Legal Memorandum Essays (Examples)

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Legal Research Writing & Analysis

Words: 1611 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 64483919

This chapter is completed with further information on a legal analysis in chapter 12, which discusses the organization of the results of the research. The Honigsberg Grid is amply described as a useful instrument in such an organization.

Chapter 13 presents directions as to how a memorandum of law should be written, as well as some of its most important characteristics, notably the fact that this needs to be an objective piece of writing and has to follow a particular format. The chapter also provides a sample of such a memorandum. The notions presented in this chapter are completed in the subsequent chapter, which refers to writing a memorandum of points and authorities.

Finally, chapter 15 refers to how an opinion or client letter is written. The opinion letter is the formal way in which attorneys inform clients about certain legal aspects. As a formal instrument, such a letter has…… [Read More]

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Memorandum Philosophical Issues

Words: 1279 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50109188

Fictitious

Governor's Office

This memorandum is an analysis of the P&E issues raised by proposed legislative changes regarding criminal sexual behavior, as well as so-called "vices" and other related conduct. The purpose of this analysis is to define a coherent set of public policy objectives characterizing all legislative changes supported by the Fictitious State Governor's Office.

Upgrading penal classification of Solicitation/Prostitution misdemeanors and increasing sentences and fines associated with all Solicitation/Prostitution felonies.

This committee does not recommend enacting any of the proposed penal upgrades across the board as set forth. We recommend re-evaluating current "vice" policy regarding violations of existing

Solicitation/Prostitution statutes in order that funds for law enforcement and prosecution efforts be redirected and channeled more specifically toward violations that most affect "quality of life" issues for lawful citizens of Fictitious State.

Analysis:

Both anecdotal evidence and documented statistical information available from the seventeen counties in Nevada where prostitution…… [Read More]

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Communication and the Law

Words: 2457 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72726205

Legal Memoranda

Statement of Facts

The prospective plaintiff wrote a novel a year ago on her home computer. She then distributed 100 copies to acquaintances and agents, but without a copyright notice attached. Yesterday she discovered a recently published novel that appeared to have plagiarized her work and is considering a lawsuit.

For a writing to be eligible for copyright protection the work must be original, which the courts and the U.S. Copyright Office have interpreted to mean an independent work that did not rely on the work of others to create. For example, students who complete an essay exam own the copyright to their answer if the work is original. Copyright protection is in effect as soon as the page is inked or the keystrokes captured by the software program. Based on the facts of this case the plaintiff wrote a novel and the work is therefore assumed to…… [Read More]

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Starting Point for This Legal

Words: 836 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83329378

It should also be pointed out that the Defendant, Mr. Taylor, warned the Plaintiff to not play with the dog and that Ms. Buffet openly admits that this is the case. The warning itself will not affect the issue of liability but it will impact on the measure of damages. As Ms. Buffet made no effort to play with the dog or otherwise interact with him the issue of the warning should have little impact on the case but it is something that must be considered.

II. Doctrine of Comparative Negligence Will Mitigate Damages

Assuming arguendo that the Plaintiff can prove negligence by the Defendant she must overcome the tenets of the Comparative Negligence doctrine.

As Florida follows pure comparative negligence she might still be able to recover damages but they would be diminished by how the contribution of fault is measured by the jury. For example, if the jury…… [Read More]

Hoffman v. Jones, 280 So.2d 287 (Fla. 1977)

Bessett v. Hackett, 66 So. 2d 694 (Fla. 1953)

Restatement of Torts (Second) §463
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Pre-Negotiation Memorandum

Words: 2123 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86286981

Prenegotiation Memorandum (pm)

Negotiation Team

Re: Tamarack, MN and Twin Lakes Mining Company

Position Structure

Twin Lakes Mining Company

The Twin Lakes Mining Company (hereafter known as 'company') makes significant contribution to Tamarack, Minnesota - employing 21% of the residents, providing 33% of the total real estate tax base - and is considered an integral entity to the town's longevity. The city needs Twin Lakes to maintain the current standard of living the residents enjoy.

The City of Tamarack

The city operates on a zero deficit per annum decree. Twin Lakes Mining Company has directly caused some of the need for improvements concerning water quality, air quality, and effluvia and pollution management. The city also relies upon the heavy property taxation to provide economic, culture, and recreation services to the community. Twin Lakes Mining Company does not need the City of Tamarack (hereafter known as 'city') to continue operations in…… [Read More]

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Criminal Justice Interoffice Memorandum Supervising Attorney Paralegal

Words: 920 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43185650

Criminal Justice

INTEROFFICE MEMORANDUM

Supervising Attorney

Paralegal

John Ebersol

Determine whether Mr. Ebersol was guilty of shoplifting. If Mr. Ebersol was guilty of shoplifting, determine what he can expect his punishment to be.

FACTS:

Mr. Ebersol purchased a flathead screwdriver from the hardware store on Saturday, but purchased a Phillips head screwdriver by mistake. Mr. Ebersol returned to the store with the intention of purchasing screws for his new screwdriver. When he discovered that the hardware store was out of flathead screws, Mr. Ebersol left the flathead screwdriver on the counter and left the store with a Phillips head screwdriver in his pocket. Mr. Ebersol was detained, interrogated for 2 1/2 hours, and released with shoplifting charges against him.

ISSUES:

(1) Is Mr. Ebersol guilty of shoplifting?

(2) If Mr. Ebersol is guilty of shoplifting, what can his expected punishment be?

BRIEF ANSWERS:

(1) Mr. Ebersol is not guilty of…… [Read More]

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Tax Memo Tax Research Memorandum Lauren Smith

Words: 562 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57133689

Tax Memo

Tax esearch Memorandum

Lauren Smith

From: Tax Accountant, CPA

You incurred $15,000 of educational expenses over the past year in pursuit of your MBA, part of your professional development as a practicing egistered Nurse and nursing administrator. Your employer does not offer an educational expense reimbursement program, and you wish to claim these educational expenses as business expenses in order to claim greater tax deductions. You have worked in numerous administrative positions in your capacity as a nurse, and feel that the pursuit of an MBA was a clear part of your career development.

The only issue is whether or not the education you received at the expense of $15,000 can be deemed work-related education as defined and applied by the IS, which recognizes such expenses as business expenses for employees. If the education can be deemed work-related according to IS rules and definitions, the deduction of the…… [Read More]

References

IRS. (2011). Tax Benefits for Work-Related Education. Accessed 25 March 2012.

http://www.irs.gov/publications/p17/ch27.html#en_US_2011_publink1000173988

Tax Court. (2009). T.C. Summary Opinion 2009-182. Accessed 25 March 2012.

 http://www.ustaxcourt.gov/InOpHistoric/singleton-clarke.sum.WPD.pdf
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Interoffice Memorandum of Law Case Joe Lee

Words: 1373 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82812742

Interoffice Memorandum of Law

Case: Joe Lee Simmons, Appellant v. State of Texas, Appellee

Docket number: 01-07-00543-C

Office file number

e: Issue [1] was there evidence of possession of cocaine weighing four or more grams but less than 200 grams given the evidentiary requirements of TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 38.35(d)(1); [2] the validity of a motion to suppress based on the officer's failure to report all offenses committed in his jurisdiction to the magistrate, as required by TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 2.13(b)(3); and [3] the sufficiency of an indictment under TEX. CODE CIM. POC. § 28.10.

Facts:

The appellant contends that the trial court erred in admitting the testimony of the State's forensic chemist, who performed a chemical analysis on the controlled substance found in appellant's shirt pocket, because the chemical analysis was not accredited at the time of the analysis; appellant challenges the trial court's denial of…… [Read More]

Reference:

TEX. JUR. 3d § 23 Sufficiency of Indictment (2006).

It is the appellant's responsibility to show error on appeal, and if the record fails to show error, then it should be assumed that the trial court acted correctly.

"It is generally presumed on appeal that the court ruled correctly and that the appellant must show error" (Hall v. State, 829 S.W. 2d 407, 410-411).

"It is appellant's burden to not only preserve the alleged error for review, but to present a record of the alleged error sufficient for us to review it and determine if it was error and if so whether the defendant was harmed" (Montoya v. State, 43 S.W.3d 568, 572).
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International Legal and Ethical Issues

Words: 752 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18593586



Although Cad Mex Pharma has its patent rights reserved under protection act of Trade elated International Property ights (TIPs) for 20 years ("Agreement on Trade-elated Aspects of Intellectual Property ights") but TIPs also allow government to enforce compulsory licensing under health emergency (World Trade Organization: "Compulsory Licensing of Pharmace"). Now choice of law humbug anything against Candorean government and the TIPs health emergency clause will affix more political pressure on Cad Mex Pharma. So if Cad Mex Pharma takes legal action that could result into Gentura's bankruptcy via employing binding arbitrator and otherwise Cad Mex Pharma can take no legal action and demand marketing rights in another drug. Former option is not recommended as it leads to loose- loose situation and relations with Candorean government would be blemished and as per latter option unwillingness has been witness from Gentura side (Graham Matthew, Sep 2005). Leaving behind only option of claiming…… [Read More]

Reference:

1-Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights: Article 14, para 5. http://www.wto.org/English/docs_e/legal_e/27-trips.pdf

2- S. Mithra: Binding Arbitratory. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-binding-arbitration.htm

3- Intellectual property (TRIPs) - Compulsory Licensing of Pharmace: World Trade Organization

http://www.wto.org/English/tratop_e/trips_e/public_health_faq_e.htm
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Scalia Memorandum on the Question

Words: 1262 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21679983



This is a reasonable element of consideration to be pointed out, because many of the people holding public office and performing public service in the District of Columbia are lawyers, who have varying and extensive careers in law. By reason of this, they do reasonably come together and throughout the course of their legal education and careers become friends and, or, acquaintances. They are often, by virtue of their profession and by virtue of the affluence that often accompanies the rise to power, found to be in the same social circles in support of charity, or in the pursuit of continuing legal education, areas of interest, and, yes, recreationally too.

To abandon these relationships because one has been appointed to a particular office is an unreasonable request, and a practice that would actually cause the relationship to receive an unnecessarily amount of scrutiny. Nor is it any secret, as Justice…… [Read More]

So while the case study contains both elements that Justice Scalia cites as being elements for recusal, the recusal of both Justices Smith and Jones leaves intact the integrity of the intended majority in the decision making process.

The two elements, as Justice Scalia cited them, specifically and unquestionably apply to the case study as elements in support of recusal. The case study specifically meets not just the first, and probably more obscure of the two criteria, but specifically and wholly the second criteria because the action of appealing the NY Court of Appeals decision is in fact an action by, taken by, the incumbent whose relationship with both Justices meet the first element.

The conditions of the case study are much like those in the case in which Justice Scalia did in fact recuse himself. See Elk Grove Unified School District v. Newdow, 540 U.S. _ (cert. granted, Oct. 14, 2003) (p. 4).
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Analyzing HR Representative Memorandum

Words: 945 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41489603

H epresentative Memorandum / Twitter: H Memorandum

From: Mr. Brown

e.: Addressing Emotions in the Workplace Culture at Twitter

I wish to make a number of suggestions in connection with handling emotions at the workplace, which, in my view, we must be aware of. One of my biggest concerns is the way we have dealt with the latest situation involving one of our employees, Aria Perkins. Unless I haven't gotten to know of any additional documentation or information with this regard, my chief issue is with Perkins' supervisor, by whom she was warned against expressing any sort of negative emotion, whether nonverbally or verbally. I feel a grievous mistake has been committed here, which needs urgent remediation. This directive hasn't been given to any other staff member, as far as I know, and may be regarded as a case of incongruous, unequal treatment. The employee in question may consider this…… [Read More]

References

HG Experts. (2015). The Employment Discrimination Law. Retrieved from http://www.hg.org/employment-discrimination-law.html on 2nd January, 2015.

Liptak, A. (2011). Justices Rule for Wal-Mart. The New York Times. Retrieved from http://mobile.nytimes.com/2011/06/21/business/21bizcourt.html?referer= on 2nd January, 2015.

Nolo. (2015). The Equal Pay Act: Equal Pay for Women. Retrieved from http://www.nolo.com/legal-encyclopedia/equal-pay-act-women-30153.html on 2nd January, 2015.

Price, R. (2015). A Former Twitter Employee Is Suing the Company for Gender Discrimination. Retrieved from http://www.inc.com/business-insider/twitter-is-suing-the-company-over-gender-discrimination-allegations.html on 2nd January, 2015.
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Analyzing Tax Accounting Memorandum

Words: 628 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47576402

University has offered its professor $200,000 in order to relinquish tenure and resign. In particular, the aspect to consider is the tax consequence of such compensation. The professor's standpoint is that tenure should be treated as an intangible capital asset, and relinquishing tenure ought to be a long-term capital gain. The main tax issue in this case is whether the relinquishment of tenure encompasses a sale or interchange of a capital asset, which qualifies to be treated as long-term capital gains or should it be treated as ordinary income. The paper will look at cases that have addressed this issue and come up with different ways in which this issue should be treated.

This particular issue was directly addressed in the Foote vs. Commissioner case. The ruling made by the taxation court implied that the tenure does not classify as a capital asset and therefore the relinquishment of tenure by…… [Read More]

References

Everett, J. O., Raabe, W. A., & Gentile, J. (2005). Tenure Buyouts: The Case for Capital Gains Treatment. The ATA Journal of Legal Tax Research,3(1), 78-9.

Leagle. (2016). Merrill J. Foote v. Commissioner, 81 T.C. 930 (1983). Retrieved 10 July 2016 from: http://www.leagle.com/decision/1983101181betc930_1955/FOOTE%20v.%20COMMISSIONER#
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Marketing Memorandum CEO Potential Acquisition

Words: 617 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 38676624

In Italy, the local marketing approach would also emphasize the authentic nature of the environment except that local marketing would be less explicit and devoid of specific references in that regard. Instead, it would attempt to present services, menus, and other accoutrements in a manner that would allow local customers to come to their own conclusion that the hotel provides a highly authentic Italian experience.

PERSONAL REFLECTION

This exercise was extremely valuable to the study of Human Resource Management issues. Prior to this exercise, it would not have occurred to me how important local customs in a foreign country might be from the perspective of human resource management and the potential for civil liability to American employees working abroad. The exercise also provided an opportunity to make an important decision based on the comparative potential risks and rewards of two alternate courses of action.

From the perspective of marketing in…… [Read More]

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Drugs Testing Interoffice Memorandum Subject

Words: 446 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89488433



In that regard, illicit drug use, even during non-working hours, undermines our corporate interests of minimizing mistakes and maximizing output volume. Apart from any other reason, implementation of a drug testing policy is essential to maintaining the highest quality performance and output of all TI employees, particularly in the prevailing economic climate.

Recommendations:

Personal privacy principles in the workplace are substantially less than elsewhere as a matter of law. Employers have a legitimate concern with prohibiting any illegal employee conduct, especially any that is associated with declining quality or productivity. Recreational use of illicit drugs conflicts directly with TI corporate commitments to provide the highest quality work and to maintain optimal efficiency and work output. Therefore, it is respectfully requested that the issue of employee drug testing be reconsidered in view of all the issues relevant to that concern.

orks Cited

Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York:…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Brecher, E. (1991). Licit & Illicit Drugs. New York: Little Brown & Co.

Friedman, L. (2005). A History of American Law 3rd Edition. New York: Simon & Schuster.

Halbert, T., Ingulli, E. (2000). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment 3rd ed. Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies

Schmalleger, F. (2001). Criminal Justice Today: An Introductory Text for the 21st Century. New Jersey: Prentice Hall
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Memorandum on Contract Formation

Words: 1909 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6808584

New York Court of Appeals

The Honorable Jenny Rivera

African Diaspora Case

Should the court should affirm the appellate court's decision and reject summary judgment in favor of GYYC? Answering this overriding question requires examining whether the parties entered into a contract, but the issue of whether the contract was breached is a factual issue, which should be solved at trial, not through the summary judgment process. There are four issues related to whether or not the parties' actions formed a contract. First, is the Protocol an offer or, instead, a solicitation for an offer? If the Protocol is an offer, what are the terms of the offer? How does the Protocol evidence an intent by GGYC to be bound? Bound to what? If the Protocol is an offer, how can the offer be accepted? Has ADM accepted the offer? hat is the consideration in the contract alleged by ADM?…… [Read More]

Works Cited

African Diaspora Maritime Corp. v. Golden Gate Yacht Club, 109 A.D.3d 204 (2013), Majority & Dissenting opinions

African Diaspora Maritime Corp. v. Golden Gate Yacht Club, 38 Misc.3d 1214 (N.Y. Co. 2013),

Opinion of Justice Kapnick

Sargent v. N.Y. Daily News, L.P., 42 A.D.3d 491 (2d Dep't 2007)
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Memorandum of Points and Authorities

Words: 1898 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 836995

Authorities

This firm's client, Franklin Olsen ("Olsen") was arrested and subsequently charged with burglary of the home of Lindsay Young ("Young"). Young informed the police that she had found Olsen in her home on October 15, 2010, at dusk and observed Olsen for approximately one minute prior to his leaving the property. Young described Olsen as being dark haired, wearing all black clothing and being extremely tall. At that time that Olsen was taken into custody.

Young was asked to make identification of the suspect to the burglary in a police lineup. Olsen was one of six white males in the police lineup and had an attorney present to represent him. All the participants in the lineup other than Olsen were between 5'8: to 5'10" in height and all wore clothing that was light in color however, Olsen was instructed to wear all black clothing. Olsen was additionally the only…… [Read More]

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Why I Should Be Admitted to Program

Words: 704 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2632250

Summer Law Program

The author of this response has been given the opportunity to give some feelings and a response to why it is the author's desire and intent to attend the summer law program. Those reasons are numerous and will be discussed one by one. The program would be a major and exciting challenge for the author of this request and response and the author will now detail why that is believed to be the case.

First of all, the author of this response understands that the summer law program will be rigorous and difficult in nature. It is understood by the author of this response that he rigors to be endured and experienced will very much mirror and reflect those that will be experienced when the remainder of law school is under way. The author understands that the summer law program is meant to resemble and manifest the…… [Read More]

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Should Electoral College Be Abolished

Words: 968 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 25716895

election of George W. ush over Al Gore in 2000, who won the electoral vote in spite of losing the popular vote, rekindled a controversy that has been going on for some time now: has the Electoral College mechanism lived its time?

According to the United States constitution, each state is entitled to choose its electors for president and vice-president as a number equal to the total number of representatives and senators the respective state has. The choosing itself is left to the states, by direct popular vote in each state. If the voting for President is a tie, the Constitution specified that this would be decided upon in the House of Representatives. In the initial way the Electoral College was designed by the founding fathers, the winner of the majority of electoral votes would win the election and become president, while the runner-up would become Vice-President. Of course, it…… [Read More]

Bibliography

1. Rohwer, Luis Fuentes; Charles, Guy-Uriel. THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE, THE RIGHT TO VOTE, AND OUR FEDERALISM: A COMMENT ON A LASTING INSTITUTION. FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY LAW REVIEW. Vol. 29. 2001

2. Polsby, Nelson W.; Wildavsky, Aaron. Presidential Elections Strategies and Structures of American Politics. 10th edition. 2000

3. Ross, Tara. The Electoral College: Enlightened Democracy. Legal Memorandum #15. November 2004. From Longley, Lawrence D.; Peirce, Neal R. The Electoral College Primer (1999). On the Internet at http://www.heritage.org/Research/LegalIssues/lm15.cfm

Ross, Tara. The Electoral College: Enlightened Democracy. Legal Memorandum #15. November 2004. From Longley, Lawrence D.; Peirce, Neal R. The Electoral College Primer (1999). On the Internet at http://www.heritage.org/Research/LegalIssues/lm15.cfm
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Ethics and Leadership

Words: 1537 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36186091

Leadership Ethics

Kathleen Blanco, the first woman governor of Louisiana; she is known for her policies in making education better throughout the south and is also responsible for passage of the nation's largest investment in education ("Governor's Information," 2004). Along with this, she has made investments in technology infrastructures which have led to the forward push of economic development and increased Louisiana's ability to compete for new jobs. This attracted almost $24 billion new investments and 35,000 new jobs in the span of only three years. Her commitment towards children also helped the expansion and access to health insurance for children throughout Louisiana ("Governor's Information," 2004). Additionally, she successfully overhauled Louisiana's state correctional system and designed a nationally-recognized model of excellence in juvenile justice. Blanco has succeeded in a number of her endeavors towards making Louisiana a better place; however, like every other political leader, she did not always have…… [Read More]

References

Governor's Information: Louisiana Governor Kathleen Babineaux Blanco. (2004). National Governor's Association. Retrieved from http://www.nga.org/portal/site/nga/menuitem.29fab9fb4add37305ddcbeeb501010a0/?vgn extoid=55bc224971c81010VgnVCM1000001a01010aRCRD

Hornett, A., & Fredricks, S. (2005). An empirical and theoretical exploration of disconnections between leadership and ethics. Journal of Business Ethics, 59(3), Retrieved from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/25123556 

Roig-Franzia, M. & Hsu, S. (2005) Many evacuated, but thousands still waiting. The Washington Post. Retrieved from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2005/09/03/AR2005090301680.html

Resick, C.J., Hanges, P.J., Dickson, M.W., & Mitchelson, J.K. (2006). A cross-cultural examination of the endorsement of ethical leadership. Journal of Business Ethics, 63(4), Retrieved from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/25123717
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Business Law and Enforcing Contracts

Words: 1016 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87990401

Whichever party files the claim has the initial burden to establish that a valid contract existed (Halbert & Ingulli, 2009). In that regard, any credible evidence such as a tape recording of the original telephone call or of any subsequent calls referring to the existence of the agreement will suffice to establish the existence of a valid enforceable verbal contract for services to be provided by Eddie. Credible testimony in court from witnesses who actually heard the conversation or to whom either party admitted the existence of the agreement would also establish the existence of a valid and enforceable contract (Halbert & Ingulli, 2008).

If Eddie breaches, Grace would be seeking the remedy of the compensation for any benefit of the bargain lost, such as where she subsequently ends up paying more for the same services. If Grace breaches, Eddie would be seeking his lost profit from the sale of…… [Read More]

References

Friedman, L.M. (2005). A History of American Law. New York: Touchstone.

Halbert, T., and Ingulli, E. (2008). Law & Ethics in the Business Environment.

Cincinnati, OH: West Legal Studies.
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Joe Lee Simmons Statement of Facts the

Words: 2663 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 72723500

Joe Lee Simmons

Statement of Facts

he client in this matter has already faced charges in the trial court where he was convicted of possession of a controlled substance, and had his conviction affirmed by the Court of Appeals. At the present time, a decision must be made as to whether there is any basis for pursuing further appeal. If it is determined that a further appeal is justified, the next action that must be taken is to file a petition for discretionary appeal with the exas Supreme Court.

Simmons was stopped and subsequently arrested for littering on the Houston public streets. Pursuant to his arrest, a routine protective search was conducted by the arresting officer during which a small bottle was found in the defendant's shirt pocket. As a result of the search, the defendant was also arrested for possession of a controlled substance for which he eventually stood…… [Read More]

Tex. R. App. P. 33.1 (a)(1).

Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art. 2.13(b)(3) (Vernon 2005).

Tex. Code Crim. Proc. Ann. art 38.35 (d)(1) (Vernon Supp. 2008).
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Clients About Estate and Gift

Words: 3229 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 99469750

So your wife can renounce the business given to her and then pass it without gift tax to the children. Disclaimers must be made within 9 months of the death of the first decedent if they are to avoid gift tax. An appropriate disclaimer may also be a very effective tool to assist in a poorly written estate plan.

7. JOINTLY HELD PROPERTY:

The joint tenancy form of ownership could result in many unintended and unfavorable consequences. For example, the entire property is usually subject to attachment by a creditor of any one of the joint tenants. There are also significant estate, gift, and income tax problems that are created from joint tenancy. If not given attention and consideration as part of a comprehensive estate plan, holding property together as a couple, can create bad results in terms of overpaying taxes.

Explanation: Solely half of the value of property held…… [Read More]

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Employee Privacy Memos

Words: 879 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 49341315

Work Distraction

The purpose of this memorandum is to inform the new company wide change of policy in monitoring employees. This information is a company directive and is expected to be followed and adhered to starting on today's date.

Recent developments in technology have made our jobs and tasks easier in many aspects. The internet, mobile, communication and social media are great tools that should be taken advantage of when the situation depends. However, this way of conducting business and relying on technology has some drawbacks as well. It has been learned from the Executive Leadership Branch of this company that nearly 1.5 hours of the work day are at risk from employee distractions related to emails, online browsing and phone calls.

Management will now be responsible for monitoring all employee's emails and phone calls. This will be done not for acquiring personal information, rather to discover work-related violations and…… [Read More]

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Australian Consumer Law ACL Is a Broad-Based

Words: 2059 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87243624

Australian Consumer Law (ACL) is a broad-based law the impacts both businesses and consumers. The ACL represents a unified codification of a variety of prior product liability laws. In fact, one of its main benefits is that the law is applicable throughout Australia. Another major component of the law is that it imposes a strict liability standard on manufacturers and suppliers of goods, which was not a uniform standard prior to the introduction of this law. This is a relatively new law; the need for it was identified in 2009 after a Productivity Commission reviewed existing consumer protection laws and found glaring inconsistencies, which made it difficult, if not impossible, to enforce those laws that did exist.

Perhaps the greatest change to the law is that the ACL is now a strict liability law. Strict liability "means that a breach may be committed without negligence" (The FindLaw Team, 2012). In…… [Read More]

References

Australian Competition & Consumer Commission. (2012). Overview of the Trade Practices

Act: Consumer protection provisions. Retrieved April 13, 2012 from Commonwealth of Australia website: http://www.accc.gov.au/content/index.phtml/itemId/788555

Australian Consumer Law: Memorandum of Understanding. (2010). Retrieved April 13, 2012

from Australian Consumer Law website: http://www.consumerlaw.gov.au/content/the_acl/downloads/acl_mou.pdf
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Business Organization Coursework Mary and Joseph Stakeholders

Words: 2596 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 55895148

Business Organization Coursework:

Mary and Joseph, stakeholders in Kings plc, are concerned about the company's management practices by its current directors. One of these recent practices includes the desire by these directors of Kings plc, which owned a hotel, to acquire two additional hotels. As a result, these directors created a subsidiary company for the sole purpose of acquiring the two hotels. In this new development, Kings plc could only acquire few shares of the new subsidiary whereas the directors and the company solicitor purchased the majority of the new subsidiary's shares. Therefore, the new subsidiary was eventually sold and the directors made significant profits. However, the shareholders of Kings plc i.e. Mary and Joseph want to know whether the directors were legally entitled to carry out such practices. These shareholders are specifically concerned with the legality of the directors' actions and the relevant legal sanctions against the directors, which…… [Read More]

References:

Birds, J & Boyle, A.J 2011, Boyle and Birds on company law, 8th edn, Jordan's Publishing, St.

Thomas Street, Bristol.

Dignam, A 2011, Hicks and Goo's cases and materials on company law, 8th edn, Sweet & Marxwell, Avenue Road, London.

Hannigan, B 2012, Company law, 3rd edn, Oxford University Press, Great Clarendon Street,
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Damages Is Whether or Not There Is

Words: 1567 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33737903

damages is whether or not there is a contract that has been breached. Under Texas law, a plaintiff must be establish four elements in order to prevail on a breach of contract clam. The four elements are: 1) the existence of a valid contract; 2) performance or tendered performance by the plaintiff; 3) breach of the contract by the defendant; and 4) damages sustained by the plaintiff as a result of the breach (Valero Mkfg. & Supply Co. v. Kalama Int'l. LLC).

The best evidence available for the plaintiff in establishing a possible breach of contract action is the loan commitment letter issued on March 31, 2005. The letter in question sets forth all the terms and conditions but, unfortunately, it also included a new term of which the plaintiffs were not aware. Additionally, the bank's employee, Max Brandt, assured the plaintiffs that compliance with the new term was not…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Gaughan, Patrick A. Measuring Business Interruption Losses and Other Commercial Damages. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, 2009.

Valero Mkfg. & Supply Co. v. Kalama Int'l. LLC. No. 51 S.W.3d 345, 351. Texas Ct. Of Appeals. 2001.

essay question
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Awareness About Psychology Behind Domestic Violence Has

Words: 1072 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 3339499

Awareness about psychology behind domestic violence has been greatly enhanced in recent years, as have legal protections for victims. However, the courts' major decisions on domestic violence cases have been somewhat equivocal. For example, in the case of Castle ock v Gonzales, the abused woman filed a complaint against the police department, arguing that it violated her right to Due Process when "acting pursuant to official policy or custom" the police "failed to respond to her repeated reports over several hours that her estranged husband had taken their three children in violation of her restraining order against him. Ultimately, the husband murdered the children" (Castle ock v Gonzales, 2012, Cornell). In the case, the woman had a restraining order against her husband, prohibiting him from coming near her or her children. However, ultimately the court did not find favor with the defendant since a restraining order is not a property…… [Read More]

References

Castle Rock v Gonzales. (2012). Cornell University Law School. Retrieved:

http://www.law.cornell.edu/supct/html/04-278.ZS.html

Hiatt, Heidi. (2011). Landmark domestic violence legislation: Tracey Thurman vs. Torrington,

CT. Time's Up. Retrieved:  http://timesupblog.blogspot.com/2011/10/landmark-domestic-violence-legislation.html
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Strategic Alliances and Growth Alliances Should Be

Words: 2843 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28138218

Strategic Alliances and Growth

Alliances should be structured in one of four ways: as an equity alliance, as a non-equity alliance, as a global alliance, or as a joint venture (Cartwright & Schoenberg, 2006; igsbee, 2000). How the alliance is structured depends on several different things, because not all alliance structures would be appropriate for all types of companies or all types of negotiations. It is very important that the alliance is one that is agreed upon by both parties, however, and that neither party feels as though the type of alliance chosen was something he or she was pushed into in order to get things moving. A clear understanding of each type of alliance is important. For example, a global alliance is usually something that is undertaken between large, global companies. That type of alliance would not be appropriate for two small-time, sole proprietors who live and work in…… [Read More]

References

BellSouth Enterprises: The cellular billing project. (1996). Harvard Business School.

Cartwright, Susan; Schoenberg, Richard (2006). "Thirty Years of Mergers and Acquisitions Research: Recent Advances and Future Opportunities." British Journal of Management Volume 17, S1, S1 -- S5.

DePamphilis, Donald (2008). Mergers, Acquisitions, and Other Restructuring Activities. New York: Elsevier, Academic Press.

Mowery, David, C., Joanne E. Oxley, Brian S. Silverman (1996). Strategic Alliances and Interfirm Knowledge Transfer. Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 17, Special Issue: Knowledge and the Firm (Winter, 1996), pp. 77-91
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Harassment Case Sexual Harassment at Teddy's Supplies

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98319780

Harassment Case

Sexual Harassment at Teddy's Supplies: Case Analysis

Teddy's Supplies' CEO has asked you to advise him on the facts of the case and your opinion of their potential liability. Write a memo to him that states your view of whether the company is exposed to liability on all issues you feel are in play. Include in your memo any laws that apply and any precedent cases either for or against Teddy's case that impact liability. Include your opinion of the "worst case" of damages the company may have to pay to Virginia.

Memorandum

As an independent council for Teddy's Supplies, my immediate recommendations would be to agree to a financial settlement awarding damages to Pollard. It seems clear according to the decisions rendered by the NJ Human Rights commission that Pollard was the victim of gender discrimination and sexual harassment. Moreover, it is clear beyond a reasonable doubt…… [Read More]

2. The NJ Human Rights commission found that Pollard was the victim of sexual harassment and disparate treatment. Please answer these questions:

a. Provide the most current definition of "sexual harassment," including a definition of quid pro quo and hostile environment sexual harassment. Name an appellate court case in which an employer was found liable for either quid pro quo or hostile environment sexual harassment. Describe the facts of the case and the decision the court came to in the case. Include the citation to the case and a link to it online. Would the case apply to Pollard's case? Why or why not? Would you want to use this case in Teddy's favor or Pollard's favor?

The case in question brings to mind a far more prominent case which occurred in 2006. The case of Anucha Browne Sanders is a particularly compelling one as it strongly reinforces a precedent with respect to the responsibility to be taken by organizations within which sexual harassment is allowed to persist or even enabled by a complicit organizational leadership. This is said to have been the scenario in the case of Anucha Brown Sanders vs. Isiah Thomas, the New York Knicks and Madison Square Garden. Based on testimony from many individuals associated with or employed by the organization, including prominent basketball players, a jury established that Thomas was guilty of continuous and unwanted advances upon Browne Sanders and that at times his language toward her was abusive and laced with obscenities. The grand jury further established that the Knicks had largely facilitated a culture of sexual inequality, laxness with respect to harassment issues and a general objectification of
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Memo of Potential Liability of a Negligence

Words: 2078 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12522052

Liability of a Negligence

Judy Taylor

From: Smith & Associates LLP

Seeking Legal Advice whether the school has a Potential Liability for a Negligence

DEFINING THE ISSUE

Under N.Y.S.3d 307, does Montauk High School has potential liability for a negligence of supervision of the school student? The issue is to investigate whether Montauk High School can be accused of negligence of the student wounded by the other student.

Short Answer

No, the Montauk High School has no potential liability for Andrew Miller, a 9th Grader because school has already suspended the student out the school, and the incident happens outside the school's premises.

Statement of Facts

On September, 2015, the Montauk High School received a letter from Andrew Miller parents threatening the school a lawsuit. The school wants an advise in order to decide whether the school needs to offer a quick settlement to avoid a legal battle with the…… [Read More]

Reference

Law Office Memo. (2015). Smith & Associate LLP.

Arnold, C.W. (2015). Fundamental of Law Practice: Writing, Analysis, Research and Skills. Law Office Memo.
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Parental Custody Case

Words: 970 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 79753776

Parental Custody

Child Custody

Parental Custody Case

Memorandum for Mother

The issue at hand regards the legal custody of minor child Chastity Bright and whether her mother or father should be her legal custodian.

Short Answer

In the state of Arizona, custody is based on several factors. The wishes of the parents, wishes of the child, child interaction with parents, health of all participants, child's adjustment, parent primarily responsible for care, which parent will allow contact, any duress or coercion attempted, and whether false allegations were raised are to be considered subsequently.

Statement of the Facts

Based on the testimony of the mother, father and minor child, the facts of the case are these. Both the mother and the father want to have primary custody of the child, and the mother has had that custody prior to this trial. The mother has retained promise of a job in another state,…… [Read More]

References

Arizona State Legislature. (2009). Child custody and visitation. Retrieved from  http://www.azleg.gov/ArizonaRevisedStatutes.asp?Title=25 

Owen v Blackhawk. (2003). 1 CA-CV 02-0363.
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African-American Mothers and Their Daughters Ethical Issues

Words: 1810 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29572252

African-American MOTHES AND THEI DAUGHTES

Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern

The Executive Officer, ABC Company

Ethical Issues in Gumdrop Northern

It has come to my attention that the actions and functions of the Gumdrop Northern are not up to standards. The company besides afflicting the American citizens, particularly the military, has lacked a sense of corporate social responsibility to both their employees, customers and the natural environment. Notably, the business world faces the notion of corporate social responsibility in all aspects of business undertakings (Bitektine, 2011). In a wide assortment of issues, corporations get motivation of to behaving in a socially responsible manner. In the contemporary world, corporate businesses focuses on the interest of the society through taking responsibility for the effect of their actions on employees, shareholders, communities and customers in all facets of their operations (Bitektine, 2011).

Nevertheless, this is contrary to what Gumdrop Northern is doing to…… [Read More]

References

Bitektine, A, 2011, "Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: The case of legitimacy, reputation, and status," Academy of Management Review, 36: 151 -- 179.

Crouch, C. 2006," Modelling the firm in its market and organizational environment: Methodologies for studying corporate social responsibility. Organization Studies, 27:1533 -- 1551.

Pike, J. (2010). Mine resistant ambush protected (MRAP) vehicle program. Global Security. Retrieved from  http://www.globalsecurity.org 

Sleeer, J.(2012). Business ethics and stakeholder management: Developing a structured approach for small business owner-managers. New York: GRIN Verlag
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Becoming a Criminal Lawyer

Words: 1677 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26936431

Criminal Attorney

The road to becoming a criminal attorney begins after high school, because a four-year college degree is a prerequisite for admission to law school. Contrary to popular belief, it is not necessary to study political science or criminal justice in college in order to get into law school. Post graduate institutions value intellectual diversity, so applicants with engineering degrees or other specialized academic backgrounds sometimes have an advantage over more "typical" student profiles.

Since applicants' undergraduate performance is part of the admissions equation, college students should concentrate on an area that genuinely interests them, because they are more likely to achieve high GPA's that way, as well.(1)

During the third year of college, aspiring law students take the Law School

Achievement Test (LSAT), a standardized test designed to measure a student's aptitude and chances of successfully completing the Juris Doctor program. The LSAT is more ability-oriented than the…… [Read More]

5. New York Law School Academic Catalog (1983-84) New York: NYLS

6. New York Law School Academic Catalog (2003-04) New York: NYLS

7. Turow, S. One L (1979) New York: Warner Books
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Alternative Dispute Resolution ADR Many

Words: 4053 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 36419336

Furthermore, he has displayed extreme anger towards her and appears completely unwilling to compromise. He wishes to keep both the house and Eduardo to himself, as he seems to feel betrayed by Cherry, and wants as little as possible contact with her. Cherry in turn is worried about the effect of this upon her child.

The requirements for mediation have therefore only been fulfilled by Cherry, whereas Giovani appears to need some level of therapy for his unresolved emotions and conflicts. He therefore needs to reach Cherry's more advanced level of preparedness in order for a more traditional form of mediation to be effective for them. ecause one partner is already at a level where she is ready for mediation, it is suggested that a combination of therapy and mediation might be effective in this case towards reaching a more speedy and amicable resolution. In addition, Giovani's attitude indicates that…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Alexander, Nadja Marie. Global Trends in Mediation. Kluwer Law International, 2006.

Fisher, Thelma, Ventura, John and Reed, Mary. Divorce for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing, 2005.

Fishman Green, Rachel. Mediator Neutrality - How is it possible? Divorce Source, Inc. http://www.divorcesource.com/NY/ARTICLES/green3.html

Folber, Jay, Milne, Ann L. And Salem, Peter. (eds) Divorce and Family Mediation: Models, Techniques, and Applications. Guilford Press, 2004.
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Second Market and Shares Post

Words: 2963 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78312117

fictional firm (RMD) can be able to offer pre-IPO's to investors. This is accomplished by looking at the way various policies can be implemented that is in compliance with the Securities Act of 1933 along with the Securities and Exchange Act 1934. Once this occurs, is when we can be able to see how they can create a unique market that will address this demand from retail and institutional investors.

Over the last several decades, demand for pre-IPOs (initial public offerings) has been increasing exponentially. Part of the reason for this, is because there has been a shift in the focus of investors. As a large number are realizing that they can make significant returns by investing in these companies before they are going public. Evidence of this can be seen by looking at the below table which is highlighting how high investor demand for pre-IPO's had an impact on…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Chinese Wall, (2011), SEC, (available at    http://www.investopedia.com/terms/c/chinesewall.asp   ) (accessed 22 Dec. 2011)

Dutch Auctions, (2011), Investopedia (available at    http://www.investopedia.com/terms/d/dutchauction.asp#axzz1hH90hbx8   ) (accessed 22 Dec. 2011)

Front Running, (2011), Investopedia (available at      http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/frontrunning.asp#axzz1hH90hbx8     ) (accessed Dec. 2011)

The Laws that Govern the Securities Industry, (2011) SEC, (available at      http://www.sec.gov/about/laws.shtml#secact1933     ) (accessed 21 Dec. 2011)
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Statutory Interpretation and Statute Law

Words: 3185 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 78055146



The second case highlights how Commonwealth Chemicals Commission officers made a major mistake by not detaining Lucia for further questioning under the Act. This is troubling because she was in possession of the banned chemical, had large quantities of it, was storing it in her house and was importing the chemicals in from South America. These different elements highlight the fact that Lucia could be involved in some kind of terrorist related activity. Where, the raid and subsequent search of the property would provide more than enough information for officers to suspect that she was involved in such activity, based on probable cause. However, because officers did not detain Lucia under the different provisions of the Act, means that the terrorist organization could know that law enforcement is not far behind. At which point, they could change their tactics or plans, to avoid any kind of further disruptions from the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Acts Interpretation Act 1901 (Cth)

Acts Interpretation Act 1901 (Cth) s 33A 4.

Acts Interpretation Act 1901 (Cth) s 27 (c).

Acts Interpretation Act 1954 (Cth).
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Extension of Previous Order on Breach of Contract

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 57289014

Breach of Contract Legal Scenarios

Whether Colossus committed the cause of action known as breach of contract where it declined to pay Lucy for two episodes of John's acting services?

ule: The elements of the cause of action known as breach of contract are a.) Offer, b.) Acceptance, and c.) Consideration.

In this scenario a preexisting contract had been entered into by Colossus and John, and the specific terms of that contract obviously have ramifications on John's decision to amend the payment arrangement. Assuming that no caveats existed in the original contract which would preclude amendments of this nature, John's request to andall -- who was acting on behalf of Colossus for the purpose of these negotiations -- constitutes a valid offer. andall verbally agreed to John's request that two (2) payments of $200,000 each would be diverted to John's mother Lucy on December 20th, 2005, with a written memorandum…… [Read More]

Rule: The elements of the cause of action known as breach of contract are a.) Offer, b.) Acceptance, and c.) Consideration.

Application: In this scenario a preexisting contract had been entered into by Colossus and Laura, and the specific terms of that contract obviously have ramifications on Laura's decision to amend the payment arrangement. Assuming that no caveats existed in the original contract which would preclude amendments of this nature, Laura's request to Randall -- who was acting on behalf of Colossus for the purpose of these negotiations -- constitutes a valid offer. Randall verbally agreed to Laura's request that one (1) payment of $200,000 would be diverted to Laura's bank Dresdner Bank on October 15th, 2005, with a written memorandum signed by both parties providing a secondary form of acceptance. Consideration of the contract occurred when Laura performed acting services for one episode of the show "Pals" within the 2005-2006 season, at which time her duties to Colossus were completed.

Conclusion: Unless Randall and Colossus can prove that Laura failed in her duty to perform for the show, Dresdner Bank's suit against the company for breach of contract is very likely to succeed. A legitimate offer was made by Laura, Randall accepted the offer, both verbally and through his signing of a written memorandum, and Laura's performance
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Ethnic Conflict II How Does

Words: 736 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 83959174

Through policies of systematic discrimination and persecution of national minorities, Serb nationalists indirectly strengthened the radical wing of Albanian nationalist movements. The wing was represented by KSA (Kosovo Liberation Army). Most of the KSA leadership, Hedges writes, has formerly been imprisoned for separatist activities, and many were imprisoned by the Tito's communist government. The KSA's ideological base, Hedges writes, comes from a bizarre mixture of fascist and communist factions. Later in the 1990s, KSA began to receive financial and logistical support from Islamist radical groups in the Gulf States as well.

Hedges argues that KSA initially did not have the support of the majority. The radical group began to garner support after the policies pursued by Ibrahim Rugova have allegedly failed. The continuing mistreatment of Kosovo Albanians by the Serbian state and the inability of the international community to resolve the issue (for example, the European Union's recognition of Yugoslavia…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Hedges, Chris. "Kosovo's Next Masters?" Foreign Affairs 78.3 (1999): 24-42.

Mertus, Julie. "Slobodan Milosevic: Myth and Responsibility." OpenDemocracy (16 March 2006).
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Sisters Ruth and Stella Owned

Words: 1463 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 43664714

Smythe ordered a freezer at that price in that time period, but Lasco replied that it had changed the price to $450. Smythe claimed that Lasco could not change the price. Smythe was correct. Lasco's letter was an offer to Smythe, which specifically stated a period for acceptance. Smythe accepted the terms of the offer within that time period. Therefore, the contract was binding and Lasco had no right to change the terms of the offer.

6. Valley Trout Farms, a merchant, ordered fish food from Rangen, a merchant. Rangen sent an invoice indicating that it would charge a late fee for any unpaid bills. Although Valley did not pay, it also did not object to the late fee. Rangen sued for the unpaid bill and the late fees. Valley's position was that it had not agreed to be liable for late charges and therefore was not liable for the…… [Read More]

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UK Immigration and European Convention

Words: 8560 Length: 27 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 4227806

In the event that the analysis of records of telephone, e-mail and internet use was considered to amount to an interference with respect for private life or correspondence, the Government contended that the interference was justified. First, it pursued the legitimate aim of protecting the rights and freedoms of others by ensuring that the facilities provided by a publicly funded employer were not abused. Secondly, the interference had a basis in domestic law in that the College, as a statutory body, whose powers enable it to provide further and higher education and to do anything necessary and expedient for those purposes, had the power to take reasonable control of its facilities to ensure that it was able to carry out its statutory functions. It was reasonably foreseeable that the facilities provided by a statutory body out of public funds could not be used excessively for personal purposes and that the…… [Read More]

Bibliography

ECHR Case Law - Copland vs. United Kingdom European Court of Human Rights - Council of Europe Copland vs. United Kingdom 3 April 2007 Violation of Art. 8 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Legile Inernetului (2009) Online available at http://www.legi-internet.ro/english/jurisprudenta-it-romania/decizii-cedo/copland-vs.-united-kingdom-echr-case-law.html

Vermeulen, Mathias (2009) UN Special Rapporteur Releases Report on the Role of Intelligence Agencies in the Fight Against Terrorism. 27 Feb 2009. Online available at http://legalift.wordpress.com/2009/02/27/un-special-rapporteur-releases-report-on-the-role-of-intelligence-agencies-in-the-fight-against-terrorism/

Recent Case Law on Asylum and Immigration (2008) Migration Watch.

UK ASYLUM LAW and PROCESS in the human rights law [3.1.6] section of the guide: 3.1.6|1 the IMPACT of HUMAN RIGHTS LAW; and 3.1.6|2 USEFUL RESOURCES (ICAR) 2008. Online available at http://www.icar.org.uk/7013/31-law-and-process/316-human-rights-law.html
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Statute of Frauds Is a

Words: 4500 Length: 14 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90760137

However, the woman will have to get the promise in writing. Furthermore, the woman's remedy would not be to force the man to marry her, but to receive compensation for the monetary damages that she suffered as a result of the move.

hile the English Act for the Prevention of Frauds and Perjuries covered the type of agreement just described, it also covered other types of promises made in contemplation of marriage. Perhaps one of the most common of those scenarios was when a woman would allege that a man promised to marry her if they engaged in certain sexual activities. A man who made such a promise might later deny it.

The final type of contract involves those contracts that cannot be completed in less than a year. An example of that type of contract is a contract for a two-year gym membership. A typical contract would provide a…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Huey, Nathan A. "Email and Iowa's Statute of Frauds: Do E-Sign and UETA Really Matter?"

Iowa Law Review 88 (2003): 681-704.

National White Collar Crime Center and the Federal Bureau of Investigations. "IC3 2003

Internet Fraud Report." Internet Crime Complaint Center. 2004. Internet Crime
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Project Management This Report Stipulates

Words: 3294 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 7457334



Problems and risks related to contracted a new company relate both to cost, safety measures and legal liability. The primary consideration is cost, as this is the major problem related to the issue mentioned above. The first requirement for the new company would then have to be a cost that is as close as possible to the price to date charged by Walkers Ausgas before the increase. Being a transport company, safety is also of utmost importance. Hence, it has to be ensured that the new company will deliver a service either of similar or higher quality than Walkers Ausgas. Pricing and quality therefore have to be in optimal balance in order to minimize the risk of legal liability.

pecifically then, the risks include the following:

3.1 afety

afety is one of the most important issues at Kingsgrove. Ensuring that proper testing and certification measures are in place minimizes the…… [Read More]

Sources

Australian Institute of Petroleum. Petroleum Topic Fact Sheet. Retrieved June 18, 2006 at http://www.aip.com.au/industry/fact_alt_fuels.htm.

Beer, T., Grant, T., Brown, R., Edwards, J., Nelson, P., Watson, H., and Williams, S. (2000). Life-cycle Emissions Analysis of Alternative Fuels for Heavy Vehicles - Stage 1 CSIRO Atmospheric Research Report C/0411/1.1/F2 to the Australian Greenhouse Office, March 2000.

Hill, R. (2000). Converting $12.4 million into Improved Greenhouse Performance. Media Release. Leader of the Government in the Senate. Minister for the Environment and Heritage. August 21, 2000. Retrieved June 18, 2006 at http://www.deh.gov.au/minister/env/2000/mr21aug00.html.

Werner, C. (2006). National Clean Bus Update. Environmental and Energy Study Institute. Retrieved June 18, 2006 at http://www.eesi.org/publications/Newsletters/Clean%20Bus%20Update/March%202006.htm
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Extraordinary Rendition Refers to the

Words: 4875 Length: 13 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23995988

They point out that if a suspected terrorist gets on a plane and gets off at a place like Copenhagen or Toronto and demands asylum, even if he is not granted asylum, he's pretty much got a safe haven to operate in because he can' be deported or extradited back to where ever he came from. They believe that such lenient 'European' laws create a huge gap in security, which need to be tightened and that human rights conventions such as the Convention Against Torture make it almost impossible for states to gain a reasonable and necessary degree of assurance against devastating attacks in an age of asymmetrical warfare against international terrorists.

Former U.S. officials such as Michael Scheuer, who helped to set up the CIA's rendition program during the Clinton administration, are more forthcoming about commenting on the nature and existence of 'extraordinary' renditions. Scheuer has in different statements…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Begg, Moazzam. "Rendition: Tortured Truth." New Statesman 26 June 2006: 19.

Below the radar: Secret flights to torture and 'disappearance.'" Amnesty International Report. April 5, 2006. February 5, 2008 http://www.amnesty.org/en/alfresco_asset/5d82f002-a2d8-11dc-8d74-6f45f39984e5/amr510512006en.html

Charter, David. "Britain accused on secret CIA flights." Times Online. November 29, 2006. February 5, 2008. http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/world/article653418.ece

Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment." Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1987. February 5, 2008. http://www.unhchr.ch/html/menu3/b/h_cat39.htm
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Canadian Public Policy Education Learning Disability D

Words: 2563 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 23922217

Canada Public Policy: ADHD and Education

Canadian Public Policy, Education Learning disability A.D.H.D

Struggle by Human ights Groups and Parents

Public Policy Canada: An Overview

Policy Implications

It has been estimated that almost five percent of School aged children out of population of 2.1 Million in Ontario are suffering from Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Contrasting other disabilities like autism or learning disabilities the ADHD was not in the special education previously. The students with ADHD were not included in the special education policy and thus the students and parents were suffering as they could not get the necessary interventions at School suggested by the doctor. (Andrea Golden, 2012)

ecently Education Minister of Ontario has announced to accommodate the students with ADHD and thus relaxed the parents as previously parents were spending from their pockets on theirs children with ADHD. A memorandum has been posted on the Ministry of Education…… [Read More]

References

Andrea Golden. (2012) Students with ADHD have legal right to supports in school Accessed online at http://www.thestar.com/living/article/1112930 -- students-with-adhd-have-legal-right-to-supports-in-school?bn=1

Castellanos, X.F. And Tannock, R. (2002). Neuroscience of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: The search for endophenotypes. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 3, 617-628.

Charter of Rights and Freedoms. The Constitution Act, 1982, being Schedule B. To the Canada Act 1982 (U.K.), 1982, c. 11. Ottawa, ON. Government of Canada.

Dryer, R., Kiernan, M.J., and Tyson, G.A. (2006). Implicit theories of the characteristics and causes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder held by parents and professionals in the psychological, educational, medical and allied health fields. Australian Journal of Psychology, 58, 79-92
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Defense Witness Immunity the Supreme

Words: 6352 Length: 22 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41754631

Judge roderick concluded that the Compulsory Process Clause of the Sixth Amendment does not give a defendant the right to require immunization of a witness, but that such a right is "probably" contained in the Due Process Clause of the Fifth Amendment. Id. However, he declined to accord the defendants the benefit of this "probable" Fifth Amendment right to defense witness immunity for two reasons. First, he ruled that the defendants' motion was untimely, since it should properly have been made at the beginning of the trial. Second, he concluded that defense witness immunity would be available only to secure testimony that was material and exculpatory and that the defendants had not shown that any of the witnesses for whom they sought immunity would give material, exculpatory testimony."

The only federal appellate decisions that have ruled in favor of defense witness immunity are stated to appear to be the Third…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Cornell University Law School (2009) "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School. United States Constitution. LIT/Legal Information Institute. Online available at: Cornell University Law School. "Bill of Rights from Cornell University Law School

Charters of Freedom - The Declaration of Independence, The Constitution, The Bill of Rights

Sosnov, Leonard N. (nd) Separation of Powers Shell Game: The Federal Witness Immunity Act. Temple Law Review.

UNITED STATES of America, Appellee, v. Norman TURKISH, Defendant-Appellant. United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit May 27, 1980 623 F.2d 769. Online available at: http://www.altlaw.org/v1/cases/557484
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Auditor Standards Reforms

Words: 3206 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 11665169

Independence of Auditors

The objective of this study is to consider the statement as follows: "Unquestionably, the HIH story is also one of auditor failure" and to research into the background of the HIH collapse in Australia insofar as it relates to the role of auditors and their liability. A report will be prepared with summaries of the most important documents concerning this issue of auditor independence after the HIH collapse, the regulatory/legislative response and the review of the legislative response.

Ray Williams founded HIH in 1968. A ritish company, CE Health PLC acquired HIH in 1971. Prior to the collapse, HIH was the second largest Australian insurance company covering several segments of insurance. HIH had expanded globally into both the UK and U.S. markets. On the 15th day of March 2001 HIH entered into provisional liquidation with the liquidator estimating that HIH's total loss equaled approximately $A5.3 billion resulting…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Allen, Gregory (2006) The HIH Collapse: A Costly Catalyst for Reform. Hein Online. Citation 11 Deakin L. Rev. 137-2006.

Australian Auditor Independence Requirements: A Comparative Review (2006) The Treasury. Corporate Law Economic Reform Program (Audit Reform and Corporate Disclosure) Act 2004. No. 103.

Chapple, LJ and Koh, B. (2007) Regulatory Responses to Auditor Independence Dilemmas -- Who Takes the Stronger Line? Australian Journal of Corporate Law 21(1).

Corporate Disclosure: Strengthening the Financial Reporting Framework (2002) Commonwealth of Australia.
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Gays in the Military Revisiting

Words: 2585 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53077776

This option would, however, allow the opportunity to eliminate the issues that stem from the existing policy and incorporate all of our objectives into our new policy.

The third alternative would also require approval from Congress, but would represent a less radical change. Such changes to the law could include bulking up the protections for homosexuals against harassment (in light of the lack of enforcement on the Don't Harass side of the policy); raising the threshold for discharge; the implementation of due process into the discharge process; or changing the discharge status to protect pension and benefit rights in light of a good service record. This alternative may be easier to implement than an entirely new policy because it would leave the homosexual ban nominally intact. This compromise could potentially be more palatable to both Republicans and military leadership.

The fourth alternative would provide a means to gather more information…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Rodgers, Sam. (2006). Opinions of Military Personnel on Sexual Minorities in the Military. Zogby International. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at  http://www.palmcenter.org/files/active/1/ZogbyReport.pdf 

Lusero, Indra. (2008). Chief Congressional Architect of Military's Gay Ban Ends Opposition to Openly Gay Service. The Michael D. Palm Center. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at  http://www.palmcenter.org/press/dadt/releases/chief_congressional_architect_of_militarys_gay_ban_ends_opposition_to_openly_gay_service 

Shanker, Thom & Healy, Frank. (2007). A New Push to Roll Back Don't Ask Don't Tell. New York Times. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/30/us/30military.html?_r=3&adxnnl=1&oref=slogin&adxnnlx=1214709917-GiujWI/uyDJJ85DmeFbEBA

Thompson, Mark. (2008). Don't Ask, Don't Tell Turns 15. Time. Retrieved June 28, 2008 at http://www.time.com/time/nation/article/0,8599,1707545,00.html
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Rhetoric of Explanation a Trend in Technology and Society

Words: 3364 Length: 11 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44935918

Technology and Society

All print media including books, newspapers and magazines are in deep trouble today thanks to new developments in technology, as are traditional methods of classroom instruction and school curricula. To that extent the Internet can be described as a revolutionary invention that has altered and transformed the way information is presented and conceived. Individuals are learning and creating innovative ways to contribute to relevant knowledge at an excessive speed, and the estern world has become dependent on this technology and also more aware of its negative side. hether the technology in our surroundings is causing human beings to become distracted, affecting our communication skills, or making them stupider is a question that has to be addressed.

This memorandum will describe these issues of trivialization and the 'shallow-ing out' of contemporary American culture, most of which are either as deliberately exaggerated and sensationalized as the Internet itself or…… [Read More]

WORKS CITED

Corey, G. et al. Issues and Ethics in the Helping Professions, 8th Edition. Cengage Learning, 2011.

Milliken, J. Brands and Social Media Participation; United Breaks Guitars. Coreographytv, 2010.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YNpry5iSTBo&feature=related

Morozov, Evgeny. "Losing Our Minds to the Web." Prospect, June 22, 2010.
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Medellin Debate Moves to Congress

Words: 1026 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 41147994



The Court rejected Medellin's argument that the President's 2005 Memorandum was binding on state courts. The Court accused the President of attempting to unilaterally converting a non-self-executing treaty into a self-executing one." The government had also claimed that the Memorandum was an exercise of the President's authority to resolve international claims under his executive authority. The Court recognized that this was a long-standing practice, but prior uses of executive authority to settle international disputes had occurred in narrow circumstances, and did not involve the complete setting aside of state law, as the Medellin sought.

In the Medellin v. Texas oral argument, Justice Scalia says, "Usually when we have treaties that are not self-enforcing, the judgment of whether that international law obligation shall be made domestic law is a judgment for the Congress. Congress passes a law to enforce the treaty. " the United States must abide by its international commitments…… [Read More]

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Administrative Code Governing Career Service Employees

Words: 969 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26822094

Career Service Employees

According to the law, all employees are to be paid for their services, while overtime in all cases is also subject to some sort of compensation, either by means of payment or by means of compensatory leave. The circumstances under which each type of remuneration should occur vary among employee types. What this means is that all employees who offer overtime work should be compensated in some way. The Florida Administrative Code also provides for this type of compensation for various employee types (Martin, 2010). Compensatory leave can therefore be defined as "time off from work in compensation for irregular or occasional overtime work…" (CompesationBL, 2003).

According to the general rules for compensation, the directors' complaints are therefore valid. They are also valide in terms of the Florida Administrative Code (Stutler, 2006). According to Stutler (2006), Special Compensatory Leave can be awarded to Career Service employees in…… [Read More]

References

Compensation.BLR. (2011). Compensation Management. Retrieved from:  http://compensation.blr.com/whitepapers/Compensation/Employee-Overtime/Comp-Time-Future-Possibilities-Current-Realities-/ 

Martin, D.W. (2010, Dec.) Payroll and Personnel Administrative Processes At Selected State Agencies. State Of Florida Auditor General. Retrieved from:  http://www.myflorida.com/audgen/pages/pdf_files/2011-069.pdf 

Stutler, D.J. (2006, Jan 19.) Excess Work Hours/Overtime Procedure. Retrieved from: http://www2.dot.state.fl.us/proceduraldocuments/procedures/bin/250010005.pdf
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Schedule E

Words: 995 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 18645377

Tax esearch Memo

Facts: The situation involving John's deduction under Schedule E. is somewhat questionable. This is because he can show that he has a loss from the property. However, it is unclear what his deductions are or if there are any other properties where he was able to generate passive income. At the same time, he used a real estate management firm to rent the property to possible tenants. He paid them a commission of 35% on all income received. In the last year, they rented the cabin for a total of 9 nights and 12 days. John also spent time at the location accounting for 19 nights and 27 days. On his taxes, John took a $20,000.00 deduction under Schedule E. (Murphy, 2013)

The biggest issue is determining if John was entitled to this deduction. It is obvious that he did not actively manage the selection of the…… [Read More]

References

2013 Instructions for Schedule E. (2013). IRS.gov. Retrieved from:

http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-pdf/i1040se.pdf

Brotman, S. (2013). IRS Audit Red Flags. Sumbrotman.com. Retrieved from:

http://www.sambrotman.com/irs-audit-red-flags-part-five/
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Leadership in Administration Case Study

Words: 1969 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 71472258

While the superintendent may feel or even firmly believe that they have covered all of the bases on expenditures and other relevant issues in school budgeting, the failure to connect to other stakeholders throughout the district, who may or may not add to the data that the superintendent has prepared for presentation, is likely to result in some among those stakeholders feeling slighted or ignored and often lead to complicated budgeting which could have been avoided through simply opening the communication channels during this critical process of school administration.

SUMMARY & CONCLUSION

This work in writing has related the various aspects of the school budgeting process which are the responsibility of the school superintendent as well as relating the various concerns of school budgeting and the importance of staying connected to the stakeholders in the community of the school district throughout the entire process of school budgeting. This work has…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Davis, Stephen, Darling-Hammond, Linda, LaPointe, Michelle, and Meyerson, Debra (2005) School Leadership Study: Developing Successful Principals. Stanford Educational Leadership Institute. (SELI). 2005. Online available at: http://www.srnleads.org/data/pdfs/sls/sls_rr.pdf

Joynt, T. (2002, December). School budgeting: Cost cutting through onion layers. The School Administrator. Accessed May 16, 2005 at www.aasa.org/publications/sa/2002/focJoynt.htm

Howley, C. (2003, October). Sustaining small rural high schools. The School Administrator, 9(60), 16-1.

Almack, John Conrad (1970) Modern School Administration, Its Problems and Progress. Ayer Publishing, 1970.
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Federal Rules of Evidence the

Words: 2542 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 62577670



Rule: Any out-of-court statement offered to prove the truth of the matter asserted is generally inadmissible as hearsay. (801-802) However, hearsay may be admitted, in a prosecution for homicide or in a civil case, if the declarant, while believing the declarant's death to be imminent, made the statement about its cause or circumstances. (804(b)(2).

Application: Here, the defense attorney's objection is premised on the fact that the deceased Sam's statements are I inadmissible as hearsay, as an out-of-court statement by a person unavailable for trial, offered to prove that the other driver was driving on the wrong side of the road. However, Trooper Jones may offer this statement because it falls under the (804(b)(2) hearsay exception, as a statement in a civil case that the declarant made while his death was imminent.

Conclusion: The basis for the defense attorney's objection is hearsay because the deceased Sam's statement is an out-of-court…… [Read More]

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Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuelan Conflict Whenever

Words: 1141 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39422232

Trinidad and Tobago and Venezuelan Conflict

Whenever countries share resources there is the potential for conflict to arise between the two nations, which may each feel entitled to a greater share than it is receiving and each of which has different legal systems, cultural value, and sometimes languages. The ability of two countries to negotiate with each other is limited by a number of pragmatic issues as well as by the desire (or lack of desire) of the two sides to find any common ground. This paper examines one such international conflict - the stance between the nations of Venezuela and Trinidad and Tobago over fishing rights.

It is important to note at the beginning of this discussion that the mining of natural resources (whether gold or fish) that a dependence on extractive, primary resources tends to keep nations poorer, thus making them more desperate to claim what they can…… [Read More]

References

http://www.cgxresources.com/press/other/020114_trinidad_guardian.htm

http://www.freedomhouse.org/research/freeworld/2000/countryratings/trinidad.htm

http://www.uscubacommission.org/

Kegley, C. & Wittkopft, E. (2000). World politics: Trend and transformation. London: Bedford.
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Protocols of Litigating a Civil

Words: 7018 Length: 26 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89443652

This is usually a low standard to achieve. As long as a person acts in a way which avails the person of the protection of the laws of that state, that person has subjected themselves to the jurisdiction of that state (International Shoe).

Next, the complaint will allege subject matter jurisdiction, i.e., that the lawsuit fulfill the requirements for this court to hear it? Pertinent requirements can include how much money haws plaintiff sued for or whether the case poses a question about a federal statute or the U.S. constitution. In many cases involving litigants from different states, the Plaintiff will allege that he is suing the Defendant for an amount greater than $75,000.00, which is the minimum monetary amount for federal subject matter jurisdiction (Title 28 U.S.C. § 1332(a)) and that the Plaintiff does not reside in the state in the same state as any defendant (Am Jur Pleading…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Alternative dispute resolution. U.S. Office of Special Counsel (2010, January 18).

Retrieved from http://www.osc.gov/adr.htm

Altonaga, Honorable Cecilia Marie. (2002, May 04). Federal court judge's practice guide. Retrieved from http://www.flabar.org/divpgm/pu/fcpcsurvey.nsf

American Jurisprudence 2d (1997). St. Paul, MN: Thompson Reuters.
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Contracts Law

Words: 2081 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 63457211

Contracts Law: Disney World Jurassic Park Amusement ide

The first question at issue in this study has to do with the termination of an employee for poor sales performance who entered into a non-compete agreement with the company, specifically that of Disney. The employee, Simpson agreed that he would not directly or indirectly compete with Disney as an agent, employer, broker, or contractor for one year from the date of termination. Simpson has argued that he has a wife and three children and that the non-compete agreement should not apply as he has a right to earn a living and this includes anywhere in the United States. Three questions are posed: (1) Is the restriction likely to be found reasonable by a court of law? (2) Does the agreement restrain trade? (3) What change if any would you make to the restrictive wording above for the future?

In answer to…… [Read More]

References

An Introduction To Corporate Regulation and Standardization (2013) Legal Practitioner. Retrieved from: http://legal.practitioner.com/regulation/standards_9_3_1.htm

Corbin, A. (1919) Conditions in the Law of Contract. Yale Law School. 1 Jan 1919. Retrieved from: http://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3855&context=fss_papers

Entire Agreement (2013) Contract Standards. Retrieved from: http://www.contractstandards.com/contract-structure/general-provisions/entire-agreement

Glazov, J. (2009) Liquidated Damages In Construction Contracts Part 1 -- What Are Liquidated Damages And Why Have Them. Construction Law Today. Retrieved from:  http://www.constructionlawtoday.com/2009/04/liquidated-damages-in-construction-contracts-part-1-what-are-liquidated-damages-and-why-have-them/
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Constructive Charge Case a Case of Religious

Words: 1568 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47859861

Constructive Charge Case

A CASE OF RELIGIOUS DISCRIMINATION?

Constructive Discharge

Mr. Charles Wright, Chief Executive Officer (date)

From: Mr. Terence North, Manager, Elementary Toy Division

Re: Employee Constructive Discharge Claim

Our legal counsel, Atty. Edison Hawks, today informed the undersigned in writing that a former employee, Mr. Alfred Peterson, had filed a claim of constructive discharge against the company. Mr. Peterson resigned last week from his post at our Production Department when our new policy on shift work became effective. He based his complaint on the provisions of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibit workplace discrimination against religion. Mr. Peterson alleges that the enforcement of the new policy on shift work is discriminatory in that it requires employees to work on Sundays, which his religion observes as a holy day. Prior to this new policy, production employees worked from Mondays to Fridays only. Attached is…… [Read More]

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Business Laws (2013). The civil rights act of 1964. Business Laws.com. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from  http://business.laws.com/sexual-harassment/civil-rights-act-of-1964 

EEOC (2014). Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Equal Employment Opportunity

Commission: U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/titlevi.cfm

-. Religious discrimination. Retrieved on February 18, 2014 from  http://www.eeoc.gov/laws/types/religion.cfm
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Habeaus Corpus

Words: 3016 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77136291

" Despite the stated expansion, habeas protection continued to be applied only to cases in which the defendant alleged that the sentencing court lacked personal or subject matter jurisdiction. The Court extended the reach of federal habeas review during the later part of the nineteenth century, however, by changing the circumstances under which the lack of state court jurisdiction could be found. Even after this shift, federal habeas courts sat not as fact finders but as guarantors of fundamental constitutional rights. (Breuer, 1994)

In 1915, the Court dramatically increased the scope of habeas corpus in Frank v. Mangum, in which the Court held that habeas relief is available whenever the state, "supplying no corrective process,... deprives the accused of his life or liberty without due process of law." The Warren Court continued this shift toward increased availability of habeas corpus in the next phase of habeas litigation after World War…… [Read More]

References

Breuer, J.R. (1994). Habeas Corpus - Limited Review for Actual Innocence. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 84(4), 943-974.

Hafetz, J.L. (1998). The Untold Story of Non-criminal Habeas Corpus and the 1996 Immigration Acts. Yale Law Journal, 107(8), 2509-2544.

Hammel, A. (2002). Diabolical Federalism: A Functional Critique and Proposed Reconstruction of Death Penalty Federal Habeas. American Criminal Law Review, 39(1), 1+.

Hoffstadt, B.M. (2000). How Congress Might Redesign a Leaner, Cleaner Writ of Habeas Corpus. Duke Law Journal, 49(4), 947.
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Changes in Supreme Court Philosophies

Words: 2132 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 46065403

Supreme Court Chief Justices Warren and ehnquist

Compare and contrast approaches to criminal procedures by U.S. Supreme Courts:

The Warren vs. The ehnquist Court

A common philosophical debate within the legal community is when the approach advocated by so-called 'conservative' justices (often called strict constructionism) is pitted against more 'liberal' and freer interpretations of constitutional words and history. Throughout much of the 20th century, it was often said that the more liberal interpreters of the Constitution were 'winning the war' in regards to this issue, thanks to the presiding intelligence of Chief Justice Earl Warren. "Following his appointment in 1953 Chief Justice Earl Warren led the Court into a series of decisions that drastically affected sexual freedom, the rights of criminals, the practice of religion, civil rights, and the structure of political representation. The decisions of the Warren Court reflected its deep concern for the individual, no matter how lowly"…… [Read More]

References

Byellin, J. (2013). John G. Roberts: Conservative yet apolitical consensus building chief justice.

Legal Solutions. Retrieved from:

 http://blog.legalsolutions.thomsonreuters.com/top-legal-news/john-g-roberts-conservative-yet-apolitical-consensus-building-chief-justice/ 

Liptak, A. (2012). Supreme Court upholds healthcare law 5-4, in a victory for Obama.
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Business Report University Guidelines for

Words: 4084 Length: 16 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 30958344

Student accounts will be located behind a proxy server that is part of the university network. It is expected that the websites will be reasonably safe, but there is never a 100% guarantee. Therefore, it is highly suggested that students refrain from posting information that could endanger them and make them a target for phishers and theft.

Personal safety and security is the responsibility of the individual. Students must keep their passwords safe. Do not tell anyone your password. Although, you may think that you can trust someone, you never know. Students should also refrain from posting information such as their social security number, bank account, or credit cared information. They should not publish their personal address or phone number. It is believed that with a few common sense rules, the student's experience can be a safe and meaningful one. However, one must never become complacent because computer crime happens…… [Read More]

Works Cited

FreeFoto.com. Image source. 6 Nov. 2009. < http://www.freefoto.com/browse/99-05-0?ffid=99-

05-0>.

Galiford, Miles. "The Worst Website Design Mistakes of 2008." Image. Subhub.com. 6 Nov.

2009. .
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Employee Privacy Torts

Words: 7119 Length: 25 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 96826900

Employee Privacy Torts

Issues relating to employee privacy have been at the forefront of businesses for many years. This has been fuelled by the dynamic workplace which changes constantly and also by employees and employers being more litigation-conscious. Technology has also spurred on employee privacy issues with e-mail and the internet being related to heightened concerns about vulnerability of employers to litigation. Many employers have thus exacerbated their concerns relating to employee privacy and especially monitoring of employee behavior. Employee privacy is respected in many of the large corporations. However, there still exist some breaches in employee privacy. Small business owners are at most risk as a result of their increased monitoring practices and close employer-employee interaction.

Historical background

oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company

One of the major cases that brought employee privacy to the limelight was oberson v. ochester Folding Box Company

Franklin Mills Co. decided to appeal…… [Read More]

References

Anderson v. City of Philadelphia, 845 F. 2d 1216 (1988).

Borse v. Piece Goods Shop, 963 F.2d 611 (1991).

Burlington Industries, Inc. v. Ellerth, 524 U.S. 742 (1988).

City of Ontario v. Quon, 130 S.Ct. 2619, 560 U.S. (2010).
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Company Have to Arbitrate Instead

Words: 1748 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98802974



eferences

Al Maktoum, Mohammed Bin ashid. December, 2009., Decree 57 for 2009.

Establishing a tribunal to decide the disputes related to the Settlement of the Financial Position of Dubai World and its subsidiaries.' Viewed 18 August 2010

http://blogs.thenational.ae/economy_blog/Decree%20No.57%20for%202009.pdf

Banks, Harry. 23rd July 2010. 'Dubai World ready to use tribunal for deal on debts.'

City A.M. Viewed 11 August 2010.

http://www.cityam.com/news-and-analysis/dubai-world-ready-use-tribunal-deal-debts

Bucher, Eugen. Law of contracts. I. General remarks on the Swiss law of obligations.

Viewed 11 August 2010 www.eugenbucher.ch/pdf_files/86.pdf

'Clause and Effect: Parties agreeing to standard arbitration clauses may unwittingly alter their rights.' October 2006, Viewed 11 August 2010

http://www.rkmc.com/Clause-and-Effect-Parties-agreeing-to-standard-arbitration-clauses-may-unwittingly-alter-their-rights.htm

Fuchs, Martina & achna Upal. 18 August 2010. 'Analysis-UAE state-linked bonds brush up investor appeal.' Viewed 11 August 2010 http://www.forexpros.com/news/interest-rates-news/analysis-uae-state-linked-bonds-brush-up-investor-appeal-154811

Kane, Frank & Hamischfeger, Anita. 21 May 2010.

'Dubai world ready to use arbiter on debt deal.' The National. Viewed 11 August 2010

http://www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100521/Business/705219878/1005/rss

Parisie, Nicolae & Shaheen Pasha. 22…… [Read More]

References

Al Maktoum, Mohammed Bin Rashid. December, 2009., Decree 57 for 2009.

Establishing a tribunal to decide the disputes related to the Settlement of the Financial Position of Dubai World and its subsidiaries.' Viewed 18 August 2010

http://blogs.thenational.ae/economy_blog/Decree%20No.57%20for%202009.pdf

Banks, Harry. 23rd July 2010. 'Dubai World ready to use tribunal for deal on debts.'
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Comparison of Copiers Scanners and Printers for Law Offices

Words: 2459 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90558891

Further, although whenever one device tries to accomplish more than one "thing," one of those "things" typically suffers; however, innovations in recent years have made these all-in-one approaches competitive with stand-alone units and occupy a concomitantly smaller footprint in a crowded law office but these devices will still likely underperform their separate unit counterparts. As one authority emphasizes, "All-in-one devices are typically smaller desktop units that have relatively low speed and volume capacity" (Need All in One Copiers?, 2008, p. 3).

Some popular major brand all-in-one machines are described further in Table 4 below.

Table 4.

Popular all-in-one copier/printer/scanner (fax) machines.

Copier/Printer/Scanner (Fax)

Description/Features/Performance

Price/Comments

Sharp A-208D Copier / Printer/Scanner

Desktop model with 20-page-per-minute copying / printing and integrated color PC scanning; 50-sheet document feeder provides standard 2-sided scanning for extra efficiency, as well as duplex printing and copying. Converts black & white and color documents into digital files that…… [Read More]

References

Copystar CS-2550 copier/printer/scanner. (2008). Neximaging.com. [Online]. Available:

http://www.neximaging.com/product.asp?id=20313&ADTR=4.

Dell Computer. (2008). [Online]. Available: http://accessories.us.dell.com/sna/category.aspx?c=us&category_id=4014&cs=04&l=en&navla=57351~0~897689&nf=57351~0~897689 & s=bsd&~ck=anav.

Direct Source Copiers. (2008). [Online]. Available:  http://www.digitalsystemcopiers.com/ .
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International Human Resources Management Second

Words: 4436 Length: 12 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21981550

At the same time, one does not know whether they offer the workers any benefit or perk as is provided by Korean employers.

This matter has to be sorted out by the Korean partner as the workers are more likely to trust him than Australians. He may also find it possible to offer the workers the same perks that are offered to his employees in other concerns. The hours of working and such details may also be fixed up early so that future conflicts of this are avoided in the future. The difficulties in culture will be very high for any Australian to come and work here, so the responsibility of recruiting the workers may be left to the South Korean partner. The only aspect that one can check is that he does not end up employing only his relatives and friends. This had cost many banks a lot of…… [Read More]

References

Deep Inside China, Expats Struggle to Cope. Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.careerjournaleurope.com/myc/workabroad/20050803-areddy.html

Gilley, Bruce. Asia's Top Employers Value Happy Workers. Far Eastern Economic Review. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.careerjournaleurope.com/specialreports/bestasia/20010910-gilley.html

Kerman, Faiz. 2004. South Korea set to surprise? Chiltern International. 1 October. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://www.inpharm.com/External/InpH/1,2580,1-3-0-0-inp_intelligence_art-0-248799,00.html

Knowledgeable employees -- the key to a new labor relations structure. Retrieved August 17, 2005, from the World Wide Web: http://152.99.129.68:8787/board/issue_view.jsp?idx=104&code=C&bcategory=&pageNum=0&searchWord=&searchType=null
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Law Enforcement and the Social Media

Words: 1446 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 44555333

data collection includes survey form, structured interviews using closed ended questions, and gathering information regarding a sample size appropriate to analyze and draw conclusion on the basis of the research results. The statistical techniques are used for data analysis to analyze collected data in quantitative research methods. The qualitative data is gathered through case study method and open ended question of an unstructured interview from notable sample. The qualitative methods of research are also equally popular in understating the ignored aspects of a topic. The research question discussed below is addressed on the basis of qualitative and quantitates research methodology.

Question 1:

What is the role of social media in affecting law enforcement?

The usage of internet has increased over the past years. Internet technology has encouraged a revolutionary change. Starting form the desktop computers, laptops, handheld computers, to a variety of internet enabled cell phones has created a huge…… [Read More]

References:

Clarke, B. (2012). Deconstructing the rioters: a case study of individuals convicted and sentenced in Greater Manchester. Safer communities, 11(1), 33-39.

Denef, S., Bayerl, P.S., & Kaptein, N. (2013). Social Media and the Police -- Tweeting Practices of British Police Forces during the August 2011 Riots.

Frank, R., Cheng, C., & Pun, V. (2011). Social Media Sites-New Fora for Criminal, Communication, and Investigation Opportunities. Public Safety Canada.

Fresenko, V.L. (2010). Social media integration into state-operated fusion centers and local law enforcement potential uses and challenges (Doctoral dissertation, Monterey, California Naval Postgraduate School).
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Management Behavior the Management Re

Words: 909 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 89945198

Now that InterClean has created a new product outlook, part of its restructuring should involve a creating a reformed performance review system that truly rewards top employees.

Describe the types of management action that align with employment laws and those that do not.

The InterClean Corporation is attempting to reformulate its product package and sales approach in light of its upcoming merger, which will require a new organizational structure and likely a different type of employee profile. As its employees are hired 'at will' the company is free to let go any employees it chooses, within the parameters of staff contracts. However, keeping a watch over employees by surreptitiously observing their conversations is unacceptable. Hiring and firing must be based upon merit, as demonstrated in documented performance reviews and seniority. Also, firings should not seem biased against entire demographic groups of workers such as the non-white or female, or be…… [Read More]

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Manager's Behavior Memo Management Behavior Imagine a

Words: 892 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 15718537

MANAGE'S BEHAVIO MEMO

Management Behavior Imagine a midlevel sales manager InterClean, Inc. -level managersunder responsibility. In response a merger place EnviroTech, instructed

HM/531

InterClean Sales Managers

Overview of Manager's Behavior

With the upcoming merger after InterClean, Inc. acquired EnviroTech, the managers' role will be to ensure a smooth merger and their role during this merger is very important for its success. To ensure that the company meets its post-acquisition goals, the managers' abilities to manage the upcoming changes skillfully is required. Most managers are not aware of how their behavior affects the employees. The success of this merger and employee productivity is critical, and managers should know its success lies in the relationship between employee performance and leadership behavior Norgard & Skodvin, 2002.

Modeling the way is one of the methods to ensure employee productivity according to a study in employee effectiveness and leadership behavior. Therefore, to have productive employees,…… [Read More]

References

Larsson, R., & Finkelstein, S. (1999). Integrating Strategic, Organizational, and Human Resource Perspectives on Mergers and Acquisitions: A Case Survey of Synergy Realization. Organization Science, 10(1), 1-26.

Norgard, J.D., & Skodvin, O.-J. (2002). The Importance of Geography and Culture in Mergers: A Norwegian Institutional Case Study. Higher Education, 44(1), 73-90.
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Griggs v Duke Power Was a Landmark

Words: 542 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81309743

Griggs v. Duke Power was a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision which stated that employers could not institute requirements that created de facto discrimination in the workplace that were not necessary for employment. The case involved the Duke Power hydroelectric plant in North Carolina. Before the Civil Rights Act, the company practiced open discrimination against African-Americans, only hiring them as part of its Labor department and in 1955 created a requirement that all employees have a high school diploma for initial hiring except in the Labor department. After 1965 (when Title IIV of the Act became effective), Duke created a requirement that all transfers to other departments have a high school diploma, presumably to prevent African-Americans at the company from moving from Labor to more desirable, highly-paid positions in areas such as Maintenance, Operations, and Laboratory. Duke later modified its policy by allowing employees to transfer to other departments, only…… [Read More]

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Budgeting the Current Economic Crisis

Words: 2526 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 95101666

However, when you look at the overall graduation rates of the district in comparison with the state average, one could effectively argue that these programs were failures by not keeping the district in line with the state number.

There are number of different programs that are restricted from being adjusted these would include funds that would fall under the categories of: other special education funds, internally restricted funds and externally restricted funds. Some examples of the different educational programs that are subject to such restrictions would include: the Parent Teacher Coordinator, special education support staff and the Safe School Initiative just to name a few. The reason why some programs are under such restrictions is the funds could be ear marked for a particular program or may be necessary to be in compliance with the law (such as a cutting of funds to special education could result in the district…… [Read More]

Bibliography

Fiscal Year 2010 Budget. (2010). Retrieved April 21, 2010 from NYC Department of Education website:

 https://www.nycenet.edu/offices/d_chanc_oper/budget/dbor/galaxy/galaxybudgetsummaryto/display2.asp ?

DDBSSS_INPUT=K261&PROG_YEAR=2010&POP_SCH=K256

FY 10 School Budget Overview. (2010). Retrieved April 21, 2010 from NYC Department of Education website:
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Brazilian Informatics and the U S

Words: 1813 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 53160208

This step should be present in any scenario.

Brazil accepting to reduce trade restrictions is not an option in any scenario. The country's informatics industry could lose from allowing unrestricted access to U.S. informatics companies on the domestic market as many nationally-owned companies would not survive the competition. The gain, however, would be to allow more know-how in the country and help the informatics sector develop further on the quality, rather than quantity direction. In this case, the country should negotiate a gradual market opening that would give enough time to some weak national companies to become competitive against U.S. companies and thus maintain a substantial national ownership percentage in the industry.

Risks associated with the strategies

Greenhouse strategies can be major success of major failures, especially in high-tech industries, which can rarely develop in isolation. It is true that Brazil, the pioneer of such strategy in informatics sector managed…… [Read More]

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Ohio Case Brief Mapp v

Words: 1817 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 39118054



K. Comment: I agree with the majority opinion. The Constitution is the absolute guiding law of the land, and the Fourteenth Amendment guarantees that its protections will be extended to state actions. The Fourth Amendment guarantees a right to privacy and assures citizens that they will be free from unreasonable searches and seizures. The Fourth Amendment also imposes a warrant requirement for the majority of searches, so that most searches that occur without a warrant violate the Fourth Amendment. The search in this case certainly violated the Fourth Amendment, but whether or not the constitutional violations were as egregious as in this case should not be the determinant of whether evidence is excluded, because the Constitution absolutely bans all unreasonable searches and seizures. hile the dissent suggests that other remedies can help a defendant who has been subjected to an unreasonable search and seizure, the fact is that none of…… [Read More]

Works Cited

Mapp v. Ohio, 367 U.S. 643 (1961). http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=case&court=us&vol=367&page=643
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Business Case Studies - Proposal

Words: 590 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2129709

As we may hope to avoid future suits concerning gender and racial-related hiring practices and policies, I believe it would be a good idea to institute a program of training future managers. This would also solve some of the cultural diversity problems which have been noted in this division. Many other corporations have such a policy concerning educational advancement and I feel it would be to our advantage to institute such a policy company-wide.

Thank you for hearing me out on this crucial problem which I feel needs attention.

LETTER to ALL EMPLOYEEES in HOSPITAL SUPPLY DIVISION

As a new officer in your administration, I would like to commend you on the hard work and dedication to Oak Brook Medical Systems which I have observed in each one of you.

With this letter I am proposing an offer to any employee of Oak Brook Medical Systems - Hospital Supply Division…… [Read More]