and Law Enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Katz, C. (2002). Chapter Outline. Retrieved from McGraw-Hill.com: http://highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/007241497x/student_view0/part3/chapter11/chapter_outline.html
Newham, G. (2011, June). Tackling Police Corruption. Retrieved from issafrica.org: http://www.issafrica.org/crimehub/uploads/ISS_Anti-Corruption_SAPU.pdf
Law Enforcement Communications
Interoperability of Emergency Service Communications
The number and scope of each individual emergency and public safety agency has resulted in an ad hoc patchwork of communication equipment. Routine daily needs within one agency for clear and concise communication fall short of readiness for large-scale emergencies involving either multiple services or jurisdictions. The current budgeting autonomy of each public service department has resulted in a many agencies with antiquated equipment, while others posses more modern tools, that may sufficiently serve current needs, yet is clearly inadequate for more common emergencies like large fires or traffic pile ups. However, interoperability, the capability to communicate across different gear, radio frequencies, and standardization, both limits and delays the response time, as well as effectiveness, of each individual. hen emergencies entail injuries and danger, timely command and communication of resources may be the difference between life and death.
The video, "hy Can't…
U.S. Dept. Of Justice. (n.d.). Why Can't We Talk? When Lives Are At Stake. Retrieved 26 Oct., 2012, from Google Videos Web site: http://video.google.com/videoplay?docid=-6455322945171664950&hl=en
"After September 2001 law enforcement agencies realized the potential devastation and chaos an act of terrorism can cause. The Council was created to improve the ability of the Police Department to respond to a situation and educate the Department and the community." (ichmond Police Department, 2004)
Police departments have had to become terrorist experts. The Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council for example is a collaboration of sworn officers and civilian employees with diverse backgrounds. Many of these members are or were leading members of specially trained units or have extensive training in SWAT, bomb technology, military assault, hazmat crime analysis, international terrorism intelligence, strategic planning and many other legal units such as basic attorneys. Through technology and experience, the Homeland Security Terrorism Advisory Council should be able to identify, acquire, plan, and advise on terroristic crisis. With this knowledge base the unit should be able to therefore anticipate, prevent, and…
Boyd, David G. (1995). On the cutting edge: law enforcement technology. The FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, 7/1/1995.
Dempsey, Tom, Department of Government and Public Affairs, & Newport News. (1997, November 1). Computer Communications Technology Facilitates Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.iacptechnology.org/Library/ComputerTraining.htm
Division of Emergency Communications. (n.d.). Captain Linda Samuel. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.ci.richmond.va.us/department/police/Chief/pdxxs_DEC.asp
Richmond Police Department. (n.d.). Richmond Police Department. Retrieved September 16, 2004, at http://www.richmondgov.com/department/police/pdxxi_index.asp
Moreover, the risks posed by felons with known propensities (or stated intentions) to respond violently to law enforcement apprehension efforts are usually subject to judicially approved no-knock arrest warrants; therefore, they can be excepted from this particular element of analysis.
However, a subject who is forewarned of officers' intention to breach his home's entrance by the amount of time required by knock and announce standards presents the worst case scenario for all involved: he may be insufficiently startled to preclude any response on his part in the manner of a subject who is completely surprised (or fast asleep) at the moment of entry; but he may have just enough time to reach reflexively for stowed or secreted weapon while at the same time being deprived of sufficient reaction time and/or cognitive awareness to perceive the inadvisability of doing so under the circumstances, with deadly results. Stated very simply, a startled…
Hot Pursuit Policy
The hot pursuit policy to be used by this department will follow the definition established by the Model Policy published by the International Association of Chiefs of Police for vehicular pursuits which defines hot pursuit as: "An active attempt by an officer in an authorized emergency vehicle to apprehend fleeing suspects who are attempting to avoid apprehension through evasive tactics" (quoted in Kenney & McNamara, 1999 at p. 158). The steps to be followed pursuant to this definition and policy are as follows.
1. The use of hot pursuit in this jurisdiction will be authorized when the apprehending officer has reason to believe that the suspect(s) involved represent a danger to the public irrespective of the seriousness of the originating offense involved. This approach is congruent with the findings of a Bureau of Justice Statistics survey of large law enforcement agencies (e.g., those with more than 100…
Kenney, D.J. & McNamara, R.P. (1999). Police and policing: Contemporary issues. Westport,
Ramsey, K. (2006, October 4). Sheriff candidates talk costs, staffing. Daily Herald (Arlington
Heights, IL), 1.
Specifically, perimeter security requires protocols for continuous monitoring of the entire perimeter, especially in conjunction with responding to potential breaches in any given sector (McGee 2006). Grounds and perimeter security also requires scenario-based training in conjunction with non-security-related emergency procedures. Specifically, periodic emergency drills involving building tenants and personnel may present a vulnerability where grounds and perimeter security procedures are not equipped to accommodate larger than normal volumes of foot traffic, such as typically associated with fire drills.
Optimal grounds and perimeter security protocols must include procedures for accommodating the increased traffic necessitated by non-security-related emergency drills without compromising general grounds and perimeter security considerations. For the same reason, information detailing emergency drill schedules must be protected from unauthorized access or unnecessary dissemination in advance (Larson 2007).
The primary technological advances in physical facility, building, grounds, and perimeter security relate to computerization of relevant security information and its…
Larsen, R.J. (2007) Our Own Worst Enemy: Asking the Right Questions About Security to Protect You, Your Family, and America. New York: Grand Central Publishing
McGee, J. (2006) International Special Events; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 75, No. 1. (pp.10-18).
Reed. B. (2008) Future Technology in Law Enforcement; FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin, Vol. 77, No. 5. (pp.15-21).
Training programs for traffic homicide investigators usually include the following areas: speed estimates from kinetic energy, skid marks, scuffmarks and airborne situations, vehicle dynamics and motion, time, distance and motion equations, conservation of momentum calculations, diagramming vehicle damage, vehicle damage analysis explaining thrust, center of mass, overlap and collapse, vehicle lamp examination, tire damage evaluation, advanced photography and video techniques and vector sum analysis (Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation, n.d.).
All of these areas are important in order for an investigator to be successful in traffic homicide investigations.
Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). etrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee
Traffic Safety esource Service Web site:
Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. etrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/crash.html
Advanced Traffic Crash Investigation. (n.d.). Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Tennessee
Traffic Safety Resource Service Web site:
Byrd, Mike. (2000). Crash. Retrieved September 13, 2009, from Web site: http://www.crime-scene-investigator.net/crash.html
For example, the motorized wheelchair elevator of the transport vehicle may take equally long in both directions but the protectee need not be on scene while the elevator platform descends. By delaying the exit of the protectee from the departure location until the transport vehicle elevator is already in the down position and prepared for immediate ascent, the protection agent can reduce the protectee's exposure my more than half in comparison to positioning the protectee outside the transport vehicle while the wheelchair lift elevator descends into the bottom position. The prospect of protecting a wheelchair- bound protectee necessarily adds at least one agent to the protective protocol because an agent (rather than a non-agent assistant or nurse) must control the wheelchair; but the rear position eliminates that agent from any traditional position as a protective shield.
In general, protectees with delicate medical conditions who require perpetual care necessarily…
Freeh, L. (2005). My FBI: Bringing Down the Mafia, Investigating Bill Clinton, and Fighting the War on Terror. New York: St. Martin's Press.
Kessler, R. (2002). The Bureau: The Secret History of the FBI. New York: St. Martin's Press.
The officer can even help a community organize a neighborhood watch. A policeman must show that he or she is part of the community, not an adversarial pressure upon the community. The police oppose criminals and crime, not all civilians: this must be communicated clearly in the officer's demeanor and manner.
Not all of the individuals a policeman encounters are potential defendants. The officer's ability to function depends on his or her qualities of sensitivity and intelligence, rather than enforcement principles alone: a policeman must be able to mediate between two warring neighbors, give aid to a victim after a crime, and know how to preserve a crime scene so that valuable evidence can be collected. Even when dealing with a suspect, a police officer may need to use various levels of force to act in a just fashion: when apprehending a suspect who is nervous and not likely to…
1 Times and Trayvon
The police unit that responded to the Trayvon Martin killing did not do a thorough inspection. They did not even know that Zimmerman’s car was there until his wife attempted to move it. They did not thoroughly canvas the neighborhood and knock and doors—otherwise they would have probably learned that Trayvon was a guest there at his father’s girlfriend’s place. The unit did not even have a homicide division because there were so few murders in the region. For that reason, it may be understood that there were gaps in the procedural work: they were simply inexperienced and not staffed for such an investigation. Would the case have ended up differently had the police been more thorough in their investigation? It is difficult to say: the trial quickly became politicized, which means a lot of talking heads were less interested in facts than in race war.…
A comparison of Law Enforcement with Other Professions
Who first comes to mind when you think of a 'Leader'? Is it Alexander the Great? Napoleon? Winston Churchill? Gandhi? Leadership is an interesting phenomenon to consider, from the perspective of civilization, of nations, of political change, and of history. What makes one person a leader while another tries and fails? What is a good leader and how is that different from a 'great' leader? The definition of leadership also varies with the context and with the individual who is defining leadership. The nature of leaders has changed as civilization has evolved, and the leaders we as a society need today may be different from those of a century ago. A national leader is distinct from a local leader, a oy Scout leader, or a team leader in a sport.
Thus, definitions of leadership vary with the situation. However, they include…
Avery, G.C. (2004) Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Avolio, B.J. (1999) Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bittner, Egon (1970). The functions of the police in modern society: a review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Boedker, C., Vidgen, R., Meagher, K., Cogin, J., Mouritsen, J. And Runnalls, M. (2011). Leadership, culture and management practices of high performing workplaces in Australia: The High Performing Workplaces Index. Society for Knowledge Economics: Sydney.
Technological Challenges of Today
The objective of this study is to answer as to what challenges law enforcement officials have faced in the light of technological advances throughout the global environment and to discuss a minimum of three problems that such changes have created. This study will answer as to what the recommendations are for future action that could assist law enforcement officials in becoming more effective in the investigation and prevention of such challenges.
Organized Crime and Technology
The work of Bjelopera and Finklea (2012) reports that technological advances have created new challenges for law enforcement particularly in the area or organized crime. This is because "modern organized criminals often prefer cellular or networked structural models for their flexibility and avoid the hierarchies that previously governed more traditional organized crime groups." (p.1) These type of "fluid network structures" make it more difficult for law enforcement to "infiltrate, disrupt, and…
Bjelopera, JP and Finklea, KM (2012) Organized Crime: An Evolving Challenge for U.S. Law Enforcement. 6 Jan 2012. CRS Report for Congress. Retrieved from: http://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R41547.pdf
Globalization and new technologies: challenges to drug law enforcement in the twenty-first century. (nd) INCB.org. Retrieved from: http://www.incb.org/documents/Publications/AnnualReports/AR2001/AR_01_Chapter_I.pdf
How the Web Presents New Challenges for Law Enforcement Agencies (2014) Community Policing Dispatch. Vol. 7, Issue 1. Retrieved from: http://cops.usdoj.gov/html/dispatch/01-2014/how_the_web_presents_new_challenges_for_law_enforcement_agencies.asp
7. A search function that allows the use of key words to search the foundation Web site.
8. A contact link to the foundation as well as links to other law enforcement resources.
1. The search function was not available and no explanation was given nor an estimated date when it would be available.
2. Additional plug-ins were required in order to view all of the Web site's contents.
3. The site map was not prominently displayed.
Recommendations for Improvement.
1. Eliminate the need for additional plug-ins to make the Web site more accessible.
2. Indicate when the search function will be available (or better yet, fix it).
3. Place the site map prominently on the Web site's main page.
Web Site No. 2: U.S. Department of Justice's Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) at http://bjs.ojp.usdoj. gov/.
Positive Components. Established in 1979 pursuant to the Justice Systems Improvement Act…
In order to fully safeguard the country's borders, it is necessary to take into account that criminals tend to develop as fast as new technology can be implemented. Hence it is important to improve methods for intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance, analysis and training, and support efforts to deter not only illegal aliens, but also the substances some of them bring into the country. On the other hand, it is also important to recognize the human element inherent in the immigration problem. Some believe they have no choice but to risk their lives in order to have any quality of life at all.
Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. etrieved from http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf
Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. etrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747
The White House (2010). emarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration eform. American…
Camarota, S.A. (2004). The High Cost of Cheap Labor: Illegal Immigration and the Federal Budget. Center for Immigration Studies. Retrieved from http://www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscal.pdf
Msnbc.com. (2010). Obama orders 1,200 Guard troops to border. Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/37340747
The White House (2010). Remarks by the President on Comprehensive Immigration Reform. American University School of International Services, Washington, D.C
U.S. Immigration Support. (2010). Illegal Immigration from Mexico. Retrieved from http://www.usimmigrationsupport.org/illegal-immigration-from-mexico.html
Law Enforcement TV Shows
The mass media in the contemporary society and for the last few decades has seemed to be addicted to sensationalism. The masses appear to be particularly supportive of stories that have been exaggerated for the simple purpose of captivating viewers' attention. As a consequence, diverse media devices take advantage of the opportunity and produce a series of works specifically designed as a response to people's needs. TV police shows in particular are aimed at providing viewers with stories that are likely to impress them and in many cases certain aspects of these respective stories are fabricated.
Reality TV shows involving law enforcement officers catching criminals have become more and more common in recent years. Most of these shows display both the honorable and risky lifestyle of police officers and the ruthlessness of criminals. However, in many cases it is difficult for viewers not to feel…
Doyle, A. "Arresting Images: Crime and Policing in Front of the Television Camera," (University of Toronto Press, 2003)
law enforcement community relies on the information that can be obtained from reliable informants. But what problems and issues to law enforcement professionals encounter when using informants? This question and other issues regarding informants will be reviewed in this paper.
Informants and Law Enforcement
In the FBI eb site the government mentions that the courts have long recognized that the use of informants "…is lawful and often essential to the effectiveness of properly authorized law enforcement investigations" (FBI FAQ). That said, the FBI goes on to warn that using informants to help an investigation is risky, and may "…involve an element of deception" or an "intrusion into the privacy of individuals, or cooperation with persons whose reliability and motivation may be open to question" (FBI). In other words, using information provided by a person that the FBI does not have one hundred percent certainty about, carries with it potential investigative…
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). (2010). Frequently Asked Questions. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from http://www.fbi.gov .
Jetmore, Larry F. (2007). Investigations: Establishing Informant Reliability. Law Officer, 3(11),
1-5. Retrieved January 17, 2012, from http://www.lawofficer.com .
The Citizen. (2010). Shadow cast on Afghan peace talks. Retrieved January 16, 2010, from http://thecitizen.co.tz .
data collection includes survey form, structured interviews using closed ended questions, and gathering information regarding a sample size appropriate to analyze and draw conclusion on the basis of the research results. The statistical techniques are used for data analysis to analyze collected data in quantitative research methods. The qualitative data is gathered through case study method and open ended question of an unstructured interview from notable sample. The qualitative methods of research are also equally popular in understating the ignored aspects of a topic. The research question discussed below is addressed on the basis of qualitative and quantitates research methodology.
What is the role of social media in affecting law enforcement?
The usage of internet has increased over the past years. Internet technology has encouraged a revolutionary change. Starting form the desktop computers, laptops, handheld computers, to a variety of internet enabled cell phones has created a huge…
Clarke, B. (2012). Deconstructing the rioters: a case study of individuals convicted and sentenced in Greater Manchester. Safer communities, 11(1), 33-39.
Denef, S., Bayerl, P.S., & Kaptein, N. (2013). Social Media and the Police -- Tweeting Practices of British Police Forces during the August 2011 Riots.
Frank, R., Cheng, C., & Pun, V. (2011). Social Media Sites-New Fora for Criminal, Communication, and Investigation Opportunities. Public Safety Canada.
Fresenko, V.L. (2010). Social media integration into state-operated fusion centers and local law enforcement potential uses and challenges (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California Naval Postgraduate School).
branches within the law enforcement field. All these branches have a range of jurisdictions but have a common purpose of enforcing laws that have been passed by legislatures and the protection of the American citizens and those who live within the American borders. There are different law enforcement agents everywhere and they are interested in what one does, the particular agents present depend on ones location and what they are doing. This paper will look at three law enforcement branches; local, state and federal law enforcement. It will look at what thee three entail and how they differ in terms of jurisdiction and authority.
At the local enforcement agencies, the commonplace and frequently experienced law enforcement agency are municipal police officers. These police officers represent villages, towns and cities. A striking difference between these local officers and those found within state and federal level is that they offer the first…
Law Teacher. (2014). Local, State and Federal Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from http://www.lawteacher.net/criminology/essays/local-state-and-federal-law-enforcement.php
Harkins, D. (2009). What are the Differences Between Federal, State and Local Law Enforcement. Retrieved September 10, 2014 from http://www.ehow.com/info_8251672_differences-state-local-law-enforcement.html
Schools of Criminology
Schools of Thought
Classical School introduction: This approach to criminology holds that basically, people will do things based on whether it is helpful to them and they will look after their own self-interest first. In other words, if a person is penniless and hungry, he will steal food because it is in his own self-interest to eat and stay alive, notwithstanding his crime
Classical School summary: In the 18th century philosophers like John Locke and Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that existing theories of crime (God or the devil determine what humans will do) were not relevant. They put forth the alternative idea that because humans have free will, they choose which behavior they will follow. Most humans respond to pleasure and pain, and if crime brings a person pleasure, that's what he will do; but being hungry can bring pain so a person will commit a crime to…
Gul, S.K. (2009). An Evaluation of the Rational Choice Theory in Criminology. Sociology & Applied Science, 4(8), 36-44.
Tibbetts, S.G., and Hemmens, C. (2009). Criminology Theory: A Text/Reader. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Vito, G., and Maahs, J. (2011). Criminology: Theory, Research, and Policy. Burlington, MA:
Jones & Bartlett Publishers.
United States, the scope of responsibilities of a sheriff varies across states and counties. The sheriff is most frequently a chosen/elected county official, serving as the arm of the parish court or county. However, some cities, a good example being the Commonwealth of Virginia, have a sheriff's office with dual purpose as the arm of the city jail and court. The sheriff can also perform court duties. These may encompass such functions as managing the city or county jail, providing courtroom security as well as prisoner transportation, assisting in serving warrants including serving process. Within urban areas, the sheriff may be constrained to those duties. Numerous other sheriffs as well as their deputies may serve an area as the main police force. In addition to also having jurisdiction over the whole county even in what some may consider more urban areas (Sullivan, osen, Schulz & Haberfeld, 2005, p. 123).
Sullivan, L., Rosen, M., Schulz, D., & Haberfeld, M. (2005). Encyclopedia of law enforcement. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Weir, W. (2011). Border patrol. New York: Chelsea House.