Legalizing Marijuana Essays Examples

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Legalize Marijuana Now Today the United States

Words: 1583 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 94331501

Legalize Marijuana Now!

Today, the United States enjoys the dubious distinction of incarcerating more of its citizens than any other industrialized nation on earth. Perhaps even more troubling still, the majority of these citizens have been imprisoned for nonviolent crimes involving drugs, with marijuana being one of the most prominently drugs. Furthermore, these issues have assumed new importance and relevance in recent years. As the country continues to struggle to recover from the Great Recession of 2008, dwindling federal and state budgets have forced lawmakers to scramble to identify ways to save money in order to turn the tide for economic recovery. One initiative that has been advanced time and again is the legalization of marijuana because it would reduce the number of people being incarcerated and help generate new tax revenues. To determine if this is the legalization of marijuana is a truly viable option, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Although more than 25% of Americans have experimented with marijuana or use it routinely with little or no discernible harmful effects, the U.S. Surgeon General cites the following known…… [Read More]

Sources:
Cameron, Kenzie A., Campo, Shelly and Brossard, Dominique. (2003). "Advocating for Controversial Issues: The Effect of Activism on Compliance-Gaining Strategy

Likelihood of Use." Communication Studies 54(3): 265-266.
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Legalize Marijuana Considering the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1066 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 90125714

Legalize Marijuana?

Considering the Legalization of Marijuana

The federal government outlawed marijuana in 1937, a decision that remains controversial to this day. Proponents argue that growers have profited for decades and should be taxed accordingly. In the health care arena, medical marijuana is legal in a number of states, a decision with which seventy percent of Americans agree (Vlahos 18). Those against legalization cite potential health hazards, similar to those faced by smokers of tobacco. Although only mildly physically addictive, marijuana can be psychologically addictive. It is often called the "gateway" drug since users sometimes progress to more powerful illegal substances. Members of the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) are against legalization for reasons that some may find surprising.

Marijuana is called a "soft" drug and seems more socially acceptable than other drugs; after all "smoking and eating are more naturally associated with pleasure than is injection" (Schmidt-Semisch & Paul 712). Many people have argued that marijuana is harmless and all that legalization would really do is reduce its criminal aspects. Some have argued that prohibition of alcohol did little to decrease consumption and resulting crime ultimately led to the law's repeal. Marijuana, some insist, is…… [Read More]

References:
"15 Legal Medical Marijuana States and DC." ProCon.org. (n.d.) Web. Retrieved from  http://medicalmarijuana.procon.org/view.resource.php?resourceID=000881  2 May

2011.
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Understanding Civil Society Through Legalize Marijuana Organizations

Words: 3120 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 33997875

Civil Society Through "Legalize Marijuana" Organizations

As microcosms of civil society, collective action groups operate with processes used by civil society but with uniquely tailored processes and results. The National Organization for Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML) is one example of a collective action group that has used these processes to establish itself, grow, survive and currently flourish. Through intelligent framing, effective resource mobilization and wise use of political opportunity, NORML's 40+year history has resulted in growth from an idea supported by a few people to a well-funded and assertive national movement. This work will attempt to show NORML'S accurate reflection of successful civil society by reviewing research on civil society and collective action groups, reviewing NORML's history, and applying the research to NORML.

Analysis:

Collective Action Group as a Microcosm of Civil Society

Framing processes are a central dynamic, along with resource mobilization and political opportunity processes, for understanding civil society and social movements as a microcosm of civil society (Benford & Snow, 2000, p. 612). "Frames help to render events or occurrences meaningful and thereby function to organize experience and guide action" (Benford & Snow, 2000, p. 614). Flowing from that definition, "collective action frames are action-oriented sets…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Arat, Y. (1994). Toward a democratic society: The women's movement in Turkey in the 1980s. Womenh's Studies Int. Forum, 17(2/3), 241-248.

Benford, R.D., & Snow, D.A. (2000). Framing processes and social movements: An overview and assessment. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 611-639. Retrieved on June 13, 2012 from www.jstor.org Web site:  http://www.jstor.org/stable/223459 
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U S Government Legalize Marijuana The

Words: 4538 Length: 15 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 76963709

There is much more to the issue and how it is addressed than that (Seamon, 2007). These states are:

Alaska

California

Colorado

Hawaii

Maine

Maryland

Michigan

Montana

Nevada

New Mexico

Oregon

Rhode Island

Vermont

Washington (Seamon, 2007)

Criticisms of Decriminalization

Gateway Drug

The war on drugs has been in the news for some time now, and marijuana has been included in that war. It continues to be listed as important in the speeches of many politicians, and it continues to be at the forefront of a great many debates about how our tax money should best be spent (Gray, 2005; Pacula, 2003b). One of the main concerns of the war on drugs, however, does not deal with what politicians think about it. Rather, it deals with what police think about it. Police are, after all, the ones that are out there on the streets every day, trying to fight the war on drugs. They have limited resources and limited manpower, but they fight just the same. So is the war on drugs really working, and how is it impacting the bottom line of the economy?

First, the war on drugs is not working as well as it could. Many studies…… [Read More]

References:
Anslinger, H.J. & Tompkins, William F. n.d. "The traffic in narcotics." Drug Library. Retrieved at http://www.druglibrary.org/schaffer/people/anslinger/traffic/appendix1.htm

Austin, James. 2005. "Rethinking the Consequences of Decriminalizing Marijuana." Washington, DC: The JFA Institute.
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Marijuana Legalization

Words: 3159 Length: 10 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 58309039

Marijuana Legalization

Marijuana, also known as marihuana, is a drug that is taken from Cannabis sativa, a hemp plant. It is one of the most frequently used and popular drugs in the world along with caffeine, nicotine, and alcohol. The United States of America is one of the world's leading producers of marijuana where it is generally smoked and is also referred to as weed or reefer by the citizens ("marijuana").

Marijuana has been known for lowering testosterone levels and sperm counts in males and raising testosterone levels in females. It has a damaging effect on the fetus of the pregnant women and consequently results in poor development of the child. Evidence has proved the affects of marijuana on the normal maturation of teenagers. It is also found to affect the short-term memory and intellectual capacity of its users. Intense users of marijuana frequently sustain lung damage and its heavy usage can also in dependency ("marijuana").

Although law enforcement agencies have been continuously making efforts for the reduction of illegal drugs supply (as required by the war on drugs), there has been no significant reduction in the availability of a majority of drugs. The unfortunate thing is that even the…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Cooper, M.H. (1993, March 19). War on Drugs. CQ Researcher, 3, 241-264. Retrieved May 25, 2013, from  http://library.cqpress.com/cqresearcher/ 

Duke, S.B. (2013). The Future of Marijuana in the United States. Oregon Law Review, 91, 1301-1318. Retrieved May 25, 2013, from http://law.uoregon.edu/org/olr/volumes/91/2/documents/Duke.pdf
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Marijuana Shouldn't Be Legalized

Words: 1266 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 86340785

Marijuana Should Not Be Legalized

Physical Health Concerns

According to a Harvard University Law School document, it would be "…fallacious to conclude that because the chemicals in marijuana have been found to present fewer dangers…" than cocaine, heroin, alcohol and tobacco, that the recreational use of marijuana "is safe" (Harvard). In fact, even though many states authorize the use of cannabis for medical purposes (for AIDS sufferers and for those experiencing harmful side effects from cancer chemotherapy and glaucoma), marijuana has "potentially dangerous side effects" (Harvard).

Those "dangerous [physical] side effects" include: a) damage to cells in the bronchial passages that could cause chronic bronchitis; b) a decrease in the ability of the body's immune cells to "fight off fungi, bacteria, and tumor cells"; c) the possibility of getting "pulmonary infections and respiratory cancer"; and d) since one joint of powerful cannabis has "four times more tar than a cigarette," lungs are exposed to the same dangers that cigarettes create (Harvard).

Mental Health Concerns

The Harvard paper asserts that use of marijuana "is at the root of many mental disorders," and those include: a) "acute toxic psychosis"; b) "panic attacks," which is one of the "very conditions it is being…… [Read More]

Resources:
Bernstein, Douglas A. (2007). Psychology. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.

CNBC. (2010). Why We Should Not Legalize Marijuana. Retrieved December 12, 2012, from http://www.cnbc.com.
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Legalize It Hypocrisy and Inefficiency

Words: 1391 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 19662145



The drug cartels will lose money if marijuana is legalized, there's no question. Other entities also stand to make a lot of money if the plant and rug is legalized, and some of these entities could really put it to good use. As one of the biggest cash crops in the country (the biggest by far, according to some measures), the tax revenues that could potentially be earned from the sale of marijuana easily stretch into the billions, while several more billions of taxpayer dollars could be saved every year simply by ceasing to arrest or prosecute marijuana possession cases. Budget shortfalls could be significantly impacted by a move that many see as the only practical solution anyway.

In the four decades since President Richard Nixon fired the first shot in the War on Drugs, drug abuse has drastically increased instead of being reduced. The one-hundred million dollars that the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act was originally conceived to cost has grown to well over one trillion dollars at this point, with more than fifteen billion dollars of taxpayer money spent in 2010 alone on the War on Drugs as a whole, with at least half of these…… [Read More]

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Marijuana Be Legalized As a

Words: 885 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 81434695



One very important aspect related to smoking marijuana concerns the number of deaths reported on an annual basis linked to using other legal and illegal substances. For example, according to the U.S. Bureau of Mortality Statistics, 400,000 Americans die annually as a direct result of smoking cigarettes; 100,000 die prematurely from drinking alcohol; some 20,000 die from abusing legal prescription drugs like Oxycontin, Valium, Percodan, and other drugs prescribed by physicians; 2,000 die from the effects of consuming too much caffeine, mainly from heart failure, while the number of Americans who die from smoking marijuana currently stands at zero, an indication that smoking marijuana does not directly cause any known fatal and debilitating disease ("The Legalization of Marijuana," Internet).

Therefore, considering the number of Americans who die prematurely from consuming alcohol which has been legal since the end of Prohibition in the early 1930's, there is no logical reason not to legalize marijuana; in fact, a number of U.S. states have recently made medical marijuana legal despite the fact that marijuana remains illegal under federal law. Many studies have conclusively shown that marijuana is an excellent pain reliever and has some positive traits for those suffering from the side effects…… [Read More]

Sources:
States. New York: Random House, 2006.

"The Legalization of Marijuana." 2009. Internet. Accessed November 24, 2009

from http://www.legalizationofmarijuana.com.
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Marijuana Use

Words: 1042 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1866288

Medical Marijuana Use and the National Drug Policy

It is clear that the marijuana plant covers numerous elements that may prove prized when it comes to treating a variety of symptoms illnesses or, leading numerous individuals to argue that it should be made legally obtainable for medical determinations. The states of Colorado and Washington in the United Sates have legalized marijuana for fun use. However, there is a quantity of other states which have legalized basic marijuana for "medical" utilization. Research shows that even more states are passing laws that permitting individuals to start practicing medical marijuana. Therefore, if an individual lives in a state where medical marijuana is permitted and their physician trusts that it would benefit, they will get what is called a "marijuana card." With that said, this paper will discuss medical marijuana use and the national drug policy.

When it comes to national policy, twenty-three states and the District of Columbia have passed medical marijuana laws permitting the production and use of medical marijuana for patients that qualify under state law. However, the medical use of marijuana remains illegal under federal law, and patients in the remaining states are without any legal access at all. Even…… [Read More]

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Marijuana and the Brain

Words: 580 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 50153283

psychological effects of drugs. Specifically it will discuss the psychological effects of marijuana on the brain. Many factors of marijuana use can affect the brain, and these affects can be long-term and very harmful. Using marijuana may seem harmless, and less harmful than other types of drugs, such as alcohol, but it is very harmful, and can have long-term affects on people who use it regularly.

Marijuana has many chemicals that are harmful. Doctors Bell and Hall note that THC is the most well-known and harmful of these chemicals. They write, "Among them, THC is the most psychoactive in humans, producing euphoria, relaxation, intensification of ordinary sensory experiences, perceptual alterations, diminished pain, and difficulties with memory and concentration" (Bell & Hall, 2005). These affects do not typically last longer than a few hours, depending on how much of the drug the subject ingests, but the affects on the brain can last much longer and can be devastating. Bell and Hall continue, "Several studies have noted partial tolerance to the effect on mood, memory, motor coordination, sleep, brain wave activity, blood pressure, temperature, and nausea" (Bell & Hall, 2005). Thus, marijuana can affect many areas of the brain and brain function,…… [Read More]

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Debate on Marijuana Use

Words: 770 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87528316

Legalizing Marijuana

The war on drugs is quite an expensive battle since a great deal of the resources are normally spent on catching those that buy and sell the illegal drugs in the black market prosecuting them and putting them in jail. The legalization of Marijuana in the U.S. has been an object of continued debate. Some states have already enacted laws that have legalized the therapeutic use of marijuana whereas there are others that still have pending legalization laws. There are confusing messages that re being sent by popular culture, media proponents of medical marijuana as well as political campaigns to make marijuana legal are used to perpetrate a false notion that marijuana causes no harm. This paper will look at the negative and positive aspects of legalization of marijuana in a community and in American society as a whole.

Positive aspects

The prohibition of marijuana has to be weighed against the loss of an individual's personal freedom. Every individual has to have his or her own free will and a community and America in general has the responsibility of respecting this free will. The legalization of marijuana means that an individual's free will is respected. Legally prohibiting marijuana…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Svrakic, D., Lustman, P,. Mallya, A 7 Finney, R. (2009). Legalization, Descrinilization & Medical use of Cannabis: A scientific and public health perspective. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from http://www.msma.org/docs/communications/momed/Medicinal_Use_Cannabis.pdf

Malerba, L. (2010). Medical Marijuana: The Pros and Cons of Legal Cannabis. Retrieved July 25, 2014 from  http://www.procon.org/in-the-news-pdfs/huffington-post-medical-marijuana-the-pros-and-the-cons-of-legal-cannabis.pdf
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Rebuttal Argument Against Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1790 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87823454

Marijuana, which comes from the Cannabis plant, has been used by people since time immemorial. It was only in the 1960s that this plant received excessive media attention for the effect it had on people and the adverse potential to go wrong. Therefore, the American government illegalized the use of marijuana and anyone found to be in possession of this plant, or to be intoxicated by it, was told to be arrested by police forces and then further interrogated. Since this banning of marijuana and the imposition of harsh laws, many have stood up and spoke for legalizing the drug. The question at hand is whether using marijuana as a drug is a crime worthy of so much attention or rather is it a drug that needs to be removed from the blacklist, as per pro-marijuana activists' campaigning.

The issue began in 1960 when the government of the United States introduced anti-marijuana propaganda through the media and deemed it as a danger to national security and prosperity. This was backed by a claim that along with changing a person's emotions and feelings, it also makes a person lazy, unproductive and far from realistic thinking so much so that they may…… [Read More]

Sources:
Bock, Alan. Waiting to Inhale: The Politics of Medical Marijuana. Seven Locks Press, 2000. Print.

Earleywine, Mitch. Understanding Marijuana: A New Look at the Scientific Evidence. Oxford University Press, 2000. Print.
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Anti-Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1485 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 77852572

Legalizing Marijuana

Recent ballot initiatives in states like California and Oregon asking for the decriminalization of marijuana use reveals a growing public acceptance of marijuana. The perception that marijuana is not dangerous has made drug enforcement even more difficult. Indeed, the debate over marijuana goes beyond health concerns, and touches issues such as crime and privacy as well.

This paper examines the debate to legalize marijuana. The first part of the paper examines the arguments of the pro-marijuana side, focusing on those who argue that the drug can have medicinal purposes. The next part then examines the potential dangers of legalized marijuana use, both to the individual and to public health in general. In the conclusion, the paper argues that marijuana use is not a "victimless" crime. The potential dangers that marijuana present to individual and public health are best upheld by keeping marijuana illegal.

Pro-legalization arguments

Prohibitions against the legalized use of marijuana are thus seen as a state's infringement on a person's privacy. For many people, there is little distinction between marijuana use and smoking cigarettes or consuming alcohol. However, even though marijuana use is a "victimless" crime, citizens who choose to exercise their individual civil rights to…… [Read More]

References:
Glasser, Ira. "Spotlight: Why Marijuana Law Should Matter to You." Marijuana. Louise I. Gerdes, ed. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2002.

Gottfried, Ted Should Drug Use Be Legalized? Connecticut: Twenty-First Century Books, 2000.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1284 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 21318621

Legalizing Marijuana

Any drug that alters the brain chemistry, impairs cognitive functions, and creates an addictive personality cannot be recommended as safe. While there is no suppressing the fact that controlling illegal marijuana use continues to be a financial and administrative bottleneck, they are overridden by the potential harmful health consequences of legalizing marijuana.

Marijuana has been in use for thousands of years for its medicinal properties. With the development of new synthetic drugs there was a gradual decline in its use from the early part of the 20th century. Today however, though illegal, it continues to be a widely used drug in the United States for both recreational and medicinal purposes. In the year 2000 alone there were more than 2.4 million new users of marijuana and the drug is supposedly consumed by more than 76% of all drug users. [NCADI] The comparatively safer and proven remedial properties of modern synthetic drugs have now sidelined the medical use of marijuana. Yet, we are still faced with the boiling controversy of legalizing marijuana for its medicinal values. While advocates for legalizing marijuana staunchly endorse its medicinal value and point out the high policing costs involved in controlling illegal trafficking of…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
1) Edward A. Jacobs, "Legalization of Marijuana: Potential Impact on Youth,"

PEDIATRICS Vol. 113 No. 6 June 2004, pp. 1825-1826
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Marihuana Should Be Legalized in the United States

Words: 961 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 2113027

Legalize

Marijuana, also known as cannabis, is the most widely used illegal drug worldwide (Caulkins et al.). However, the legal status of marijuana is slowly changing. Uruguay recently became the first nation in the world to fully decriminalize and federally regulate marijuana. Several other countries in Western Europe have liberal laws related to marijuana that amount to practical decriminalization. The United States, which until fairly recently remained stuck to its "war on drugs" policy, has finally begun to understand that not only is marijuana safe, but it is also a valuable medical resource. Thus, several states in the union have started to allow for the prescription of cannabis for medical use. Given the fact that decriminalization also presents several net benefits to society including reducing prison overpopulation and reducing the stranglehold organized crime holds over some communities, a few states have begun to decriminalize the drug entirely. Colorado and Washington State became the first to decriminalize marijuana, and Alaska and Washington, D.C. followed soon thereafter. According to Becker, there are seven more states poised to legalize marijuana within their borders as well, including Massachusetts, California, Missouri, Hawaii, Maine, Nevada, and Arizona. The reasons why marijuana should be legalized at the…… [Read More]

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Legalizing Prostitution in the U S A the Topic

Words: 1322 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 6504033

LEGALIZING PROSTITUTION IN THE U.S.A.

The topic I have chosen to discuss is the legalization of prostitution in the United States of America. By prostitution, I refer to an act where money is exchanged for rendering sexual services. Presently, 49 states out of 50 in the United States have banned prostitution withonly some forms of it allowed in a few areas of Nevada. This is not the case in all developed countries. Some places in Europe such as Holland, have legalized itand are regulating it through relevant legislature by the government.

My main stance on the topic is that these countries are not worse off than the U.S.A. In terms of the expected negative societal effects of prostitution such as human trafficking, rape etc.In fact on a closer introspection it may be that this ban is causing more harm to the community rather than benefits. For example, the number of rapes that took place in Netherlands, where prostitution is legal in 2010 is 9.2 per 100000 populations, while USA in which 49 of the 50 States, barring Nevada have criminalized prostitution has an astounding number of 27.3 per 100000 populations.

Thus, I advocate legalizing prostitution because:

a. There is little…… [Read More]

Sources:
Feingold, D. (2005). Human Trafficking.Foreign Policy.Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/discover/10.2307/30048506?uid=2&uid=4&sid=21101769414447

Langer, G. (2004). Poll: American Sex Survey. ABC News Online. Retrieved from: http://abcnews.go.com/Primetime/News/story?id=156921&page=1
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Legalizing Drugs the Government Creates

Words: 1877 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 37845826

It is because policemen may succumb to corruption; especially when their salaries are minimal and the money earned by drug dealers are immense. The legalization of drugs will eliminate such acts of illegality.

The government and elected officials have a significant amount of say and rule as to what passes as a law and what does not. Such representatives are to symbolize and stand for what the people want. However, with so many voices and opinions of how certain issues should be and what should be ruled as legal, conflicts arise. Controversy is heavily shrouded in the dilemma around the legalization of drugs, and whether the government should permit the legal selling, purchase of narcotics like alcohol and tobacco. If such law is passed, the government and its citizens are affected economically, judicially, medically, and socially. Economically, the government is able to receive billions of dollars in revenue and reduce the amount spent on drug enforcement annually. Judicially, the number of people imprisoned for illegal drug transactions and gang wars may settle disputes legally. Medically, the access to pure drugs and clean needles will reduce health hazards like AIDS but increase physician supervision, thus providing a safe haven for addicts.…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Block, W. "Drug Prohibition: A Legal and Economic Analysis." Journal of Business Ethics 12.9 (1993): 689-700. Print.

Cussen, M, and W. Block. "Legalize Drugs Now! An Analysis of the Benefits of the Legalized Drugs." American Journal of Economics and Sociology 59.3 (2000): 525-536. Print.
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For the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1130 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 82013604

Legalization of marijuana has been a controversial topic in the media as of lately. Completely legalizing marijuana would mean allowing just about anyone to have access to it -- of course with some government regulation. However, opponents of this process argue that the health detriments are enough to merit harsher punishments and the complete ban of this substance. Despite opposition to marijuana's legalization, there are many more benefits that need to be taken into consideration before rushing to any particular judgment. Marijuana should be legalized because it will bring a much needed boost to the economy, it has documented health benefits, and it is a safer drug than alcohol and cigarettes, which are already considered to be legal substances (ABC 20/20). In order for the welfare of all of the aforementioned entities to be established, marijuana needs to be legalized.

As of 2012, the states of Colorado and Washington have agreed to legalize the recreational use of marijuana. This means that anyone over the age of 21 can legally purchase a certain amount of pot without any criminal repercussions (Robesonian.com). Some states have already allowed the use of marijuana in cases where it is medically necessary. However, the complete legalization…… [Read More]

Resources:
ABC 20/20. "Should Marijuana Be Legalized?" ABC News. ABC News Network, 27 Aug. 0000. Web. 01 May 2013. < http://abcnews.go.com/2020/story?id=132663 >.

Astaiza, Randy. "All The Reasons Pot Is Good For You." Business Insider: Science. Business Insider, 08 Nov. 2012. Web. 01 May 2013. .
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 923 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47854518

Medical Marijuana Legislation and Civil Liberties

When the historic passage of legislation permitting medical marijuana use in states like Arizona (2010), Delaware (2011) and Massachusetts (2012) is considered in conjunction with the fact that 13 other states have similar legislation or ballot measures pending, the traditional conception of marijuana ingestion as a criminal act is being reexamined on a societal level. Further bolstering this assertion is the legal situation in California, Colorado and Washington, where marijuana has been decriminalized entirely and permitted for recreational sale by licensed dispensaries, providing the platform for a restoration of basic rights in these jurisdictions. With approximately half of the states in the union already affording citizens with medical needs the liberty to seek relief in the form of marijuana, while the federal government's ostensible ban on the substance remains in effect, the stage has been set for a national debate over the merits of legalizing marijuana for medicinal use. After decades of misinformation concerning the alleged link between marijuana use and addiction to more destructive "hard" narcotics like cocaine, methamphetamine or heroin, the lengthy period of legalized medicinal marijuana use in several states has provided a wealth of statistical data focused explicitly on long-term…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Mill, J.S., Smith, J.M., & Sosa, E. (1969). Mill's Utilitarianism: Text and criticism. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
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Legalization of Marijuana Within the

Words: 1165 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 35786324

For example, in the state of Montana, initiative organizers and supporters "face much opposition from local law enforcement and youth substance abuse prevention groups" that claim legalizing marijuana will lead to a great increase in the number of users. However, as the organizers of the low police priority initiative point out, the evidence to support this assertion does not exist; in fact, "We know that liberalizing drug laws in other places has not led to an increase in drug use. This assertion has also been equated with the "Reefer Madness mentality," a reference to the film "Reefer Madness" of the 1930's which depicted marijuana smokers as deranged criminals ("Lowest Law Enforcement Priority," 2006, Internet).

According to statistics provided by the National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws, voters in the city of Oakland, just north of San Francisco, "overwhelmingly approved the nation's first-ever business tax on retail marijuana sales," imposing $18 for every $1,000 of gross receipts beginning January 1, 2010. As to Oakland's legal medicinal marijuana dispensaries, the figure stands at $60 for every $50,000 of gross receipts, plus an extra $1.20 for amounts over $100,000 ("California: Oakland Voters," 2009, Internet).

Thus, NORML predicts that the current prohibition…… [Read More]

Sources:
NORML. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from  http://norml.org .

"Lowest Law Enforcement Priority Marijuana Initiatives Face the Voters in Five Cities." (2006).

Stop the Drug War.com. Internet. Accessed July 22, 2009 from http://stopthedrugwar.org / chronicle/459/marijuana_lowest_enforcement_priority_initiatives.
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Adolescent Development Should Marijuana Be

Words: 744 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 26261939

In other words, it makes users less rather than more able to cope with life stressors and less socially functional and engaged with the world. Rather than reaching out for help when they need it, marijuana smokers are more likely to drop out of life.

The type of marijuana available today is 'not your parent's marijuana' either. From 1980 and 1997, the amount of THC, the active chemical in marijuana that produces the marijuana high, rose dramatically. Marijuana is far more potent than it has ever been in the past: and so are its effects upon your daily life and your long-term future. Even if you just use it on weekends, marijuana's effects on memory and learning can last for days or weeks because of how long the drug is stored in the body. "A study of 129 college students found that among heavy users of marijuana - those who smoked the drug at least 27 of the preceding 30 days" showed significantly impaired attention, memory, and learning" (Volkow, 2005, p.7). Also, "a recent study compared current and former long-term heavy users of marijuana with a control group who reported smoking cannabis at least once in their lives, but not…… [Read More]

References:
Volkow, Nora et al. (2005). Research report: Marijuana abuse.

National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA). Retrieved February 16, 2010 at http://drugabuse.gov/ResearchReports/Marijuana/default.html
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Legalization Marijuana Your Written Proposal Include Elements

Words: 881 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 98270660

legalization marijuana. Your written proposal include elements listed address considerations: •An analysis public policy criminal justice interrelate. •Why feel social change relevant criminal justice system important policy initiate foster change improvement.

There has been much controversy regarding the legalization of marijuana in recent years, as its number of supporters has increased directly proportional to the number of individuals opposing it. When considering matters from a perspective involving public policy, the legalization of marijuana is going to cause increased marijuana use. Consuming more marijuana can lead to people's health being negatively affected but it can also generated more revenue for the government as a result of taxes. Even with this, the fact that governments would gain control over marijuana sales would mean that they would be able to control the amounts that people use as a result of introducing more or less harsh taxes. Education would make the difference between a public that opposes legalization on account of what they hear from others and a public that actually wants to oppose legalization.

The legalization of marijuana currently stands as a social issue, with the masses having mixed opinions regarding the topic and with a series of forces continuing to stand in…… [Read More]

Resources:
Fox, S., Armentano, P., & Tvert, M. (2009). Marijuana Is Safer: So Why Are We Driving People to Drink?. Chelsea Green Publishing.

Galston, W.A. & Dionne, E.J. "The New Politics of Marijuana Legalization: Why Opinion is Changing," Retrieved September 9, 2013, from  http://www.brookings.edu/research/papers/2013/05/29-politics-marijuana-legalization-galston-dionne 

Ruschman, P. (2009). Legalizing Marijuana. Infobase Publishing.
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Legalization of Marijuana for Medicinal

Words: 1276 Length: 4 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 87619549

The design of the study was to compare the patterns and frequency of recreational drug use of various types, and of the attitudes expressed by residents of California to the behavior and attitudes on the same issues in the 10 other states after California legalized marijuana for medicinal use in 1996. The number of respondents in California was 2,651 and a total of 12, 916 in the other 10 states. The Trevino and Richard study (2002) involved a sample of 188 drug users and non-drug users surveyed for their responses to questions about their opinions about the legalization of marijuana, and also of other illicit recreational drugs such as cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamines.

The Page, Verhoef, Stebbins, Metz, and Levy study (2003) utilized a self-reported questionnaire developed specifically as a tool for this study designed to identify differences in the choices made by patients with MS to use marijuana as a means of mitigating the severity of their MS symptoms. It collected demographic data, information about severity of disease symptoms, diagnoses, previous types of experiences with marijuana, beliefs about drug use, knowledge of the reported value of marijuana for medicinal purposes for the treatment of specific MS symptoms of and…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
Khatapoush, S. And Hallfors, D. "Sending the Wrong Message': Did Medical

Marijuana Legalization in California Change Attitudes about and Use of Marijuana?" Journal of Drug Issues, (Fall 2004): 751 -- 770.
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Religion the Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 2581 Length: 8 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 27739899

Even proponents of medical legalization concede marijuana cannot cure or even alleviate the symptoms of MS or glaucoma, merely act as a narcotic. True, other narcotics exist on the market today -- and like marijuana, they are also addictive. Whether they are more or less addictive than marijuana remains uncertain, but advocates say the chronically ill should be able to choose what works best for them while opponents say only tested, carefully titrated drugs should be used as palliatives.

Weighing the rights of the sick with marijuana's long and short-term side effects is a delicate balance. When marijuana is smoked, users often suffer similar short as well as long-term problems to those of regular smokers, including a smoker's cough and breathing problems. In fact, "marijuana smoke contains 50% to 70% more carcinogenic hydrocarbons than does tobacco smoke" (Legalization of marijuana, 2010, Legalization of marijuana). The active agent in marijuana, THC, has been linked to short-term memory loss: 4th graders who tested equally on tests of memory and were retested in 12th grade has notably poorer performance, relative to their peers, if they admitted to being heavy marijuana smokers, although once again proponents of the drug argue that correlation does not…… [Read More]

Works Cited:
Amsterdam drugs. (2005). Amsterdam Info. Retrieved July 14, 2010 at  http://www.amsterdam.info/drugs/ 

DuPont, J. (2007, October 30). On the legalization or not of marijuana. The New York Times.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1080 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 12664306

marijuana should be legalized only for medicinal purposes.

The debate over medicinal marijuana usage and legality is a controversial one. Many experts argue the drug costs society too much money in terms of law enforcement and incarceration costs when the monies could be better spent in other law enforcement areas. A large majority of the American people does believe marijuana should be decriminalized for medical usage. In 2001, 34% of adult Americans believed marijuana should be legal, at least in small amounts, the largest percentage since 1969, and up to 70% of adults approved of using medicinal marijuana for certain ailments (Cauchon 01A). However, several questions regarding medicinal marijuana usage that must be addressed.

First, is marijuana a safe and effective medicine? Proponents maintain marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years and for a variety of uses. They claim that it is safe, no one has ever "died of an overdose," and that it is safe, effective, and helpful in a variety of serious ailments, from multiple sclerosis to cancer and AIDS. In fact, even the Drug Enforcement Administration's (DEA) chief administrative law judge maintains the DEA should decriminalize marijuana partly because of its medicinal benefits ("Briefing Paper").…… [Read More]

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Legalization of Marijuana One of

Words: 702 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 598458

This is largely because there are two major reasons for the legalization of marijuana i.e. medical grounds and the potential revenues it could bring to the government. The decriminalization of the use of the drug can be a major point of governmental revenue through taxation of the sale of the drug. Secondly, as evident through history, the value of the drug to the medical field outweighs the disadvantages of its potential abuse in addition to its significance to both the paper and clothing industries ("Legalizing Marijuana," n.d.).

The decriminalization of the use of the drug will be of huge profit to the government because of the huge amounts related to the average price of the drug. Through this initiative, entrepreneurs are likely to begin their own operations because of the noticeable huge profits made in the marijuana market. Consequently, the supply of the drug on the streets will increase significantly resulting in an increase in government earnings through the taxation of the growing operations of marijuana sales. The extra profits generated by the risk-premium from the increase in operations of marijuana through legalization of the drug can be transferred to the government. Moreover, marijuana is less harmful and dangerous than…… [Read More]

Bibliography:
"Legalizing Marijuana." (n.d.). Marijuana Leaf. Retrieved from the University of Rhode Island

website: http://www.uri.edu/personal/atro6990/
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Medicinal Marijuana Argument Natural Herbs

Words: 741 Length: 2 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 28651862

Paternalistic legislation, even when warranted, must be logically consistent both in theory and in practical application, in the case of marijuana, prohibitions against its medicinal use, even if still unproven in clinical trials, is logically and ethically inconsistent with the legal status of substances like tobacco which are devoid of any possible beneficial use and which, unlike marijuana, have actually been proven to cause disease and premature death.

Governmental paternalism is appropriate in many instances, including ensuring the safety and efficacy of substances used for medicinal purposes. However, the application of paternalistic legislation must, if nothing else, be logically consistent.

Federal prohibition criminalizing marijuana, even for medicinal purposes, is completely unjustified, particularly in light of the legal status of tobacco, which has absolutely no beneficial medical use and whose recreational use accounts for tremendous human harm.

References

The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)

Retrieved November 21, 2007, at http://americanmarijuana.org/

Advocate organization dedicated to the legalization of marijuana for medicinal purposes.

Brecher, E.M. (1972) Licit and Illicit Drugs: The Consumers Union Report.

Boston: Little, Brown & Co.

Textbook detailing the cultural history of the uses and classifications of substances designated as "drugs."

Dershowitz, a. (2002) Shouting Fire: Civil Liberties in…… [Read More]

References:
The American Medical Marijuana Association website, (2007)

Retrieved November 21, 2007, at  http://americanmarijuana.org/ 
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Medicinal Marijuana

Words: 888 Length: 3 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 47178480

Medical Marijuana Use

Drugs & Alcohol

Marijuana is a plant or herb that grows on various parts of Earth. Other names for marijuana are hemp and cannabis, which refers to its biological name in Latin, cannibus sativa. Cannibus simply is the Latin word for marijuana, and sativa is the supine form a Latin verb meaning "sown" and "useful." The issue of marijuana use has been prominent in American culture since at least the 1930s, with propaganda films against the use of marijuana like Reefer Madness. Marijuana use has been in the news over the past few decades with specific regard to the medical uses of marijuana. There has been increased attention and research into the medical properties and benefits of marijuana, which is a new endeavor or perspective from mainstream America, as it has been historically viewed and publicized as a narcotic that makes users vulnerable to the use of much harder and more dangerous drugs. Cocaine is a drug that comes from a plant and so is heroin. They, like other drugs, are directly derived from plants and have the potential for medicinal purposes and for narcotic abuse. Where marijuana differs is that it does not need any special…… [Read More]

Sources:
Okie, MD, S. (2005) Medical Marijuana and the Supreme Court. The New England Journal of Medicine, 353(7), 648 -- 651.

Seamon, M.J., Fass, J.A., Maniscalco-Feichtl, M., Abu-Shrarie, N.A. (2007) Medical marijuana and the developing role of the pharmacist. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacists, 64, 1037 -- 1045.
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Legalization of Marijuana

Words: 1566 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 14233804

Legalization of Marijuana

Marijuana is one of the most popular recreational drugs in the United States, exceeded in popularity by only alcohol and tobacco. Recent research reveals that "more than 70 million Americans have smoked marijuana at some point in their lives, and that 18-20 million have smoked during the last year (NORML, 1999)."

According to R. Keith Stroup, Esq., the executive director of National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws (NORML, 1999), "Like most Americans, the vast majority of these millions of marijuana smokers are otherwise law-abiding citizens who work hard, raise families and contribute to their communities..." A national survey revealed that 32% of voting adults in the U.S. have acknowledged having smoked marijuana at some point in their lives.

The legalization of marijuana has been a topic of controversy for several years. Many proponents of the drug argue that marijuana should be legalized for both medical and recreational use. Others say that it should at least be decriminalized, meaning that the penalty for growing or possession of marijuana would be a simple fine, rather than jail time.

This paper aims to examine the controversial aspects of legalizing marijuana, in an effort to present a strong argument…… [Read More]

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Legaliztain of Marijuana in 2009

Words: 2375 Length: 9 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 85882007

President Richard Nixon chose to ignore and through the whole report into the garbage. Instead, he had the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) created and were given authority enter homes without knocking and to use wiretaps and gather intelligence virtually on anyone Milestones. In the 1980's President Ronald Reagan continued the war by advocated his own war and it was estimated that due to these wars, someone was arrested on a violation of a marijuana law every 38 seconds.

Thankfully, these wars have become more focused on the real drug problems that are primarily synthetic or man made or used in ways never imagined. But heroin and methamphitamines are clearly not health regimens. They kill people every day, cause real crimes and ruin families, lives and destroys entire groups.

The first step in changing the view of marijuana began with the legalization for medical usage. The compassions for the ill allowed California to pass the first medical marijuana law in the country in 1996 Milestones. It was followed by several states including Alaska, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon and Rhodie Island, Vermont and Washington have all passed a version of medical marijuana Milestones. Other states are…… [Read More]

Resources:
"42.0 Milestones in the History of Marijuana." N.p., 9 May 2010. Web. <rainz.org/420- milestones-history-marijuana/>.

Buchanan, Wyatt. "State's Voters to Decide on Legalizing Pot." San Fransisco Chronicle, n.d. Web. 9 May 2010. .
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Arguing for the Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

Words: 2434 Length: 6 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 59214750

Legalization of Marijuana in Washington State

The legalization of Marijuana would allow for the government to have more regulation over the drug and its users. This of course does not come without rules and blankets like how cigarettes and alcohol come with warnings when purchased. If Marijuana were to be legalized, it can be sold with a list of active ingredients, purity levels and warnings like those of pharmaceutical drugs; this would let people know more about the drug. Marijuana does not have any harmful effects besides for the user, who is willing to accept those risks when in taking the drug. Countries that have legalized Marijuana, such as Amsterdam, have had positive results. The legalization of Marijuana has more benefits for the state of Washington than negative aspects.

The state of Washington has enacted laws on the legalization of medical Marijuana. This is due to modern research which suggests that Marijuana can help with the treatment of a lot of clinical applications, and can ease pain (Bock 2000, null7). Additionally, this treatment includes relief from nausea, glaucoma, spasticity and movement disorders. Because Marijuana is a very strong appetite stimulant, research suggests that it could protect the body from a…… [Read More]

References:
Alan W. Bock, The Politics of Medical Marijuana (Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2000), null7, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=98432636.

Erich Goode, The Marijuana Smokers (New York: Basic Books, 1970), 211, http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99522922
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Government Doesn't Legalize Drugs The

Words: 1782 Length: 5 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 1928809

Bakalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876

Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 - Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html

Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html

Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html

Frequently Asked Questions," at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp

Americans for Compassionate Use," at http://www.acu.org/~acu/

Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at http://www.calyx.com/~mariolap/debate/ethan1.html

NASRO Issue Brief, Spring 1995 vol. 1, no.1,"Rethinking the War on Drugs and Crime: New Approaches to Local Polic." http://www.dscc.org/cwa/report.html

Policy Analysis: Thinking About Drug Legalization," at http://www.cato.org/pubs/pas/pa121.html

Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. How to Legalize Drugs. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages., pp. 161

Lester Grinspoon, MD, James B. Bakalar, JD, 'Marijuana as Medicine: a Plea for Reconsideration', 1876 Journal of the America Medical Association, June 21, 1995 -- Vol. 273, No. 23, at http://www.calyx.com/~olsen/MEDICAL/lester.html

Alternatives to the War on Drugs," at http://www.geocities.com/CapitolHill/4727/alt-wod-faq.html

Frequently Asked Questions, at http://www.paranoia.com/drugs/marijuana/hemp/FAQ-alt.hemp

Americans for Compassionate Use, at http://www.acu.org/~acu/

Ibidem 4

Lee P. Brown, "Eight Myths About Drugs," Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Co. 15 July 1994

Ethan a. Nadelmann, "Thinking seriously about alternatives to the drug prohibition," Daedalus v.123:3, at…… [Read More]

Sources:
Fish, Jefferson M, Ed. "How to Legalize Drugs." Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson Inc.. July 1998, 675 pages;

Lee P. Brown, "Eight Myths About Drugs," Vital Speeches of the Day, City News Publishing Co. 15 July 1994;
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Colorado and Washington Have Legalized

Words: 2049 Length: 7 Pages Document Type: Essay Paper #: 29711138

With the exception of Washington and Colorado, U.S. laws forbid the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, whereas Netherlands has been entertaining a liberal policy for two decades. In this light, Americans would be expected to have a small rate of marijuana usage, while the Dutch due to their expanded availability of cannabis, should have an increased rate of usage. The empirical evidence to support these conclusions, though, is scant.

Dutch drug policy may appear radical, but let there be no misunderstanding, their laws state clearly that marijuana is illegal. In 1976, it had been decided to take the course of de-penalization, a formal non-enforcement policy for offences involving possession of up to 30 grams, and this quantity limit was dropped to 5 grams in 1995. During the 1980s the de facto legalization started, with the inauguration of small retail outlets known as coffee shops that were allowed to commercialize marijuana in accordance with five rules: they were forbidden to sell to underage children, or to sell other hard drugs, or to exceed the limit of five grams in a day for one person, or even advertise, and public disturbances were not accepted (Mikos, 2009). It is relevant for…… [Read More]

References:
Cohen, Peter J. Medical Marijuana, Compassionate Use, and Public Policy: Expert Opinion or Vox Populi? (2006, May-June). The Hastings Center Report, Vol. 36, No. 3

Metrik, J. et al. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect. (2011, April 1). Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, Vol. 25, No. 1