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Of course, Spears is still very young, and may face numerous future changes. However, at this time, she appears to have found some stability.
While Spears spent much of her early life in the public spotlight, it is actually difficult to assess her early cognitive development. This should come as no surprise when one looks at various theories of cognitive development. For example, Piaget discusses cognitive development, but all of his significant stages occur prior to the time that Spears became a public figure, and, therefore, prior to the time that biographers have reliable information about her development. However, Piaget's conclusions "that cognitive development is the product of complex interactions between the maturation of the nervous system and that of language, and that this maturation depends on children's social and physical interactions with the world around them" allow the observer to draw conclusions about Spears' early life without having…
A&E Television. (2011). Britney Spears biography. Retrieved December 19, 2011 from Biography.com website: http://www.biography.com/people/britney-spears-9542229?page=1
Borenson, H. (2008, January 11). The stages of life according to Jean Piaget. Retrieved December 19, 2011 from The Human Odyssey website: http://www.thehumanodyssey.com/2008/01/the-stages-of-8.html
The Brain from Top to Bottom. (Unk.). Piaget's model of cognitive development. Retrieved from http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/flash/i/i_09/i_09_p/i_09_p_dev/i_09_p_dev.html
Child Development Institute. (2011). Stages of intellectual development in children and teenagers. Retrieved from http://childdevelopmentinfo.com/child-development/piaget.shtml
In the classic line during the move where she yells, un Forrest UN!!" It is a metaphoric illustration of him leaving the stage behind in which the expectations of adults in his life is dominant and he enters the next stage of development which is the stage of expectations of others, primarily peers.
During the movie, the audience receives a clear cut example of this stage of development when Forrest spends time trying to help Jenny escape various situations and her opinion of him and his actions seem to weigh more heavily on his mind and heart than even the opinions of his beloved mother.
This become evidenced in several social scenes and retelling stories that Forrest provides to the people in the bus stop about his previous years of development.
The final stages of the development phase are also clearly portrayed and illuminated during the movie and the character…
Groom, Winston. (1994) Forrest Gump. Paramount Studios
Stages of Social-Emotional Development in Children and Teenagers. (Accessed 7-11-07) http://www.childdevelopmentinfo.com/development/erickson.shtml
DOMAINS and PEIODS:
There are three specific domains and/or periods related to life span development -- the biological domain, the cognitive domain and the psychosocial domain. With the first, this involves changes in the physical body, such as growing taller, gaining weight, more muscle growth, and maturing sexually from an adolescent to an adult. The second domain involves cognition or the mental process of knowing, such as "imagining, perceiving, reasoning and problem-solving " (2009, "Introduction to Life Span Development,' Internet). As Michael C. Sparrow reminds us, the process of knowing "grows exponentially as a person matures from childhood and into adulthood and beyond into old age" (2001, p. 165) and can be viewed as involving "changes in intelligence, expertise and the ability to reason and use logic" (Smith, 1999, Internet). As to the psychosocial domain, this involves "emotions, personality and social interactions and expectations" (2009, "Introduction to Life Span Development,"…
Baltes, P.B., H. Reese, and L. Lipsett. (1980). "Lifespan developmental psychology." Annual Review of Pyschology. 31: 65-110.
Hernandez, Christina. (2008). "Life span perspectives on human development."
Associated Content. Internet. Accessed from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/
It would be expected that increased consumption of healthier foods would have a positive overall impact.
Anti-obesity drugs have been considered for some time, with some negative issues in the past. For example, the pill rimonabant introduced in 2006 increased already high levels of depression, anxiety and suicidal thoughts with the obese population. ecently, according to an article in Popular Science (Hagerman, 2009) the hormone option instead seems more "palatable and plausible." However, it is pointed out that no one bodily mechanism is responsible for obesity, and it is a very challenging problem. Healthcare professionals also do not have positive thoughts on such approaches. They report that treating obesity with drugs transforms it into a disease rather than something caused by lifestyle choices. Believing that being overweight is due to faulty genes or illness removes a person's responsibility for remaining healthy. People become obese for diverse and complex reasons, and…
Braveman, P. (2009) Health Disparities Perspective on Obesity Research Prev Chronic Dis 6(3). Retrieved October 16, 2009. http://www.cdc.gov/pcd/issues/2009 / jul/09_0012.htm.
NHANES data on the Prevalence of Overweight Among Children and Adolescents: United States, 2003 -- 2006. CDC National Center for Health Statistics, Health E-Stat. http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/pubs/pubd/hestats/overweight / overwght_child_03.htm
Nursing Standard (2008) Tackling obesity with pills. 22(30), 26-28.
Winstanley, C.L. (2007) a Healthy Food Tax Credit: Moving Away from the Fat Tax and Its Fault-Based Paradigm. Oregon Law Review. 86 or. L. Rev. 1151
It was to this group Gacy devoted the majority of his time to and eventually became first vice-president and 'Man of the Year.' ("John ayne Gacy: Crime Library," 2006, p.4) Gacy was married to a woman whose father owned a Kentucky Fried Chicken franchise, but rumors began to swirl that Gacy had made passes at the young men working at the chain. Gacy was incarcerated for an incident involving a man he had paid for sex and then attempted to have beaten by a thug for hire. ("John ayne Gacy: Crime Library," 2006, pp.3-4)
Morally, Gacy came from a conservative Catholic background, was active in many Catholic organizations and the Boy Scouts, yet engaged in gay sexual practices, even when he was married. He was sent to jail for sodomy and battery, yet was a model prisoner. His father was an alcoholic, although Gacy idealized him. There was a…
Boeree, C. George, (1998). "Erik Erikson." Personality Theories. Retrieved 28 Oct 2006 at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/erikson.html
Boeree, George. (1998). "B. F. Skinner." Personality Theories. Retrieved 28 Oct 2006 at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/skinner.html
John Wayne Gacy: Crime Library." (2006). Crime Library. Retrieved 28 Oct 2006 at http://www.crimelibrary.com/serial_killers/notorious/gacy/gacy_1.html
Lifespan development is one of the major research areas in the field of psychology. Theories about lifespan development vary considerably, with some focusing almost exclusively on biological features of development and others purely on the psychological or social dimensions of development. As Staudinger & Lindenberger (2003) point out, "the description, explanation, and enhancement of development in individuals and groups of individuals are seen as important goals of scientific inquiry in most of the social, behavioral, and life sciences," (p. 1). Lifespan development includes issues such as the evolution of sensory-motor skills from birth to adulthood; the evolution of the sexual responses in the human system, and the evolution of moral reasoning. The primary objective of lifespan development research is to discover patterns in the ways individual human beings grow on different dimensions such as physiological changes, neurobiological development, emotional maturation, or social skills development.
An interesting sub-field of developmental psychology…
"An Introduction to Lifespan Development," (n.d.). Chapter One. Pearson. Retrieved online: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0205805914.pdf
Riediger, M., Voelkle, M.C., Schaefer, S. & Lindenberger, U. (2014). Charting the life course. Psychology and Aging 29(3): 503-520.
Staudinger, U.M. & Lindenberger, E.R. (2003). Understanding human development takes metatheory and multiple disciplines. Chapter 1 in Understanding Human Development. Springer.
A person with schizoaffective disorder, on the other hand, also expresses symptoms of schizophrenia but will also experience periods of either deep depression or unipolar illness or bipolar illness, which is a mix of both mania and depression (Taylor, 1998). During this time, hallucinations or delusions are present for 2 weeks, minimum (American sychiatric Assiociation, 1994). This paper shall now go on to describe schizophrenia, which is the more form of these disorders.
Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia may hit only about 1% of the population, the effects of this disorder is devastating not just to the patient but also to those around him or her (Kring et al., 2007). Schizophrenia is described by Kring et al. (2007) by "the scattering or disconnection of thoughts, lack of emotion, odd delusions and bewildering hallucinations" (Kring et al., 2007, 359). A schizophrenic is unable to express his emotions and will often articulate inappropriate emotions (e.g.…
Psychosis and lifespan development. Psychosis, or the state in which emotions and thoughts are severely disordered and need the help of a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist (Prinel, 2006, 449). Mental illnesses may affect a person as early as childhood (Taylor 1998). However, mental disorders, such as schizophrenia usually surface in a person's late adolescent period or in early adulthood (Kring et al., 2007, 350). Mental illnesses affect both males and females, equally, but may appear earlier for males (Kring et al., 2007, 350). A person who develops a serious mental illness as a child is deprived from experiencing normal maturation and cognitive development (Taylor, 1998, 316). Young patients with a psychosis like schizophrenia may not be impaired, intellectually, but since they do not fully develop their social cognitive skills, they often find it hard to express themselves and to socialize with others (Taylor, 1998, 316-317). Mental illness that manifest in adults can take the form of the following, as categorized by the DSM-IV (1994): Adults may suffer from schizophreniform disorder or schizoaffective disorder, which are mild forms of schizophrenia. However, patients with schizophreniform disorder are still able to function, socially and occupationally. As described by the DSM-IV, those with schizophreniform may show psychotic symptoms within 4 weeks when their usual functioning or behavior is altered and they will exhibit confusion or perplexity at the peak of their psychotic meltdown (American Psychiatric Assiociation, 1994). A person with schizoaffective disorder, on the other hand, also expresses symptoms of schizophrenia but will also experience periods of either deep depression or unipolar illness or bipolar illness, which is a mix of both mania and depression (Taylor, 1998). During this time, hallucinations or delusions are present for 2 weeks, minimum (American Psychiatric Assiociation, 1994). This paper shall now go on to describe schizophrenia, which is the more form of these disorders.
Schizophrenia. Schizophrenia may hit only about 1% of the population, the effects of this disorder is devastating not just to the patient but also to those around him or her (Kring et al., 2007). Schizophrenia is described by Kring et al. (2007) by "the scattering or disconnection of thoughts, lack of emotion, odd delusions and bewildering hallucinations" (Kring et al., 2007, 359). A schizophrenic is unable to express his emotions and will often articulate inappropriate emotions (e.g. laughing when told of a death in his family but getting frustrated or angry when asked simple questions) (Kring, et al., 2007). A schizophrenic also exhibits disordered thinking, wherein his "ideas are not logically connected; faulty perception and attention" (Kring et al., 2007, 350). Furthermore, a schizophrenic experiences a disturbance in his movement or his behavior (Ibid). He may drag his feet while he walks or may often look messy or untidy (Ibid).
A person need only suffer from one of following symptoms recurring in a span of 8 months to be diagnosed with schizophrenia (Prinel, 2006, 450). Symptoms of
Much later, my father explained the difference between rational optimism and rationalization and suggested to me that the former is probably more healthy psychologically than the latter. According to him, both achieve the same short-term benefit, but rationalization is associated with long-term consequences in the nature of clinical depression and mood swings. He explained that people who rationalize purposely avoid acknowledging disappointments and that this sort of repression usually results in negativity that is always expressed later, and often in manners that are far removed from their original cause. I recognized in friends and acquaintances what my father explained and learned to recognize the value of "making lemonade" as a conscious and purposeful decision to salvage disappointments rather than as a subconscious rationalization.
It is more difficult for me to identify whether natural predisposition or environmental influences and modeled behavior is more responsible for the fact that I seem…
very one goes through many stages in life beginning at the time of conception, throughout life, and finally in death. Human development is important to psychologists because it can provide insight about a person and the stage he or she may be experiencing in life based on age-related changes in behavior, emotions, personality, and thought processes (Boyd & Bee, 2009). The interest of changes throughout a person's life, from childhood through adulthood, has developed into a psychological area of study called the lifespan perspective. This modern perspective believes that interdisciplinary research is important in the understanding of lifespan development as well as understanding that each individual, of all ages, can change and develop through many different contexts (Boyd & Bee, 2009).
The following stages, according to Annenberg Media Learner (2010), start at birth. Although Boyd & Bee (2010) state that prenatal is the very first stage of development. While…
Every one goes through many stages in life beginning at the time of conception, throughout life, and finally in death. Human development is important to psychologists because it can provide insight about a person and the stage he or she may be experiencing in life based on age-related changes in behavior, emotions, personality, and thought processes (Boyd & Bee, 2009). The interest of changes throughout a person's life, from childhood through adulthood, has developed into a psychological area of study called the lifespan perspective. This modern perspective believes that interdisciplinary research is important in the understanding of lifespan development as well as understanding that each individual, of all ages, can change and develop through many different contexts (Boyd & Bee, 2009).
The following stages, according to Annenberg Media Learner (2010), start at birth. Although Boyd & Bee (2010) state that prenatal is the very first stage of development. While going through the website Learner's (2010) periods, put in parentheses will be the label that Boyd & Bee (2009) give to each stage. The first period is birth to age two (infancy), second is ages two through six (early childhood), third is ages seven to nine (middle childhood), fourth is 10 to 12 (middle childhood), fifth is 13- 15 (adolescence), and sixth is 16 to 19 (early adulthood). These first six stages are all under 20 years of age. A large amount of development is going on during these years.
The seventh period is ages 20 to 40 (emerging adulthood), eighth period is 40 to 65 (middle adulthood), and the last period is 65 and older (late adulthood). Plenty of changes and development are
This is also indicative of the very real affect of social norms and values in life devbelopemtn and the way that they can conflict and obstruct the search for identity and actualization.
These findings from the interview also coincide with studies of life development in the elderly. As a study by Wynne and Groves (1995) states,
Life satisfaction is a critical dimension to well senior citizens because it is directly attributable to their quality of life. The senior years are concerned with the development and enhancement of one's physical, spiritual, and mental well being. It is in one's later years that an individual has the necessary time to focus on these content areas. (Wynne and Groves, 1995, p. 448)
This short interview was not extensive or in-depth enough to explore in detail the various aspects that were instrumental and influential in this particular individual's life development.
In this case there…
Ashman O. Lifespan Development: A Social-Cultural Perspective (abstract)
Retrieved November 9, 2008 at http://wwwlib.murdoch.edu.au/adt/browse/view/adt-MU20061020.101103
Boeree C. ABRAHAM MASLOW: 1908 -1970. Retrieved November 6, 2008, at http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/maslow.html
Wynne, R.J., & Groves, D.L. (1995). Life Span Approach to Understanding Coping
Reaction to 56 Up Series
The “Up Series” provides a story of the lifespan development of different children from vastly different backgrounds. This series has entailed following the lifespan development of children from 7 years old to 56 years. The story was filmed from 1964 when 7-year old children were picked from prep schools, primary schools, state schools, and private schools. These children talked about their dreams, ambitions, and fears for the future (Damascus, 2016). The series has followed the lives of these individuals every seven years until age 56 years. Consequently, it provides significant insights on the growth and development of individuals across different stages in life. This paper examines various aspects of the individual’s growth and development at 56 years in terms of various influences. This discussion is based on various psychological concepts relating to individual growth and development.
Nature vs. Nurture
Nature and nurture is one of…
Boyd, D.R., Bee, H.L. & Johnson, P.A. (2017). Lifespan development (6th ed.). Toronto, Canada: Pearson Education.
Damascus, D. (2016, November 30). 56 Up 2012 [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qkHa1VzGb-8
McLeod, S. (2018). Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development. Retrieved March 30, 2019, from https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Wachs, T.D. (1999). The Nature and Nurture of Child Development. Food and Nutrition Bulletin, 20(1), 7-22.
Life-span developmental theory offers a guideline for understanding human aging. Primarily, the theory provides explains the regular changes occurring to an individual to death. Theories of the aging process act as frameworks for aligning research findings and observations to deduce significant conclusions. The information is essential because it enhances sequencing in the lifespan hence providing chronological priority to earlier moments and events in an individual's life. Besides, life span theory can be identified as a synchronized integration of different age-based developmental specializations. Evidently, most people hold a perception of being actively engaged in shaping their future. They follow developmental stages that are intelligible in exploring and pursuing long-term goals. I have realized that the lifespan development theory is essential in my realization of timely goals in life as a social worker. In this study, I have elucidated the motivational theory of lifespan development and illustrated how I will incorporate it…
It's very interesting to discuss an individual's life in detail, especially when done so in a thoughtful manner. Through these conversations, one garners a distinct appreciation for life and the obstacles it presents. It also provides a great sense of the importance of perseverance in regards to success. Allen exemplifies the term "perseverance," in his behaviors throughout life. I personally had to the opportunity to meet Allen during a job fair. He was representing Macy's and immediately seemed approachable. He is warm hearted and very engaging. Little did I know that his background was one that was anything but warm.
Not much is known about Allen's father, who was appropriate named Allen himself. As the third, the younger Allen never made physical contact with his father. From the information garnered from his mother, Allen Sr. was an expert guitarist. His hobbies included playing instruments and teaching music.…
Schizophrenia can begin as early as infancy but more often starts during adolescence or early adulthood (Prinel, 2006, 449). It is communicated genetically but is also aggravated by environmental factors, such as stress (Kring, et al., 2006). elatives of patients with schizophrenia are more predisposed to the disorder (Ibid). Further, they may not only have the same genes but may also share the same experiences (Ibid). Studies have shown that while schizophrenia may only affect 1% of the population, the incidence of inheriting this disorder rises to 10% among close biological relatives (i.e., in a parent, a child or a sibling) (Prinel, 2006, 450).
However, the development of schizophrenia is not attributed merely to genetic factors. Even though a person may be predisposed to the disorder, the environment in which he lives in plays a defining role in the activation of the disorder (Prinel, 2006). Family related factors, such as…
American Psychiatric Association (1994). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th Edition). Washington DC: Author
Konstantareas, M., & Hewitt, T. (2001, February). Autistic Disorder and Schizophrenia: Diagnostic Overlaps. Journal of Autism & Developmental Disorders, 31(1), 19-28. Retrieved September 11, 2009, from Education Research Complete database.
Kring, a., Davison, G., Neale, J., Johnson, S. (2007). Abnormal
Psychology (10th Edition). Chapter11 (pp. 349- 385). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
(Psychopedia, 2014, p. 1)
Psychosocial theory is reported to combine internal psychological factors and social factors that are external with each stage building on the others and focusing on a challenge that needs to be resolved during that specific stage so that the individual can move on to the next stage of development. (http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm)
VI. enefits of Counseling and Development Theories
The benefits of counseling related to theories of human development include assisting individuals in understanding how they got to where they are today and assist them in understanding how they can personally make changes or adjustments in their own life to achieve their personal life goals. It is reported that "According to develop mentalists, relationships among cognitions, emotions, and behaviors are interdependent and rooted in transactions with the environment (locher, 1980); therefore, while all humans possess inherent natures and abilities to mature, certain conditions must be present…
Muro, L. (2007) The Effects of Human Developmental counseling Application Curriculum on Content Integration, Application, and Cognitive Complexity for Counselor Trainees. Retrieved from: http://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc5138/m2/1/high_res_d/dissertation.pdf
Counseling Psychology (2014) Lewis & Clark Graduate School of Educational Counseling. Retrieved from: http://graduate.lclark.edu/departments/counseling_psychology/mental_health/about/
Psychosocial Theory (Erik Erikson) (2014) Retrieved from: http://www3.niu.edu/acad/fcns280/THEORY/sld008.htm
Learning Theory (2014) Princeton University. Retrieved from: https://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Learning_theory_(education).html
Human Development in ehabilitation Counseling
ehabilitation counseling is a profession that focuses on using a counseling process to assist disabled individuals to achieve their individual, career, and autonomous life goals. As a result, professional in this field work in various settings including healthcare facilities, rehabilitation centers, governmental agencies, learning institutions, and insurance companies. Given their role in helping people living with disabilities, rehabilitation counselors need to acquire necessary competencies and skills for effective practice. One of the most crucial elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development, a suitable age range or group to counsel, and applying relevant theories during practice. These three factors help in enhancing the effectiveness of a rehabilitation counselor in his/her setting.
Significance of Human Development to a ehabilitation Counselor
As previously indicated, one of the important elements to the development of a rehabilitation counselor is understanding human development. Generally, understanding lifespan…
Good Therapy. (2017, January 30). Child and Adolescent Issues. Retrieved April 26, 2017, from http://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/issues/child-and-adolescent-issues
Sales, A. & Brodwin, M.G. (2015). Human growth and development considerations in rehabilitation counseling (2nd ed.). Linn Creek, MO: Aspen Professional Services.
Life Span and Developmental Psychology
Scientists use three main research designs to study human lifespan development; longitudinal, cross sectional and sequential designs. The longitudinal design involves the study of selected participants repeatedly over a given span of time. This can be over a short time ranging from a few months to a few years, or can be over a long period of time spanning to a decade or more. The advantage that the researchers have in using this approach is that they are able to observe common patterns among the participants as well as differing trends among them in the early as well as late events in their lives. On the other hand, the weaknesses that it has are that there is possibility of distortion of the age related changes occasioned by participants dropping out, the cohort effects and practice effects in the process of the research.
Cross-sectional design is…
MAterial: Berk, L.E. (2014) Development through the Lifespan 6th Ed. New York: Allyn & Bacon (ISBN:978-0-205-95760-6). Retrieved January 9, 2016 from http://catalogue.pearsoned.co.uk/samplechapter/0205491251.pdf
Medelein N. Moody, (2013). A Relational Aggression Intervention in Early Childhood. University of Nebraska. ProQuest LLC.
The paper was aimed at interrogating the relational aggression in early childhood and if there are interventions within the school setting that can act to reduce the aggression. This intervention is referred to as the Early Childhood Friendship Project and entailed taking stock of the changes in the behavior of the children as they undergo the study and the project. The preliminaries within the article indicates that there is usually a significant differences between the relational aggression between the boys and girls in school with the later recording a higher rate of aggression.
The study was conducted through a survey method and formal testing as the children went through the project and the teachers concerned recorded the results and any noticeable changes over time.
The results that were observed showed…
Sebastian H. Scharf, (2013). Chronic social stress during adolescence: Interplay of paroxetine treatment and ageing. Neuropharmacology 72 (2013) 38e46
The research is centered on the effect of exposure to chronic stress during development especialy at the adolescent and the possibility of developing psychiatric disorders. This was motivated by the fact that little is known about the long lasting effects of the exposures to stress and their relation to age.
The study was focused on the direct and long-lasting impact of chronic social stress during adolescence as well as the chronic treatment of SSRI. Adult and aged animals were used since the experiment could potentially harm human subjects. There was use of CD1 mice at the age of 28 days and these were subjected to a chronic social stress for 7 weeks among other treatments with chemicals. It was observed that the chronic stress as well as the antidepressant treatment at the end of the development period could have a significant and long-lasting impact which is very relevant to healthy ageing.
Health -- Nursing
Piaget Theoretical Perspective On Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
Piaget's Theoretical Perspective on Human Development
The theory of cognitive development by Piaget presents a comprehensive approach in evaluating human intelligence development and nature in developmental psychology. Piaget shares that children play active roles in growing of intelligence through learning by doing and by examples. The intellectual development theory involves a focus on believing, reasoning, perceiving and remembering the natural environment. The primary term for this is developmental stage theory dealing with knowledge and how humans gradually acquire, use, and construct nature. Piaget adds that the cognitive development provides progressive mental reorganization for thinking processes resulting from environmental experience and biological maturation. Children construct an appreciation of the real world through experience discrepancies between their knowledge and their discoveries within the environment. According to Zastrow & Kirst-Ashman (2009), the theory insists that the cognitive development…
Ashford, J., LeCroy, C. (2009). Human Behavior in the Social Environment: A Multidimensional Perspective. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2012). Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Kail, R., Cavanaugh, J. (2013). Essentials of Human Development: A Life-Span View. New York: Cengage Learning
Newman, B.M., Newman, P.R. (2010). Theories of Human Development. New York: Psychology Press
Significance of cultural diversity
Theories permit us to determine the world around us coherently and also to act in the world with a reasonable approach. Numerous theories have developed throughout the previous century in western countries that make an effort to clarify how human character evolves, why all of us behave the way we do, what external circumstances encourage us to behave in particular ways, and the way these elements have been connected. A few of these concepts structure their arguments on essential physical as well as social-emotional situations within our very first years of existence; some around the impact involving external influences of our own family members, neighbourhood, as well as culture; a few on the unique learning and also thought procedures; a few on triumphant finalization of precise developmental "activities" at each and every phase throughout lifespan; plus some on the way a healthy-or perhaps unhealthy-sense…
Crandell, T., Crandell, C. And Zanden, J.V. (2011). Human Development. Chapter 2, 10th Ed. McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages, p. 1-768 .
Daniels, H., Cole, M., & Wertsch, J.V. (Eds.). (2007). The Cambridge companion to Vygotsky. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Eisenstadt, S.N. (1986). The axial age breakthroughs. In S.N. Eisenstadt (ed.), The origins and diversity of axial age civilizations. New York: State University of New York Press, pp. 1 -- 28.
Huntington, S.P. (1996). The clash of civilizations and the remaking of the world order. New York: Simon & Schuster.
Unrecognized Genius of Jean Piaget
Kegan reflects on the work of Jean Piaget, emphasizing the importance of his work. He first looks at Kegan's most famous study, in which he fills two identically shaped beakers with equal amounts of water. He then asks the child whether or not they are of equal volume, and when the child agrees, he pours the contents into a thinner beaker. The child then has to decide which has more, and usually opts for the taller and thinner beaker. Kegan is pointing out the relative adaptive balance that is being made by the child. Children have their own perceptions of the physical world, and often have difficulty discerning relative differences in shapes and forms, among other things. Kegan purports that, "For the preoperational child, it is never just one's perceptions that change; rather, the world itself, as a consequence, changes" (29).
Kegan then goes on…
Kegan, Arthur. The Evolving Self. Massachusetts: Harvard UP. 1982.
The following images show certain disorders that result due to mutation. Children born from the same family members' shows higher similarity index regarding the genetic disorder number inclusive of the Indian community (Cummings, 2010, pg 333).
Curbing gene disorders
Stoppage of varying types of disorders is possible through learning in consideration of human development the number of genes contained in a single genome, their respective location and the establishment of functions or roles in the various genetic processes. This is achievable through strategized genetic mapping, where the establishment of specified genes having same linkage involved. The mapping establishes the respective linkages between genes and as a result of their location in the same gene, the crossing over frequency with the existing distance amid them is notable (Cummings, 2010, pg 333). esearch on the various risks factors involved can also be considerable as beneficial. This enables the development of certain preventive…
Benson, B. (2012). Advances in Child Development. London: Academic Press.
Bowden, V.G. (2009). Children and Their Families. Atlanta: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.
Cummings, M. (2010). Human Heridity; Principles and Issues. New York: Cengage Learning.
The anthropologist, Ashley Montagu, developed quite a diverse and versatile number of theories ranging from views on the concept of race, social factors that contribute to crime, the measurement of internal anatomical markers found of the heads of humans, cooperative behavior as it relates to evolution, and understanding biological and cultural dynamics of sex roles and aggression. Montagu stressed gene-environment interactionism which is the notion that heredity is not merely driven by biological factors in humans but represents a dynamic interactive process between one's experiential history and one's genetic potential (Montagu, 1961). One of Montagu's most interesting ideas is that of the need for contact, especially human infants. Montagu designated the typical nine-month pregnancy as uterogestation: the period when the fetus develops within its mother's uterus so that it will be capable of surviving outside its mother's womb (Montagu, 1986). However, Montagu believed that the human infant emerged only…
Harlow, H. F & Harlow, M. (1962). Social deprivation in monkeys. Scientific American, 207,
Montagu, A. (1961). Man in process. Cleveland: World Publishing.
Montagu, A. 1986. Touching: The human significance of the skin. New York: Harper & Row.
An initial psychotic episode is often the result, with immediate in-hospital treatment recommended for testing and observation. Treatment includes anti-psychotic medication and patients often respond well, particularly in milder cases of the illness. (Csernansky, 2001) However, a general inability to adapt socially will persist and prevent a "normal" existence for these individuals. In one case, a female patient described her general personality despite medication as characterized by "low self-esteem, hypersensitivity to criticism, hyperempathy, excessive generosity, susceptibility to manipulation, and social awkwardness" (eichenberg-Ullman, 2010). In addition, substance abuse, inability to hold a job, risk of suicide, and unwanted pregnancy are typical themes in these patients' lives. (Csernansky, 2001) in the case of pregnancy, females often suffer complications beyond their mental illness, such as poor prenatal care, risk of violence during pregnancy, and reduced likelihood of having a male supportive figure (staff, 2007)
In the middle phase of schizophrenia, or the first…
Collier, E. (2007). Challenging the concept of "burned out" schizophrenia. Mental Health Nursing, 14.
Csernansky, J.G. (2001). Schizophrenia: A New Guide for Clinicians. New York: Marcel Dekker.
Heinrichs, R.W. (2001). In Search of Madness: Schizophrenia and Neuroscience. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nicole, V. (2007, 11-21). Schizophrenia and Pregnancy: Genetic Links and Effects. Retrieved 11-24, 2010, from www.associatedcontent.com: http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/ 454786/schizophrenia_and_pregnancy_genetic_pg2.html?cat=70' target='_blank' REL='NOFOLLOW'>
Pattern of Development: COMPAE AND CONTAST
Is it even a mystery how we have become the fattest country in the world (Sturm 2007)? Why do we have such poor choices for food? Enter Derrick. Derrick is a 15-year-old male from Jackson, Mississippi who has been clinically diagnosed as being "Class II Obese" or "Morbidly Obese" with a BMI of 37. His poor food choices at any given time during the day, along with his extremely low-level of activity, can be easily sighted as the determining factors regarding his alarming condition (Whitlock et al. 2009). Why does he make such unhealthy choices? Enter Dino. Dino is also a 15-year-old male, but he is from Zurich, Switzerland. Dino has a BMI of only 8 and is not obese, nor is he even overweight. Is this simply due to the relative abundance of healthier food choices and having a non-sedentary lifestyle,…
Rosenheck R (November 2008). "Fast food consumption and increased caloric intake: a systematic review of a trajectory towards weight gain and obesity risk." Obes Rev 9 (6): 535 -- 47.
Sturm R (2007). "Increases in morbid obesity in the U.S.A.: 2000 -- 2005." Public Health 121 (7): 492 -- 6.
Whitlock G, Lewington S, Sherliker P, et al. (March 2009). "Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900-000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies." Lancet 373 (9669): 1083 -- 96.
Within Human esources Development
The literature which describes and analyzes the important aspects of adult education - within the Human esources Development genre - is vitally important in relating to today's employees who seek - and deserve - learning opportunities within their workplace environment. It provides a point of reference, it offers stimulating ideas for digestion and analysis, and it zeros in on the issue at hand, which is that learning should be encouraged and facilitated by employers, and it should be done in such a way that gains in individual learning and knowledge will transfer to competency on the job, and ultimately, profitability for the employer.
An exceptionally useful article by Theodore J. Marchese, entitled, "Insights from Neuroscience and Anthropology, Cognitive Science and Work-Place Studies": e.g., the brain is "remarkably plastic across the lifespan..."
Early experiences and genetic inheritance are very important," Marchese writes in his piece,…
Glastra, Folke J; & Hake, Barry J.; & Schedler, Petra E. "Lifelong Learning as Transitional Learning." Adult Education Quarterly 54 (2004): 291-306.
Hodkinson, Phil; & Hodkinson, Heather; & Evans, Karen; & Kersh, Natasha; & Fuller,
Alison; & Unwini, Loma; & Senker, Peter. "The significance of individual biography
In workplacelearning." Studies in the Education of Adults 36, (2004): 6-26.
Marian Diamond addressed the nature vs. nurture issue so long debated by researchers and scientists by actually observing the effects of living in different environments on young rats. The beginnings of her research with Donald Head occurred in the 1960's, a time when the brain was not viewed as plastic. When presenting the results of their early research demonstrating a small but significant thicker cerebral cortex in rats raised in enriched environments vs. rats raised in impoverished environments she was actually told, "Young lady, that brain cannot change" (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 8). Nonetheless, Diamond believed the neurological basis that the environment provided for brain enrichment is the spreading of dendritic spines in the neuron as a result of environmental stimulation (Diamond and Hobson, 1998-page 25). In fact, research from her lab along with other researchers found that even honey bees' brains responded to environmental stimulation. Based on the…
Diamond, M.C., and Hopson, J., 1998: Magic Trees of the Mind: How to Nurture Your Child's
Intelligence, Creativity, and Healthy Emotions from Birth Through Adolescence, Dutton,
Freud and Erikson Theory
Compare and Contrast Freud and Erikson Theory
This essay begins by discussing Psychoanalytic Theory proposed by Sigmund Freud; the theory portrays that human behaviour is the result of conflict between the biological drives that develop slowly from childhood and play a significant part in determining a person's character. After a short review of the Psychoanalytic theory and evaluating it against modern psychoanalytic perspectives, the study will then cover a quite different theory i.e. Erikson's theory that reduces the significance of biological contributions. Erikson's Theory supposes that character/personality development is determined by not only biological factors but also by historical, ethnic, and cognitive factors. Erikson's theory explains challenges or issues that people face in the modern world. The fact that words such as "inner-space," "identity crisis" and "lifespan" have gained prominence in spoken and written language is testament to Erikson Theory's relevance. The Erikson's theory also has…
Cherry, K. (n.d.). Freud vs. Erikson: How Do Their Theories Compare? Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://psychology.about.com/od/theoriesofpersonality/ss/Freud-and-Erikson Compared.htm#step2
Difference Between Erikson and Freud (2011, April 5). Retrieved November 16, 2015, from http://www.differencebetween.net/science/difference-between-erikson-and-freud/
Hayes, N. (1999). Access to Psychology. London, UK: Hodder & Stoughton Educational
Jarvis, M. & Chandler, E. (2001).Angles on Psychology. Cheltenham, Australia: Nelson Thornes Limited.
Psychologists, such as Jean Piaget and Erik Erikson, theorize that humans go through stages in their development throughout life, growing from infancy to old age. Piaget outlined stages of thinking, referred to as cognitive development; Erikson described stages of personality, referred to as psychosocial development. How can you use this information to better understand your own life? hat stages of cognitive and psychosocial development have you gone through since you were an infant? hich stages will you encounter during adulthood and old age?
Piaget and Erikson both took a systematic approach to trying to determine what the different stages of human development. However, both individuals used different perspectives and formulated models that were inherently different. Piaget was interested in trying to determine the way children begin to develop various mental capacities to understand things such as numbers, time, causality, justice, etc. and he considered his work to be the realm…
McLeod, S. (2015). Jean Piaget. Retrieved from Simple Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/piaget.html
McLeod, S. (2017). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: https://www.simplypsychology.org/Erik-Erikson.html
Piaget’s Stages of Development
Few theorists have had as strong an impact on developmental psychology as Jean Piaget. While the theories of Lev Vygotsky have offered compelling counterpoints to Piaget’s theories, the stages of psychosocial development Piaget proposed remain salient. In fact, it is easy to combine emerging research on childhood development from infancy to adolescence in terms of Piaget’s stages. As Lightfoot, Cole & Cole (2009) point out, evolutionary theories, information processing theories, and systems theories can all be integrated within the staged concept of development that Piaget proposed. Piaget shows how children develop physically, socially, and cognitively. Likewise, theories of childhood development can demonstrate how children develop self-awareness, empathy, and complex use of language. The four main stages of development include the sensorimotor, the preoperational, the concrete operational, and the formal operational. While far from being discreet stages with strong demarcations between them, empirical research in cognitive, behavioral,…
In The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Sogyal inpoche (2002) distills the essence of Tibetan Buddhist teachings into a format digestible for a modern Western audience. The central premise of The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is that death can be a "teaching for us all," (inpoche, 2002, p. 3). The title of inpoche's book refers to the Tibetan Book of the Dead, which describes the bardo, of transition between this life and the next. Through a concerted practice of meditation and spiritual discipline cultivated in the person's current lifetime, a practitioner can remain conscious through the bardo and therefore die as a self-empowered and spiritually aware being. The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying is divided into three main parts: sections on living, dying, and on death and rebirth. There is also a conclusion and appendixes. inpoche opens his Tibetan Book of Living and Dying with…
Kubler-Ross, E. (1969). On Death and Dying. New York: Scribner.
Rinpoche, S. (2002). The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying. New York: Rigpa/Harper-Collins.
Attachment behaviors and attachment experiences are central to child development, and can have lasting impacts on adult psychology. Attachment refers to a “sustained, developmental...connection,” (Mossler, 2014, 13.1). The attachment process is emotional, but it also serves distinct biological and evolutionary functions in enabling the survival of the species. As Mossler (2014) points out, attachment bonds can be formed between an infant and any adult due to the fact that early humans contended with far greater physical and environmental risks that might leave infants vulnerable should one or both parents perish. Infants experiencing healthy attachments will also evolve a sense of security that is essential for psychological resilience and the reduction of risk for separation anxiety and other attachment-related issues. This paper outlines the different attachment theories provided by Bowlby and Ainsworth, both of which show how attachment experiences are central to the evolution of fundamental social needs, such as trust…
eal-Life case study
The research informant selected is a soldier who was deployed in Iraq who is 35 years of age and who was in the army for 15 years. He suffered from drug and alcohol addiction along with post traumatic stress syndrome. At this time he is still battling both of these conditions. When interviewing him, the clear purpose of this project was stated without a doubt, and he was informed of his voluntary participation, along with the fact that he was allowing us to use all the data that he provided. He was reassured of the complete and utter privacy of his responses and how all of his data was going to be kept confidential. For example, he was told that he name was never going to be recorded, none of the researchers would ever have it; instead he was going to be given a number. Furthermore, while…
Berger, K. (2009). Invitation to the Life Span. New York: Psychology Press.
Ptsd.va.gov. (2013). Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Retrieved from Ptsd.va.gov: http://www.ptsd.va.gov/professional/assessment/adult-int/caps.asp
Schmal, C. (2004). Psychophysiological reactivity to traumatic and abandonment. Psychiatry Research, 33-42.
Walker, P. (2013). Managing Abandonment Depression in Complex PTSD. Retrieved from peter-walker.com: http://www.pete-walker.com/managingAbandonDepression.htm
Myth of the First Three Years
Major Points of the Arguments made by Broude and Zero to Three
Broude presents arguments against the myth of the first three years by exposing some of the fallacies propagated by popular neuroscience. The first argument that she makes is that the stage of brain development is not the same as the stage of child development. She argues that the fact that the brain is developing connections rapidly should not be taken to imply that the connections are being formed as a result of rapid learning. She argues instead that the forming of connections among neurons is simply the stage-setting for learning to take place in later years of the lifespan. Her second major argument is that a number of traits are experience-expectant and not age dependent. The fact that most of these experiences are available to children during the first three years of…
Dowling, M. (2009). Young children's personal, social and emotional development. Sage Publications.
OECD. (2007). Understanding the brain: The birth of a learning science. OECD Publishing.
Wilson, C. (2006). No on is too old to learn. iUniverse.
At age thirty the generativity verse stagnation stage begins. This is middle to late adulthood and is centered on caring and relationships. This is the period an individual is concerned with raising their children and establishing a successful career. By now an individual has learned to be centered on others rather than focused on self. The eighth stage, integrity verses despair, occurs during late adulthood. It is during this period that many individuals become self- acceptant and reap the wisdom of a lifetime (Erikson, 1993).
Midlife is a stage in lifespan development and a product of childhood. eflection and re-evaluation of one's accomplishments does not have to be seen necessarily as a time of crisis and negative experience. Facing existential questions, usually associated with the middle stage of life often entails conflicts between what one is and what one should or could be, but it also opens up new…
Boyd, D. & Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan development. Fourth edition. Boston MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Clay, R.A. (2003, April). Researchers replace midlife myths with facts. American psychological association, Vol. 34, No. 4. 36-37 Retrieved November 23, 2012, from http://www.apa.org/monitor/apr03/researchers.aspxx
Freund, a.M., Nikitin, J. & Ritter, J.O. (2009, January). Psychological consequences of longevity: The increased importance of self-reulation in old age. Human development. Vol. 52, Issue 1, 1-37. Retrieved November 23, 2012, from http://web.ebscohost.com/ehost/detail?vid=3&hid=14&sid=995ec192-998d-4565-91c6-ccea3bd751b6%40sessionmgr13&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3d#db=aph&an=36519914
Erikson, E.H. (1993) Childhood and society. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, Inc.
Interactions with peers are one way a person creates or enhances a self-concept. How Jean reacted to social strife or conflict in her environment predicted her reactions to future situations. In addition to her interactions with peers, culture has an enormous impact on Jean's development. Jean has soaked up her self-concept partly from the media but also from peer and parental influences. Jean's parents provided her with a foundation set of values, beliefs, and methods of ethical reasoning.
Several social psychological theories apply to developmental psychology. Social identity theory, observational learning, attribution theory, and the theory of social schemas can all help explain Jean's unique developmental path. Although not overly impacted by the theories of social identity, Jean noted shifting her social affiliations frequently throughout her adolescence. One of the features she notices emerging in herself is less of a tendency to create in-group boundaries. At the same time, Jean…
Huitt, W. (2004). Observational (social) learning: An overview. Educational Psychology Interactive. Valdosta, GA: Valdosta State University. Retrieved [date], at http://chiron.valdosta.edu/whuitt/col/soccog/soclrn..html
Schema." (nd) Changing Minds.org. retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://changingminds.org/explanations/theories/schema.htm
Schema Theory of Learning." (1998). Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 from http://www.sil.org/lingualinks/literacy/ImplementALiteracyProgram/SchemaTheoryOfLearning.htm
Social Identity Theory." (2004). Universiteit Twente. Retrieved Nov 18, 2008 at http://www.tcw.utwente.nl/theorieenoverzicht/Theory%20clusters/Interpersonal%20Communication%20and%20Relations/Social_Identity_Theory.doc
Thus, it is easy to see why the use of medication to treat ADHD is controversial, especially in students who have the disorder in only mild amounts (Boyd and Bee, 2009). However, an option other than medication is available in the form of parent training programs. Boyd and Bee (2009) note that parent training programs intend to help parents who are having trouble controlling their ADHD affected child. According to the authors, "By the time their children are diagnosed with ADHD, usually upon entering school, many parents have lost confidence in their ability to control them" (Boyd and Bee, 2009, pg. 269). Because of this, it is easy for parents to take their parenting in two extreme directions -- either allowing their children to be undisciplined or by disciplining them to the point of abuse. Through parent training, teachers and parents can communicate regarding the child's success in school, and…
Boyd, D. And Bee, H. (2009). Lifespan Development, Fifth Edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
LeFever, G.B., Dawson, K.V., and Morrow, A.L. (1999). The Extent of Drug Therapy
for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Among Children in Public Schools. American Journal of Public Health. 89(9): 1359-1364.
Kewley, G. (1998). Personal Paper: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder us underdiagnosed and undertreated in Britain. British Medical Journal. 316 (7144): 1594-1596. Retrieved July 20, 2009, from http://ukpmc.ac.uk/articlerender.cgi?artid=421427
Moreover, as Piaget explains, children's behavior patterns are based on invention and representation, not merely innocent discovery, and not only sensorimotor groping. The transition from groping to actual invention is also supportive of Piagetian model of cognitive development.
Thinking Development -- Vygotsky and his Example (ZPD)
In general terms Lev Vygotsky argued that "situated social interaction" that is connected with "concrete practical activity in the material world" are the root drivers for cultural and individual development (Thorne, 1998). Vygotsky developed the "genetic law of cultural development," which stresses that the first cultural development for a child appears "twice or on two planes," according to the University of Helsinki. The first appearance for the young child is "interpsychologically," in interaction between people; and the secondly it appears as an "intrapsychological achievement" (Helsinki). Author Kurt L. Kraus explains that Vygotsky's Cultural-Historical Activity Theory boils down to three elements: ontogeny, phylogeny, and sociocultural…
Kraus, Kurt L. (2008). Lenses: Applying Lifespan Development Theories in Counseling.
Florence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Paiget, Jean. (1974). The Origins of Intelligence in Children. New York: International
Universities Press, Inc.
Diabetes Among Middle Age Males:
One of the major public health issues among middle age males is diabetes since they are twice as likely to suffer from the disease as compared to their female counterparts. Generally, the rate of diabetes has increased in the recent past to an extent that 8% of the American population have the disease, especially children and adults. The main reason for the increase of the rate of diabetes is that the risk of type 2 diabetes increases with age. The other risk factors include an inactive lifestyle, being obese or overweight, a history of the disease in immediate family, and a diet with high sugar and low fiber. As the rate of diabetes has increased among children and adults, much increase has occurred among the male population, especially middle age males. Therefore, it is increasingly important to examine the major health risks incurred by the…
American Diabetes Association. (2002, January). Screening for Diabetes. Diabetes Care, 25(1),
S21-S24. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from http://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/25/suppl_1/s21.full.pdf
"America's Middle Boomers." (2013). Demographic Profile. Retrieved April 30, 2014, from https://www.metlife.com/assets/cao/mmi/publications/Profiles/mmi-middle-boomer-demographic-profile.pdf
David et al. (1994, May). Health Behaviors and Survival Among Middle-Aged Men and Women
By experiencing and discussing each point of the theoretical aspects, I did get to know myself better and see both positive and negative sides of my personality. For instance, while discussing Freud's theories, I managed to explain certain emotional manifestations which, up to a point, were not entirely clear. Furthermore, discussions on matters such as child and life span development improved my perception on family relationships and inter-human communication.
A part of the importance of such courses is to better prepare us for the challenges one has to face throughout his lifetime. Although the experiences accumulated in academic preparation do not necessarily ensure a less troublesome road in life, they do offer additional support. Nonetheless, it is vital to create the proper theoretical background which will guide your actions in every situation. For me, the discussions relating to the stress, the pressure and the social tensions existing today have helped…
Boeree, C.G Personality theories. Sigmund Freud. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.ship.edu/%7Ecgboeree/freud.html
Buresch, T., Eiben, a.E., Nitschke, G., Schut, M.C. Effects of evolutionary and lifetime learning on minds and bodies in an artificial society. Free University Amsterdam. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://www.cs.vu.nl/~gusz/papers/2005_cec.pdf#search=%22life%20time%20learning%20importance%22
Conditioning and learning. Retrieved 19 September 2006, at http://psych.fullerton.edu/rlippa/Psych101/outline2.htm
Knowles, M.S. (1962) a History of the adult education movement in the U.S.A., New York: Krieger.
Lifespan development is a field of study that involves growth patterns stability and change in one's behavior in the whole stretch of life. The definition does not fully capture the intricate process of the study. The study employs scientific approaches to establish these trends. We need a close examination of the elements of the definition above. In examining stability, growth and change, lifespan development checks the assumptions about the course and nature of the development of a human being. This is a scientific way of establishing the facts in the study. Scientists evolve development theories and apply systematic scientific methods to establish the exactness of these assumptions. The focus of the studies is the development of human beings (FLDNMC, 2010).Lifespan Development scientists select a topical area of focus and consider the age range of study. The span normally spreads out in broad age range segments. These segments include…
Adolescence. (n.d.). Pearson Highered. Retrieved from:https://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/020559526X.pdf
Baltes, P. B., Lindenberger, U., & Staudinger, U. M. (2007). Life Span Theory in Developmental Psychology. In Handbook of Child Psychology. John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Retrieved from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9780470147658.chpsy0111/abstract
Chand, S. (2013). How to Adapt CBT for Older Adults? Current Psychiatry, 12(3), 10-15.
Cooper, J., Masi, R., & Vick, J. (2009). Social-emotional Development in Early Childhood. National Center for Children in Poverty.
learning? What role does behavior play in learning?
Learning is the acquisition of skills through behaviors. Behaviors help an individual learn through experiences, both favorable and unfavorable. Learning is a life long endeavor which is garnered in the beliefs and behaviors of the individual. The overall process takes time, as beliefs are often broken down, eliminated, and reborn through experience. Behaviors directly impact learning as they are correlated to experiences. Experiences therefore follow behaviors. For example, if an individual behaves in an inappropriate manner regarding his spending, he or she will experience debt. Through this experience the individual will "learn" to manage his or her money in a more appropriate manner.
What are two different types of learning? Describe each one in your response.
The two primary learning styles are that of hands on (kinesthetic) learning and visual learning. A hands on experiments allows the individual to develop in a…
1) Santrock. John Life-span development. Mc Graw Hill (12ed.) 2012
2) Demetriou, A. (1998). Cognitive development. In A. Demetriou, W. Doise, K.F.M. van Lieshout (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology (pp. 179 -- 269). London: Wiley
3) Kamii, C. (1985). Young children reinvent arithmetic: Implications of Piaget's theory. New York: Teachers College Press
Biological, Psychosocial, & Developmental Theories of Aging
Biological, Psychosocial, and Developmental Theories of Aging
Aging is a manifestation of events that occur over a span of time. This is not a uniform process, individuals' age differently, and there are major differences between normal, optimal, and pathological aging. As one ages the balance between gains and losses, such as becoming more intelligent and becoming less healthy, is thought to become less positive.
Biological Theories of Aging
Biological theories of aging classify aging as genetic (heredity) and non-genetic (wear and tear). Most believe that several mechanisms are operating at the same time to cause aging and there is probably not a single cause of death, but many causes. Current thinking includes 1) the vital substance theory -- we are all born with a certain amount of substance and as it is consumed we age and die, 2) the genetic mutation theory…
"Biological aging theories." (2009). Azinet LLC. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.programmed-aging.org/theories/
Boyd, D. & Bee, H. (2006). Lifespan development. (4th ed.). Boston MA: Pearson Education Inc.
Hernandez, C. (2008, August 20). Lifespan perspective on human development. Health and Wellness Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.associatedcontent.com/article/ 950617/lifespan_perspective_on_human_development.html?cat=70
"Theories of aging" (NDI). Angelfire.com. Retrieved October 22, 2012, from http://www.angelfire.com/ns/southeasternnurse/TheoriesofAgingC3.html
Emotional Intelligence (EI) Defined. Despite the common usage of defining intelligence in terms of numbers there are many psychologists that do not agree with the concept that intelligence is measurable and quantifiable and representative strictly on the basis of cognition. Some theorists believe that intelligence not only includes analytical and problem solving ability but creativity and practical problem solving components as well. In fact there are even some theorists who have totally abandoned the idea of measuring intelligence and purport that intelligence is not measurable visa via a pencil and paper test. These particular theorists believe that ethnicity, cultural heritage, and even religious factors (i.e., Emotional Intelligence factors) have a tremendous influence on that which is commonly called the Intelligence Quotient. More than likely the safest way in which to view intelligence is to consider the concept as one being influenced by dietary factors, physical and mental exercise, emotional states,…
Kolb, D.A. (1984). Experimental Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc.
Mayer, J.D., DiPaolo, M.T., and Salovey, P. (1990). Perceiving affective content in ambiguous visual stimuli: A component of emotional intelligence. Journal of Personality.
Assessment. 54: 772-781.
Salovey, P., and Mayer, J.D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9: 185-211.
("Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs," 2005)
Social Cognitive theories are a primary focus in today's clinical world. The person is seen as a proactive vs. reactive organizer of his or her life. Utilizing the main concepts of this theory explain why Jane is having such difficulty coping with life? How would Albert Ellis and Aaron Beck intervene in Jane's lifestyle?
The social cognitive theory is when there is focus on learning by watching what others do. The successes and failures that they experience are used to shape how the individual will view the world around them and their role in it. This is accomplished by teaching them techniques during the process that can be applied to their daily lives. (Santrock, 2008, pp. 26 -- 30) When this occurs on a regular basis, is the point that the person will begin to use these events as experiences that will shape how…
The Beginning of Cognitivist. (2002). All Psych. Retrieved from:
Kelly Psychology of Personal Constructs. (2005). Find Psychology. Retrieved from:
cognitive psychology, learning theories are significant in both their variety and the different ways in which researchers approach "knowing." Within the sphere of cognitive psychology the cognitive learning theory is among the most popular areas of study. The cognitive learning theory suggests that learning is a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment. Bandura (1986) suggested that what individuals think and feel about themselves necessarily impacts subsequent individual behaviors. As a theory of learning, social cognitive theory is based on the notion that individual's learn by watching others perform and that the internal thought processes people have are critical for a proper understanding of the individual (Santrock, 2008).
The two theories I choose to research for this assignment are Albert Bandura's observational learning theory and B.F. Skinner's theory of operant conditioning. While both theories involve theories of learning, the differences between the two theories are significant.…
Bandura, A. (1986). "Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social Cognitive Theory." Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Miller, N.E., & Dollard, J. (1941). Social Learning and Imitation. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Pajares (2002). Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. Retrieved from http://www.emory.edu/EDUCATION/mfp/eff.html
Santrock, J.W. (2008). A Topical Approach to Lifespan Development (M. Ryan, Ed., 4th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (Original work published 2002), pgs. 26, 30, 478
I think I want to go into nursing but I am not 100% sure yet. ight now, I am just taking basic gen ed classes since this is my first year in school -- I did take a couple of classes this past summer. Most adolescents I know in my neighborhood have graduated already as well." Georgia stated she was still 'feeling out' her identity, which is common in adolescence. She was willing to be independent enough to pay for her own college, which suggests a desire to 'stand on her own two feet' despite the fact that she still lives at home.
Georgia also noted that she does not contribute to the family income and that her father is a biopharma executive. Her desire to enter nursing could reflect her exposure to this field of work at home. However, she saw her decision not to attend a four-year college…
Santrock, Jack. (2011). Life-span development. (13th ed.). McGraw-Hill.
Adolescent Development in the Movie The Breakfast Club
The 1985 film The Breakfast Club, which was written and directed by John Hughes, presents an ideal opportunity to study and psychoanalyze adolescent development. The film portrays five different teenage stereotypes (the jock, nerd, criminal, prom queen, and social outcast) which are consigned to detention in the library on a weekend day (Tanen & Hughes, 1985). As the teenagers gradually get to know each other and interact amongst themselves, they reveal crucial causes and effects of some basic psychological principles related to the development of adolescents. They share a number of problems in common including an almost universal sense of alienation from their parents and from adults in general. As such, there are several psychological theories that apply to them, including, most eminently, Erickson's stages of development.
Erickson's stages of development are predicated by some basic facts of what is known as…
Tanen, N., & Hughes, J. (1985). The Breakfast Club. U.S.: A&M Films.
Autobiography of Iviannette Figueroa
In this paper, I will describe my life and how my life experiences have shaped the person that I am today, how they have impacted my dreams, and what I intend to do in the future. In this paper I explore my childhood and how the difficulties that I encountered in that childhood have helped shape the woman I am today. The woman that I am today is a mother, a wife, and a student working towards admission into the respiratory therapist program. Generally, I have worked hard to put a difficult childhood behind me. As a result, I have to acknowledge that an autobiographical paper was very challenging for me. I do not like to think about how my childhood has impacted the woman that I am today. While I am generally self-confident, I realize that the things I like the least about myself are…
Deaux, K. & Snyder, M. (2012). The Oxford handbook of personality and social psychology.
New York: Oxford University Press.
DiCanio, M. (2004). Encyclopedia of violence: Frequent, commonplace, unexpected. Lincoln,
NE: Mystery Writers of America.
Social learning theory views education as an inculcation in social norms. Sexuality education requires the individual to learn the biological mechanics of sexuality, but also to understand the social assumptions connected to this facet of human life. Sexuality is not acquired instinctively, even though puberty is a biological phenomenon all adolescents experience. Sexuality is also about acquiring social norms and knowledge. Learning never takes place in isolation. Sexual norms are not learned simply through formal sex education, but also from peers and the media. However, sexual education must strive to counteract misinformation and negative stereotypes, empowering students with facts. Sexual education in the classroom must counteract some of the negative misinformation students will learn, and better equip them to make intelligent decisions.
Because a principle of social learning theory is that it takes place all of the time, adult role models are important for…
Cherry, Kendra. (2011). Moral development. Retrieved:
Social learning theory. (2009). National Center for Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention.
Death anxiety was given a broad definition and seemed to point to how one dealt with the death of others also. I found that I did not deal with death very well. Mainly because I was not able to know my real father, and I felt betrayed by the man who was my actual father when I had to experience the abuse that my family went through. It was an ordeal because my father died, but it was a bigger ordeal because of the revelations that came afterwards. I found that one can regress from a level of maturity when a major negative event occurs.
I look back at my life through the prism of these two theories and there is not much that I regret, even though there were some significant bumps along the way. I agree with the precepts because I can see a lot of what both…
Boeree, G.C. (2005). Erik Erikson. Retrieved from http://www.psychology.sunysb.edu/ewaters/345/2007_erikson/erikson.pdf
Bruess, B.J., & Pearson, F.C. (2002). Are there gender differences in moral
reasoning as defined by Kohlberg? College Student Affairs Journal, 21(2),
As the term suggest, liquefied natural gas (LNG) is natural gas that has been reduced to a liquid by cooling it to minus 161°C thereby eliminating oxygen, carbon dioxide and other unwanted components to achieve almost pure methane (Liquefied Natural Gas 2012). According to one LNG producer, "In the liquefaction process, impurities are removed from the gas before it is cooled. The cooling of natural gas to -162°C causes it to liquefy at which point it takes up 1/600th of its original volume. This allows the gas to be stored and transported safely and economically in large vessels" (LNG Liquefaction Process 2012, p. 2). Interestingly, Chandra (2012) points out that after natural gas is cooled to -- 161.5° C ( -- 260° F) and reduced, the actual volume shrinkage is about 610 times; however, 600 times reduction is typically cited in the literature. Because of its highly cooled and liquid…
Akimoto, K., Sano, F., Odo, J., Homma, T., Rout, U.K. & Tomoda, T. (2008). 'Global Emission
Reductions through a Sectoral Intensity Target Scheme.' Climate Policy, vol. 8, pp. 46-
Ben-Moshe, S., Crowell, J.J., Gale, K.M., Peace, B.A., Rosenblatt, B.P. & Thomason, K.D>
TM 423 This Module's Case develop a successful project team. The core case a description actual team development situation: Poole, C. (2003). Three-week project turnaround. etrieved http://c2./cgi/wiki-ThreeWeekProjectTurnaround http://www.
Why so many project teams fail, how to help them succeed 'Teamwork' is one of the most common buzzwords in corporate lingo today yet creating a fully functional team can be extremely hard work. The process of team development presents challenges at every step of the process and requires a differentiated approach amongst the leadership. Bruce Tuckman has called his model of team development: 'forming, storming, norming, and performing.' "Tuckman's model explains that as the team develops maturity and ability, relationships establish, and the leader changes leadership style. Beginning with a directing style, moving through coaching, then participating, finishing delegating and almost detached" (Chapman 2009). Over the course of team development, leaders must adjust their style to the needs…
Chapman, Alan. (2009). Bruce Tuckman forming-storming-norming-performing. Business Balls.
Retrieved from http://www.businessballs.com/tuckmanformingstormingnormingperforming.htm
Flynn, A., & Mangione, T. (2011). Five steps to a winning project team. Retrieved from http://www.projectsmart.co.uk/five-steps-to-a-winning-project-team.html
Six characteristic stages of team development: The project life cycle. (2011). The Project
infancy early childhood. Include: Explain families affect
Early Childhood and Adulthood
There are a number of key facets and processes that occur during infancy and early childhood that profoundly affect an individual's growth and development. Some of these factors include early childhood education, a variety of parenting styles, as well as familial involvement in cognitive and physical development. All of these factors indicate that parents and surrounding family members play a highly important role in the development of infants and young children.
One of the most eminent ways in which families produce a direct influence on their children is through the establishment and implementation of rituals or routines. The repetitive nature of these daily constructs provides a valuable structuring for activities that has been linked to cognitive and emotional processes in children and infants -- most discernibly when there is a break or a shifting in a particular ritual that…
Spagnola, M., Fiese, B.H. (2007). "Family routines and rituals: a context for development in the lives of young children." Infants and Young Children. 20 (4): 284-299.
Lending Institutions, Health Care, And Human Capital
Human Capital, its use and Gender Disparity
Gender plays crucial roles in decision-making and resource allocations ideal for economic growth. Mothers' human capital improves child education and health, determining the well-being of the next generations (Finlay, 2007). Women Empowerment tends to allow for allocation of resources to more productive means, serving as relevant measure for improving economic outturn in the long run (Baldacci, 2004). Despite of the rather concrete understanding and appreciation gender disparity in human capital and its uses, it remains a key policy issue in both developing and developed economies.
The ole Health Plays in Developing Economies
Finlay (2007) elucidates that health does play a role in economic development. He showed that health influences economic growth through education incentive effects. Finlay went further to say that, a healthy individual tend to live longer, and has the impetus to undertake investment in…
Baldacci, E.B. (2004). The impact of Poor Health on Total Factor Productivity. The Journal of Development Studies, 42(6), 918-938.
Bloom, D.E., & Canning, D. (2008). Health and Economic growth: "Reconciling the Micro andMacro Evidence." Cen ter on Democracy, Development, and The Rule of Law Working Paper No.42. Pp 2, 3. .
Bloom, D.E., Canning, D., & Sevilla, J. (2004). The Effect of Health on Economic Growth: AProduction Function Approach. World Development, 32(1), 1-13.
Finlay, J. (2007). The Role of Health In Economic Development. Program on the Global Demography of Aging. PGDA Working Paper No. 21
Findings and Discussion
Paulessen-Hoogeboom et al. (2008) present us with a number of key findings that have such pervasive implications for parenting. All toddlers engage in behaviors such as biting, hitting, screaming, or otherwise acting out. Such behaviors arise as a result of negative emotions. Parents often find these behaviors hard to deal with -- along with other children and other caregivers. The response by others in the children's world may be highly negative itself and may thus provoke additional negative feelings, which in turn provoke additional negative behaviors. This is a cycle that is bad for all concerned.
Paulessen-Hoogeboom et al. (2008) further validated the finding of others that an authoritarian parenting style is aimed at getting children to stop these negative behaviors by commanding them to follow parental orders. However, they also found, such a parenting style ignores the underlying emotions and so is ineffective in…
Clark, K.E., & Ladd, G.W. (2000). Connectedness and autonomy support in parent-child relationships: Links to children's socioemotional orientation and peer relationships. Developmental Psychology, 485-498.
Kochanska, G., Murray, K., & Coy, K.C. (1997). Inhibitory control as a contributor to conscience in childhood: From toddler to school age. Child Development, 68, 263-277.
Paulussen-Hoogeboom, M. etal (2008). Parenting style as a mediator between children's negative emotionality and problematic behavior in early childhood. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 2008, 169(3), 209 -- 226.
Connect a Minimum Personal Concurrent Milsestone elating Their Lives Theories Concepts Assocated Milestones
Examples of Adolescent Danger
Adolescence can be a particularly difficult time period in the lives of most people. These crucial few years (spanning between 13 and 20) represent the formative stages in a person's development that will eventually solidify into adult characteristics that will remain, for the most part, for life. As such, there are a number of crucial processes that adolescents go through while emerging from childhood and before arriving into adulthood. During these tumultuous years many will incur increasing levels of responsibility that are mitigated with rewards and potential entrapments that are all typical steps in maturation. Yet as great as the results of a happy, healthy adolescence may be, there is infinite potential for people to falter and succumb to their fledgling developing minds, bodies, and most importantly, emotions during this critical juncture. Many…
Jacobs, J.A. (2001). Book Reviews.
Steinberg, L. (2007). "Risk Taking in Adolescence: New Perspective from Brain and Behavioral Science." Association for Psychological Science. 16 (2): 55-59
Sugar, M. (1970). "Children of Divorce." Pediatrics. 46 (4): 588-595.
red wolf and different aspects related to this species. I have included information about its taxonomy, morphology & anatomy, distribution, habitat, feeding, predators, behavior, reproduction, development and economic value. Over all, I have given thorough information regarding the life and habits of the red wolf that is now an endangered animal.
The red wolf is a species of wolf that is smaller in size and its color varies from reddish gray to almost black. It is commonly known as red wolf. The red wolf is considered as the most beautiful of all the wolves on the planet (Sutton, 1998). However, it has been given the scientific name of Canis rufus. It belongs to the Family Canidae and Order Carnivora (Kelly & Phillips, 2000, p. 247). As far as the status of red wolf is concerned, it has been categorized as an endangered living creature as this species of wolf…
Dahl, M. (1997). The Wolf. Minnesota: Capstone Press. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=HomHpmeIyWkC&printsec=frontcover&dq=the+ wolf&hl=en&sa=X&ei=f_FNUZ2tHeqR7AbG5YHwBA&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA
Kelly, B.T., & Phillips, M.K. (2000). Red Wolf. Endangered Animals: A Reference Guide to Conflicting Issues (p. 247+). Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. Print.
Mech, L.D., & Boitani, L. (2003). Wolves: Behavior, Ecology, and Conservation. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press. Print.
Paradiso, J.L., & Nowak, R.M. (1972, November 29). Canis rufus. Mammalian Species, 22, 1-4. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.science.smith.edu/msi/pdf/i0076-3519-022-01-0001.pdf
Unfortunately, for those individuals who did not use direct coping strategies but instead used the kind of coping that distances one's thoughts, emotions, and physical presence from the stressor (e.g., denial and wishful thinking) or disengages completely (e.g., escape and emotional numbing) to cope with discrimination stress tended to have lower self-esteem.
Consequences/Effects of Low Self-Esteem
A number of studies have shown that low self-esteem is predictive of negative outcomes. Parker et al. (2005) found that girls and adolescents with low self-worth reported the greatest jealousy of friends and that a reputation for being jealous of friends was associated with aggressive behavior and other peer adjustment difficulties, including loneliness.
Donnellan et al. (2005) found a link between low self-esteem and externalizing problems such as aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. The authors cited osenberg (1965), who suggested that low self-esteem weakens ties to society and weaker ties to society decrease conformity…
Donnellan, M.B., Trzesniewski, K.H., Robins, R.W., Moffitt, T.E. & Caspi, A. (2005). Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychological Science, 15, 328-335.
Edwards, L.M. & Romero, A.J. (2008). Coping with discrimination among Mexican descent adolescents. Marquette University Education Faculty Research and Publications. Retrieved from http://epublications.marquette.edu/edu fac/59.
Krayer, A., Ingledew, D.K. & Iphofen, K. (2008). Social comparison and body image in adolescence: a grounded theory approach. Health Education Research, 23. 892-903.
Martinez, I & Garcia, J.F. (2008). Internalization of values and self-esteem among Brazilian teenagers from authoritative, indulgent, authoritarian, and neglectful homes. Adolescence, 43, 19-29.
He proved a poor fit for the
organization, demonstrating a lack of diligence, a slow pace of work,
engagement in frequent disagreements with co-workers and superiors and
frequently called in sick with little to no notice. As his supervisor and
his voucher upon hire, I was directly responsible for his efforts as well
as for the consequences which they have to our functionality. Therefore, I
was forced to dismiss this friend from the job, due to my ethically
grounded sense of responsibility to serve an organization to the fairest of
Naturally, the result of this would be two-fold. The organization
would benefit as I was able to make another hire with greater dedication
and capability in the position. My workplace stress and the load of my
responsibilities would be lessened by this improvement. On the other hand,
my friendship with this individual never recovered. e had clashed
Klein, S. (2002). The head, the heart, and business virtues. Journal of
Business Ethics, 39(4), 347.
Solomon, R.C. (1992). Corporate Roles, Personal Virtues: An Aristotelean
Approach to Business Ethics. Business Ethics Quarterly, 2(3).
Spears, L.C. & Lawrence, M. (2004). Practicing Servant-Leadership.