Use our essay title generator to get ideas and recommendations instantly
Obviously, everyone wants to be seen as an innovative, risk-taker, but having a vision is necessary to decide what risks are worth taking. Although it is unstated, your subject, Stephen Czarowski, the music and choir director at your church, St., John the Baptist in Silver Spring must have a (realistic but challenging) vision of how the music people are playing should sound, which he urges people to realize. Although he may solicit input, ultimately as the director he has the final decision-making authority to achieve the composer's intent.
A wonder too about the importance of technical competence -- a coach must know the sport, but the best athletes are not necessarily the best coaches, nor are the best computer programmers the best leaders of technologically-based companies. Stephen Czarowski might be an excellent musician on some instruments, but he does not know how to play all instruments equally well, rather his…
This activity contains the following subtasks:
The individual personality, skills, strengths, needs, aim and fears of the team members are acknowledge;
The individual plans, problems, and challenges are provided assistance and support;
Individual responsibilities and objectives are identified and agreed upon;
Recognition and praise is given to individuals for acknowledgement of their effort and good work;
Individuals taking on extra responsibility, or receiving advancement is rewarded;
Individual team members are trained and developed; and Individual freedom and authority are developed.
SUMMARY and CONCLUSION
While there are similarities in the different styles of leadership the premises of each is based differently in theory as related to behavior and motivation. Transformational leadership is a leadership styles, which motivates, communicates, inspires, and provides support and direction in an interactive manner characterized by leadership by example. Transactional leadership is based primarily upon contingency and reward management and is in reality more akin…
Bass, Bernard M. And Steidlmeier, Paul (1998) Ethics, Character and Authentic Transformational Leadership 24 Sept 1998. Online available at http://cls.binghamton.edu/BassSteid.html
Transactional Leadership (nd) Changing Mind Online available at http://www.changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transactional_leadership.htm
Definition Action-Centered Leadership. Description (nd) 123 Manage. Online available at http://www.12manage.com/description_action_centered_leadership.html
House, Robert J. (1996) Path-Goal Theory of Leadership: Lessons, Legacy, and a Reformulated Theory. 1996: Leadership Quarterly, 7(3), 323-352. JAI Press Inc. Online available at http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/papers/674.pdf
leadership models theories. Include: Describe similarities differences models. Discuss model address contemporary leadership issues challenges.
It is amazing how volumes of literature exist on the several aspects of leadership theories and models. In any case, it appears that leadership has for a long time been an interesting subject in entirely all sectors of humanity. Indeed, leadership defines a great proportion of the human race and it therefore warrants the much analysis and concerns always allocated to the subject. While many people will totally argue against any defined theory or model that describes leadership, it is imperative to realise that in a way successful leaders across the world have particular aspects in common.
A casual gaze across the world reveals very astonishing revelations regarding the human leadership potential and on whether anybody can become a leader. On whether leaders are made or born, much research has been done but interestingly it…
Covey, S.R. (1991). Principle-centered leadership. New York: Summit Books.
Freeman, R.E. (1984). Strategic management: a stakeholder approach. Boston: Pitman.
Northouse, P.G. (2007). Leadership: theory and practice. Thousand Oaks: SAGE Publications.
Schein, E.H. (1985). Organizational culture and leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
When an organization and individual can synchronize their goals and expectations, there is a greater level of trust developed. All of these factors taken together also fuel a very high level of energy on the part of an organization; trust is an accelerator that puts this model into motion. When this equilibrium-based model is used iteratively, the connections or juncture points will become more streamlined as trust acts as an accelerator and integrator of more efficient task and process management. The net result of this leadership model is greater goal attainment at faster speeds with both the employee and organization in sync with each other on the direction and value of the goals and objectives. The loose coupling also makes this model ideal for highly turbulent and difficult economic markets as well. In short, this type of hybrid model that is powered by trust shows potential to be responsive to…
Brunsson, K.. "Some Effects of Fayolism. " International Studies of Management & Organization 38.1 (2008): 30.
Jeffrey H. Dyer, and Kentaro Nobeoka. "Creating and managing a high-performance knowledge-sharing network: The Toyota case. " Strategic Management Journal: Special Issue: Strategic Networks 21.3 (2000): 345.
Giuri, P., F. Rullani, and S. Torrisi. "Explaining leadership in virtual teams: The case of open source software. " Information Economics and Policy 20.4 (2008): 305.
Harms, P., and M. Crede. "Emotional Intelligence and Transformational and Transactional Leadership: A Meta-Analysis. " Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies 17.1 (2010): 5.
By necessity, servant leadership lends itself best to project-specific or result-oriented enterprises and industries, because the primary tool of servant leaders is their own productivity and operational efficiency (Spears, 2002).
While extremely passive in practice, servant leadership may be more successful to maintain over the long-term, primarily because it leads through example and inspiration.
Many industrial psychologists associate servant leadership with higher degrees of genuine satisfaction among workers, because (where it is successful) it represents a Naturally evolved enterprise loyalty based on proven results. Naturally, therefore, servant leadership may work best where (1) the servant leader demonstrates, by his own success, operational techniques and procedures that are repeatable by others, and (2) personal achievement is connected to some tangible reward or benefit to the individual.
For the same reason, servant leadership is better suited to industries and enterprises characterized by low turnover and high long-term retention. Unlike transformational and charismatic…
Bass, B. (1985) Leadership and Performance beyond Expectations. Free Press:
Bass, M. (1997) Does the Transactional/Transformational Leadership Transcend Organizational and Motivational Boundaries. American Psychologist, 52.
Bass, B., Steidlmeier, P. (1999) Ethics, Character, and Authentic Transformational Leadership Behavior. Leadership Quarterly, 10.
Specifically, situational leadership allows managers to be autocratic when the situation requires it, while it also supports them in being democratic, when the situation requires it. This materializes in high levels of effectiveness. Erven argues: "An alternative to being an autocratic or democratic leader is to be a situational leader. Situational leaders are able to adapt their leadership style to fit their followers and situations in which they are working. […] Managers using situational leadership will make conscious choices between their use of directive behavior and supportive behavior. In directive behavior, they are relying on providing structure, control and close supervision for the people with whom they are working. In supportive behavior, they are relying on praise, two-way communication, and facilitating the work of their employees and co-workers."
In testing the validity of the initially stated thesis, the onion ring methodology would be used. This methodology is constructed…
Blachard, K.H., Johnson, S., the one minute manager, 10th edition, Berkley Books, 1983
Brophy, J.R., Leadership essentials for emergency medical services, Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2009
Demetropolis, G.J., Uxo team leadership: how a leader creates and handles an effective unexploded ordnance Uxo team, Universal Publishers, 2003
Erven, B.L., Becoming an effective leader through situational leadership, Ohio State University, http://aede.osu.edu/people/erven.1/hrm/situaltional_leadership.pdf last accessed on November 18, 2010
In statistics, probability is the chance of prediction and tells how likely the event will happen. This is determined by dividing the number of favorable outcomes by the number of possible outcomes.
P=number of favorable outcomes / total number of possible outcomes
Bivariate data: When analyzing bivariate data, there are two approaches, you compare summarized statistics of the available variable quantities one by one, or you use regression analysis in order to determine the direct relationship between the data.
Bivariate analysis involves exactly two measurements being made on each observation, say X and Y. one instance is when the weight X and height Y of a population is taken into the observation sheet. In bivariate data, the X and Y observations are paired, unlike the two sample data set where the two observations (X & Y ) are not necessarily paired.
Bivariate simple random sample can be as follows…
Ledlow G. & Coppola N., (2011). Leadership for Health Professionals. Retrieved January 28, 2016 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=3uiHJSgjD4sC&pg=PA199&lpg=PA199&dq=DCL,+Bolman+%26+Deal%E2%80%99s+Reframing+Leadership&source=bl&ots=KWP6ZnzhBD&sig=RtjJHI_X0qR5YsqDXCMUauf32Qk&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiX1tDf1NPKAhWHORQKHVAABjYQ6AEIHjAA#v=onepage&q=DCL%2C%20Bolman%20%26%20Deal%E2%80%99s%20Reframing%20Leadership&f=false
Guerra R. & lane D.M., (2016). Introduction to Bivariate Data. Retrieved January 28, 2016 from http://onlinestatbook.com/2/describing_bivariate_data/intro.html
Changing Works, (2016). Values, Morals and Ethics. Retrieved January 28, 2016 from http://changingminds.org/explanations/values/values_morals_ethics.htm
Knight R., (2014). Managing People from 5 Generations. Harvard Business Review. Retrieved January 28, 2016 from https://hbr.org/2014/09/managing-people-from-5-generations
Susan G. Komen for the cure (foundation)
What is the organizational culture and why is this culture important to the organization?
It is said that "culture is made up of the values, beliefs, underlying assumptions, attitudes, and behaviors shared by a group of people" (Heathfield 2013). This is true of an organizational culture as well as a national culture The Susan G. Komen foundation is a nonprofit organization. Nonprofits have traditionally had less competitive and more collegial organizational cultures than for-profit entities, in part because it is required that members of the organization work well together to achieve a common goal, versus compete with one another as in a sales-driven organization. Nonprofits are often said to have an 'academy' culture, much like a university. "Employees are highly skilled and tend to stay in the organization, while working their way up the ranks. The organization provides a stable environment in which…
The Blake Mouton Managerial Grid. (2014). Mind Tools. Retrieved from:
Heathfield, S. (2014). Organizational culture. About.com. Retrieved from:
Leadership Power Struggles
Leadership is an incredibly complex concept that has been the focus of study from many different academic disciplines -- Industrial and Organizational Psychology, Social Psychology, Business, Sociology to name a few. The literature comes in a wide variety of many differing opinions both from within the academic world as from professional practitioners. Most of the literature seems to focus on effective or ineffective leadership and the role that the organizational culture and environment play in the leaders ability to meet particular organizational objectives. However, there seems to be little literature that is directed at the consequences of power struggles between aspiring leaders in an organization and the consequences this might have for the organizational and its effectiveness. This proposal will attempt to craft a niche in this realm.
There are many individual instances of power struggles in organizations. One specific instance that is worthy of…
Aime, F., Humphrey, S., Derue, D., & Paul, J. (2014). THE RIDDLE OF HETERARCHY: POWER TRANSITIONS IN CROSS-FUNCTIONAL TEAMS. Academy of Management Journal, 327-352.
Patel, P., & Cooper, D. (2014). STRUCTURAL POWER EQUALITY BETWEEN FAMILY AND NON-FAMILY TMT MEMBERS AND THE PERFORMANCE OF FAMILY FIRMS. Academy of Management Journal, 1624-1649.
Rau, P., Liu, J., Juzek, C., & Nowacki, R. (2013). Fostering Job Satisfaction and Motivation through Power Distance. Global Business Management Research, 161-170.
Spisak, B., O'Brien, M., Nicholson, N., & Vugt, M. (2015). NICHE CONSTRUCTION AND THE EVOLUTION OF LEADERSHIP. Academy of Management Review, 291-306.
Global Leadership Roadmap
The global economy is a rapidly shifting frontier. ith the continued inclusion of developing nations in the world trade community, the ever-evolving capacity of our communication technologies and a collective thrust toward the deconstruction of regulatory trade limitations, globalization has accelerated tremendously across the last two decades. Those companies which fail to adapt to the changes brought about by globalization will have little chance of surviving. This is the impetus that drives the discussion here. As a company explores opportunities and expands its reach to connect with an international marketplace, it must develop the leadership to ensure its success. It is with this in mind that we proceed with a roadmap for the internal development of effective Global Leaders. The details outlined here below offer an actionable plan for preparing leaders who understand the challenges and the opportunities inherent in cross-cultural management. Our company's fortunes are staked…
Caligiuri, P. (2006). Developing Global Leaders. Human Resource Management Review, 16, 219-228.
George, B. (2012). A New Era for Global Leadership Development. Harvard Business Review Blog Network.
George1, B. (2012). Developing Global Leaders is America's Competitive Advantage. Harvard Business Review Blog Network.
Maznevski, M.L. & Distefano, J.J. (2000). Global leaders are team players: Developing global leaders through membership on global teams. Human Resource Management, 39(2-3), 195-208.
The administrative support staff who is dealing with frustrated doctors who cannot adjust to the new computer tablets they are using as an alternative to paper files may require a transactional leader who can provide the organizational support needed to move through an uncomfortable transition. A single leader cannot always be everything to everyone. By learning one's leadership strengths and weaknesses and understanding the leadership skills needed to achieve the organizational objectives, the leader can begin to develop and foster his or her leadership team with people who offer complimentary skills and leadership styles.
Avolio, B.J. & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald Group Publishing.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Clawson, J.G. (2009). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle iver, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005, Spring).…
Avolio, B.J. & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald Group Publishing.
Business leadership: A Jossey-Bass reader. (2003). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Clawson, J.G. (2009). Level three leadership: Getting below the surface. (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Dulewicz, C., Young, M., & Dulewicz, V. (2005, Spring). The relevance of emotional intelligence for leadership performance. Journal of General Management, 30(3), 71-86. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.
Models of leadership and management
Comparison and contrast of leadership models
Application of leadership model: Case of Mark Zuckerberg
Table 1- Leadership Table
Leadership in public and private sector businesses is important for the growth of these businesses. Of late, many researchers have thoroughly investigated the role leadership in promoting businesses. Researchers have also tried to explore the common characteristics of global business leaders that have led their businesses to successful heights. Different models of effective leadership in corporations have also been drafted. One major aspect of leaders being explored in their ability to inspire people surrounding them and use this inspiration to achieve results that could be achieved without having complete trust of followers. While followers might be hard to make for a leader, and yet harder to retain, few researchers have put forth consolidated models of inspirational leaders that effectively make and retain followers.…
Brio, M.M. (2013). Think like Zuck: How Leadership diversity Sparks Innovation. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [ http://www.forbes.com/sites/meghanbiro/2013/01/27/think-like-zuck-how-leadership-diversity-sparks-innovation/ ]
Forbes. (2013). The World's Billionaires: Mark Zuckerberg. Forbes Magazine. Retrieved from: [ http://www.forbes.com/profile/mark-zuckerberg/ ]
Drucker, P.F. (2004). What makes an effective executive? Harvard Business Review, 58-63.
Goffee, R., & Jones, G. (2001). Why Should Anyone Be Led by You? IEEE Engineering Management Review, 29(1), 94-100.
By the same token, by not having any specific policy implications, servant leadership theory does not expressly reject the transformational, situational or results-focused ideas of leadership. It is merely an adjunct to these theories, and is mostly useful for deciding on whether or not somebody should become a leader in the first place.
Situational Leadership and Results-Focused Leadership
These two leadership theories are opposed to one another, but they share the same philosophical underpinnings. The underlying theory of each of these leadership styles is that the leadership style is flexible, and the best leaders have the ability to utilize different styles and techniques depending on the needs of the day. here the two differ is in the understanding of the most important determinant of leadership style. Situational leadership theory argues that leaders need to adapt to the different circumstances, changing their style to suit the challenges with which they are…
The transformational leader- N.M. Tichy and M.A. Devanna ( 1990)
Servant Leadership- Robert Greenleaf
Leadership in organization - G. Yuki (2006)
Like the passages model, the leadership as a point of view model focuses on
developing one extraordinary leader its end result. The process of
achieving that end result is similar to the servant leadership process, in
that it requires the leader to focus not on levels or situations, but
instead on a formula for success, namely "seeing what needs to be done,
understanding all the underlying forces play in a situation, [and] having
the courage to initiate action to make things better" (Clawson, 2006,
chapt. 1). Still, the model's process contains facets similar to the
situational model by asking leaders to look at underlying forces, as well
as facets similar to passages model by suggesting that leadership is a
function of a person's own qualities, which must be developed over time.
By focusing on the leadership as point of view model, organizations can
solve problems relating to the confusion of…
Charan, R., Drotter S., & Noel, J. (2003). Six Leadership Passages. In J.
M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Business Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 12).
Clawson, J. (2006). Level Three Leadership, Getting Below The Surface, 3e.
Greenleaf, R.K. (2003). The Servant as Leader. In J. M. Kouzes (Ed.)
Leadership: A Jossey Bass Reader, 1e. (chap. 9)
Hersey, P. & Blachard, K.H. (2003). Situational Leadership. In J.M. Kouzes
Leadership Qualifications in the orkplace
Proposed Leadership Model
For eras there have been people and leaders have discussed what the qualifications that make a great leader are. Leadership travels all the way back to the period of the ancient Greeks. In the 1500's, there was an Italian statesman named Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote The Prince, and in this book he talked about the different methods for leaders to use in obtaining power (Leadership 2003). This all led to the current events dating to the early 1900's and what has been used and developed in today's society. There are a lot of theories of what a leader in the workplace should have and the idea that leaders during history have been people who were seen or looked up to as leaders and deeply appreciated. As people say "There are those that lead and those that follow." An individual with…
Akinboye, J., 2005. Executive behaviour battery. Ibadan: Stirling-Horden Publishers.
Borman, W., 2004. The concept of organizational citizenship. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(6), p. 238 -- 241.
Cameron, J.D.E.K.R. & R.R., 2001. Extrinsic rewards and intrinsic: Reconsidered once again.. Review of Educational Research, pp. 30-54.
Charlton, G., 2000. Human Habits of Highly Effective Organisations.. Pretoria: Van Schaik Publishers.
Leadership Self-Assessment Analysis
In the wake of the corporal scandals of Enron and the Arthur Anderson Company, there have been increased calls for strong ethical leadership. Leadership had always been regarded as a key factor in ensuring the effectiveness of any organization. However, new models are also being developed to challenge the limitations of the prevailing classical theories of leadership.
This paper argues for a tempered approach, one that combines effective leadership with good management. Both factors are important, since over-managed and under-led organizations tend to lose sight of their goals. By the same token, while charismatic leaders can lead their organizations to high levels of success, the lack of management skills means that such victories do not last in the long run.
The growing awareness of corporate and white-collar crime has likewise presented new challenges to the classical leadership model. Organization leaders should now be wary of lawsuits the…
Bolman, Lee G. And Deal, Terrence E. 1997. Reframing Organizations: Artistry, Choice and Leadership. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2nd ed.
Northouse, Peter G. 1997. Leadership: Theory and Practice. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.
Leadership for Organizations
The success of organizations and individuals' careers are influenced by the role of leaders. Nowadays firms seek leadership skills in individuals for all sorts of careers while recruiting. Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) believe that it has become critically important to nurture leadership approach at all levels of the organization (Lussier, Achua, 2009, p. 4).
The topic of leadership has been gaining tremendous attention of academic world and media (ass, Riggio, 2006, p. 17). Many experts have written about leadership and the challenges related to it as the subject is highly valued and at the same time a complex phenomenon (Northouse, 2009, p. 1).
In today's world individuals need to develop skills and capabilities required in professional world through personal development. They need to assess their strengths, weaknesses, leadership competencies and goals in order to achieve leadership capabilities (Rothstein 2010).
Leaders need to possess a wide range…
Adams, J.D. (Ed.). (1986). Transforming leadership: From vision to results. Alexandria, VA: Miles River Press.
Allen, K.E. (1995). Making sense out of chaos: Leading and living in dynamic systems. Campus Activities Programming, 52-59.
Argyris, C. (1970). Intervention theory and method: A behavioral science view. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.
Armstrong, S., & Armstrong, S. (1996). The conductor as transformational leader. Music Educators Journal, 82(May), 22-25.
Two of the most pressing issues in corporate leadership today include gender equality and labor rights. In "Women See Slow Progress in Leadership," Gay (2013) cites numerous empirical studies showing that the glass ceiling remains nearly impenetrable at the highest levels of management. The report cites the work-life balance ideal as the most common reason offered for why many women are either opting out of the CEO lifestyle, or are not considered ready or willing to handle the challenges and pressures of senior leadership.
In "The Best etail Companies to Work for ight Now," Smith (2013) describes Costco's approach toward human resources management. The company has recently been named one of the best companies to work for in the United States because of their relatively high salaries, supportive work environment, opportunity for growth, and job security. Its ethical labor rights practices are helping gain positive publicity for Costco, showing…
Gay, M. (2013). Women see slow progress in leadership. The Wall Street Journal. 14 Nov, 2013. Retrieved online: http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052702303289904579196123043065800
Greenleaf, R. (2013). Ten principles of servant leadership. Butler University. Retrieved online: http://www.butler.edu/volunteer/resources/principles-of-servant-leadership/
Lavinsky, D. (2013). Are you a visionary business leader? Forbes. Retrieved online: http://www.forbes.com/sites/davelavinsky/2013/04/26/are-you-a-visionary-business-leader/
Robert K. Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership (2013). What is servant leadership? Retrieved online: https://greenleaf.org/what-is-servant-leadership/
It is the balancing of tools within the rubric of employee-supervisor roles that requires one use different managerial techniques in order to solve the problem at hand. Similarly, find ways to build and increase trust between members of the group and management and group.
Blake, . And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.
Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. etrieved from: http://www.stuffofheroes.com/leadership_style_vs%20leadership%20tactics.htm
Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. etrieved from: http://www.dirigoconsulting.com/articles/WhyIsLeadershipStyleImportant.pdf
Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior
Performance. New York: Free Press.
owe, A. And Boulgarides, J. (2998). Managerial Decision Making. New York: MacMillan Publishing.
Senge, P.M. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning
Organization. New York: Broadway.
Zeidan, H. (2005).…
Blake, R. And Mouton, J. (1985). The Managerial Grid III.: The Key to Leadership Excellence. Houston, TX: Gulf Publishing Company.
Boulgarides, J. And Cohen, W. (2001). Leadership Styles Vs. Leadership Tactics. The Journal of Applied Management and Entrepreneurship. 6 (1): 59-73. Retrieved from: http://www.stuffofheroes.com/leadership_style_vs%20leadership%20tactics.htm
Cronkite, J. (2006). Why is Leadership Style Important. Dirgo Consulting Group. Retrieved from: http://www.dirigoconsulting.com/articles/WhyIsLeadershipStyleImportant.pdf
Porter, M.E. (1998). Competitive Advantage: Creating and Sustaining Superior
I see that in my own leadership style I am oriented towards a transactional style, but that in order to improve my leadership I need to weave the daily leadership actions together better with an eye to creating long-term organizational excellence. I feel that I have developed strong communications skills and healthy leadership traits in terms of being rational but also being able to deal with the emotional elements of the job. I perhaps struggle a little at listening, but I also can be short-sighted with my decision-making, such that months or years later I find my decisions have set an undesirable tone that must be corrected. These are the most significant deficiencies between the leader I am and the leader I wish to become.
Long-term strategy can also be considered somewhat of a weakness. There is certainly a gap between the specificity of long-term strategies that the organization has…
Schermerhorn, John. (2001). Situational Leadership: Conversations with Paul Hersey. Ohio University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.situational.com/PdfViewer.aspx?pdfPath=~/Pdf/Conversations_With_Paul_Hersey.pdf
Fielder, Fred. (1964). A Contingency Model of Leadership Effectiveness. Academic Press, Burlington, MA.
Vroom, VH & Yetton, PW. (1973). Leadership and Decision-Making. Yale University. Retrieved August 1, 2009 from http://www.lederne.dk/NR/rdonlyres/E8715858-DCEE-4355-88BB-B3E82FE7DA9B/0/18VictorVroom2.pdf
Enos, Darryl D. (2007). Performance Improvement. CRC Press, p. 153
Few leaders so overtly and ostentatiously embody the concept of transformational leadership as Sir Richard Branson. Branson heads the mega company Virgin Group. The leader's unconventional personality has been described as vocal and flamboyant, (Management and Leadership of Richard Branson at Virgin Group Ltd., 2010). Although Branson is known for his personal charisma, he does not limit himself to a charismatic leadership style. Charismatic leaders operate on the assumption that Charm and grace are all that is needed to create followers, (Leadership Styles, Changing Minds).
From his charismatic character flows a natural leadership style that encourages personal freedom of choice at the managerial level. Thus, Richard Branson can be best appreciated as a transformational leader, and one who has extraordinary vision. Transformational leadership is characterized by the empowerment of workers to make decisions that promote organizational goals, visions, and values. Transformational leaders aim to achieve an articulated vision of…
"Management and Leadership of Richard Branson at Virgin Group Ltd." (2010). UPX Success. Retrieved online: http://www.upxsuccess.com/leadership_richard_branson.html
"Most Recognized Organizational Leadership Models." Retrieved online: http://hubpages.com/hub/Global-Leadership-Models
Murray, A. (n.d.). Leadership styles. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved online: http://guides.wsj.com/management/developing-a-leadership-style/how-to-develop-a-leadership-style/
Also, virtue ethics must ensure that the leader acts in the best interest of those who he represents, works with, and works for. However, this does not suffice in order to implement an effective leadership style.
In addition to this, the leader must be surrounded by individuals with similar ethical behavior. This would help the leader to achieve ethical responsibilities. Also, it would make it easier to observe any unethical conduct from the leader.
As mentioned above, there are also different levels of ethics, like mandatory and aspirational ethics. The lowest level of ethics, but not the least important, is represented by mandatory ethics. This type of ethics refers to compliance with the law. In this case, things are clear. All individuals, especially leaders, must respect the law.
Aspirational ethics refer to the effects and influence that leaders' actions have on others. The first people leaders influence are represented by…
1. Finkelstein, S. (1992). Power in Top Management Teams: Dimensions, Measurement and Validation. Academy of Management Journal. No. 8. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
2. Snell, S.A., Dean, J.W. (1992). Integrated Manufacturing Resources Management, A Human Capital Perspective. Academy of Management Journal. Vol. 35, No. 2. Retrieved May 13, 2009.
3. Kings, Queens, and Dictators (2000). Forbes.com, Inc. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2000/0703/6515256a.html?partner=whiteglove_google .
4. Saddam Hussein (2005). Global Security Organization. Retrieved May 16, 2009 from http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/iraq/saddam.htm .
These leaders are aware of their emotions and the effects they have on others. Understanding one's emotions is the starting point for an effective self-management and management of others. In addition to this, an effective leader should be aware of its limitations, its strengths, and its capabilities. These competencies are in strong correlation with social competencies, which help leaders understand the behavior of their subordinates, their clients, and to better perceive relationships within the organization.
In order to effectively manage its employees, the leader must first be able to understand them. This is where EI intervenes. An effective leader should not only use its EI competence for managing people, but also for promoting EI among them and encouraging them to develop their Emotional Intelligence skills. Employees with developed EI skills develop better relationships with their colleagues, their bosses, or their subordinates, are more pleased with their jobs and the overall…
Mayer, J.D. (1999). Emotional Intelligence Information. Retrieved October 16, 2007 at http://www.unh.edu/emotional_intelligence/ei%20What%20is%20EI/ei%20definition.htm .
Emotional Intelligence (1998). Retrieved October 16, 2007 at http://www.funderstanding.com/eq.cfm .
Rock, Michael (2006). The 90% Factor EQ (Emotional Intelligence) and the New Workplace. CanadaOne online. Retrieved October 17, 2007 at http://www.canadaone.com/magazine/eq050198.html .
Childs, Roy (2004). Emotional Intelligence and Leadership. Team Technology. Retrieved October 17, 2004 at http://www.teamtechnology.co.uk/emotional-intelligence.html .
Self-confidence is one of the most universally agreed-upon traits of a leader. In order for the organization as a whole to have confidence, the leader must exude confidence. There will be moments in any initiative the followers cannot see the benefits of the initiative or do not feel that they will be able to execute the initiative. It takes the confidence of the leader in order to enable the rest of the organization to believe in the initiative.
Locke's knowledge, skills and ability form the second of the four key to leadership. These are relatively self-evident, but they are still important aspects of genuine leadership. Knowledge of the industry, for example, is built up over the course of years. This knowledge allows the leader to make the right decisions and forge the right strategies. In addition, the leader will also have more ability to instill confidence in their followers if…
Locke, E. (1991). The Essence of leadership: The four keys to leading successfully. New York: Lexington- Macmillan.
Website of Edwin A. Locke, Ph.D., various pages. (2009). Retrieved December 3, 2009 from http://www.edwinlocke.com/
Transactional leaders use the extrinsic motivators, to get goals met within an organization, as stated by Suliman (2009). This type of leadership used internal reward or punishment mechanisms to get employees to follow their directive. Transactional leaders usually leave the current organizational structure and goals intact, since the characteristic of these leaders is not effective in situations that require change. Suliman, (2009) also argue that some leaders are very passive and only get involved if the necessary actions are contrary to the overall goal or achievement of the organization.
Visionary leaders are usually characterized as individuals who do not compromise their personal integrity for the overall goal of any organization or process. These leaders do not portray ordinary character traits, since they are usually concerned with direction or organizing action based on new possibilities or a progressive agenda as argued by McIntosh and Tolson (2009). These are usually interested…
Leadership Styles Among Male and Female Principal
It is the intention of this research to study the leadership and cognitive styles of teachers and instructors of both genders within the educational system and their preference for types of leadership in a principal of that institution.
The research will include teachers and educators from all levels of the educational system from grade school to high school. The study will also include teachers and instructors from all major academic fields of study offered in public and private schools. The studies conducted thus far in the educational arena indicate that teachers are equally inclined towards different cognitive styles.
Teachers prefer a mix of idealist, analytical and realistic cognitive styles of leadership in their Principals. Studies have also indicated that teachers prefer that principals are people oriented and task oriented in their approach to running the school or institution. In addition, teachers also prefer…
Berens, Linda V., and Dario Nardi. Personality Types, Descriptions for Self-Discovery. New York: Telos Publications, 1999.pp.
Blake, R.R., H. Shepherd, and Jane Srygley Mouton. Managing Intergroup Conflict in Industry. Houston, Tx: Gulf Publishing Company, 1964.pp.
Blau, Francine D., Marianne A. Ferber, and Anne E. Winkler. The Economics of Women, Men, and Work. Prentice-Hall Series in Economics. 4th ed. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice Hall, 2002.pp. xviii, 446
Bossert, S.T., et al. "The Instructional Management Role of the Principal." Educational Administration Quarterly 18.3 (1982): 34-64.
Leadership is defined as a process by which a person influences others to accomplish an objective and directs the organization in a way that makes it more cohesive (obins, Pinsky, & Krichko, 2004). Bernard Bass' theory of leadership (Bass, 1990) states that there are three ways to explain the development of how one becomes a leader. The Trait Theory explains that some personality traits may lead people naturally into leadership roles. The Great Events Theory states that a crisis or important event may cause a person to rise to the occasion, which brings out extraordinary leadership qualities in an ordinary person. Finally, the Transformational Leadership Theory states that people can choose to become leaders or people can learn leadership skills. The latter theory is the most widely accepted theory today (Fabian, 2004).
When one considers a person as a leader, he/she does not think about personal attributes. Observation is typically…
Bass, B.M. (1990). From transactional to transformational leadership: Learning to share the vision. Organizational Dynamics (Winter), 19-31.
Beccaria, L.M., & Favero, N. (2000). [Expectations of nursing managers and assistants as to the managerial style of an executive director of a teaching hospital]. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem, 8(2), 83-90.
Bolman, L.G., & Deal, T.E. (1992). Leading and managing: effects of context, culture and cender. Education Administration Quarterly, 28, 314-329.
Fabian, N. (2004). Leadership -- what is it and are you headed for it? J. Environ Health, 67(3), 54, 52.
What are the most challenging issues in your current position?" think budget constraints are perhaps some of the biggest challenges I currently face in my position. The increasing rises in the cost of providing good health care, combined with decreasing reimbursement from insurance and government agencies, pushes us to pay more attention to the "bottom line." In order to respond to this issue, it is imperative that leaders are able to maintain budget control as well as to limit budget variances. However, occasionally it is almost impossible to avoid budget shortages which in turn results in shortfalls in staff development, which subsequently leads to unhappy staff and low morale.
There are many more managers than leaders in this health care organization. Managers manage processes, leaders lead people and leaders are what we need now. Both skills are important, but to be able to adapt this never-ended changing health care system…
In interviewing Ms. PC, many key leadership theories and practices were demonstrated. Key among these were the role of interpersonal skills, integrity, and the servant/leadership or collaborative method in the development of the successful leader. Of course, Ms. PC also mentioned several other key "characteristics" of a good leader, including the ability to have a sense of humor and a willingness to try new things.
Given that Ms. PC is without question a good model of a "successful leader," it is particularly telling that she listed interpersonal and communication skills at the top of the list of importance with regard to her leadership role. This is interesting in that many of the top leadership theories emphases this very point in one form or another (Lavezzoli, 2005). Additionally, many leadership studies have also indicated the major importance of good communication in the successful leadership experience. One example of this can be found in Bernard Bass's work, "Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership: A Survey of Theory and Research," which notes that good communication from leaders is one of the essential keys to obtaining employee/organization trust and confidence (the bedrock of the leadership relationship) (1989). This works simply because through good communication employees can effectively understand the organization's goals, understand just how their individual efforts contribute toward those goals, as well have some sense of the overall health of the organization and the way that individual and group efforts contribute to the level of
Leadership -- Al Gini
Leadership is more than management; hence not all managers are leaders. Leadership involves the capacity to motivate workers and employee to work towards a common goal. Leaders also influence the employees towards certain behaviors they want. The modern organization should therefore acquire the best team of managers, who should have leadership traits and accept changes in the organization when necessary, including technological change. Management and leadership are most certainly not the same, despite the fact that many, even in business, use the terms in the same manner. In general, managers are more concerned with organizing people, plans, and projects. Managing gleans authority by a particular organization and must, in turn, utilize followers (subordinates). They may be in charge of a group or a project, but that definition does not make them leaders. Managers tend to operate in a manner in which they receive and depend upon…
Gini, Al. (1997). Leadership: An Overview. Journal of Business Ethics. 16 (2).
Of course, Jacobs would have to be a mature leader, as he most likely has adapted his style to make the organization successful. On the scale, however, he could also be qualified as an 2 individual, especially in the earlier stages of the project, who gave high directive and high support to his employees. Furthermore, from the specifics given in the case study, it is clear that Jacobs would be a selling leader and/or a participating leader, due to the various stages of the project. Because of his status, Jacobs could not be a low relationship leader and thus does not qualify as telling or delegating.
According to the table developed by Fiedler on the least preferred co-worker (rendered below), Jacobs would most likely have an effective leader quality, rather than leader position of power.
Thus, he would have good leader-member relations, may be unstructured, but would certainly score highly…
Situational Leadership Model (Blanchard). (2011). Retrieved October 14, from .
Information and table taken from: Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-worker (LPC) Theory. (2011). Changingminds.org. Retrieved October 14, from .
Graphs were referenced from documents attached by the customer.
Hence, a more corporate attitude is being embraced by pro-vice-chancellors, but the salient question in this article is this: will a university be better off with corporate-style, bureaucratic leadership, or with leadership that pursues academic excellence and a pure mission of educating students?
Wang, Yong, and Poutziouris, Panikkos. (2010). Leadership Styles, Management Systems and Growth: Empirical Evidence from UK Owner-Managed SMEs. Journal of Enterprising
Culture, 18(3), 331-354. Doi: 10.1142/So21849581000604.
What these authors bring to light in this article is that a higher rate of sales and growth for medium sized businesses can be realized when run by an owner that also manages the business. This survey of 5,710 respondents in the UK further pointed to the fact that when the owner-manager delegates authority, the operation is more professional and successful.
Webb, Kerry S. (2009). Creating Satisfied Employees in Christian Higher Education: Research
on Leadership Competencies. Christian Higher Education, 8(1), 18-31.…
Zembylas, Michalinos, and Iasonos, Sotiroula. (2010). Leadership styles and multicultural education approaches: an exploration of their relationship. Leadership in Education,
13(2), 163-0183, doi: 10.1080/13603120903386969.
In this article the authors surveyed 17 principals in multicultural schools in Cyprus in order to find out what leadership styles worked best. The issue is relevant because immigration means new challenges for education leaders. About half of the 17 principals embraced a transactional leadership and "conservative multiculturalism" although another group adopted a style more in tune with what the authors call "critical multiculturalism embedded in critical and social justice leadership."
One reason has to do with the intellectual hurdles that senior executives jump in obtaining their jobs. It takes at least an IQ of about 110 to 120 to get an advanced degree such as an MBA. There is thus a high selection pressure for IQ in order to enter the executive ranks." (p. 250)
The text goes on to argue that the result is that there is not a great deal of variation in the intellectual properties possessed by most leaders. In a sense, this is a further confirmation that certain qualities are inborn, insofar as most leaders can be expected to fall within a specific range of proven intellectual capacity. To go a step further to this point though, Goleman et al. indicate that the difference between the excellent, the average and the inadequate leader will be founded on the high variance of emotional intelligence capabilities. This suggests…
Avolio, B.J. (2005). Leadership Development in Balance. Psychology Press.
Goleman, D.; McKee, a. & Boyatzis, R.E. (2002). Primal Leadership: Realizing the Power of Emotional Intelligence. Harvard Business Press, 1st Edition.
Koestenbaum, P. (2002). Leadership: The Inner Side of Greatness, a Philosophy for Leaders, New and Revised. Jossey-Bass; 2nd Edition.
Kouzes, J.M. & Posner, B.Z. (2003). The Leadership Challenge. Jossey-Bass, 3rd Edition.
Leadership and Change Management
Consider a change that has been recently introduced in your organization. Using relevant change and leadership theories, critically analyze the benefits and problems that introduction of this change has brought. TO WHAT EXTENT HAS LEADERSHIP CONTRIUTED TO THE RESULTS OF THIS PROCESS?
RasgGas is a joint venture gas company between Qatar Petroleum, the State of Qatar's national oil and gas company (majority stakeholder), and ExxonMobil, an American Integrated Oil and Gas company. The company is about fifteen years old and has been involved in all aspect of exploration, development, production, liquefaction and marketing of gas from the North Field. RasGas is a major contributor to the State of Qatar's worldwide leadership in the production and marketing of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) export. The company has utilized technologies to drill high capacity gas well and build the largest and most efficient liquefaction trains in the world. These…
Brisson-Banks, C.V. 2010. "Managing Change and Transitions: A Comparison of Different Models and the Commonalities." Library Management, Vol. 31, No. 4/5, pp.241-52.
Brown, A.D. 1994. "Implementing MRPII: Leadership Rites and Cognitive Change." Logistics Informational Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp. 6-11.
Drew, S. And C. Coulson-Thomas 1996. "Transformation through Teamwork: The Path to the New Organization?" Managerial Decision, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 7-17.
Eisenbach, R. et al. 1999. "Transformational Leadership in the Context of Organizational Change." Journal of Organizational Change Management, Vol. 12, No. 2, pp. 80-88.
The SMEs are competitive in ussia, but many under developments are causing a lag in the developments of the companies. There are many inconsistencies in the leadership, but other factors also discourage the improvement of the small companies. These issues include lack of resources in ussia, and also lack of capabilities. The development in infrastructure has proven to be slow and also lack of equipment. Many companies are waiving from the ussian market mainly because of the complexities and also the issue of transition economies.
SMEs are not taking advantage of strategies that will elevate them to economy driven positions. The SMEs are not taking the right measures to establish business relation. The SMEs have to commit themselves in the market, it terms of investing, acquire the best personnel and realize their potential through time management. Modes of success have to be analyzed and adopted through joint ventures, engaging in…
Albertini, F. (2011). Entry Strategy for SMEs in the Russian Market. School of Business and Economy. 8(2), 3-5.
Analovi, F. & Karami, a. (2003). Strategic management in small and medium enterprises. New York: Cengage Learning EMEA.
Bolden, R. (2001). Leadership Development in Small and Medium sized Enterprises. Retrieved October 11, 2012 from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/cls/documents/SME2.pdf
Dallago, B. (2012). Small and Medium Enterprises in Central and Eastern Europe. University of Trento, Tokyo. Retrieved October 11, 2012 from http://src-h.slav.hokudai.ac.jp/pdf_seminar/031210smes_3.pdf
They describe how managers "till the ground, prepare it, plant seeds, and nurture those seeds (Summers & Nowicki, 2005)." Seeds in this analogy represent the clinical staff, who need to exhibit success and achievements in order for organizations to be led towards goals. The language chosen by managers is important for the affirmation of power relationships within healthcare organizations. Managers who are effective leaders should describe themselves as "allies" to clinical staff, implying shared values even though administrators are unable to directly order or provide the core services provided through healthcare (Summers & Nowicki, 2005). Overall, language by leaders that is more aligned with medicine, healthcare, and healing rather than the language of business, proves to be more effective.
Some styles of leadership may be more effective for management in healthcare organizations. Frerichs (2001) described how passive, uninvolved management styles among financial executives in healthcare are not desirable, and that…
Frerichs, J.K. (2001). Proactive CFOs are in demand - chief financial officers in the health care industry. Healthcare Financial Management, December.
Nowicki, M. (2003). The benevolent autocrat: is it the right fit for the times? By now, most managers have hung their autocratic management style in the back of the closet. Healthcare Financial Management, October.
Summers, J., Nowicki, M. (2005). Leadership, language, and reality in healthcare: gaining insights into what you are doing often occurs when you are forced to think "outside the box." Healthcare Financial Management, February.
Wilcox, K.C. (2003). Review - the leadership challenge: how to keep getting extraordinary things done in organizations. Journal of Physical Therapy Education, Fall.
Leadership has been one of the most studied, researched and theorize topic which has been evaluated, discussed and described by many theorists and scholars. Whereas the truth is that it's no theoretical phenomenon or rocket science. We all act as leader in different situations. Also, we all have different leadership styles and tactics of handling situations. Furthermore, as a leader, we are required to show different leadership skills as per the recipient. This is where the concept of situational leadership comes in. We studied this concept of leadership during our group activity which was performed to determine individual leadership style based on peer evaluation. Where this activity was intended to find out the leadership style; it was also helpful in finding out one's strengths and weaknesses as a leader.
The fundamental concept of leadership has changed to a limited extent over time however over time organizations, society…
Blanchard, K. (2011), Are you delegating or abdicating, retrieved from http://howwelead.org/category/situational-leadership/
Casey Mulqueen, How SOCIAL STYLE Concepts Make the Situational Leadership Model More Effective. Retrieved from http://docs.tracomcorp.com/TPD/Whitepaper/Social_Style_and_Situational_Leadership_Whitepaper.pdf
Dunbar, Lisa, Situational Leadership: The 4D's of Your Employees, retrieved from http://www.newdirectionsconsulting.com/2011/06/situational-leadership-the-4ds-of-your-employees/
Hersey, P., and Blanchard, K., Management of Organizational Behavior: Utilizing Human Resources (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1996)
In contrast, a "selling and coaching" (S2) approach is demanded when the leader knows the follower may be uncertain about how to perform the task, but the subordinate has a high level of commitment, as in the case of an intern or a new hire. S2 is a motivational or mentoring approach. The employee craves direction, but will be motivated more by personality and praise than 'carrots and sticks' versus the S1 situation (Straker 2004).
A "participating/supporting" leadership situation (S3) is when the leader knows that the employees can complete the task but the manager wants more of an emotional investment or a higher level of excellence. An example of this approach might be a manager of a fast food establishment with a teenage, low-skilled workforce. The employees can do the job, but needs more motivation to perform at a high level rather than task-specific direction. Finally, an (S4) situation…
Avolio, B.J., & Yammarino, F.J. (2002). Transformational and charismatic leadership: The road ahead. San Diego, CA: Emerald.
DISC. (2010). Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://www.discprofile.com/
Homrig, Mark a. (2001, December 21).Transformational leadership. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://leadership.au.af.mil/documents/homrig.htm
Straker, David. (2004). Hersey and Blanchard's situational leadership theory. Changing Minds. Retrieved July 1, 2010 at http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/situational_leadership_hersey_blanchard.htm
leadership capability relation accepted model leadership management. Part 1. 'Situational leadership redundant a task .' As a future leader teams, present arguments statement.
The internal environment within economic agents is suffering dramatic changes within the modern day society and this is the result of numerous pressures from the internal and external environments, such as technology, competition or increasing demands from the various categories of stakeholders. In such a setting, the role of the leaders and managers gradually increases, as these come to portray the link between executives and employees, and they are more essential in ensuring that the firms attain their overall objectives.
As the role of leaders and managers increases, the emphasis placed on the formation of the leaders and managers must also increase. In such a setting then, the current project sets out to discuss the situational leadership model through the lenses of its applicability within…
Haydon, G., 2007, Values for educational leadership, SAGE
Humphreys, J., Zhao, D., Ingram, K., Gladstone, J., Basham, L., 2010, Situational narcissism and charismatic leadership: a conceptual framework, Journal of Behavioral and Applied Management, Vol. 11, No. 2
Ireh, M., Bailey, J., 1999, A study of superintendent's change leadership styles using the situational leadership model, American Secondary Education, Vol. 27, No. 4
2012, Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English Online, http://www.ldoceonline.com/dictionary/feedback last accessed on May 22, 2012
leadership plan in consistency with the 3D leadership model that was identified in the previous segment of this paper. The 3D model that was introduced was based on the scholarly work of Bill eddin in which 3 dimensions of the proposed leadership model were given. These were task orientation, relationship orientation, and effectiveness of the leaders. We now discuss how this strategic plan gets implemented at various levels such as individual, traditional and virtual teams, department and so on and so forth.
The 3D Leadership level
At the individual level, the 3D leadership model will provide tasks to team members at organization-wide level. The relationship factors will include interaction with team members and building rapport with team leader. The third dimension of this leadership model will include completing all the 'essential' category of tasks along with obtaining positive 'appraisal' from team leaders, the more that an…
Freeman, R.E. (2010). Strategic management: A stakeholder approach. Cambridge University Press.
Hendry, C., & Pettigrew, A. (1992). Patterns of strategic change in the development of human resource management. British Journal of Management, 3(3), 137-156.
Mahmood, K. (2007). Least common multiple of teacher leadership styles: Implication for classroom. Quality in education: Teaching and leadership in challenging times, 306-331.
Majchrzak, A., Rice, R.E., Malhotra, A., King, N., & Ba, S. (2000). Technology adaption: the case of a computer-supported inter-organizational virtual team 1. MIS quarterly, 24(4), 569-600.
leadership is a concept of leadership based on the proposition that the right leadership style for optimal productivity and efficiency in working groups may be different in different situations and circumstances (ussell-Whalling, 2008). The best choice of leadership style often depends on various specific criteria pertaining to the skills and comfort zones of leaders, the maturity level of their subordinates, and the relative degree of commitment and competence of the individuals in the work group. In that regard, situational leadership can be thought of in terms of a conceptual matrix (ussell-Whalling, 2008) according to which all of the factors and circumstances must be considered to derive the most productive possible working relationships between a given leader and his or her subordinates.
Elements of Situational Leadership and Considerations of Appropriate Application
With respect to the individual skills, abilities, and comfort zones of leaders, individual leaders typically differ substantially in their reliance…
Daft, R. (2005) Management. 7th Edition. Mason: Thomson South Western.
Russell-Whalling, E. (2008). 50 Management Ideas You Really Need To Know. London:
"Our leadership development and training programs push each and every delegate to gain a rigorous personal insight into what makes them tick and then, with that understanding of themselves, to stretch the boundaries of what's comfortable for them" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory). Leadership training through the organization stresses emotional rather than technical skills, unlike GE. Human perception, creativity and out-of the box thinking is what is defined as leadership skills by Impact Factory and by the companies that use its services to train new and older employees alike, employees defined as leaders, and lower level employees as well. Key to success for individuals and the organization as a whole include: "Determining how well you perceive what's going on around you...polishing interpersonal skills and communication skills" (Leadership development - Leadership skills and training, 2008, Impact Factory).
The influence of leadership theory of a 'great man'…
General Electric: Imagination at work. (2008). GE. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008. http://www.gepower.com/commitment/en/integrity.htm
Ethos. (2008). The Impact Factory. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at http://www.impactfactory.com/ factory.shtml
Impact Factory. (2008). Impact Factory Homepage. Retrieved 1 Sept 2008 at
Among the best ways to shape organizational culture and still be sure that the employees and their socially diverse cultures are being represented and honored is through ethical leadership models. Three of these models are: P4, Complexity, and 4-V. Each of these models will be discussed here. The P4 model stands for Purpose, People, Planet, Probity (or Purity or Principles) (Ethical, 2014). These four things are the cornerstones of sustaining success when it comes to any organization or business in the modern day, and require those who are in leadership positions to really think about what they are offering to their company, their employees, and their customers and stakeholders (Ethical, 2014). The goal is to show that the organizational purpose is strong, and that it is reconciled with proper care of others in order to keep the company moving forward without causing any harm to the people who…
Ethical leadership, decision-making, and organizations. (2014). Businessballs. Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/ethical_management_leadership.htm .
Macaluso, T. (n.d.). A model for ethical leadership. Complexity model and ethics. New Thinker. Retrieved from http://www.newthinker.com/NewThinking%20about%20ETHICAL%20LEADERSHIP.pdf .
McQueeny, E. (2006). Making ethics come alive. Business Communication Quarterly, 69(2), 158-170.
Reilly, E.C. (2006). The future entering: Reflections on and challenges to ethical leadership. Educational Leadership and Administration, 18, 163-173.
In SLII, there is a recognition that leadership is "done with people, not to people." The change in words illustrates this change of philosophy accurately.
In a sense, the two models have slightly different conceptualizations to reflect changes in the audience. Situational leadership was developed by the authors in 1972, when leadership styles were far more autocratic than they are today. Leadership was done to people in those days. Today, leadership is done with people. . The authors have recognized this fundamental shift in the prevailing leadership attitudes and made the appropriate changes to their model to reflect this. However, the terminology used in the original situational leadership model will still appeal to autocratic leaders. The SLII model's terminology will appeal more to modern leaders. As the excessive and clumsy use of the registered trademark symbol throughout their paper indicates, these concepts are products being sold. A shift in wording…
Hersey, P., & Blanchard, K. (1988). Management of organizational behavior: Utilizing human resources. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Hersey, P & Blanchard, K. (2009). Situational leadership & situational leadership II: Commonalities and differences. Self published. In possession of the author.
Malcolm X and Leadership
The Leadership Styles of Malcolm X
Malcolm X was a natural born leader, according to Manning Marable in his biography Malcolm X: A Life of Reinvention (2011:33). What made him so was his incessant drive and ability to command others through repetition of "pet themes" as well as his ability to speak rapidly and overtop others (Marable 2011:33). In his early days before his conversion to Islam, Malcolm X demonstrated a remarkable effectiveness as a "leader of the pack" of assorted hoodlum with whom he fraternized. In this sense, contingency theory best applies to this stage of Malcolm's life, because given Malcolm's social context at the time, his style of leadership -- assertive, combative, and harping -- fit the situation and the type of people with whom he operated: people who respected only muscle and might, of which Malcolm had the intellectual and willful kind. In…
Avolio, B.J., Walumbwa, F.O., & Weber, T.J. (2009). Leadership: Current theories, research, and future directions. Annual Review Psychology, 60 421-449.
Conger, Jay A. (1989). Leadership: The art of empowering others. Academy of Management Executive, 3 (1) 17- 25.
Conger, J.A. (1999). Charismatic and transformational leadership in organizations
Charismatic politicalleadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 10 (2) 145-179.
ethical obligations -- as discussed, for example, in Chapter 16 of the Northouse text -- allegedly breached by Smith or Halloran while in office. (These obligations will not "fit" perfectly, as the real world does not always match the academic world precisely. Contemplate and give the best answer.) In each case, describe the ethically-proper course of action that was not taken by the relevant actors. Does New York -- like Chicago, Illinois, which was called the most corrupt city in the United States (Cody, 2012) -- have a special culture where corruption is accepted or even expected? Be sure to contrast the differences between leadership and power. Also discuss whether Smith and Halloran's behavior would have been unethical in the private sector.
New York State Sen. Malcolm Smith and New York City Councilman Dan Halloran were arrested by federal authorities in an alleged plot to rig the New York…
Associated Press. (2013, April 2). Politico. Retrieved from N.Y. state sen. arrested in alleged mayor race plot: http://www.politico.com/story/2013/04/nyc-mayor-race-rig-malcolm-smith-89536.html
Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations. New York: Free Press.
Greenleafe Center. (2011). What is Servant Leadership? Retrieved from Greanleafe Center for Servant Leadership: http://www.greenleaf.org/whatissl/
Margolin, J. (2013, April 2). State Sen. Malcolm Smith, city Councilman Halloran arrested in 'bribery plot' to rig mayor race. Retrieved from New York Post: http://nypost.com/2013/04/02/state-sen-malcolm-smith-city-councilman-halloran-arrested-in-bribery-plot-to-rig-mayor-race/
Strong leaders exhibit decisiveness, vision, and strong communication skills. They are unafraid to take risks, but do so wisely and with the willingness to take responsibility for mistakes or even failure. Faced with failure, crisis, or difficult challenges, strong leaders respond gracefully, with a determination to overcome the obstacle and continue to commit to the vision of the organization. Yet strong leaders are also flexible, open-minded, interested in soliciting feedback from members of the team and welcoming dissent and constructive criticism because those alternative views help with creative problem solving. Not all leaders are effective in one-on-one personal relationships, but all have the ability to reach out to teams, groups, organizations, and their stakeholders with a clear message. Even though strong leaders differ in their style and approach, with some responding differently to situational variables, strong leaders are ultimately willing to pass the torch and empower others with more knowledge…
Leadeship Skills Impact Intenational Education
CHALLENGES OF INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION
Pactical Cicumstances of Intenational schools
THE IMPORTANCE OF LEADERSHIP IN EDUCATION
What is Effective Leadeship fo Today's Schools?
Challenges of Intecultual Communication
Challenges of Diffeing Cultual Values
Impotance of the Team
Cuent Leadeship Reseach
APPLYING LEADERSHIP IN AN INTERNATIONAL SETTING
Wagne's "Buy-in" vs. Owneship
Undestanding the Ugent Need fo Change
Reseach confims what teaches, students, paents and supeintendents have long known: the individual school is the key unit fo educational impovement, and within the school the pincipal has a stong influence upon the natue of the school, the conditions unde which students lean, and upon what and how much they lean. Despite this ageement about the cental ole of the pincipal, thee is little eseach concening the chaacteistics of pincipals associated with effective leadeship and with pupil accomplishment, and even less insight…
Allen, K.E., Bordas, J., Robinson Hickman, G., Matusek, L.R., & Whitmire, K.J. (1998). Leadership in the twenty-first century. Rethinking Leadership Working Papers. Academy of Leadership Press. http://www.academy.umd.edu/scholarship/casl/klspdocs/21stcen.html
Bennis, W.G. (1997). "The secrets of great groups." Leader to Leader, No.3. The Peter F. Drucker Foundation for Nonprofit Management. http://www.pfdf.org/leaderbooks/L2L/winter97/bennis.html
Crowther, F., Kaagan, S., et. al. (2002). Developing Teacher Leaders. Thousand Oaks: Corwin Press.
leadership requirements 3.2 plan development future situations requiring leadership 4.1 plan development leadership skills a specific requirement 4.2 report usefulness methods plan development leadership skills assessing McDonald.
Leadership at McDonald's
McDonald's has often been blamed for the negative impact its foods products have upon the population. And in the context in which more and more people suffer from nutrition related illnesses, McDonald's is becoming the emblem of fast food to be avoided (Kaufmann, 2010).
Still, the demand for its products continues to increase and this is explained by a wide array of social and economic changes. For instance, women's emancipation and the choice to work outside the home leave them with little time to cook (Parasecoli, 2004). Then, the experience of dining out has changed dramatically throughout the past recent years and it is exacerbated by the economic crisis, which decreases the population's access to traditional restaurants and drives them…
Alon, I., Alpeza, M.., Erceg, A., Opportunities and threats regarding the development of the franchising business model in Croatia, Fransiza, http://www.fransiza.hr/Opporurtunities%20and%20threats%20regarding%20the%20development%20od%20the%20franchising%20business%20model%20in%20Croatia.pdf last accessed on November 22, 2011
Armstrong, G., Harker, M., Brennan, R., 2009, Marketing: an introduction, Pearson Education, ISBN 0273713957
Boonstra, J.J., 2004, Dynamics of organizational change and learning, John Wiley and Sons, ISBN 0471877379
Garfinkle, A.M., 2000, Politics and society in modern Israel: myths and realities, 2nd edition, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 0765605147
Different Modes of Leadership
It seems that one of the most effective collaborative approaches to leadership involves situational leadership. Situational leadership, of course, is a paradigm in which leaders vary their leadership style and methodology according to the various situations they encounter (Wright, 2017, p. 27). In this respect, this form of leadership is highly effective for situations in which there are rapid changes, such as leading others during a merger or an acquisition. Moreover, it is collaborative in that the input from one’s followers regarding the sort of changes impacting situational leadership affects the type of leadership model one chooses to deploy next. Thus, both the situations and their consequences for followers informs the type of leadership involved, which is a collaborative means of implementing this flexible type of leadership.
Additionally, it also appears that transformational leadership is an efficacious approach to collaborative leadership. This particular leadership approach typically…
In traded industries where there is fierce competition, it is not possible to pay men more than equally productive women -- every little disadvantage can be fatal to a company's survival. This means that gender equality emerges faster in these industries, as U.S. evidence shows. On virtually every criticism of globalization, one can find good, rather than bad, things to say. So globalization does have a human face. The really interesting question is therefore what can people do through institutional design and policies -- both domestic and international -- to improve it.
d. The accelerating pace of globalization, communications, and technological innovation; the changing patterns of cross-border capital flows; the fluid state of corporate mergers and partnerships; all these have created -- and will continue to create for the foreseeable future -- fundamental shifts in the ways in which business is conducted. Where many old-fashioned -- and still widely current…
Anthony, Molly a 1999. October 1. What are your core competencies? Journal of Research Administration. July 1, 2002.
Appelbaum, L., "Mentoring: A strategy to recruit and retain top PR Professionals," Public Relations Strategist, Vol. 6 (3), 2000, 18-20.
Bonnett, Alastair. 2006. The Americanisation of anti-racism? Global power and hegemony in ethnic equity. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. September 1.
Boswell, T.,1995. "Lifelong learning: A framework for discussion," Adults learning, 258-263.
History Of Leadership
Throughout much of history, leadership was viewed as an inherited position. It was rare that somebody would earn their way into a leadership position. Over time, a leadership model emerged that emphasized traits, and those who displayed those traits were funneled into a leadership system that, at best, worked on a linear hierarchy where tenure determined who held what position.
The major gains in leadership theory occurred when the study of leadership moved beyond these two concepts. By the 1940s and 50s, there was a move towards behavioral theories. Leaders weren't successful because of their traits, but because of the behaviors that existed, a concept that was similar but different. Behaviorism opened up the study of leadership, however. It was really the first theory that focused on emergent leadership over assigned leadership. It also began to separate the idea of management from that of leadership. That separation…
Northouse, P. G. (2016). Leadership: Theory and practice (7th ed.). Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications.
Leadership Central (2015). Leadership theories. Leadership Central.com. Retrieved December 6, 2015 from http://www.leadership-central.com/leadership-theories.html
As the world becomes more populous, busy, and interconnected, the need for good leadership will grow. Furthermore, this leadership will be needed in a number of different social and cultural contexts. (Gibson & McDaniel, 2010, 451-452). Fortunately, we are undergoing a renaissance in the study of leadership and our notions of leadership are becoming more diverse and, at the same time, more fundamental.
Leaders are produced by their environment, which includes their personality, their experiences, and their organizations. Leaders tend to grow out of organizations in which they embody the core values and ambitions shared by the organization.
The Traditional Models of Leadership
The traditional view of a leader is someone who is dominant, competitive, and authoritarian. (Medina, et. al., 2008, p.249). Although most leaders do exhibit these qualities, that does not mean that a leader must have such qualities. The reason these types of leaders are prevalent is…
Bell, A.H., & Smith, D.M. (2010). Developing leadership abilities. Boston: Pearson.
Cheung, M.F.Y., & Wong, C.-S. (September 28, 2011). Transformational leadership, leader support, and employee creativity. Leadership & Organization Development Journal, 32, 7, 656-672
Medina, F., Munduate, L., & Guerra, J. (January 01, 2008). Power and conflict in cooperative and competitive contexts. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 17, 3, 349-362.
Gibson, C., & McDaniel, D. (January 01, 2010). Moving Beyond Conventional Wisdom: Advancements in Cross-Cultural Theories of Leadership, Conflict, and Teams.Perspectives on Psychological Science, 5, 4, 450-462.
Leadership and Transforming an Organization
Leadership: Transforming an Organization
Many companies fail to meet the expectations of all of their stakeholders. Since there are a number of different stakeholders in any company (investors, customers, employees, etc.), it is possible to meet the needs of one or more groups while leaving out the needs of other groups. That is unfortunate for the one group left out, of course, and can also lead to serious problems for the company itself. When companies meet all stakeholder needs, they keep all of the groups affiliated with them happy and content. However, a company that avoids meeting the needs of one or more groups of stakeholders is setting itself up for problems. That does not mean that the company will fail. That largely depends on which group of stakeholders the company is effectively ignoring. Some stakeholder groups are more important to the overall operations of…
Chemers, M. (1997) An integrative theory of leadership. NY: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Hackman, M. & Johnson, C. (2009). Leadership: A communication perspective. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
Hughes, R.L., Ginnett, R.C., & Curphy, G.J. (2012). Leadership: Enhancing the lessons of experience. (7th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
Spillane, J.P., Diamond, J., et al. (2004). Towards a theory of leadership practice. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 36(1): 3 -- 34.
A comparison of Law Enforcement with Other Professions
Who first comes to mind when you think of a 'Leader'? Is it Alexander the Great? Napoleon? Winston Churchill? Gandhi? Leadership is an interesting phenomenon to consider, from the perspective of civilization, of nations, of political change, and of history. What makes one person a leader while another tries and fails? What is a good leader and how is that different from a 'great' leader? The definition of leadership also varies with the context and with the individual who is defining leadership. The nature of leaders has changed as civilization has evolved, and the leaders we as a society need today may be different from those of a century ago. A national leader is distinct from a local leader, a oy Scout leader, or a team leader in a sport.
Thus, definitions of leadership vary with the situation. However, they include…
Avery, G.C. (2004) Understanding Leadership: Paradigms and Cases. London: Sage
Avolio, B.J. (1999) Full Leadership Development: Building the Vital Forces in Organizations. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Bittner, Egon (1970). The functions of the police in modern society: a review of background factors, current practices, and possible role models. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Health, Center for Studies of Crime and Delinquency.
Boedker, C., Vidgen, R., Meagher, K., Cogin, J., Mouritsen, J. And Runnalls, M. (2011). Leadership, culture and management practices of high performing workplaces in Australia: The High Performing Workplaces Index. Society for Knowledge Economics: Sydney.
Leadership Styles in Movies / Management Lessons about Leadership styles in Movies
Leadership is a major organizational resource, demonstrated by individuals via a wide range of skills and talents (Lester, 2015). Leadership represents a key means by which individuals change others' minds, moving people and organizations forward for achieving established aims (IAAP, 2009). Several leadership models exist, with some of them proving to be rather effective and helpful. However, rapid transformations in the world, particularly in the last decade, owing to emergence of globalization and extensive adoption of information technology, have led to drastic changes in workforces' behavior and expectations. One cannot now lead a workforce using conventional techniques of the past, if one desires to leverage staff talents and achieve optimal performance. A majority of successful companies today seek knowledge workers -- well-trained, skilled and experienced individuals desiring to utilize their abilities to their optimum potential in a work…
Argintar, L. (2014). The Devil Wears Prada, A Boss, Not AB*tch: Why Women In the Workplace Get A Bad Rep. Elite Daily. Retrieved from http://elitedaily.com/women/devil-wears-prada-boss-btch-women-workplace-get-bad-rep/
Balzac, S. (2015). Princess Bride Problem Solving. LinkedIn. Retrieved from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/princess-bride-problem-solving-steve-balzac
Batke, k. (2015). How Not to Manage Like Bill Lumbergh. Jostle Corporation. U.S.. Retrieved from http://www.jostle.me/blog/how-not-to-manage-like-bill-lumbergh
Casse, P & Claudel, P. (2011). Leadership styles: a powerful model. Training Journal. www.trainingjournal.com.
Leadership-Level Implementation of Strategic Plan
Good leadership is a key aspect of project management. Leading a project requires working with the manager and other staff drawn from the project's functional areas. It is not accurate to say that a leader only influences the subordinates under him. esponsibilities of a leader can go either vertically or horizontally. An effective leader will not only lead the subordinates under him or her, but also all the people involved in the project including those who are his seniors. A leadership model referred to as 3D model has been fronted by various players and promotes team leadership, self-leadership as well as teamwork that is leadership oriented. Effective leadership takes the ability to spot opportunities to improve a project and also execute on the project improvement. Besides the existing good personal traits, the style of leadership can be modeled through experience, training as well as dedication.…
Abou-Zeid, E.S. (2005). A culturally aware model of inter-organizational knowledge transfer. Knowledge management research & practice, 3(3), 146-155.
Ale Ebrahim, N., Ahmed, S., & Taha, Z. (2009). Virtual teams: a literature review. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 3(3), 2653-2669.
Bidgoli, H. (2013). MIS 3. Boston, Mass: Course Technology/Cengage Learning.
Caligiuri, P. (2006). Developing global leaders. Human Resource Management Review, 16(2), 219-228.
Leadership and Organization Culture and Ethics in Leadership
Model Preferred for Leaders to Follow
The DCL (Dynamic Culture Leadership) model is the most advantageous model for leaders, as dynamic leaders possess a basic grasp of their institution's affirmative moral duty and function from the perspective of a humanistic paradigm, as all organizations have a positive ethical duty to do ensure that "good" is done to all stakeholders, and nobody is harmed, by any means. On the basis of this premise, one may argue that businesses are morally obliged to work to the "good" of their workforce (who represent stakeholders that are non-owners). Therefore, dynamic leaders need to considerably focus on ethical and moral elements, for enhancing cultural values of the organization (Lowder, 2007).
Dynamic Culture Leadership (DCL) Model and How it is Applied.
Leaders, in this instance, need to adopt a leadership style aimed at evaluating the necessity of increased…
Dimitrios, N. K., Sakas, D. P., & Vlachos, D. S. (2013). Analysis of Strategic Leadership Simulation Models in Non-profit Organizations. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 73, 276-284.
Ledlow, G. R., & Coppola, M. N. (2011). Leadership for health professionals: Theory, skills, and applications. Sudbury, Mass: Jones and Bartlett.
Lowder, B. T. (2007). Implementing a dynamic leadership program: A moral construct for adding cultural value. Available at SSRN 1016601.
O'Connor. S.J. (n.d). CHAPTER 6: Management of Corporate Culture and Responsibilities
Leadership and Management of Nursing Shortage and Nurse Turn-Over
Several research scholars have stressed the significance of effective healthcare leadership, and leadership by nurses is critical to this, since nurses constitute the largest healthcare worker group. For more effective nurse recruitment, hospital leadership should support the profession of nursing. It is vital for them to recognize their most capable nurse managers and nurses, and place them within communities for attracting individuals possessing similar traits into the profession. Furthermore, hospital leaders must team up with colleges/universities and secondary schools for picking out students who possess the traits needed for thriving despite challenges accompanying slow improvements to the healthcare sector. World-class hospitals or healthcare facilities do not simply sit back waiting for potential nurse candidates to find recruiting organizations (Curtis, de Vries & Sheerin, 2011).
One way of addressing this issue may be for a healthcare employer to offer a school/college with…
Bowles A. & Bowles N. B (2000). A comparative study of transformational leadership in nursing development units and conventional clinical settings. J Nurs Manag 8(2): 69-76
Curtis, E. A., de Vries, J., & Sheerin, F. K. (2011). Developing leadership in nursing: exploring core factors. British Journal of Nursing, 20(5), 306.
Hughes R. L, Ginnett R. C, Curphy G. J (2006) Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. 5th edn. McGraw Hill, Boston.
Marquis B. L. & Huston C. J. (2009) Leadership Roles and Management Functions in Nursing: Theory and Application. 6th edn. Wolters/Kluwer/Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia.
Leadership Approach Analysis
Description and Analysis of Style and Situational Approaches to Leadership
Style Approach to Leadership
This is the approach which focuses on the leader's behavior in terms of what he/she does and how they actually do it, viewed as what is important. Behaviors are classified as those which are related to the task at hand as well as those which are seen in the leader's relationship with the other staff members. The first classification relates to how the objective of the firm is achieved and how the leader aids the team to achieve this objective. The classification on relationships is about the leader being able to influence the team to feel settled in their roles, in their work with their colleagues and in their pursuit of the firm's objectives. Therefore, style approach looks at how the leader conducts himself/herself in terms of tasks and relationships in order to…
Northouse, P. G. (2007). Leadership: theory and practice (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
Roberts, F. (2016, January 16). Situational Approach to Leadership. Retrieved from Fred Roberts: https://sites.google.com/a/stgregoryschool.org/mr-roberts/home/theoretical-and-applied-leadership/situational-leadership
Scholl, R. W. (2003). What is Leadership? Retrieved from University of Rhode Island: http://www.uri.edu/research/lrc/scholl/webnotes/Leadership.htm
Virkus, S. (2009). Leadership Models. Retrieved from Tallinn University: http://www.tlu.ee/~sirvir/IKM/Leadership%20Models/trait_approach.html
Event in Health Care Organization
In order to run health care organizations such that they are always viable, when it comes to both economic and health results, health care leaders frequently feel attracted to a practical managerial point-of-view with insistence on the daily production pressures together with its need to react to both large and smaller issues. This tendency could restrict their capability of engaging on visionary leadership practices, that assist in changing their organizations for the futures. For instance, the present event in the health care of Kenya is that health care employees' need encounter a rising multitude of job demands: cost efficiency, patient care and administration as well as optimal employment, and might be less efficient in both secondary and primary role liabilities. Thus, leadership skills are required in assisting both providers and managers in making consistent and thoughtful choices amid values in competition. This matter…
Burns, J. M. (1978). Leadership. New York: Harper & Row
Guzman, Oscar. (n.d.) Organizational Leadership Theories, retrieved from http://smallbusiness.chron.com/organizational-leadership-theories-284.html
Leroy H., Anseel F, Gardner W.L. and Sels L., (2012), Authentic Leadership, Authentic
Followership, Basic Need Satisfaction, and Work Role Performance: A Cross-Level Study, Journal of Management published online DOI: 10.1177/0149206312457822 accessed at http://fanseel.be/wp-content/uploads/2012/11/Leroy-Anseel-Gardner-Sels-in-press-JOM.pdf