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It costs significant money for governments to catch buyers and dealers of drugs in the black market, arrest them, file cases against them, and then keep them in jail. Hence, the war on drugs is a long, risky, expensive undertaking. (Boylstein, 2003) This spending is considerably high when talking about the drug marijuana, as it is one amongst largely consumed drugs as it does not cause much harm to health like tobacco or nicotine. Hence, the government was at a loss due to spending a lot of revenues on war on drugs and by not collecting taxes for the illegal drugs. According to the research, a lot of tax revenue can be collected by the governments by legalizing marijuana.
In old times, Americans considered marijuana, as an impecunious type of tobacco. Actually, its name marijuana was suggested by Mexicans, they considered marijuana as the lowest variety of cigarette.…
Anderson, D, M., Hansen, B., and Rees, D, I., (2012) Medical Marijuana Laws and Teen Marijuana Use, Pg 24- 43.
Boylstein, C, A., (2003) Marijuana in America, Red Feather Journal of Graduate Sociology. The Red Feather Institute, 8085 Essex, Weidman, Michigan, 1-5.
Bradford, H., (2012), 14 ways Marijuana could boost the economy, Huff Post Business, 1.
Register, Charles A. And Williams, Donald R. (1992) Labor Market Effects of Marijuana and Cocaine Use Among Young Men, Industrial and Labor Relations Review, pp. 435-448.
Marijuana users are accustomed to consuming the substance even with the fact that they risk greatly from the act. "Few people claim that they would change the amount they used if marijuana were legalized (Johnston, Bachman, & O'Malley, 1981). A poll of 1,400 adults found that over 80% claimed that they would not try the drug even if it were legal (Dennis, 1990)" (Earleywine 232). Numerous people who have not yet used marijuana are nonetheless aware of the fact that it is very easy to procure the substance and are likely to do so if they want to with or without waiting for support from the government. "Every year since 1975, over 80% of high school seniors have reported that marijuana is fairly easy or very easy to purchase (Johnston, Bachman, & O'Malley, 1996). Most teens find beer more difficult to buy than cannabis (Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse…
Earleywine, Mitch. Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002)
Goode, Erich. The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970)
Goode, Erich ed., Marijuana (Chicago: Atherton, 1969)
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004)
Legalizing Marijuana in Florida
The dividing lines have been drawn once again in the state of Florida with a controversial issue being put forth in the limelight. There is an initiative in the State Legislature to introduce a bill that will decriminalized and legalized the prescription and use of marijuana for medicinal purposes. Led by Florida Rep. Jeff Clemens, D-Lake Worth, who "is introducing a bill that would put legalizing marijuana for medical purposes up for a statewide vote. Rep. Clemens not only considers himself a full 'decriminalization advocate' but would one day like to see marijuana legalized for all Floridians, but that is not his intention with this first effort. (rochu 2011)" As expected, there are pros and cons to the endeavors with those against having the upper hand at the moment. The reason being is that marijuana is still a banned and illegal substance considered as a Schedule…
Brochu, Nicole. Florida Lawmaker's Tilting at Windmills with Medical Marijuana Bill. The Palm Beach Post. 09 Mar. 2011. 14 Jun. 2011. .
Jones, Brian. Legalizing Marijuana Makes Fiscal Sense. PanamaCity.com. 10 Apr. 2011. 14 Jun. 2011. .
People United for Medical Marijuana -- Florida (PUFMM). Take Action / The Plan. 2010. 14 Jun. 2011. .
ProCon.org. Medical Marijuana. 2011. 14 Jun. 2011. .
In this era of spiraling medical costs, if there is a product that has never caused any deaths, has proven benefits, and is inexpensive, it should not only be legal, but should be aggressively pursued by governmental agencies to aid in the health care crisis. Would you be interested in a substance that could alleviate nausea and vomiting for most cancer and chemotherapy patients? How about a way to stimulate hunger so that AIDS and other immune-suppressed individuals can eat again? How about this same substance that could lower pressure on the eye and treat glaucoma? How about chronic migraines, back pain, or even nausea and vomiting cased with hepatitis? And, would you be excited if you knew that preliminary studies show that this same substance, widely available, prevents the formation of plaque deposits in the brain of Alzheimer's victims? What if you also knew this…
Miron (qtd in Lazarus 2006) calculated that the legalization of marijuana could yield around $2.4 billion annually, if the substance is taxed at the level of most goods. The revenues could rise to $6.2 billion annually, if marijuana is taxed on the same level as cigarettes and alcohol. Because of the potential economic windfall that could come as a result of repealing this "bad public policy," more than 500 economists have signed an open letter to President Bush, urging him to repeal the repressive marijuana possession laws and to decriminalize its possession (Lazarus 2006).
Placing the distribution of marijuana in the hands of the government has further benefits. Currently, marijuana is the top crop earner in the United States (Bailey 2006). The market value of the marijuana cultivated and produced in the United States totals over $35 billion. This figure far exceeds cash crop staples like soybeans, hay, and corn…
Bailey, Eric. 2006. "Report stresses marijuana's value as top U.S. cash crop." The Los Angeles Times. December 22: A26.
Federal Bureau of Investigation. 2005. Crime in the United States. Washington: Department of Justice.
Fitzgerald, Robin. 2007. "Homicides on the rise: Gulfport saw most dramatic increase." Knight Ridder Tribune Business News January 1: 1.
Lazarus, David. 2005. "The case for legal pot use." San Francisco Chronicle. November 26: J1.
On the other hand, marijuana is still perceived as an addictive substance under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. It has been historically linked as a gateway drug to more serious substance abuse such as meth, heroin, or cocaine. The U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration says that marijuana is the most widely used and abused illicit drug in the nation among both youth and adults; in fact 42% of high school seniors have tried it. The National Center on Addiction found that rates for marijuana use and dependence for minors has increased 482% between 1992 and 2006 while, at the same time there was a 54% decrease in rates of all other substances combined. The issue most worrisome is the use of marijuana for young people, since 62% of all users began before they were 18. According to NIDA research, marijuana use predominantely affects the prefrontal cortex, the last area of…
"Arguments Against Marijuana Legalization and/or Decriminalization from a Prevention
Marijuana was declared an illegal drug in the U.S.A. with the passing of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937 under dubious circumstances.
Since that time numerous studies have shown that the drug is less harmful than tobacco and alcohol. Despite the available evidence and the enormous cost of enforcing the marijuana ban, it is hard to understand why this relatively harmless drug continues to remain illegal in the United States. This essay argues why marijuana should be decriminalized without further delay.
Opponents of legalizing marijuana contend that it is a dangerous drug; this is far from the truth. For example, there has not been a single recorded case of death due to marijuana overdose. On the other hand, a legal intoxicant like alcohol results in the death of about 5,000 persons every year due to overdose. The reason for this is that the ratio of cannabinoids necessary for…
"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Use." (2005). Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. Retrieved on October 1, 2005 from http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm
Concar, D. (1998). "High Anxieties." New Scientist. February 21, 1998: Issue No. 2122.
'Marijuana Prohibition Facts." (2004) Marijuana Policy Project Foundation. Retrieved on October 1, 2005 from http://mpp.org/pdf/prohfact.pdf
'Study Compares Nicotine to Other Drugs." (1994). National Drug Strategy Network. Retrieved on October 1, 2005 from http://www.ndsn.org/AUGUST94/NICOTINE.html
New research is underway examining the effects of marijuana on multiple sclerosis and stroke victims, which is one of the key reasons why more funding, and fewer obstacles, for research are needed. Already, twenty-one states have opened the door to potential research, but only six states have launched research campaigns into the medicinal benefits of pot: California, Georgia, Michigan, New Mexico, New York, and Tennessee ("21 States"). Federal legalization would ensure that more research on marijuana's health benefits will be completed.
Because marijuana is illegal, citizens who want it must turn to criminal avenues of distribution unless they are one of the few living in California who can acquire medical marijuana. Many of the existing illegal avenues of distribution are run by organized crime networks. In order to protect their interests, such criminal organizations will stop at nothing, including murder. The violent crime that is related to the marijuana trade…
Costa, Antonio Maria. "Drugs: Cash Flow for Organized Crime." United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 1 Feb 2005. Retrieved 6 Mar 2005 online at http://www.unodc.org/unodc/en/speech_2005-02-1.html.
Hager, Paul. "Marijuana Myths." Online at http://www.drugtext.org/sub/marmyt1.html .
Joy, Janet E., Watson, Stanley J., and Benson, John a. (eds). Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base. Institute of Medicine. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press, 1999. Online at http://www.medmjscience.org/Media/pdf/marimed.pdf .
NIDA InfoFacts: Marijuana." National Institute on Drug Abuse. Online at http://www.nida.nih.gov/Infofacts/marijuana.html.
legalizing marijuana for medical use. The writer discusses both sides of the issue and argues that the medicinal used of marijuana should be legalized.
Before one can begin to understand the logic in legalizing marijuana for medicinal use it is important to understand the history of the argument both for and against it as well as the importance that it be legalized for future use. Each year, thousands of people are diagnosed with various medical conditions in which marijuana is believed to make a difference. Cancer patients who are deathly ill with cancer claim that marijuana eases the side effects of chemotherapy. Patients with glaucoma have been shown to benefit from the use of marijuana as have patients with AIDS and other medical conditions. While the medicinal use of marijuana has been proven through studies to be beneficial to certain medical patients, the political, social and moral frowning has kept…
Marijuana advocates seek legalization for medicinal use
Activists support medicinal joints
Deadly deceit. (legalizing drugs under the banner of medical use)(Editorial)
Marijuana on the Ballot.(medical community divided over therapeutic use of drug)
Legalizing marijuana would actually allow authorities to focus on some of society's most severe problems, as they would no longer have to invest significant resources into punishing petty marijuana users.
Considering the difficulties related to criminalizing marijuana, it only seems natural for the government to want to do everything in its power to have it legalized, as penalizing marijuana offenders costs society enormous resources, particularly given that the number of marijuana-related offenses is on a continuous rise. It is surely difficult to determine whether state authorities are actually interested in penalizing individuals who have no criminal record and who seem to be completely harmless as a result of being caught with the substance. Hundreds of millions of dollars (even billions maybe) can be saved by putting an end to the war against marijuana. It appears the government is unable to tell the difference between real criminals and people who simply…
Anelauskas, Valdas Discovering America as It Is (Atlanta, GA: Clarity Press, 1999)
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics (Westport, CT: Praeger, 2004)
Goode, Erich The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970)
Mauer, Marc "The Hidden Problem of Time Served in Prison," Social Research Mikos, Robert A. "On the Limits of Supremacy: Medical Marijuana and the States' Overlooked Power to Legalize Federal Crime," Vanderbilt Law Review 62.5 (2009)
An examination of the arguments about the legalization of marijuana indicates that this substance should be legalized. Quite simply, the benefits of legalizing marijuana outweigh its detriments. ere marijuana legalized, individuals could widely use it as a form of medication. Additionally, they could utilize it as a source of revenue that could potentially improve the economy in the United States. hen considering these boons against the perceived negative effects of legalizing marijuana, it becomes clear that this country should legalize it.
Perhaps the most advantageous benefit of legalizing marijuana is medical utility it serves. Marijuana is prescribed for a number of medical conditions. It helps to calm people and to sooth individuals who otherwise might have tendencies to get nervous or overexcited; it helps with seizures (Klas). Additionally, marijuana helps to stimulate the appetite, which could prove useful to people who have issues with weight and with eating…
De Avila, Joseph. Marijuana is New (Legal) Cash Crop in Connecticut. www.wsj.com. 2014. Web. http://www.wsj.com/articles/marijuana-is-new-legal-cash-crop-in-connecticut-1401678686
Klas, Mary Ellen. Florida House to Propose Bill to Legalize Strain of Marijuana for Seizures. www.miamiherald.com 2014. Web.
Klein, Andrew. Practical Implications of Current Domestic Violence Research: For Law Enforcement, Prosecutors, and Judges. www.nij.gov 2009. Web.
Rosenbuam, Sara. "Gonzalez v. Raich: Implications for Public Health Policy." www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. 2005. Web.
Marijuana From the Psychosocial Perspective
e know that the concept of perceived risk is demonstrated most clearly by use trends related to marijuana use by adolescents. Use has fallen and risen over the course of modern history based on how dangerous the drug is perceived to be. hat impact will the current attitude of accepting medical and recreational marijuana have on your generation - today's youth and tomorrow's parents, leaders, and change-makers?
Even before the legalization of marijuana, there was a tacit social acceptance of the drug, particularly within many subcultures such as on college campuses, in the music industry, and amongst artists. Legalizing the drug could theoretically reduce the perception of the drug as a kind of 'forbidden fruit' and actually make it less of a rite of passage of teenage rebellion. It also might make the current use of drug tests for various occupations less accepted…
Kelland, Kate. "Study finds genetic links between schizophrenia and cannabis use." Reuters.
24 Jun 2014.
"Which is worse, booze or pot? A doctor weighs in." CBS News. 19 Mar 2015. Web.
24 Oct 2015.
Ethics of Legalizing Marijuana
In recent years, there has been a significant amount of debate as to whether or not the possession and usage of marijuana should be legalized. Several issues revolve around this topic, not the least of which are the perceived and actual effects of this particular narcotic in a psychological, physical, economic, and even social sense. Perhaps one of the best methods for determining a prudent choice of action regarding this subject would be to consider it from an ethical perspective, or even better, from two ethical perspectives with traditionally conflict in order to properly gauge which stance would ultimately be more beneficial to marijuana users and the general public at large. The primary purpose of ethics is always to establish and preserve some moral good, and two ethical perspectives which can not be considered synonymous and which have a considerable amount of practical application to the…
Anderson, J.R. (1990) The Adaptive Character of Thought. London: Hove. Collins, H. (1998). "What's wrong with relativism?." Physics World (Bristol, UK: IOP Publishing). Retrieved from http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/print/1607
Mill, J. Utilitarianism. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1999. Print.
Parks, J.A., & Wike, V.S. (2010). Bioethics in a changing world. New York: Pearson.
Swoyer, C. (2010) "Relativism," The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2010/entries/relativism/
I have no doubt in my mind that a majority of Americans hold a stand similar to mine; that the criminalization of marijuana is indeed costing us more than its legalization would. Those sitting on the fence, or holding a contrary opinion have probably not thought of it this way; marijuana is the country's largest cash crop, and legalizing it will do nothing but yield a streak of economic benefits including job creation and economic opportunity expansion in the formal rather than the underground market, the diversion of the scarce resources that go to marijuana-related law enforcement efforts to more productive activities that could better the society's well-being, etc. (uschman, 2004) . It is time marijuana was taken off the system of criminal justice, and brought into the legal arena in a manner similar to tobacco and alcohol.
One may ask; to what extent has the criminalization of…
DPA. (2014). Marijuana Legalization and Regulation. Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved 22 March 2014 from http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana-legalization-and-regulation
High Times. (2014). 10 Reasons Marijuana should be Legal. High Times. Retrieved 22 March 2014 from http://www.hightimes.com/read/10-reasons-marijuana-should-be-legal
Rosenthal, E. & Kubby, S. (2003). Why Marijuana should be Legal. New York: Running Press.
Ruschman, P. (2004). Legalizing Marijuana. New York: Infobase Publishing.
hus, it is not an individual choice issue.
Cost of Drug Use journal article by Roberto a. revino, Alan J. Richard (2002); in the American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, reveals that the cost of drug use and abuse, especially marijuana, is expensive to the country. "Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug, used by 81% of current illicit drug users. Approximately 60% of current illicit drug users used only marijuana, 21% used marijuana and another illicit drug, and the remaining 19% used an illicit drug but not marijuana in the past month. herefore, about 40% of current illicit drug users in 1998 (an estimated 5.4 million Americans) were current users of illicit drugs other than marijuana and hashish (p. 91)." Considering for a moment the cost associated with policing, rehabbing, educating and all other areas of anti-drug use proactive approaches; this translates into a huge cost to…
Trevino, Roberto a., and Alan J. Richard. "Attitudes towards Drug Legalization among Drug Users." American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse 28.1 (2002): 91+. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000711797 .
U.N. Report Rebuts Arguments for Legalizing Pot; Puffing for Fun Is Frowned on; Medical Use Merits More Study." The Washington Times 27 Feb. 2002: A12. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5000710352 .
The War on Drugs; Will Legalizing Drugs Put an End to the Black Market." The Washington Times 15 Apr. 2003: A19. Questia. 4 Dec. 2007 http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5001910274 .
Legalization of Marijuana
Early in 1930, marijuana was made illegal by the pulp paper industry in collaboration with the government and renamed it the "Devil's Weed." One thing is for sure, the strangling holds the government struggles and pretends to hold on the war on drugs specifically marijuana is irrational. The government has wasted countless dollars convicting law-abiding citizens just for possessing and using marijuana. The wastage is also related to the withholding of the medical benefits of the plant. Besides, it has missed numerous amounts of money if only they would regulate it like cannabis and tobacco; then they would gain (Van Ours, 2006).
For economic research, the legalization of marijuana seems to be a very unconventional theme, but with the current economic crisis, conventional problems will require unconventional solutions. In most western countries, marijuana usage, trade, and possession are criminal activities, and that is why empirical data on…
Caulkins, J. (2012). Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs To Know. New York, NY: Oxford University Press, Inc.
Hager, M. (2015, October 12). Federal Election 2015: Marijuana Legalization Urged For Open debate. The Globe and Mail.
Mapes, J. (2013, October 26). From Marriage To Marijuana, Oregon Facing Flood Of Hot-Button Ballot Measures Next Year. The Oregonian.
Morgan, K. (2010). Legalizing Marijuana. North Mankato, Minnesota: ABDO
Legalize Marijuana Now!
Today, the United States enjoys the dubious distinction of incarcerating more of its citizens than any other industrialized nation on earth. Perhaps even more troubling still, the majority of these citizens have been imprisoned for nonviolent crimes involving drugs, with marijuana being one of the most prominently drugs. Furthermore, these issues have assumed new importance and relevance in recent years. As the country continues to struggle to recover from the Great Recession of 2008, dwindling federal and state budgets have forced lawmakers to scramble to identify ways to save money in order to turn the tide for economic recovery. One initiative that has been advanced time and again is the legalization of marijuana because it would reduce the number of people being incarcerated and help generate new tax revenues. To determine if this is the legalization of marijuana is a truly viable option, this paper provides a…
Cameron, Kenzie A., Campo, Shelly and Brossard, Dominique. (2003). "Advocating for Controversial Issues: The Effect of Activism on Compliance-Gaining Strategy
Likelihood of Use." Communication Studies 54(3): 265-266.
Dripps, Donald A. (1998). "The Liberal Critique of the Harm Principle." Criminal Justice Ethics
Considering the Legalization of Marijuana
The federal government outlawed marijuana in 1937, a decision that remains controversial to this day. Proponents argue that growers have profited for decades and should be taxed accordingly. In the health care arena, medical marijuana is legal in a number of states, a decision with which seventy percent of Americans agree (Vlahos 18). Those against legalization cite potential health hazards, similar to those faced by smokers of tobacco. Although only mildly physically addictive, marijuana can be psychologically addictive. It is often called the "gateway" drug since users sometimes progress to more powerful illegal substances. Members of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) are against legalization for reasons that some may find surprising.
Marijuana is called a "soft" drug and seems more socially acceptable than other drugs; after all "smoking and eating are more naturally associated with pleasure than is…
There is much more to the issue and how it is addressed than that (Seamon, 2007). These states are:
Washington (Seamon, 2007)
Criticisms of Decriminalization
The war on drugs has been in the news for some time now, and marijuana has been included in that war. It continues to be listed as important in the speeches of many politicians, and it continues to be at the forefront of a great many debates about how our tax money should best be spent (Gray, 2005; Pacula, 2003b). One of the main concerns of the war on drugs, however, does not deal with what politicians think about it. Rather, it deals with what police think about it. Police are, after all, the ones that are out there on the streets every day, trying to fight the…
Anslinger, H.J. & Tompkins, William F. n.d. "The traffic in narcotics." Drug Library. Retrieved at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/people/anslinger/traffic/appendix1.htm
Austin, James. 2005. "Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana." Washington, DC: The JFA Institute.
Brazaitis, Tom. 2002. "U.S. Should Concede Defeat in the War on Drugs." Media Awareness Project. Retrieved at http://www.mapinc.org/drugnews/v02/n1827/a09.html?397
Clements, Kenneth, et al. 2005. "Two Short Papers on Marijuana, Legalisation and Drinking: (1) Exogeneous Shocks and Related Goods: Drinking and the Legalisation of Marijuana; and (2) Notes on Projections of Alcohol Consumption Following Marijuana Legalisation." Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia Working Paper no. 05-14. Perth, Australia: The University of Western Australia, Department of Economics.
Europe's more liberal drug policies are not the right model for America.
Most non-violent drug users get treatment, not jail time. (Legalization, 2010).
There are no benefits for society in the legalization of marijuana. The money from the taxing of the marijuana will end up being use to regulate and enforce the dispensaries. The money to treat the addiction will be another source of lost revenues from the taxation.
Increased usage by underage teens will be the same as cigarettes and alcohol and will increase as the price drops as it did in the Dutch experiment. Kids will be introduced onto the drug culture that leads to the use of the harder narcotics as a result of the increased access to the marijuana. The benefits will be just moved from one area to other areas of criminalization.
DEA website. 2010. etrieved on May 10,…
DEA website. 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/jan-june01/drugs_marijuanaharm.html
"Feature: Hundreds of Los Angeles Medical Marijuana Dispensaries Face Closure Under New Rules Passed by Council" 2010. Retrieved on May 10, 2010 from
One very important aspect related to smoking marijuana concerns the number of deaths reported on an annual basis linked to using other legal and illegal substances. For example, according to the U.S. ureau of Mortality Statistics, 400,000 Americans die annually as a direct result of smoking cigarettes; 100,000 die prematurely from drinking alcohol; some 20,000 die from abusing legal prescription drugs like Oxycontin, Valium, Percodan, and other drugs prescribed by physicians; 2,000 die from the effects of consuming too much caffeine, mainly from heart failure, while the number of Americans who die from smoking marijuana currently stands at zero, an indication that smoking marijuana does not directly cause any known fatal and debilitating disease ("The Legalization of Marijuana," Internet).
Therefore, considering the number of Americans who die prematurely from consuming alcohol which has been legal since the end of Prohibition in the early 1930's, there is no logical reason not…
Franklin, Michael J. The Pros and Cons of Marijuana Legalization in the United
States. New York: Random House, 2006.
"The Legalization of Marijuana." 2009. Internet. Accessed November 24, 2009
from http://www.legalizationofmarijuana.com .
Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy
It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. esearch shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.
When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states…
Drug Policy: Marijuana. (2014, December 23). Retrieved from National Association of Drug Court Professionals: http://www.nadcp.org/drugpolicy
Marijuana Resource Center: State Laws Related to Marijuana. (2013, January 12). Retrieved from State of the Union: http://www.whitehouse.gov/ondcp/state-laws-related-to-marijuana
Marijuana, M. (2015, Janurary 18). Have Medical Marijuana Laws Contributed to Greater General Marijuana Use by Adults? Retrieved from http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/ view.answers.php?questionID=000242
State Medical Marijuana Laws. (2014, Janurary 17). Retrieved from National Conference of State Legislatures: http://www.ncsl.org/research/health/state-medical-marijuana-laws.aspx
psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can be long-term and very harmful. Using marijuana may seem harmless, and less harmful than other types of drugs, such as alcohol, but it is very harmful, and can have long-term affects on people who use it regularly.
Marijuana has many chemicals that are harmful. Doctors Bell and Hall note that THC is the most well-known and harmful of these chemicals. They write, "Among them, THC is the most psychoactive in humans, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration" (Bell & Hall, 2005). These affects do not typically last longer than a few hours, depending on how much of the drug the subject ingests, but the affects on the brain can…
One of the reasons marijuana can be so harmful to the brain is because people tend to start to use it at a young age, like adolescence, when the brain is not fully formed and is still maturing (Agosti, Nunes & Levin, 2002). This early drug use can lead to the abuse of other drugs, but it can also have lasting affects on the brain and the way it functions, because it hits the brain before the brain is ready for drug use. Because marijuana and other illegal drugs are also usually very addicting, they create an urge in the user to continue using them, and so dependence on them can grow, adding to the problem of long-term damage.
There is another problem associated with brain function and marijuana use. Authors Agosti et al. note, "Longitudinal studies have also found a significant association between chronic cannabis use, mental disorders, and social morbidity" (Agosti et al., 2002). Therefore, use of marijuana, especially early use, can ultimately lead to the use of more dangerous drugs, and chronic use can lead to many mental problems. Unfortunately, studies show that marijuana is the most popular illegal drug in use in America today, and that 81% of illegal drug users use marijuana (Trevino & Richard, 2002). What this means for the brains of these users is that they will show additional memory loss, confusion, and other signs of brain damage as their life progresses, especially if they continue to use the drug throughout their lives. It can even lead to mental disorders and death as previously noted. Thus, marijuana is more dangerous than many people believe.
Many proponents of marijuana believe that it should be legalized, but about 55% of the American population is against legalizing the drug (Trevino & Richard, 2002). Proponents of the drug cite many studies that have not shown any damaging affects of the drug, but these studies have consistently been disproved by more effective studies such as those cited here. There will always be a segment of the population that wants to legalize marijuana, especially those who use it for its claimed medicinal affects. However, scientific studies show that marijuana use is harmful to the brain and to the overall health of the user,
ecently, Uruguay became the first country to legalize in its entirety and without qualification the marijuana trade. Uruguayan senators spent a total of twelve hours debating the issue, which was proposed by the country's President. The bill was described by its proponents as "an unavoidable response to reality, given that the 'war' on drugs had failed" (BBC, 2013, 1). The law allows registered citizens to buy up to 40g per month. The law is the first of what could be many as South American nations in particular are coming to the realization that drug prohibition, backed by American interests with the support of the United Nations, has left the continent with powerful and violent gangs that control the trade, while doing nothing to stem consumption (Ibid). Indeed, the UN has already weighed in by stating that Uruguay's legislation is in contravention of the international treaties that are enforced by…
BBC. (2013, 1). Uruguay becomes first nation to legalise marijuana trade. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25328656
BBC. (2013, 2). Uruguay marijuana move 'illegal' -- UN drugs watchdog. BBC.co.uk. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-25340324
Chaloupka, F. & Laixuthai, A. (1997). Do youths substitute alcohol and marijuana? Some econometric evidence. Eastern Economic Journal. Vol 23 (3) 253-275.
Chokshi, N. (2013). After legalizing marijuana, Washington and Colorado are starting to regulate it. Washington Post. Retrieved December 12, 2013 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/govbeat/wp/2013/10/09/after-legalizing-marijuana-washington-and-colorado-are-starting-to-regulate-it/
Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.
This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.
Prohibitions against the…
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"Marijuana as Medicine: A Subtle Syllogism." The Economist. August 16, 1997. ProQuest Database.
Marshall, Donnie. "Drug Prohibition is Effective." Drug Legalization. Scott Barbour, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2000.
Any drug that alters the brain chemistry, impairs cognitive functions, and creates an addictive personality cannot be recommended as safe. While there is no suppressing the fact that controlling illegal marijuana use continues to be a financial and administrative bottleneck, they are overridden by the potential harmful health consequences of legalizing marijuana.
Marijuana has been in use for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. With the development of new synthetic drugs there was a gradual decline in its use from the early part of the 20th century. Today however, though illegal, it continues to be a widely used drug in the United States for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In the year 2000 alone there were more than 2.4 million new users of marijuana and the drug is supposedly consumed by more than 76% of all drug users. [NCADI] The comparatively safer and proven remedial properties of…
1) Edward A. Jacobs, "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth,"
PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. 1825-1826
2) Wayne Hall, Louisa Degenhardt and Michael Lynskey, "The Health and Psychological Effects of Cannabis Use," Chapter 5, Monograph Series No 44, 2nd Edition,
Accessed on March 24th 2005,
Marijuana, also known as cannabis, is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide (Caulkins et al.). However, the legal status of marijuana is slowly changing. Uruguay recently became the first nation in the world to fully decriminalize and federally regulate marijuana. Several other countries in estern Europe have liberal laws related to marijuana that amount to practical decriminalization. The United States, which until fairly recently remained stuck to its "war on drugs" policy, has finally begun to understand that not only is marijuana safe, but it is also a valuable medical resource. Thus, several states in the union have started to allow for the prescription of cannabis for medical use. Given the fact that decriminalization also presents several net benefits to society including reducing prison overpopulation and reducing the stranglehold organized crime holds over some communities, a few states have begun to decriminalize the drug entirely. Colorado and ashington…
Becker, Sam. "7 States Ready to Legalize Marijuana." Politics Cheat Sheet. 28 Mar, 2015. Retrieved online: http://www.cheatsheet.com/politics/5-states-and-one-city-ready-to-legalize-marijuana.html/?a=viewall
Caulkins, Jonathan P., et al. Marijuana Legalization. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
Drug Policy Alliance. "Marijuana legalization and regulation." Retrieved online: http://www.drugpolicy.org/marijuana-legalization-and-regulation
Khatapoush, Shereen and Halifors, Denise. "Sending the Wrong Message.'" Journal of Drug Issues. Vol. 34, No. 4, pp. 751-770.
LEGALIZING PROSTITUTION IN THE U.S.A.
The topic I have chosen to discuss is the legalization of prostitution in the United States of America. y prostitution, I refer to an act where money is exchanged for rendering sexual services. Presently, 49 states out of 50 in the United States have banned prostitution withonly some forms of it allowed in a few areas of Nevada. This is not the case in all developed countries. Some places in Europe such as Holland, have legalized itand are regulating it through relevant legislature by the government.
My main stance on the topic is that these countries are not worse off than the U.S.A. In terms of the expected negative societal effects of prostitution such as human trafficking, rape etc.In fact on a closer introspection it may be that this ban is causing more harm to the community rather than benefits. For example, the number of…
Feingold, D. (2005). Human Trafficking.Foreign Policy.Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/30048506?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101769414447
Langer, G. (2004). Poll: American Sex Survey. ABC News Online. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Primetime/News/story?id=156921&page=1
O'Brien, E. (2011) Fuelling traffic: abolitionist claims of a causal nexus between legalized prostitution and trafficking. Crime, Law and Social Change. Retrieved from: http://eprints.qut.edu.au/48254/.
The Economist. ( 1998, Feb 12). Giving the customer what he wants. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/node/113208 .
It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will eliminate such acts of illegality.
The government and elected officials have a significant amount of say and rule as to what passes as a law and what does not. Such representatives are to symbolize and stand for what the people want. However, with so many voices and opinions of how certain issues should be and what should be ruled as legal, conflicts arise. Controversy is heavily shrouded in the dilemma around the legalization of drugs, and whether the government should permit the legal selling, purchase of narcotics like alcohol and tobacco. If such law is passed, the government and its citizens are affected economically, judicially, medically, and socially. Economically, the government is able to receive billions of dollars in revenue and reduce…
Block, W. "Drug Prohibition: A Legal and Economic Analysis." Journal of Business Ethics 12.9 (1993): 689-700. Print.
Cussen, M, and W. Block. "Legalize Drugs Now! An Analysis of the Benefits of the Legalized Drugs." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.3 (2000): 525-536. Print.
"Drug War Clock | DrugSense." DrugSense. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
"Economic Consequences of the War on Drugs." Drug Policy Alliance: Alternatives to Marijuana Prohibition and the Drug War. N.p., n.d. Web. 1 Apr. 2011. .
Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.
As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have…
ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Ferner, Matt. "Why Marijuana Should Be Legalized: 'Regulate Marijuana Like Alcohol' Campaign Discusses Why Pot Prohibition Has Been A Failure." The Huffington Post. TheHuffingtonPost.com, 28 Aug. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Robesonian.com. "Legalization of Marijuana Paying off." The Robesonian - Legalization of Marijuana Paying off. The Robesonian, 30 Apr. 2013. Web. 01 May 2013. .
Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties
When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of…
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
For example, in the state of Montana, initiative organizers and supporters "face much opposition from local law enforcement and youth substance abuse prevention groups" that claim legalizing marijuana will lead to a great increase in the number of users. However, as the organizers of the low police priority initiative point out, the evidence to support this assertion does not exist; in fact, "We know that liberalizing drug laws in other places has not led to an increase in drug use. This assertion has also been equated with the "eefer Madness mentality," a reference to the film "eefer Madness" of the 1930's which depicted marijuana smokers as deranged criminals ("Lowest Law Enforcement Priority," 2006, Internet).
According to statistics provided by the National Organization for the eform of Marijuana Laws, voters in the city of Oakland, just north of San Francisco, "overwhelmingly approved the nation's first-ever business tax on retail marijuana sales,"…
"Ban with the Bull, Chill with the Bear: The Coming Collapse of Marijuana
Prohibition." (2009). NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://norml.org .
"California: Oakland Voters Approve Nation's First Marijuana Business Tax." (2009).
NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from
legalization marijuana. Your written proposal include elements listed address considerations: •An analysis public policy criminal justice interrelate. •Why feel social change relevant criminal justice system important policy initiate foster change improvement.
There has been much controversy regarding the legalization of marijuana in recent years, as its number of supporters has increased directly proportional to the number of individuals opposing it. When considering matters from a perspective involving public policy, the legalization of marijuana is going to cause increased marijuana use. Consuming more marijuana can lead to people's health being negatively affected but it can also generated more revenue for the government as a result of taxes. Even with this, the fact that governments would gain control over marijuana sales would mean that they would be able to control the amounts that people use as a result of introducing more or less harsh taxes. Education would make the difference between a…
Fox, S., Armentano, P., & Tvert, M. (2009). Marijuana Is Safer: So Why Are We Driving People to Drink?. Chelsea Green Publishing.
Galston, W.A. & Dionne, E.J. "The New Politics of Marijuana Legalization: Why Opinion is Changing," Retrieved September 9, 2013, from http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/05/29-politics-marijuana-legalization-galston-dionne
Ruschman, P. (2009). Legalizing Marijuana. Infobase Publishing.
The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and ichard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.
The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as…
Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical
Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.
Page, S.A., Verhoef, M.J., Stebbins, R.A., Metz, L.M., and Levy, J.C. "Cannabis Use
as Described by People with Multiple Sclerosis." Canadian Journal of Neurological Science, Vol. 30 (2003): 201 -- 205.
Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.
Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC,…
Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/
DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.
Retrieved July 14, 2010 at http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2007/10/30/on-the-legalization-or-not-of-marijuana/
Legalization of marijuana. (20110). Legalization of marijuana.
marijuana should be legalized only for medicinal purposes.
The debate over medicinal marijuana usage and legality is a controversial one. Many experts argue the drug costs society too much money in terms of law enforcement and incarceration costs when the monies could be better spent in other law enforcement areas. A large majority of the American people does believe marijuana should be decriminalized for medical usage. In 2001, 34% of adult Americans believed marijuana should be legal, at least in small amounts, the largest percentage since 1969, and up to 70% of adults approved of using medicinal marijuana for certain ailments (Cauchon 01A). However, several questions regarding medicinal marijuana usage that must be addressed.
First, is marijuana a safe and effective medicine? Proponents maintain marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years and for a variety of uses. They claim that it is safe, no one has ever "died…
Author not Available. "Medical Marijuana Briefing Paper." Marijuana Policy Project. 2003. 22 March 2004. http://www.mpp.org/medicine.html
Cauchon, Dennis. "Marijuana Attains Record Support." USA Today, 24 Aug. 2001, pp 01A.
Fackelmann, Kathleen. "Marijuana on Trial." ScienceNews.org. 22 March 1997. 22 March 2004. http://www.sciencenews.org/pages/sn_arc97/3_22_97/bob1.htm
Frood, Arran. "Dope at the Wheel." NewScientist.com. 23 March 2002. 22 March 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/dopeatthewheel.jsp
This is largely because there are two major reasons for the legalization of marijuana i.e. medical grounds and the potential revenues it could bring to the government. The decriminalization of the use of the drug can be a major point of governmental revenue through taxation of the sale of the drug. Secondly, as evident through history, the value of the drug to the medical field outweighs the disadvantages of its potential abuse in addition to its significance to both the paper and clothing industries ("Legalizing Marijuana," n.d.).
The decriminalization of the use of the drug will be of huge profit to the government because of the huge amounts related to the average price of the drug. Through this initiative, entrepreneurs are likely to begin their own operations because of the noticeable huge profits made in the marijuana market. Consequently, the supply of the drug on the streets will increase significantly…
"Legalizing Marijuana." (n.d.). Marijuana Leaf. Retrieved from the University of Rhode Island
Messerli, J. (2011, June 8). Should Marijuana be Legalized under any Circumstances? Retrieved
March 8, 2012, from http://www.balancedpolitics.org/marijuana_legalization.htm
Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still unproven in clinical trials, is logically and ethically inconsistent with the legal status of substances like tobacco which are devoid of any possible beneficial use and which, unlike marijuana, have actually been proven to cause disease and premature death.
Governmental paternalism is appropriate in many instances, including ensuring the safety and efficacy of substances used for medicinal purposes. However, the application of paternalistic legislation must, if nothing else, be logically consistent.
Federal prohibition criminalizing marijuana, even for medicinal purposes, is completely unjustified, particularly in light of the legal status of tobacco, which has absolutely no beneficial medical use and whose recreational use accounts for tremendous human harm.
The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)
Retrieved November 21, 2007, at http://americanmarijuana.org/…
Critical literary work on constitutional law, civil rights, and the moral justification for paternalistic legislation authored by attorney and Harvard University law professor, Arthur Miller.
Taylor, R. (1982) Freedom, Anarchy, and the Law: An Introduction to Political Philosphy. Buffalo: Prometheus
Critical literary work on the logical basis for social norms, laws, civil rights, and the morality of ethical principles in human life authored by renowned ethicist, and Cornell philosophy professor Richard Taylor.
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana is one of the most popular recreational drugs in the United States, exceeded in popularity by only alcohol and tobacco. Recent research reveals that "more than 70 million Americans have smoked marijuana at some point in their lives, and that 18-20 million have smoked during the last year (NORML, 1999)."
According to R. Keith Stroup, Esq., the executive director of National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML, 1999), "Like most Americans, the vast majority of these millions of marijuana smokers are otherwise law-abiding citizens who work hard, raise families and contribute to their communities..." A national survey revealed that 32% of voting adults in the U.S. have acknowledged having smoked marijuana at some point in their lives.
The legalization of marijuana has been a topic of controversy for several years. Many proponents of the drug argue that marijuana should be legalized for both medical…
Marijuana Policy Project (MPP). (March 30, 1998). Multiple Sclerosis Patient Arrested for Using Medicinal Marijuana in U.S. Rep. Jim Rogan's Office. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.mpp.org/releases/nr033098.html .
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML). (1999). Federally Commissioned Study Supports Medical Marijuana, Dismisses Drug's "High Potential For Abuse. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/medical/iomresponse.shtml .
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws. (1999). Testimony of R. Keith Stroup, Esq. Retrieved from the Internet at http://www.norml.org/recreational/testimony99.shtml .
Rosenthal, Ed. Kubby, Steve. (2003). Why Marijuana Should Be Legal. Thundermouth Press.
President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.
Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.
The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed…
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. .
Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
"Campaigns That Matter - Legalizing Marijuana in California." Campaigns That Matter - California Politics, California Political News, California Legislative News, Public Policy Information, California State Elections, California Political Campaigns, California Propositions. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
Gray, Jim. Judgejimgray.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html
Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp
Americans for Compassionate Use," at http://www.acu.org/~acu/
Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at http://www.calyx.com/~mariolap/debate/ethan1.html
NASRO Issue rief, Spring 1995 vol. 1, no.1,"Rethinking the War on Drugs and Crime: New Approaches to Local Polic." http://www.dscc.org/cwa/report.html
Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. How to Legalize Drugs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages., pp. 161
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James . akalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876 Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 -- Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
Alternatives to the War…
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. "How to Legalize Drugs." Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages;
Lee P. Brown, "Eight Myths About Drugs," Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Co. 15 July 1994;
Lester Grinspoon, MD, James B. Bakalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876
Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html
In the shifting views about the health effects of marijuana, there is a general trend for states to relax the rules around this substance across the nation. Some states have already lifted the ban against marijuana for recreational purposes. The state of California set the pace in this discussion and shifting perceptions when it passed a proposal now popularly known as proposal 215 to allow possession of small amounts of the substance for medical uses (Murphy and Carnevale 2016). Other states have followed suit. The most notable among these states are the District of Columbia and six other states. They represent about 6% of the population of the nation. They have all allowed possession of marijuana; not for medical use only, but for recreational purposes.
There are several contributing factors to this phenomenon. One of the most outstanding reasons is that the much-touted war on drugs across the nation has…
With the exception of Washington and Colorado, U.S. laws forbid the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, whereas Netherlands has been entertaining a liberal policy for two decades. In this light, Americans would be expected to have a small rate of marijuana usage, while the Dutch due to their expanded availability of cannabis, should have an increased rate of usage. The empirical evidence to support these conclusions, though, is scant.
Dutch drug policy may appear radical, but let there be no misunderstanding, their laws state clearly that marijuana is illegal. In 1976, it had been decided to take the course of de-penalization, a formal non-enforcement policy for offences involving possession of up to 30 grams, and this quantity limit was dropped to 5 grams in 1995. During the 1980s the de facto legalization started, with the inauguration of small retail outlets known as coffee shops that were allowed to…
Cohen, Peter J. Medical Marijuana, Compassionate Use, and Public Policy: Expert Opinion or Vox Populi? (2006, May-June). The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 36, No. 3
Metrik, J. et al. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect. (2011, April 1). Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 25, No. 1
Mikos, R.A. On the Limits of Supremacy: Medical Marijuana and the States' overlooked Power to Legalize Federal Crime. (2009, October). Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 5
Pew Research Center. Majority Now Supports Legalizing Marijuana. (2013, April)
legalization of marijuana and its benefits to the society. Our arguments are focused on its medicinal value, income generated (economic value) to the state as well as the possible losses to tax payer's money as a result of trying to implement its prohibition. Our analysis is done via a thorough review of relevant literature containing expert opinions. We support our proposition that marijuana can be a benefit to society through its legalization. This is due to its medicinal value, revenue stream to the state and the reduced cost attributed to decreased prohibition budgets.
Marijuana which is the most commonly used illicit drug has faced has been heavily debated on issues of legalization and safe use. The debate has been so intense to an extent of which it has turned political (NYT, 2008). A recent study by Angus eid concluded that a majority of Americans are in support of marijuana legalization…
Angus-Reid (2009).Majority of Americans Support Legalizing Marijuana
British Medical Association (1997). Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis. Harwood Academic Pub.
Bensinger, P. (2010, Octobe 15). Legalizing marijuana unacceptable, danger to society. Chicago Tribune .
Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada
The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.
hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.
Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…
Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.
Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.
Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
The active chemical ingredient, THC, is accessed by smoking marijuana and is used for both recreational and medical reasons. The pro-legalization supporters and the anti-legalization supporters are divided by ethical and medical viewpoints. The use of marijuana is linked with health risks, but it is also associated with beneficial medical and therapeutic uses. Opponents of legalization also raise concerns about marijuana abuse, dependency, and its stance as a "gateway" drug which could lead a user to try "harder" drugs. Tobacco smoking and drinking alcohol give concerns for abuse, dependency, and have been linked with the use of "harder" drugs, however these substances remain legal.
A total of 14 states have allowed for the use of marijuana for medical purposes, and some studies have indicated the benefits of decriminalization of marijuana as law enforcement efforts and resources can be used for more significant crimes. There is a concern that the legalization…
Drewe, M, F Drewe, and A Riecher. "Cannabis and risk of psychosis." Swiss Medical Weekly. 134. (2004): 659-663. Print.
Grossman, M, F Chaloupka, and K. Shim. "Illegal Drug Use and Public Policy." Health Affairs. 21.2 (2002): 134-145. Print.
Joffe, A, and W. Yancy. "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth." Pediatrics. 113. (2004): e632-e638. Web. 5 Dec. 2011. .
Leung, Lawrence. "Cannabis and its Derivatives: Review of Medical Use." Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine. 24.4 (2011): 452-462. Print.
Medical marijuana has increasingly been in the news as a growing number of states throughout the U.S. have passed measures or at least put on the ballot an initiative to legalize either medicinal or recreational marijuana usage. The history of marijuana in the U.S. is one that goes back as far as the country itself: hemp (a type of marijuana plant) was used for rope, paper and a number of other purposes because of its strong fibrous tissue.1 It was not until the Prohibition Era of the 1920s that marijuana began to be prohibited by law in the U.S.—and within a decade, it was regulated among most states under the Uniform State Narcotic Act.2 Thus, from its very first days as a crop grown by the Virginia Company for exporting to England by decree of James I—and in fact from the days of the first President of the U.S.…
It has been proved that drug dealers succeed in selling their drugs, even with the measures introduced by the American government.
Countries like the Netherlands have become famous due to their tolerance of cannabis and millions of tourists visit them every year as a result. Considering the fact that the Netherlands has continued to have a great cultural value, and, that it has continued to have more tourists visiting it because of reasons other than its cannabis coffee shops, it is obvious that the Dutch have not been affected by the legalization of Marijuana.
Buckley Jr. illiam F. "Is Marijuana Fear a Myth?" National Review, Vol. 49, December 8, 1997.
Goode, Erich. "Marijuana." (Atherton: 1969)
isheit, Ralph A. "Domestic Marijuana: A Neglected Industry." (Greenwood Press: 1992)
Gerber, Rudolph J. Legalizing Marijuana: Drug Policy Reform and Prohibition Politics. (Praeger: 2004)
Chambliss, illiam J. "Another Lost ar: The Costs and Consequences of…
Wolf Shenk, Joshua. "Why You Can Hate Drugs and Still Want to Legalize Them." Washington Monthly, Vol. 27, October 1995.
"The War on Drugs: Fighting Crime or Wasting Time?" American Criminal Law Review, Vol. 38, 2001.
Souder Mark, Zimmer Lynn. "Q: Is the Government's War against Marijuana Justified as Public Policy?" Insight on the News, Vol. 13, January 12, 1998.
The process is even unlikely to stop if dealers are arrested, given that clients remain and support the market. The government however is not probable to change its convictions concerning marijuana in the near future, most probably because marijuana continues to be linked to crime and more dangerous drugs.
Weisheit, Ralph a. Domestic arijuana a Neglected Industry (New York: Greenwood Press, 1992)
The masses continue to absurdly blame marijuana, even though they are unaware of its potential. Numerous people (even marijuana consumers) are indifferent toward the industry marijuana could produce and prefer to keep it at the present level, most probably because they are afraid of the law and for the fact that they are reluctant to go through what they perceive as being a great deal of trouble.
Yacoubian, George S. "Assessing the Relationship between arijuana Availability and arijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States…
Marijuana supporters lobby regarding how the substance cannot possibly produce any harm, to its users or to society in general. However, given that accidents of all kinds frequently happen as a result of people consuming marijuana, conditions are critical and the government needs to define an agenda that would effectively fight the substance.
"Official Statement of the Yes on Proposition 19 Campaign in Response to Election Results." Retrieved November 19, 2010, from the Yes on Proposition 19 Website: http://yeson19.com/node/316 http://yeson19.com/node/316
Cannabis is no longer the drug that had little supporters in the past, as more and more people have discovered that it is not actually as harmful as those against it have preferred to think it is. In spite of the recent failures in legalizing marijuana in California, the state has nonetheless experienced a notable change in convictions regarding the drug, as numerous people are no longer against it.
Legalization of Marijuana
Pro-Side: There are many good reasons for the legalization of marijuana. While there are few jurisdictions from which to pull evidence on the positive benefits of legalization, we do have extensive experience with the negative impacts of marijuana prohibition. Marijuana prohibition has resulted in high arrest rates, in particular for minorities, which has created social chaos in those communities as young men are incarcerated long-term for what is a victimless crime. Marijuana prohibition also denies governments a potentially important source of tax revenue, as there is a fairly high consumption rate of the plant already. Marijuana prohibition costs law enforcement millions, has created a massive and bloody gang war in Mexico, and has done nothing to stem the use of the plant. These financial and law enforcement resources would be put to better use elsewhere. It is the interests of law enforcement, many politicians and the…
Others believe that it is no better than other drugs and can even be more dangerous when used for long periods of time ("Medical Marijuana," 2008).
After centuries of use, it seems ridiculous that the government would get up in arms about marijuana proliferation for personal or medical use in the United States. If marijuana can relieve the symptoms of deadly diseases, allowing those suffering from them to be more comfortable, it should be used. In addition, Guither (2009) makes it clear that the reason marijuana was made illegal was not a result of scientific evidence or the opinions of experts. Instead, the illegalization of marijuana was fueled by political, economic, and social incentives. By legalizing marijuana, the United States would free law enforcement from focusing on this problem to train their focus on real crime.
Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? etrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.…
Guither, P. (2009). Why Is Marijuana Illegal? Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Salon.com.
"Medical Marijuana." (2008). Retrieved June 18, 2009, from Pro-Con.org. Web Site:
Marijuana Be Legalized Nationally According to the Terms of California Prop. 64?
People have been using Cannabis Sativa, also known as marijuana, for a number of centuries now. The plant from which marijuana is made grows in several locations around the world. Cannabis Sativa plant's flowering top is the source of marijuana as it has Tetrahydrocannnabinol (THC), a chemical that induces the state changes among users of marijuana. Studies show that using marijuana has both long-term and short-term health effects. Marijuana's short-term effects include distorting the senses including the sense of time and a reduced ability to concentrate. Long-term effects can be more damaging health wise and include a drop in testosterone and sperm levels among men, respiratory problems similar to those suffered by those who smoke tobacco, fatigue, lower libido, reduced fertility and alterations of body composition where the body records a drop in muscle mass as fat mass…
Bates, B. (2010, Feb). Teen cannabis use predicts depression. Clinical Psychiatry News, 38(2).
Bender, S. W. (2017). The Colors of Cannabis: Reflections on the Racial Justice Implications of California's Proposition 64.
Blake, D., & Finlaw, J. (2014). Marijuana legalization in Colorado: Learned lessons. Harv. L. & Pol'y Rev., 8, 359.
Caulkins, J. P., Kilmer, B., & Kleiman, M. A. (2016). Marijuana Legalization: What Everyone Needs to Know? Oxford University Press.
The Arguments for and against the Legalization of Marijuana
• Issue Identification
Today, more than half of the states have already legalized marijuana in some form for various purposes and several more are slated to follow suit this year (see Figure 1 below). The reasons for this trend are multiple, but include fundamental changes in social attitudes about marijuana, the recognition that the federal government’s so-called “war on drugs” has been an abject failure, and the realization on the part of state lawmakers that marijuana sales can provide an enormous boon to state coffers in the form of additional excise taxes and a reduction in the costs that are associated with more serious substance abuse practices.
Figure 1. Status of marijuana laws by state: as of January 2020
• Position Statement
At first blush, the push for the nationwide legalization of marijuana at the federal level would appear…
Domestic cannabis suppression, 2020). U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration. Retrieved from https://www.dea.gov/domestic-cannabis-suppression-eradication-program .
Janda, K., Berry, J. M. & Goldman, J. (2017). The challenge of democracy: American government in global politics, 14th ed. New York: Wadsworth/Cengage.
McAllister, W. B. (2019, Spring). Harry Aslinger saves the world: National security imperatives and the 1937 Marihuana Tax Act. The Social History of Alcohol and Drugs, 33(1), 37-41.
Overdose death rates. (2020). National Institutes on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from https://www. drugabuse.gov/drug-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates.
Paluszek, E. (2020, January 2). Side effects of smoking marijuana every day according to science. Yahoo! Life. Retrieved from https://www.yahoo.com/lifestyle/side-effects-smoking-marijuana-every-205845314.html .
Reduced fatalities for third consecutive year. (2020, May 5). Reduced fatalities for third consecutive year. U. S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved from https://www.nhtsa.gov/press-releases/early-estimates-traffic-fatalities-2019 .
St. John, V. J. & Lewis, V. (2019, January 1). \\\\"Vilify them night after night\\\\": Anti-Black drug policies, mass incarceration, and pathways forward. Harvard Journal of African American Public Policy, 20, 18.
The history of prohibition of marijuana in the United States. (2020). Leafly. Retrieved from https://www.leafly.com/learn/legalization/marijuana-illegal-history .
Decriminalization of Marijuana
Ever since marijuana was declared an illegal drug in the U.S.A. By the passing of the Marijuana Tax Act in 1937 under dubious circumstances, there has been a realization among various groups of people that it was a mistake. However, almost 70 years on, and despite a watertight case in support of its decriminalization, marijuana -- a drug which is arguably less harmful than tobacco and alcohol -- continues to be illegal in the U.S. Of A. In this essay I shall argue why marijuana should be decriminalized without further delay by demonstrating that it is a relatively harmless drug and explaining the benefits of legalizing the drug.
Before I proceed to present arguments in support of decriminalization of marijuana let us ponder over two important questions: a) whether marijuana is a sufficiently dangerous, harmful or addictive drug to justify its prohibition? b) Has the prohibition of…
"Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Marijuana Use." Schaffer Library of Drug Policy. n.d. November 28, 2004. http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/library/mjfaq1.htm
Bandow, Doug. "Forget the War on Drugs Already." Cato Institute. January 01, 2004. November 28, 2004. http://www.cato.org/dailys/01-01-04.html
'High Anxieties." New Scientist. February 21, 1998. November 28, 2004. http://www.newscientist.com/hottopics/marijuana/news.jsp 'Marijuana Prohibition Facts." Marijuana Policy Project Foundation. 2004. November 28, 2004. http://mpp.org/pdf/prohfact.pdf
Mathre, Mary Lynn. "The Medicinal Use of Marijuana." Nursing Vol. 4, No. 2 pages 8-9. June 1993. November 28, 2004. http://www.ukcia.org/medical/medicinaluseofmarijuana.html
Legalization of Marijuana
Marijuana or Cannabis is actually a plant, which has the scientific name 'cannabis sativa' and was originally used for ordinary purposes such as for fabric making and cloth weaving. Some are of the view that it was also used as sails when shipping industry had not become technologically sophisticated. The plant was also once used for the treatment of psychiatric conditions but after it was banned in the country, marijuana was forced to vanish from the medical field too.
Marijuana became a problem when people started using it as a drug in the form of powder. This is because marijuana affects chemical processes in the brain and puts a person in a state of elation. But all this is temporary and a person becomes so addicted to this drug that he cannot stay away from it. The dangerous impact on marijuana on the brain is also evident…
Cannabis" Accessed online 27 April 2004: http://www.cannabis.net
Richard Rudgley, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive substances, Little, Brown and Company (1998),
The exact amount lost under prohibition is difficult to estimate, but probably approaches several billion dollars.
Secondly, the projected problems for youth and workers and the state of the nation as a whole are far grimmer than the reality, which has been shown in other countries to actually decrease abuse of the substance. Dr. Lester Grinspoon assures that, "Marijuana itself is not criminogenic; it does not lead to sexual debauchery; it is not addicting; there is no evidence that it leads to the use of narcotics." (4).
Finally, the facts show that the war on drugs has undeniably failed. Illegal street drugs continue to frustrate law enforcement officials who have yet to make a noticeable dent in the status quo. Ed Rosenthal and Steve Kubby quote U.S. District Judge Thomas eisman as saying, "e've just about lost a generation of young people. e're building new prison beds at the rate…
Benjamin, Daniel K. And Miller, Roger Leroy. Undoing Drugs. New York: Basic Books. 1991. Print.
Bowman, Tom. "Schmoke Says Debate On Decriminalization Of Drugs Is Gaining Momentum." The Sun, 13 July 1999: 8A. Print.
Bruce, Cara. "The Economics of Marijuana Reform." Young Money. 7 December, 2009. Web. 3 January 2010.
Grinspoon, Lester.(1996) Marihuana reconsidered. Oakland, Quick American Archives. Print.
There is a need to legalize marijuana and allow people an alternative source of health care to that which is provided by the pharmaceutical industry. Big Pharma is responsible for the opioid epidemic devastating lives today. Marijuana is a naturally occurring plant that people have used responsibly for thousands of years. It is time to take back control of the lives of people and legalize marijuana. This proposal explains why that would be beneficial and how the government can take action now.
Introduction (Purpose and Problem)
Marijuana has been legalized by many different states in recent years. However, it still remains a schedule 1 narcotic according to the federal government, which means under federal law it is considered a substance as dangerous as heroin and cocaine (DEA). The history of marijuana usage in the U.S. shows that the plant was always legal up until the era of Prohibition and…
Canada boasts one of the highest cannabis usage rates in the world in spite of prohibition (Fischer, Kuganesan, & oom, 2015). Cannabis is also the most widely used illegal drug in the country by a wide margin (Hajidazeh, 2016). The complete decriminalization of cannabis in Canada would be unlikely to have any appreciable effect on raising rates of usage except potentially an initial spark of interest subsequent to the lifting of prohibition. Unfortunately, a dearth of literature exists on the actual effects of decriminalization given that the phenomenon has yet to occur, and given the fact that there are few case studies from other countries. The only country in the world to have outright legalized marijuana has been Uruguay; several other countries have relatively relaxed policies toward the drug but Canada's proposal to fully legalize would be revolutionary. This research can potentially contribute to the growing understanding of what consequences…
Fischer, B., Kuganesen, S. & Room, R. (2015). Medical Marijuana programs: Implications for cannabis control policy -- Observations from Canada. International Journal of Drug Policy 26(1): 15-19.
Government of Canada (n.d.). "Toward the Legalization, Regulation, and Restriction of Access to Marijuana," Discussion Paper. Retrieved online: http://healthycanadians.gc.ca/health-system-systeme-sante/consultations/legalization-marijuana-legalisation/alt/legalization-marijuana-legalisation-eng.pdf
Hajizadeh, M. (2016). Legalizing and Regulating Marijuana in Canada: Review of Potential Economic, Social, and Health Impacts. International Journal of Health Policy Management 5(8): 453-456.
Hall, W. & Lynskey, M. (2016). Why it is probably too soon to assess the public health effects of legalisation of recreational cannabis use in the USA. The Lancet Psychiatry 3(3): 900-906.
" Moreover, instead of spending billions of dollars on fighting the war, the Mexican government could channel this money -- which is significant for the Mexican economy -- into meeting the population's social needs, thus decreasing the incentives for Mexico's youth to resort to crime.
Prohibition of marijuana, one might even argue, is the lead cause of violence in Mexico. It is the prohibition that drives the drug market to the underground. In the underground world, the disputes between buyers and sellers cannot be resolved through legal means such as lawsuits and arbitration. So, they are often resolved through violence. hen the United States banned alcohol during Prohibition in 1930s, the level of violence increased but as soon as the ban was lifted, the level of crime and violence dropped to the pre-Prohibition levels. As Miron points out, [v]iolence is the norm in illicit gambling but not in legal ones.…
Camin, Hector Aguilar and Jorge G. Castenada. "California's Prop 19, on Legalizing Marijuana, Could End Mexico's Drug War." Washington Post. 5 September 2010. Web. 3 May 2011.
Forsyth, Jim. "U.S. Should Legalize Drugs, Says Former Mexican President Fox." Reuters. 3 May 2011. Web. 3 May 2011.
Johnson, Gary. "Legalize Marijuana to Stop the Drug Cartels." Huffington Post. 26 August, 2010. Web. 3 May 2011.
Miron, Jeffrey, a. "Commentary: Legalize Drugs to Stop Violence." CNN Online. 24 March 2009. Web. 3 May 2011.
legalizing activities such as recreational drug use that do not affect anyone other than the person who chooses to engage in the activity. In the sense that one's actions and choices always affect one's family and loved ones, the decision to take drugs impacts on their lives, but that is outside the realm of government legislation. The decision to smoke cigarettes or to skydive can also be said to affect the lives of one's loved ones, yet neither is prohibited by legislation.
Recently, both individual states and the federal government have enacted laws intended to severely limit the rights of tobacco smoking in public areas, in rightful recognition of the distinction between choices to engage in certain behaviors privately and the rights of others not to be subjected to dangers or inconvenience posed by such choices. This is the essential issue that distinguishes justifiable and unjustifiable government paternalism.
On another level, paternalistic legislation might be drafted to disqualify those who engage in certain behaviors from government subsidized medical care, under the theory that one has no right to saddle the rest of society with the financial burden of paying for one's irresponsible choice to persist in behaviors known to be detrimental to health and longevity. Naturally, the same concept would apply equally to those suffering the long-term medical consequences of smoking tobacco, which currently constitutes the largest preventable cause of lung cancer, heart disease, and many other illnesses that drain public resources.
The spectrum of government paternalism spans from complete permissibility, allowing utterly reckless conduct that is injurious to others to comprehensive over- regulation, where legal penalties attach to eating junk food if one is above one's ideal weight. My first disagreement with the current illegal status of recreational drugs is that I believe it represents a position on the spectrum that is too close to over- regulation in that it prohibits activities that are (or that should be) purely matters of personal choice. In my opinion, mandatory seatbelt and motorcycle helmet laws infringe into issues of personal choice where there is no justification based on protecting the public at large. Conversely, I am in favor of prohibiting seemingly innocuous activities such as operating cellular phones while driving, precisely because it increases the risk of collision with innocent people. The difference is seatbelts and helmets protect only the individual who chooses to use them, whereas distracted drivers represent a potential risk to other people as well. I also reject any claim that legalizing recreational drugs would result in an increase in crimes associated with their use, because, as I suggested earlier, the same can be said (and has already been witnessed in this country) in connection with 1920's Prohibition.
Ultimately, my most fundamental objection to the current illegal status of recreational drugs is their unjustified inequality and incongruence, as compared to regulation of tobacco, alcohol, and for that matter, ropeless mountain climbing and junk food. Regardless of any argument as to the appropriate point for anti-drug laws on the legislative spectrum between absolute permissibility and over-legislation, government regulations must, in principle, reflect uniformity and a logical consistency.