Life Cycle of Organizations
Anthony Downs on the life cycle of bureaus: comparison of old and new organizations and state of organizations at present
In the book, "Inside Bureaucracy," author and political theorist Anthony Downs introduced, analyzed, and discussed the concept known as the "life cycle of bureaus." This concept was conceptualized to illustrate the nature and dynamics of government agencies and institutions, which displayed an altogether different culture compared to private or non-government organizations. From his study of government bureaus, Down presented the argument that,
As a bureau grows older, the number and proportion of administrative officials therein tends to rise. If a bureau experiences a period of relative stability in total size following a period of rapid growth, the average age of its members tends to rise as the bureau grows older. This tends to increase the influence of conservers in the bureau, for many officials of other…… [Read More]
However, if management has encouraged new product development and creative ancillary product development during the maturity phase, the decline phase can be stretched out for a longer period of time, and even reversed with the right management strategies. (HR, 2003)
The focus in all of these stages is balance. Management must know in which stage the organization is at the moment, and must capitalize on that knowledge. At all times, management must be open with employees and investors with regard to the present stage and the plans to act upon that knowledge. Withholding financials and long-term goals from middle managers and investors does not create an environment in which the organization can successfully work towards increasing profits in the pioneering phase, lengthening the growth phase, managing liberally during the maturity phase to create new markets and hopefully avoiding the decline phase. (Dewar, 216)
Life cycles in organizations are as important…… [Read More]
The successful adaptation of life cycle costing to environmental accounting opens the door for the application of life cycle costing techniques to other emerging areas of managerial accounting. This paper will examine the usefulness of life cycle costing in the context of not only its existing uses but with respect to potential future uses as well. It is expected that this analysis will conclude that life cycle costing is a valuable complementary tool that can be used in a wide range of managerial accounting applications.
The underlying concept of life cycle costing is that a capital asset's "cost" should be taken to incorporate all of the costs associated with that asset over the course of its useful life (oodward, 1997). The costs, once gathered, could be evaluated against the costs of other projects. Compared to previous methodologies, some of which were incredibly simple, life cycle costing was a leaps and…… [Read More]
Using his theory and trends in current literature, it is safe to assume that environmental auditing is the new social norm in the business community. Those that do not follow this norm will not be able to sustain a competitive advantage in the future (Javernick-Will, 2009).
Accountants and managers are familiar with auditing processes. They conduct audits to examine cash flow efficiency, operational efficiency, and the efficiency of advertising campaigns. The idea of the audit is to get a snapshot of how effectively the company uses its resources. Until recently, environmental concerns were not a part of this process. Recent evidence indicates that the environmental audit can have a measurable impact on the operational efficiency of the organization (Rennings, Ziegler, & Ankele et al., 2006). The amount of literature available on the topic indicates that it is now an important part of the accounting audit.
Environmental auditing is referred to…… [Read More]
Life Cycle Management
Managing a project is a process which begins well before implementation and which extends beyond the final steps of execution. This is because the project manager is not just responsible for overseeing a contract's realization. The project manager must also be fully involved in the steps leading up to this realization and the evaluative steps that must be engaged following. This is why the Project Management Life Cycle is such a critical concept. It provides a more complete framework for seeing an awarded contract, an internal team assignment or even an independent venture from its true start to finish. The discussion here considers some of the most important aspects of each of the four Project Life Cycle stages.
The process of Initiating the project life cycle involves the preliminary steps that a project manager must take in order to establish the validity and value of a…… [Read More]
But the spiral model stresses the maintenance aspect more than general project models.
The spiral model stresses the need to constantly take into consideration the ability to simplify a product for the market and render it impermeable to advances by hackers. Indeed, much of the motivation behind utilizing a life cycle model is to provide structure to avoid the problems of the "undisciplined hacker." Thus, the model seems particularly applicable for today's virus and worm-beset times.
The spiral model of product design of 'going back' before one goes forward adds a vital component to the problem solving process of the project execution life cycle. If a typical cycle of project life is structured into the following pattern of phases of objectives Definition Phase (what is to be accomplished?), Design Phase (what/how to do it), Realization Phase (doing it), and Implementation Phase (hand-over of it), the spiral project model introduces constant…… [Read More]
LCA of Printer Cartridges
Life Cycle Analysis and Environmental Impact of Printer Cartridges
Printer cartridges are an important part of the world in which we live. Every day we purchase them, use them, and eventually need to replace them. The objective of this study is to examine the life cycle environmental impacts of printer cartridges. This assessment will not examine a particular type of printer cartridge, but will consider the life cycle of a printer cartridge to be relatively homogeneous. The exception will be in the case of remanufactured cartridges. The goal of this study is to understand the environmental impact of printer cartridges along every state of their product lifecycle.
ISO standards dictate that the functional unit of the system should be designed so that the inventory results can be understood on the basis of its function. The functional unit serves the purpose of making certain that…… [Read More]
The author of this report has been asked to do an article review on a subject related to the business world and project management. To meet this requirement, the author of this report has chosen a journal article about the project life cycle. It was written in 2013 by an author by the name of Oellgaard. The article itself pertains to the performance of the overall project life cycle methodology in practice. The article appeared in Project Management Journal. The author of this report will summarize the article itself, will succinctly answer what the article is addressing, will identify who is potentially affected by the topic and will assert an opinion about how well the article is written. While the general idea of the project life cycle is widely accepted by many scholars and professionals, it is a wise idea to always keep track of the method's efficacy…… [Read More]
life cycle is best for your project?." It was authored by some entity referred to as ExecutiveBrief. The article focuses on the development life aspect of project management, which is actually the type of methodology employed for developing a project prior to its movement to the production stage. This topic is extremely important in the field of project management, particularly because there are a number of different development models that individuals and organizations can choose to employ. It is vital to understand one's options relating to this pivotal area of project management, as well as the various factors that influence the selection of the model type. The authors have included a great deal of this information in the article which makes it fairly dense yet readable, and of extreme utility to a number of different people.
AFFECTED BY THE TOPIC
The individuals who are potentially affected by this topic include,…… [Read More]
Supply Chain Management Theory and Case Study
The process of constructing and maintaining of the immense and integral networks of infrastructure which are vital to the support and survival of municipalities and nations invariably relies upon the cooperative efforts of private enterprise and public entities to ensure that key elements such as a project's budgetary and scheduling concerns are addressed in an with economy and efficiency. Throughout the last century both private and public concerns were willing to work together in a collaborative way via the public-private partnership (PPP) model, a system which enables municipal governments to institute the issuing of bonds to produce financial support which is necessary for interstate highways, hydroelectric power plants, and the core components of infrastructure in the modern age. In a jointly authored article titled "A life-cycle risk management framework for PPP infrastructure projects," which was published within the Journal of Financial Management Of…… [Read More]
ystems Life Cycle and Database ystems Including
> Define systems, including why systems have a beginning and end.
> Discuss the importance of integrating a life cycle into the plan for development of a database
> Consider your organization or a business with which you are familiar. Provide examples of the database system it uses, its systems life cycle and how they are related. Is this effective? Why or why not?
> If your organization does not use a formal database system, what should it be implementing? Why?
The systems lifecycle in systems engineering refers to a system that addresses all phases of the engineering process. This includes: system conception, design and development, production and/or construction, distribution, operation, maintenance and support, retirement, phase-out and disposal.
As elaboration of each, we have:
1. Initial idea: this regards what the project is about, its purpose, and ways of accomplishing it.
Feasibility study…… [Read More]
ationale for the use of life cycle Management at Glazers
LCM (Life Cycle Management) is a framework which manages and scrutinises the performance and sustainability of services and goods. This framework aims to achieve the long-term objectives of the business, and gives less stress on the short-term objectives. For getting a more sustainable value chain, organizations are making use of this framework, which would in turn improve their economic and social performance. Businesses throughout the world are making use of this framework for many purposes, like to improve their standing within the market, to strengthen the relationships with the stakeholders and to produce more environment friendly goods.
LCM urges the companies to look away from their own processes, and focus on activities which are not under the direct control of the company. Such activities include the upstream and the downstream operations that become a part of value chain. In…… [Read More]
software deployment life cycle after discussing the first of the phases of this important life cycle. Phase IV is seen as a crucial phase wherein is dealt with the actual performance of the newly installed software. Phase V concludes the life cycle and provides impetus for any new deployment plan in future.
The Last Two Phases of the Software Deployment Life Cycle
Software deployment is a complex endeavor, most fittingly used as early as possible in the organizational cycle. All software deployment life cycles must consider three basic tasks: preparing for release of the software, releasing the software application to operations and support, and releasing the software application to the organization's user community. These are the end goals of this endeavor. On a phase-by-phase basis as well, the software deployment life cycle is multifaceted, taking into account many details without which the work of software deployment is incomplete.
The first…… [Read More]
The manager's understanding of the product nature as well as its place on the cycle are essential to a complete understanding of the need to act or not act.
Product life cycles can vary considerably in terms of length. The steam locomotive made its debut in the early 19th century and disappeared from regular service in the UK towards the end of the 1960s. One can still, of course, find enthusiasts using them in the 21st century in the UK and there are parts of the world for example, Eastern Europe, Africa and China where the steam locomotive is still in regular commercial use. In contrast, some women's and men's clothes come in and out of vogue with amazing alacrity.
Decisions are very important within the guide of the product life cycle, especially when the life cycle of the product can be perceived to be rather short, especially…… [Read More]
Product life cycle is the different stages of a product's life. The stages are introduction, growth, maturity and decline (QuickMBA, 2010). The marketing decisions will vary depending on which stage of the life cycle the product is in. The self-driving car will be in the introductory life cycle phase when it is launched. During this stage a number of things occur. The brand must be developed and introduced to the market. The distribution strategy must be determined. Promotion should be aimed at early adopters during this phase. In addition, the pricing structure may incorporate elements of either skimming or penetration pricing (QuickMBA, 2010).
The self-driving car is expected to move slowly through the introduction stage of the product life cycle into the growth stage. The reason the pace of this movement is expected to be slow relates to the fact that the technology is revolutionary. Consumer acceptance of the technology…… [Read More]
Other rivals will have a more secure market share as well, and new drugs may develop. However, although the rise may not be as astronomical, hopefully from AstraZenica's perspective, Crestor's next phasing into the 'decline' phase of the product life cycle will not be as impressive, either.
CNN. Com. (18 Nov 2004) "Merck, FDA grilled at Senate hearing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://cnnmoney.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&title=Merck%2C+FDA+grilled+at+Senate+hearing+over+Vioxx+-+Nov.+18%2C+2004&expire=&urlID=12326029&fb=Y&url=http%3A%2F%2Fmoney.cnn.com%2F2004%2F11%2F18%2Fnews%2Ffortune500%2Fmerck%2Findex.htm%3Fcnn
Crestor. (2004) "About Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/
Crestor. (2004) "Side Effects: Crestor." Official site. Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.crestor.com/c/crestor/sideeffects.asp
Drugrecall.com. (2004) "FDA says Crestor ads are false and misleading." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.adrugrecall.com/news/crestor-safety.html
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Pricing." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_pricing.htm
Marketing teacher." Product Life Cycle." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_plc.
Marketing teacher. (2004) "Value Chain." Retrieved 22 Jan 2005 at http://www.marketingteacher.com/Lessons/lesson_generic_strategies.htm… [Read More]
The development of a product strategy is one of the most important components of introducing new products into the market. A product strategy is defined as a roadmap that provides an outline of the end goal of a product and what it would become upon completion. Business organizations increasingly develop and utilize product strategies because of their significance in strategic planning and marketing with regards to the achievement of desired organizational goals and objectives. The formulation of a product strategy is also critical because products and services usually undergo a life cycle of new product introduction, growth, maturity and decline. The different stages in new product introduction have considerable impacts on the marketing strategy and promotional initiatives. An example of a product strategy is the introduction of a new software product in the market.
Product Life Cycle for a Software
Marcu & Gherman (2010) define product life cycle…… [Read More]
4. Control Phase: This phase is the one in which maintaining the project within the "scope, cost, and schedule" as well as "within acceptable quality" is addressed due to the possible variables. "Unknown or unproven technologies....make these projects difficult for the project manager to baseline the scope, schedules, and costs during the Planning Phase." (Systems Lifecycle Development, 2001) Key deliverables in this phase are the development, testing, implementation and documentation of the scope control, schedule control, cost and quality control as well as the contract administration and configuration management in the project.
5. Closeout Phase: the final phase is characterized by the project being brought to an end with the manager of the project holding responsibility for making sure that the processes in closeout are accomplished while the systems are transitioned to maintenance perspective. The main activities in this phase are administration of closure of the project as well as…… [Read More]
Product Life Cycle of Voice-Activated Television
As the latest innovation in television technology, the advent of voice-activated technology represents a fundamental shift in the way consumers interact with their favorite products. ather than utilize a remote control to operate a device, owners of Television Inc.'s new voice-activated TV set will be able to change channels, adjust volume settings, record their favorite programs and search for upcoming events all through the instinctual act of telling the machine what they want to see. As the forerunner within an industrywide process of progressive segmentation, Television Inc. has positioned itself to capture a dominant share of the emerging voice-activated TV market, but the company must ensure that its new product is expertly facilitated through the Product Life Cycle. According to the prevailing research on product development and marketing, a product experiences several phases during its so-called life cycle including the Introduction, Growth, Maturity and…… [Read More]
" (Iraq Body Count). To begin to understand the extent of the problem, the media needs to address the following questions about civilian deaths: "ho is killing them? How are they being killed? ho is being killed? How do current patterns compare to earlier periods?" (Iraq Body Count). hile these questions can be answered for some of the civilian deaths, many of the murdered are targeted in anonymous killings, like bombings, while others are kidnapped and executed, making it virtually impossible to assign blame for the deaths. The highest numbers of deaths are linked to Coalition and anti-Coalition violence, but the underlying causes of those deaths are too complex to attribute to Coalition involvement in Iraq. The more insurmountable these problems became, the less press coverage they got, despite the fact that actual conditions were not improving. In fact, press coverage became so biased against Iraqis who complained about life…… [Read More]
This means that the company must be smart with its distribution, focusing on key retailers and channels to introduce the product to the public. There are exceptions, however. For a lot of consumer electronic products -- smartphones, for example -- companies prefer nationwide rollouts of new products through major telecom distributors. Such a strategy is often supported, however, with penetration pricing and extensive ad campaigns. For companies that cannot afford this, regional distribution or through specialty stores is often a first step during the introductory phase until some word of mouth has been built up to support the product.
Promotion is critical during the rollout phase. At this stage, most consumers are unaware that the product exists, so promotion needs to not only introduce the product, but explain where it fits into the competitive mix, its positive attributes, and convince the consumer to buy. Promotion levels can be very high…… [Read More]
From the analysis of that first prototype, the project team would then produce a second prototype. The analysis of the first prototype should include looking at strengths, weaknesses, and any possible complications. The findings of this analysis by the project team would influence the next step in the spiral of producing the second prototype. This approach allows the project team to analyze the overall functionality of the product and system as it evolves, and will help predict problems such as cost overruns for development, unanticipated expenses for operating, or the possibility that the final result will not meet the customer's need. Using a spiral approach for both project management and product system/design allows the project team to spot serious problems as early as possible and either deal with them effectively or scrap the design in favor of a more effective one while minimizing costs incurred by this necessity. In a…… [Read More]
Product Life Cycle Analysis
Products, like living creatures, have a specific life cycle. A product is born, it grows up, and eventually it dies. A product's birth is its creation -- the first moment that a brand new device or invention rolls off the assembly line and is made available to consumers. In the case of a color television, its life cycle would commence at the time a brand model first appears in the stores. If it is a well-designed product, and represents an improvement over previous versions, it will no doubt do well as it will appeal to consumers. The period during which a television "grow up" can be described as the interval of time between its initial appearance, and the time it takes for that product to "catch on," or establish itself. hen Sony introduces a new color television, that new television is like a newborn baby. The…… [Read More]
In developed or developing markets, more competition will exist, decreasing demand for the company's specific product and also increasing the marketing struggle, as brand loyalties and simple recognition will be higher for companies already established in the market (Foley 2010). Beginning entry into such a market with simple exporting is advisable, as it has reduced costs and lower risks than other entry methods (provided that manufacturing in the country of entry is more costly than manufacture at existing plants) (Foley 2010). Where less competition exists, other methods of entry can be developed that confer the advantages of early entry more quickly, generally with greater upfront costs but more profit potential in the long-term, assuming the business and its marketing efforts are run properly and efficiently (Foley 2010). These markets, especially in the relatively saturated world that exists today, might have strong cultural resistances to direct investment attempts, making joint ventures…… [Read More]
These symptoms should be identified by the management team beforehand, even as early as in the planning stage. This is then used by the team of observers to identify any problems relating to dry rot in the company. The observing team and management team then work together to once again implement new ideas regarding products and services.
In order to deal with rivalry, a marketing team can be formed in order to respond to the challenge offered by rivals in terms of new products and services. The rival's products and services can then be observed by this team, after which improved products and services are then created.
Challenges in the Growth and Maturity Phases
Challenges in the growth phase are mostly related to issues of revenue generation, and implementing new products and services, as well as employing new people. The focus is on maintaining a steady rate of development. In…… [Read More]
Product Life Cycle
When we talk about the strongest multinational companies of the world then Nestle is definitely one of the names that triggers in everyone's mind. Nestle is the world's No.1 food manufacturing company. Nestle is a Swiss multinational company whose product are available almost in every part of the world. Most of the Nestle products are in a market leading position. Nestle company was established in 1866 and since that day, it has proved itself as one the leading companies of the world with its improved quality, innovative ideas of marketing and attractive packaging (Nestle, 2007).
Nestle launched its first juice in 1996 and since then it has spread its product largely. The consumers' response to the flavored juices of the Nestle Company was upbeat. This further strengthened the position of the Nestle Company in the market as the unbeatable leader. Later on, the company innovate the…… [Read More]
The strategy would prove successful in assisting the rapid proliferation of the Norton Antivirus packages. Accordingly, ikipedia (2010) reports that "Norton AntiVirus and Norton Internet Security, a related product, held a 61% U.S. retail market share for security suites as of the first half of 2007." (ikipedia, 1) In addition to casting a dominant shadow over its sector of the technology industry, this would make Symantec a leading developer of antivirus technologies.
The maturation of Norton Antivirus is marked both by the annual or multi-annual release of newer or more refined versions of its software. A constant research and development phase is required so that Norton can remain abreast of advances amongst hackers and developers of malware, spyware and viruses. This is demonstrated by continual re-release of the Norton packages. According to available research, "Existing users of the 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 versions can upgrade to the latest…… [Read More]
Product Life Cycle
No matter the product, every product goes through what is known as the product life cycle. The stage of the cycle that a product is in dictates how much of a focus the product gets and what will happen going forward in terms of that product being added to, updated or even entirely replaced. The author of this report will speak of a fictional company with a fictional product. The marketing and business strategies for each stage of the product life cycle will be assessed. The organization itself will be assessed as well. While the length, depth and breadth of the product life cycle will vary a bit from product to product and from company to company, every company needs to know where their products are in the cycle and react accordingly.
The fictional company that will be covered in this report is in the consumer…… [Read More]
system development life cycle (SDLC) approach to the development of Information Systems and/or software is provided. An explanation of SDLC is offered, with different models applied in implementing SDLC delineated. Advantages and disadvantages associated with each of the models will be identified.
System Development Life Cycle
According to Walsham (1993), system development life cycle (SDLC) is an approach to developing an information system or software product that is characterized by a linear sequence of steps that progress from start to finish without revisiting any previous step. The SDLC model is one of the oldest systems development models and is still probably the most commonly used (Walsham, 1993). The SDLC model is basically a project management tool that is used to plan, execute, and control systems development projects (Whitten & Bentley, 1998). System development life cycles are usually discussed in terms of the conventional development using the waterfall model or the…… [Read More]
Organizations are seen as having several different stages in their life cycle, with specific implications for management at each stage. The stages are, roughly, birth, growth, decline and death, depending on which model of the organizational life cycle is used. While the details on the life stages of an organization differ, the strategies are different for each, and management must be able to differentiate each stage, and make the right moves accordingly. It could also reasonably be argued that the stages are dynamic, rather than distinct, and that the passage from one stage to the next can take place gradually, incrementally, and that management can actually affect this process (Hanks, 2015).
The initial stage of organizational development is the birth stage. At this stage, the organization is founded, its purpose identified, and it is given the resources needed to survive. The life cycle metaphor is apt at…… [Read More]
Religion & Life Cycle
Different religious visions, different life cycles: The religious experience according to Rosenstock-Huessey and the Medicine Rite
Religion has always been the binding force that enabled humanity to create meaning in their lives and maintain unity among them. As a way of expressing spiritual reality, religion is instrumental in providing humanity a way of converting into concrete form (i.e., rituals and religious symbols) the different emotions associated to one's belief in a religion. Perhaps one of the most important functions that religion has for humanity is that it is able to depict humanity as the most important creature that the Supreme Being (or God) had created in the universe. That in our attempt to give meaning and purpose in life, we humans subsist to religion in order to validate that we, indeed, matter the most to God above anything else. This spiritual reality, despite its selfish nature,…… [Read More]
VIRTUAL TEAMS 4
The use of virtual teams has grown more and more with each recent passing year. Even so, there has been some companies that have pushed back on the use of virtual employees in the name of maximizing output and productivity. There is a great amount of debate as to whether localized or remote teams are more feasible or workable. Regardless, there is a lot of theory behind how to do virtual teams the right way. This is precisely what Hertel and the other two authors are describing in their review of the current empirical research. They describe a series of phases and steps that are integral to the process. While the parallels are not complete and definitive, assembling and disassembling a team is much like the product life cycle and project management steps.
As is mentioned in the introduction of this report, there…… [Read More]
Jewish Holy Day: osh Hashanah
Life-cycle events do not hold back Jewish festivities. Just like all other religions, Judaism observes certain holidays and remembrance days as their holy days. The Jews plan their holy days with respect to the Jewish calendar, based on moon cycles where each month starts with the appearance of the new moon (Hammer, 2005). This is contrary to the secular calendar based on the revolutions of the earth around the sun. Jewish holidays fall on similar date each year with regard to Jewish calendar, but on dissimilar dates with respect to the secular calendar. In every year Jewish celebrate two high holidays which are osh Hashanah and Yom Kippur. This paper describes in detail osh Hashanah, how Jews celebrate it, and its significance to the Jews.
osh Hashanah is among the most significant holidays in the religion of Jewish, and it refers to the Jewish New…… [Read More]
Health Information Technology Systems Life Cycle or HIT systems life cycle has several broad categories. One such broad category is EH or electronic health records. EHs are patient-centered, real-time records. They allow users to get information instantly wherever and whenever it is needed. Simply put, EHs are computerized, digital versions of a patient's paper charts. EHs contain the medications, radiology images, test and lab results, immunization dates, medical history of a patient and offers access as well to evidence-based tools a provider may use to make decisions concerning a patient's care. Not only does it offer streamlining and automation of the providers' workflow, it also increases accuracy and organization of patient information.
Security and maintenance is the end phase of any basic system development life cycle. The entire process is used to recognize, examine, and design information systems (Vallette & Caldwell, 2013). In order to aid in accomplishing such an…… [Read More]
Nike Case Study
Nike are undergoing change, after initial difficulties adapting to a changing environment, a strategy of acquisition, combined with decentralisation was implemented, facilitating specialised focus on different product lines. However, there is still the potential to increase the overall level of efficiency within the companies design processes.
One approach may be the development of an intrepreneurship, a model that supports innovation and development associated with entrepreneurial processes in large organisations (Cowles, 2013). Within this approach, not only would there be the division of the various researchers, there will also be placed in divisions with the aim of emulating small organisations where entrepreneurial stretch would be required. The aim of this is to increase original thought and innovation stimulated by their environment (Cowles, 2013).
The organisation could also adopt a Blue Ocean Strategy. This the company would need to examine the current marketplace, and identify markets which are currently…… [Read More]
Promotion and the Product Life Cycle
The Product Life Cycle
Every product goes through a lifecycle of introduction, growth, maturity and decline (Cant, Strydom & Jooste, 2006). The introduction stage entails designing, developing, and launching the product to the target market. The growth stage is characterised by a rapid increase in sales and market share. At the maturity stage, the growth of sales starts to slow down. The slowdown may deteriorate, causing sales to decline. The product life cycle has important implications for marketing (Cant, Strydom & Jooste, 2006). Each stage often calls for a different marketing strategy. At the introduction stage, attention is paid to creating awareness and developing the market. The focus of marketing shifts at the growth stage, with attention being paid to creating brand preference and growing market share. This can be achieved by maintaining product quality and price, adding distribution channels, targeting a broader audience,…… [Read More]
Those points are inherent in the approach the company takes to integrating Computer-Aided Design (CAD) data into the broader series of systems and strategies used for constructing boats. The company is also open to taking design, boat interiors and hull style considerations from customers, consultants and dealers. This approach to capturing requirements is often called Voice of the Customer (VoC) research and is typically included as part of the Six Sigma program at manufacturers (osenbaum, Postula, 1991).
What kind of benefits are egal achieving by using CAD technology rather than traditional drafting techniques?
Using CAD technology can significantly reduce the time to transform a drawing into a prototype, drastically reducing the number of errors and also increasing the accuracy of bill-of-materials used for building the finished product (Vinodh, Kuttalingam, 2011). CAD systems can also streamline the new product introduction process, providing graphical 3D images of the boat even before it…… [Read More]
However, the company did feel it should develop its own Database infrastructure that would work with the new underlying database management system and would mesh with existing organizational skills and the selected enterprise software solution.
Because the company followed a standardized implementation process, they were able to successfully reengineer their existing business structure. The objective of the System Development Life Cycle is to help organizations define what an appropriate system development methodology should be in order for them to continue to meet the rapidly changing business environment. The specific research approach employed by International Lumberyards, Inc. was to follow the steps of the cycle and it helped them dramatically.
This report attempted to analyze a work-related project that used a systems analysis tool for a specific business system. The report focused on the use of the System Development Life Cycle to implement a business or information technology need as…… [Read More]
Life Cycle Cost Analysis (LCCA) and the Importance of Such an Analysis
In essence, life-cycle cost analysis, LCCA, is an important tool that aids in the qualification of a specified project's alternative investment options differential costs. Its relevance, therefore, in logistics management and operations cannot be overstated. In addition to highlighting the factors of a life cycle cost analysis, this text will also concern itself with relevance of such an analysis.
There are various definitions that have been offered for LCCA. Sanchez-Silva and Klutke (2015, p. 233) define LCCA as " ....an economic assessment of completing design alternatives, considering all costs of ownership over the economic life of each alternative, expressed in equivalent dollars." This is the definition that will be adopted in this discussion.
It is important to note that LCCA can be utilized in a wide range of capital investment decisions, particularly in those instances where costs (initial)…… [Read More]
Parts of the theory are individual but coherent. The microsystem is the smallest layer in the sense that it is closest to the child and contains all the structures of which the child has regular contact. It includes the relationships and structures that the child uses to define their surroundings (family, school, and neighborhood). The interactions in this layer are primary modifiers, but are continually impacted by other layers. The mesosystem is the rather amorphous way that Microsystems morph and interact with another -- connections between events and organizations. The exosystem is the larger social system in which the child does not directly interact but has a profound effect on the Microsystems (positive and negative effects, etc.). The macrosystem, or the outermost layer in the child's environment consists of laws, customs, values, and norms -- all of which the child is expected to assimilate prior to becoming part of that…… [Read More]
improvement and where the project that will be discussed in this paper will evolve is the problem in monitoring the attendance and leaves of employees which affect the processing of employees' payroll. A proposed solution, which is the implementation of an automated system, shall be discussed in the following section.
The objective of this project is to resolve payroll-inaccuracies wherein the payroll department always receives complains regarding miscalculations of employee salary due to inconsistent recording of employees' leaves, absences, and attendance at work. That is, the absences, leaves, and overtimes are currently being filed manually. By automating the attendance (i.e. Time IN/OUT) and leave/absence application of employees, the payroll department can accurately compute the employees' salaries.
Assumptions egarding the Project
New technologies continuously emerge, thus it is important that the company should go with the flow of advancing the organization's business operation in terms of using technology-based solutions that facilitate…… [Read More]
The interviewed individual is an American female, Leela Smith, aged 53, who spent several years of her life in the Indian city of Kochi, Kerala as a homemaker, adopted an ayurvedic diet that was followed by her entire family, and home-schooled her youngest child. Further, she took training in Carnatic music, learned hatha yoga and Sanskrit, and adopted Kalaripayattu, Kerala's health system. In the year 2002, the whole family returned to the United States, and now resides in Oahu (Editors of Hinduism Today Magazine 2007).
The interviewee, Leela, claims it was in the year 1978 that she had her first taste of Hinduism at age fifteen, at a hatha yoga session held in her neighborhood in San Francisco, California. With time, she grew more interested in yoga, and took to reading about it and its great benefits to an individual's physical and mental wellbeing. She also decided to give up…… [Read More]
Nuclear Fuel Cycle is a set of different processes that utilize nuclear materials and then returns them to their initial state, in a cyclical manner. It begins with the mining of naturally occurring nuclear materials from the environment, and ends with safe and proper disposal of nuclear waste products back to the environment. Production of energy from Uranium requires several unique processes. One of the terms used in this production of nuclear energy is front end, referring to the entire set of processes involved in making nuclear energy from the uranium ore in the nuclear fuel cycle. The processes involved are:  mining,  crushing,  processing,  enrichment, and  the fabrication of fuel. After being used to produce energy, the nuclear material is now known as spent fuel. The spent fuel has to be converted in a reprocessing or storage facility if the company wants to recycle it.…… [Read More]
Project Objectives and Justification
Company X is a consulting firm whose business and services involve hiring and deployment of IT professionals to clients. asically, company X assists clients to find applicants who may fit their employment needs.
The current operational procedures of Company X involve traditional methods of data access and storage, in that most of the essential information they need are basically paper-based. ecause we are already in the age of information, automated by technological developments, this paper finds it essential that Company X should improve its operational methods and processes.
The objective of this paper is to provide a proposal for automation of Company X's information access and storage. The application is to be called as Applicant MIS/DSS. y studying Company X's current operational flow, specifically in phases that involve access and storage of information, this paper aims to provide the company with a solution that,…… [Read More]
Working for an organization known as Water for People has been one of the most rewarding experiences in life. The position of international communications representative has provided varied chances to interact at international level with authorities and communities. The program proposed herein is based on the rural population of Honduras and in particular in Tela village as the starting point that will also act as a pilot project under this wider program that is meant to cover majority of the Honduras rural areas.
The vision of Water for People is "a world where every person has access to reliable and safe drinking water and sanitation" and it is in line with this vision that the water for rural Honduras program comes in to be essential and applicable for the local people. The program is meant to introduce and efficient and cheap way of providing water to the villages in Honduras…… [Read More]
All of these scenes indicate that there might be little more than nothing after life. This poem allows us to see that Dickinson was not happy with accepting the traditional attitudes toward death and dying.
Another poem that examines death is "The Bustle in the House." Again, we see death is uneventful. Elizabeth Piedmont-Marton claims that in Dickinson's poetry, "the moment of death seems often less momentous than ordinary" (Piedmont-Marton) and it is "one of the most disturbing and powerful characteristics of Dickinson's poems" (Piedmont-Marton). "The Bustle in the House," demonstrates this assertion very well with its idea of humanity continuing to get along with the "industries" (the Bustle in the House 3) of life after a loved one dies. The heart of the dead is swept up (4), making it seem like the process of death needs a clean sweep and that is it. Mourning is nothing more than…… [Read More]
Despite these compelling findings, many youth are not routinely assessed for such violence exposure and its ramifications by the educational, child welfare, social service, and juvenile justice systems with which they frequently interact." (2007) This exposure is not only related to outcomes of a negative nature as well as heightened drug use and greater HIV related risk behaviors." (Vioson, 2007) the work of McDowell (2006) entitled: "Caring for Child Victims: Countering the Effects of Domestic Violence" published in the Journal of Specialists in Pediatric Nursing states that children are affected by family violence and that holistic assessment by the nurse is "essential to understanding the stressor of domestic violence." (McDowell, 2006) it is important to understand that less than one-third of domestic violence cases are reported. This author specifically charges the pediatric nurse in having the knowledge and skills necessary to identify childhood trauma from having witnessed family abuse.
Summary…… [Read More]
Paradoxically, states with harsher criminal statutes and higher conviction rates tend to maintain fewer inmate developmental programs because high-volume prisons tend to be run on a for-profit basis that discourages "unnecessary" spending. The most cynical suggestion is that decreasing recidivism is against the financial interests of private prisons and (although to a lesser extent,) those of government-run prisons as well (Schmalleger, 2008).
Other aspects of many types of contemporary criminal trends may also significantly undermine any strategy of deterrence through awareness of strict prosecution and sentencing. In that regard, law enforcement authorities across the nation have catalogued volumes of information about criminal subcultures in general and of the street gang mentality in particular (Pinizzotto, Davis, & Miller, 2007). Urban street gangs in particular have given rise to a culture of remorseless violence and disregard for the consequences of even the most violent crime that largely precludes any real deterrent value…… [Read More]
Product Life Cycle
The product category chosen for the purpose of discussion in this paper is the domestic airline industry in the United States, which is in the mature stage of its product life cycle. The fact that the domestic airline industry in the U.S. is in the maturity stage is evident when the category is traced through the various stages of the product life cycle: "...the Product Life Cycle (PLC) is based upon the biological life cycle... A seed is planted (introduction); it begins to sprout (growth); it shoots out leaves and puts down roots as it becomes an adult (maturity); after a long period as an adult the plant begins...to die." (Marketing Teacher)
The aviation industry was born in the early twentieth century when aircraft technology was first developed by the right brothers in the United States leading to the use of aircrafts in orld ar I, with…… [Read More]
Beauty and Life of the Monarch Butterfly
This is a paper about the Monarch Butterfly. What animal kingdom is it from? Listed is the life cycle of the butterfly. What are the adaptations of the Monarch Butterfly?
THE BEAUTY OF THE MONACH BUTTEFLY
Many people think butterflies live in a carefree environment, but they are wrong. They seem so peaceful visiting flowers, but they are bound by social conventions and instincts of their own. Although their lives appear to be so simple, yet their lives are quite demanding (Farrand 1990). The beauty of the Monarch is found delighting in most butterfly lovers. The life of a Monarch Butterfly is quite complicated as it meets the instincts that it is bound with. A butterfly's life depends on finding enough food, where to lay its eggs safely, the intricate demands of courtships, and on finding the right spot of transformation from a…… [Read More]
seasons of life" that are characteristic of Western societies. Name the rites of passage that mark the transitions from one period of life to the next.
Seasons of life: Childhood, Adolescence, Adulthood, Old Age, and Dying.
Rites of Passage: Puberty and struggling to gain independence and learn their own identies in the transition from Child to Adult (some religions have Bar and Bat Mitzvahs or Communion); marriage, maintaining a family, and participating in all aspects of society in Maturity; Status as matriarch or patriarch and declining health mark the passage of Elder to Death.
Over half of all women over 65 are widows, whereas only 13.6% of men over age 65 are widowed. What factors account for these statistics?
Answer: As socialization takes over men become more aggressive, and more individualistic which results in higher rates of accidents, violence, suicide, and hazardous behaviors like smoking and drinking in excess leading…… [Read More]
Devel/Family Cycle Theory
Successful completion of developmental tasks enables a person to make a smooth transition to adulthood. According to family life cycle theory (FLC), a paradigm rooted in the ideas of Duvall and Hill, there are eight stages of development with normative age role expectations for the nuclear family (Hill, 1970; Hill & ogers, 1964; ice, 1994; all cited in Erickson, 1998). More recent work on FLC by McGoldrick and Carter offer a new set of stages that they believe describe the fundamental American middle-class family at the beginning of the 21st century (VanKatwyk). According to McGoldrick and Carter, the family life cycle refers to "the expansion, contraction, and realighnemt of the relationship system to support the entry, exit, and development of family members in a functional way" (2003, p. 384, cited in Erickson). Their six stage classification lists the following:
Leaving home: single young adults
The joining of…… [Read More]
All stars are born of nebulas, massive clouds comprised mainly of hydrogen, with about three percent helium gas too. Due to gravity, the atoms of the various elements in the nebula will group, bond, or "clump" together. As gravity continues to impact the behavior of the gases and elements in the nebula, a protostar is born. The process of atomic accumulation in the center of the nebula forming a protostar is known as accretion. During the accretion stage, the protostar is highly unstable. As the protostar stabilizes and achieves equilibrium, it is in a better position to become a fully-fledged star. Otherwise, the protostar will dissipate and die. Equilibrium is achieved when there is a balance between the pressure of atoms to move away from the gravitational center and the pressure to conform to the gravitational pull at the center. Gravity is a primary and formative force throughout the…… [Read More]
In fact, I think I'll just keep eating for a while, I'm not feeling quite full yet. There, that did it.
Did I mention there's a whole bunch of us hanging out in here? Well, it seems there were quite a few of us in that fish our human ate, and we've all taken up residence here. Some of us are in the intestines, but most of us are just hanging out here, enjoying the company. After breakfast, I just take a little time to digest my meal, and then it's time for my own morning cleansing. I'll excrete my nasty stuff, right into my human's bile, and then it will travel out along with my human's excretions. I spend some time shifting around and making sure I'm securely attached, so I don't head outside along with the morning meal, and then, I'm ready to do my favorite thing for…… [Read More]
Life Stage Segmentation
The generational cohort segmentation shows how segmentation divides a population into smaller distinct groups. The different and unique characteristics of each group formed during segmentation allow advertisers to get an important guidance for communications planning. There are generally five ways of using this information once advertisers have divided a certain group.
First, segmentation permits advertisers to consider differences within the potential consumer audience for a particular product or service. As the segment characteristics in the generational cohort segmentation illustrate, it is unlikely that all individuals in the broader adult population will see all brands within a product category as equally acceptable or all advertising messages for brands within a category as equally relevant or persuasive. Different segments are likely to respond differently to the same product or advertising message. Thus, segmentation provides the information required for the planning and presentation of an advertising campaign that exactly…… [Read More]
Dante's journey through his 'mid-life' crisis. It uses 7 sources in MLA format and it has a list of bibliography.
Mid-life is a period in life in which adults take on new responsibilities, in the family, and at work and changes are often wrought within, not only in the physical but also in their spiritual self. The realities of life often stare them in the face, a very real possibility of death begins to strike them, their faith or lack of it is in doubt, very often there are crises in personal or work life, there is a general need to "reappraise previous life structures with an eye to making revisions while there is still time" (Huyck, 1997).
The term of "mid-life crisis" was originally coined by Jaques (1965) who claimed that people encounter a crisis as they realize their own mortality and a change in time frame from "time…… [Read More]
Donald E. Super
The Life-Span theory of career development, developed by D.E. Super in 1953, is a highly useful tool for understanding career choice and development across the lifespan. The theory sees career development as a series of steps that begin with the development of self-concept, and end with retirement, although these steps can sometimes be juxtaposed during the life cycle. In the decades since Super's theory was first developed, it has remained topical, respected, and useful in career development counseling. However, the theory's limited consideration of individual factors and socioeconomic factors make it the most useful when used in conjunction with other approaches to career development.
Overview of Life-Span Theory number of key figures helped to shape Super's Life-Span theory of career development. These included Hull, Thorndike, and Bandura, who helped to shape the major focus of the theory toward an understanding of the distinct life roles of the…… [Read More]
This would shape my thoughts and values by teaching me a sense of responsibility. At which point, it would affect my behavior, by teaching me to act more prudently, which would help me to always see the different viewpoints. As time went by, the ideas of focus that I was taught by him, would serve well in my educational career, as it would help me to do what is necessary to understand the material. In many ways, the overall levels of focus that we have are a key, to changing our perceptions about what is happening. Once you do this, is when the mind can be able to overcome its various limitations. This has helped me to overcome the different educational challenges, by look at the situation from another viewpoint.
These different events and the people surrounding them shaped who I would become as a person, by helping me to…… [Read More]
Work Life Balance - the ole of HM
Human resources management come with massive demands chiefly in light of the fact that it involves dealing with people, a task that is complex in itself. To enhance organizational growth, pleasure on the part of workforce is very crucial. This is a necessity that human resources sectors in organizations have to grapple with on a day-to-day basis through the initiation and implementation of means of achieving workers satisfaction and overall performance (Frame & Hartog, 2003). Creating room for work life balance constitutes come of the mechanisms that employers use in achieving this goal (Clutterbuck, 2003). Work life balance is a concept whose relevance in the organization and more so in the world of advancing technology holds a lot of water. It brings to both parties in the business environment numerous benefits (Ehnert, 2009). The concept has a wide range of practice ranging…… [Read More]
ood indicates that "everyone has different motivations and aspirations that they wish to achieve in their life. ork-life balance is about adjustments that can be made to working patterns to enable people to combine work with the other facets of their life. Bratton and Gold (2003: 105) de-ne work-life balance as, 'the relationship between the institutional and cultural times and spaces of work and non-work in societies where income is predominantly generated and distributed through labour markets.'" (p. 388) This implicates various aspects of one's working experience, including the manner in which one's responsibility's are balanced with one's personal needs; the degree to which social needs are constructed within the workplace; and the manner in which the employer goes about providing opportunities for attendance of personal needs for employees. This definition is also underscored by the basic assumption that employee morale and work/life balance are inextricable and that, additionally, these…… [Read More]