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Also, the privacy of the venue, outside of a workplace or family setting, would encourage participation and attendance amongst fellow learners undergoing the same struggle.
c. How can finding a solution result in significant changes/improvements?
Possessing the skills that make one literate means an individual is less likely to need government assistance, is better able to be promoted and to find a secure job, and can feel more meaningfully engaged with society. Also, recruiting teachers and even properly trained volunteers from the community will enable more people to see that illiterate adults are often not lacking in intelligence, but simply in opportunities. Special volunteer campaigns could be created soliciting teachers with specializations in learning disabilities and ESL to treat the needs of these populations. To educate adults with more foundational skills, teenage volunteers and members of the community could provide tutoring services. This would create greater community connections between different…
4.Defined institutional and personal context for the program.
The proposed program is an endeavor to create a federally recognized, federally-funded adult literacy program. The program will also create and maintain literacy standards and objectives, with a core part of the program being devoted to application. One of the main objectives of any adult literacy program is to help stimulate personal growth and development. Moreover, an adult literacy program like this one will aim to stimulate job creation and boost local economies. Individuals participating in the program will be shown not only the mechanics of literacy but how those skills can increase their career flexibility and allow them to compete for jobs in an increasingly competitive global market.
5.Describe the target population: age, grade, reading level, attention span, occupation, previous work experience, motivation level, health, interests, socio-economic status, attitudes toward school or work, previous performance levels, language, ethnic/cultural background, gender.
Georgia Department of Technical and Adult Education. Office of Adult Literacy. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 at http://www.dtae.org/adultlit/menu.html
National Assessment of Adult Literacy. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 at http://nces.ed.gov/naal/
Portland State University. Adult Literacy Estimates. Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 from https://www.casas.org/lit/litcode/Results.CFM
SIL. "Issues in Literacy." Retrieved Feb 5, 2009 at http://www.sil.org/literacy/issues.htm
By placing the demands of literacy education on the community as a whole, a shared responsibility is created and therefore a substantial interest is gained in the process. Literacy is indeed a problem of not just students and teacher, but for the entire population. The purpose of this essay is to review literature pertaining to this argument in order to defend my position and create an opportunity for knowledge and learning. This essay will discuss and reveal some expert opinions about the subject at large and adds context and ideas to the already heavily discussed topic of literacy programs and ways to successfully implement large scale educational changes within an already existing format.
eese & Goldenberg (2008) found explicit data that literacy resources within immigrant Latino families are seriously lacking. They wrote " findings from a study of 35 communities show that communities with greater concentrations…
Epstein, J. & Salinas, K. (2004). Partnering with Families and Communities. Educational Leadership, 61,8. May 2004, 12-18. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/num08/Partnering-with-Families-and-Communities.aspx
Reese, L. & Goldenberg, C. (2008). Community Literacy Resources and Home Literacy Practices Among Latino Families. Marriage & Family Review, 43 (1/2) 2008. Retrieved from https://people.stanford.edu/claudeg/sites/default/files/Parental-Involvement.pdf
Sheldon, S.B., & Epstein, J.L. (2002). Improving student behavior and school discipline with family and community involvement. Education and Urban Society, 35(1), 4-26.
Self-knowledge is a very important concept in the realm of education and self-improvement. Some of the greatest teachers in history echoed the sentiments of 'know thyself' and the know the universe. But before understanding how self knowledge can help, especially in an educational system, it is helpful to define and identify what exactly the self is and how it is influencing the situation.
Regardless of the finer points of defining the self, Thomas Jefferson Middle School, the target of my analysis, made me aware of the importance of knowing my own role within the education system. To me the education system is a community effort, and while teachers are often given the brunt of the workload to achieve this aim, parents and other leaders in the community are essentially responsible for the quality of education that is presented to the members of its group.
I have found that in this…
Program Budget and Cost Analysis
Line-Item Budget for an in-Service Dementia Care Training Program
Florida now requires all direct-care staff working with dementia patients to receive specialized training. The curricula offered must be vetted by the Training Academy of the University of South Florida's Policy Exchange Center on Aging, otherwise assisted living facilities, nursing homes, adult day care, and hospices will be unable to accept patients with dementia into their facilities. In order to meet these statutory requirements and improve patient care, an in-service training program in dementia care will be instituted for a hospice facility located in Florida.
The Hospice House in Cape Coral, Florida maintains 36 beds for patients with terminal illnesses. On average, a little over 60% of the residents suffer from dementia at any one time, which is consistent with national trends (Williams, Hyer, Kelly, Leger-Krall, and Tappen, 2005, p. 98). The number of patients tends…
CMS (Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services). (n.d.). Hospice Center. CMS.gov. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2012 from www.cms.gov/Hospice/Downloads.2011_Aggregate_Cap.pdf.
Goyder, Judith, Orrell, Martin, Wenborn, Jennifer, and Spector, Aimee. (2012). Staff training using STAR: A pilot study in UK care homes. International Psychogeriatrics, published online ahead of print, p. 1-10. Retrieved 13 Mar. 2012 from http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=8473487 .
Hobday, John, V., Savik, Kay, Smith, Stan, and Gaugier, Joseph E. (2010). Feasibility of internet training for care staff of residents with dementia: The CARES® Program. Journal of Gerontology Nursing, 36, 13-21.
Hyer, Kathryn, Molinari, Victor, Kaplan, Mary, and Jones, Sharmalee. (2010). Credentialing dementia training: The Florida experience. International Psychogeriatrics, 22, 864-873.
Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade
This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.
ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…
Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:
International Reading Association .
Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.
Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs
Education is an essential component of having a successful and prosperous life. However, in many cases students drop out of high school and never receive the diplomas that they need to better their lives. Fortunately there are programs that will provide these individuals with GED's which are equivalent to high school diplomas. The need to acquire a GED is of particular importance to the African-American male. The purpose of this discussion is to examine the research pertaining to the success of this population in such programs. We will also review which programs are the most successful and what element of the programs work the best. We will conclude by discussion the funding that is available for such programs.
What do we know about this population's performance in such programs?
According to the National Center for Education Statistics, approximately 830,000 individual took the GED in 2000. There were 719,000…
Venezky, Richard L., Page S. Bristow, and John P. Sabatini. "Measuring Change in Adult Literacy Programs: Enduring Issues and a Few Answers." Educational Assessment 2.2 (1994): 101-132.
Weirauch, Drucie, and Gary Kuhne. "Satisfying the Itch: Addressing Problems in Adult Literacy Programs with Action Research." Adult Learning 11.3 (2000): 9.
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
It is important that children know how to use the resources in the room to get the words they do not know (alanced Literacy -- Helping Your & #8230;).
The alanced Concept Summary
This concept incorporates all reading approaches, realizing students will need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers. Technology can also be integrated into a balanced approach for teaching literacy. Research indicates that student learning can be improved through the use of computers. Gains in self-confidence and motivation can be seen in those students who are using computers to enhance literacy instruction. The definition of literacy now includes a new literacy, where students need to read and write print text and also need to navigate and use the computer in their everyday lives (Cooperman and Cunningham).
alanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area…
Balanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area School District: http://www.oe.k12.mi.us/balanced_literacy/index.htm
Cooperman, N., & Cunningham, a. (2003, May). Balanced Literacy and Technology. Retrieved Mar 28, 2009, from Teaching Matters, Inc.: http://backend.teachingmatters.org/files/whitepaper.pdf
Definition of Balanced Literacy. (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Phillipsburg k12: http://www.pburg.k12.nj.us/CURRICULUM/Definition%20of%20Balanced%20Lit.pdf
Frey, B., Lee, S., Pass, L., & Tollefson, N. (n.d.). Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District. Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from School of Education University of Kansas: http://web.ku.edu/~spear/Documents/Balanced_Literacy_in_an_Urban_School_District.pdf
Thus, this needs assessment is required in order to determine the best ways to use resources in order to obtain maximum results for students. In order to conduct the assessment, then, data must be collected and analyzed. First, to address the problem of ESL students and their desired interactions with speakers of their own languages, researchers must determine whether or not interaction with a speaker of one's native language is beneficial when one is learning proficiency in another language. Methods of collecting this data include perusing already existing studies regarding the correlation between these two variables as well as conducting further studies based on the performance of a group that had access to a speaker of one's native language and one that did not. Furthermore, the students' expressed need regarding access to technological equipment and personalized training with that equipment can be assessed by gathering data that examines the best…
Further, the work of Frances Rauscher, Gordon Shaw and their colleagues of the University of California, Irvine, on what is termed 'The Mozart Effect' reports research that show a causal relationship between aspects of intelligence and music.
Practical application of the principles related by Fisher and McDonald in the classroom that this researcher finds most relevant in early literacy instruction combined with music instruction is the technique related by which the teacher asks the students after they have learned the song the questions of: (1) who; (2) what; (3) when; (4) where which provides an excellent method for instructing students in terms of sentence structure and in terms of vocabulary "within meaningful, active, and expressive contents." (Fisher and McDonald, nd) an example of this method of literacy instruction using music is to make PowerPoint slides of songs to use when teaching the songs to students with the 'who', 'what',…
Integrate Technology With Literacy Instruction
Researchers have investigated aspects of integrating technology with literacy instruction. In my strategy, I would focus on the use of a word processor on written expressions. While some studies have found either no significant outcomes or mixed outcomes with regard to the effect of the word processor on the development of literacy, most analyses have demonstrated word processor to be beneficial. This technology mitigates the complications young kids often experience with the fine-motor control necessary for letter development and help in revisions.
Further, complications met by disabled learners in expressing themselves through writing will be reduced using transcription software, word processor, spell checkers, multimedia applications, speech synthesizers and semantic organizers. Other researchers have shown that word processor improves cooperation and active participation among learners besides strengthening children's focus on the material they write. In addition, compared with paper-and-pencil arrangements, it improves sentence density, cohesion, revisions…
Curriculum Early Childhood Education
Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).
The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…
Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179
Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf
Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
grain of sand, hold infinity in an hour, - lines I read in a book of poetry, lines that play at the back of my mind as I begin to lay the outlines if this thesis for a Master's degree.
I see the wonder in a child's eyes as he imagines a world unfolding in a grain of sand as I read a story to him; an hour reading in a class of children translates into infinity as the children in that class become readers themselves, changing the hours into infinity as they develop the habit of infinite reading.
Voluntary in-school free reading program - elementary level" is the subject of this thesis proposal, and the objective is to prove that voluntary in-school free reading programs result in positive effects on elementary students' attitudes toward reading.
Statement of the Problem
To be able to identify the strengths and…
Durrell, Donald. D. Durrell Analysis of Reading Difficulty (New Edition).
Kottmeyer, William. Evaluation Handbook: Levels in English. Webster.
Kottmeyer, William. Guide for Remedial Reading. Webster Strang, Ruth, et. al. The Improvement of Reading. New York: Mc GrawHill.
Steiger, Ralph. New Directions in Reading. New York: Bantam Books.
The other sector of life where information literacy is vital and omnipresent is the career field. It is not simply a matter of preference or choice. Many businesses actively embrace the harnessing and day-to-day use of computer and informatics technology because the business being able to thrive in the marketplace or even survive in general as a business can literally depend upon it. Such a state of affairs requires employees and leaders that are well-versed and adept in literacy regarding information, computers and informatics, among other things such as project management skills, leadership traits, and so on.
Job descriptions discoverable online are bereft and thick with requirements that relate to information, computer and informatics literacy. Examples include prospective employees being familiar with the construction and/or use of database technology, internet technology, familiarity with operations systems such as Mac OS and Windows, software suites like Microsoft Office and so on. Failure…
Creedy, D.K., Mitchell, M., Seaton-Sykes, P., Cooke, M., Patterson, E., Purcell, C., & Weeks, P. (2007). Evaluating a Web-Enhanced Bachelor of Nursing Curriculum:
Perspectives of Third-Year Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(10), 460-
Edwards, J., & O'Connor, P.A. (2011). Improving Technological Competency in Nursing
Students: The Passport Project. Journal of Educators Online, 8(2), 1-20.
Literacy Short Assgts
READING. Fadi Awwad
My Reading Engagement Journal for Chapter 3
I already knew about the need for sensitivity to cultural differences in the classroom because I was raised in a devout Muslim home (that was also an American home), and the years corresponding to my own secondary education were years in American life where a kind of noxious Islamophobia very frequently poisoned public discourse. I am grateful to the extent that I had teachers who were able to rise above the level of Fox News idiocy.
I want to know more about the use of graphic novels in teaching content area literacy, as described by Vacca and Mraz on pages 79-80, because I happen to be a fan of a particular graphic novel, Palestine by Joe Sacco, which describes the artist's experiences staying on the Gaza Strip in 1991-1992. If graphic novels are an easier way to…
The program was instrumental in illustrating the importance of preschool on the reduction of crime in this country and now serves as a spoke in the wheel of government funding for preschool programs throughout the nation.
Epstein, Ann S. (1999) Pathways to Quality in Head Start, Public School, and Private Nonprofit Early Childhood Programs.(Statistical Data Included)
Journal of esearch in Childhood Education
Program Outcomes (accessed 10-20-06)
eynolds, a.J., Temple, J.A., obertson, D.L., & Mann, E.A. (2002). Age 21 cost-benefit analysis of the Title I Chicago Child-Parent Centers. Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, 24: 267-303.
obin, K.B., Frede, E.C., & Barnett, W.S. (2006). Is more better? The effects of full-day vs. half-day preschool on early school achievement. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Stellar, Arthur (2003) Long-Term Studies of Preschool: Lasting Benefits Far Outweigh Costs.
Phi Delta Kappan
Long-Term Study of Adults Who eceived High-Quality Early Childhood Care and Education Shows…
Epstein, Ann S. (1999) Pathways to Quality in Head Start, Public School, and Private Nonprofit Early Childhood Programs.(Statistical Data Included)
Journal of Research in Childhood Education
Program Outcomes (accessed 10-20-06)
Gang Prevention Programs in Los Angeles
The issue of gangs and the gang related deaths and violence has been a thing of concern across the nation and in Los Angeles in particular due to the alarming high levels of gang activities within the city. Los Angeles City has been described severally as the "gang capital" of the nation, due to the numerous gangs that are in existence as well as the long history of these gangs, going back to 50 years ago. Los Angeles Police Department (2016) there are approximately 450 active gangs in Los Angeles with a membership exceeding 45,000 members. The membership of these gangs has continued to increase over the last five years due to the lucrative narcotics trade. Over the last three years, it is documented that 16,398 violent crimes were associated to gang activities, 491 of these being homicides and 7,0478 being felony assaults, 98…
A Better LA, (2016). Funded Programs: R.A.C.E. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.abetterla.org/programs/
Basheer A., (2016). B.U.I.L.D. Brotherhood for Independent Leadership through Discipline. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.streetgangs.com/homicides/build.html
H.E.L.P.E.R Foundation, (2016). HELPER: Our Mission. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.helperfoundation.org/
Los Angeles Police Department (2016). Gangs. Retrieved April 29, 2016 from http://www.lapdonline.org/get_informed/content_basic_view/1396
Reading and writing skills are taught explicitly, directly, and systematically using research-based strategies.
here are opportunities during each school day for vocabulary development to occur both directly and indirectly.
eachers use multiple strategies and combinations of strategies to teach vocabulary and reading comprehension.
eachers model their thinking processes, encourage student inquiry, and keep students motivated and engaged.
Learning-to-read and reading-to-learn skills are taught in the school's literacy program.
Multicultural resources and materials are used across the curriculum
he school provides diverse texts that present a wide range of topics at a variety of reading levels.
Reading and intensive writing instruction are integrated and taught across the curriculum
Students have multiple opportunities each day to practice their writing skills.
eachers use differentiated instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners.
eachers use strategic tutoring that includes teaching learning strategies…
The New Jersey State Report Card revealed some important information regarding the performance of this school and how it measured against other schools. The report itself, is complex and uses many interesting statistical measurements to reach conclusions, but it appears that a commendable endorsement is displayed. All sate wide literacy targets were met within the school at all grade levels 5-8. The school was in the top 40% of statewide rank according to Language Arts and literacy assessments. Each and every grade level has performed above the state level requirements suggesting that something is being done correct at this school.
Things are not perfect however, and improvements can be made at all levels of this literacy program in order to keep advancing the educational profession and not settling for just getting by as the temptation is strong to do. Teachers must allow students to gain a confidence in their own literacy skills and realize that others have different ways of interrelating the written word an making good use of it. It is also very important to keep the entire community involved in the process as well. If adults in the community are not reading and improving their own literacy skills, it is unfair to ask our offspring to do anything different. Leadership is necessary to set the example and show others how the community should be operating at a certain level of professional and courteous standards. Using the imagination in coordination with reading can be a very useful and practical skill that can be adapted into all facets of society. The domination of television and other distractions prevents reading from being embraced to its fullest extent, and until it is, the larger group must tolerate ignorance.
State of New Jersey, School Report. Thomas Jefferson Middle School, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/pr/2013/03/035150070.pdf
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
How Are Dual Immersion Programs Implemented?
Christian, Howard & Loeb (2000) describe how dual immersion programs are implemented and the effect that they have on students. The goal for these dual immersion programs is to develop a high level of proficiency in both the first and the second language, as well as grade level academic achievement and cross-cultural skills. Dual immersion programs are implemented according to the student population. The features and variations of the program depend on many factors, including local policy, the grade levels that are served, languages that are needed for instruction, and the time spent on each one.
Most dual immersion programs serve elementary level students, also, which is very limiting to the entrance of monolingual students after the third grade. That is due to the difficulty of students who need to catch up with bilingual competence after that grade. Students benefit from dual immersion programs,…
Baker, S.K., & Good, R.H., III. (1994, April). Curriculum-based measurement reading with bilingual Hispanic students: A validation study with second-grade students. Paperpresented at the annual meeting of the Council for Exceptional Children/NationalTraining Program for Gifted Education, Denver, CO.
Bialystok, E. (2001). Bilingualism in development: language, literacy and cognition. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Christian, D., Howard, E.R., & Loeb, M.I. (2000). Bilingualism for all: Two-way immersion education in the United States. Theory into Practice, 39(4), 258-266.
Cochran-Smith, M. (2003). Teacher education and social justice. Teacher Education Quarterly, 30(2), 7-116.
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…
Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.
In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."
Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."
Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
Similar to the suggestions offered by Gahala (2001), rody (1995) identified several traits to be considered when developing a comprehensive professional development program. Among those traits include the reputation of the trainer, the rewards available to the participants, both tangible and intangible, and the support of the administration. Traditional staff development models have required everyone to participate at the same time and in the same location creating problems such as scheduling, travel, space, and funding. intrim (2002) notes that web-delivered staff development allows teachers to log on and participate at the time of day that is best for them and at the pace they are the most comfortable with.
urke (1994) concluded that the use of effective distance education programs for K-12 staff development should be increased to supplement face-to-face in-services due to the positive evaluations of K-12 educators who participated in the electronic distance education in-service programs. However, other…
Bintrim, L. (2002). Redesigning professional development. Educational Leadership, 59
Blumenfeld, P.C., Marx, R.W., Soloway, E. & Krajcik, J. (1996). Learning With Peers:
From Small Group Cooperation to Collaborative Communities. Educational Researcher, 25(8), 37- 40.
Books, J., Cayer, C., Dixon, J., Wood, J. (2001). Action Research Question: What Factors Affect Teachers' Integration of Technology in Elementary Classrooms?
Language and Literacy Development of Head Start Children: A Study Using the Family and Child Experiences Survey Database." The report opens with a description of the Head Start program, established in 1965, and sums up their goal: to provide a comprehensive development program for low socioeconomic status (SES) children and their families.
In 1995 it was decided to evaluate the Head Start program's quality and effectiveness. To that end, the study defined a conceptual model that defined school readiness in terms of five developmental domains:
Physical well-being and motor development
Social and emotional development
Approaches to learning
Language usage and emerging literacy
Cognition and general knowledge
The Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) was then developed to provide information about Head Start children and their families, and to gather data about the program. The study included four cohorts for collection periods 1997, 2000, 2003, and 2006, with each cohort consisting…
Language and Literacy
Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.
hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.
Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…
THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?
The Guilford Press, March 2000
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…
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Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf
CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf
fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf
Next, the teacher, through questioning and eliminating, reduces the categories and establishes consensus on the order of information expected to be found. She also gets the students to consider the search terms that might get results. Once this in done a scaffold is constructed using the established order.
Still, in a group setting, students use personal semantic maps and begin to learn to create a collective scaffold of meaning in a way that is meaningful to their cognitive processes -- they learn how to learn, and how to communicate that learning in a classroom environment to the teacher and to their peers. (Grid of Constructs about Learning, 2004)
The teacher then takes the students to the computer room where they search the net for information that pertains to their particular category. They add the additional information that they have found their section of the scaffold.
This adds technical reinforcement and…
Grid of Constructs about Learning." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.math.uow.edu.au/people/ap_contnt.pdf
Reinhardt, Erica. (May 27, 2004) "Learning cycle." Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.human.cornell.edu/units/dns/extension/youth/sciencediscovery/cornellnutritionresources.html
Scaffolding." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1scaf.htm www.uws.edu.au%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile_id%3D6974%26filename%3DA4611G__Spring_2000.University of Western Sydney, Macarthur "Erica Model -- Whole Language Strategies." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.uws.edu.au/download.php?file_id=6974&filename=A4611G__Spring_2000.pdf&mimetype=application/pdf
According to Malfaro, just a single year of English is not essentially sufficient to effectively make the initiative to reading and writing. (Tozzi, 1998)
Supporters give an instance of a study undertaken in the year 1991 approved by the National Academy of Sciences mentioning that the children who have are able to speak a foreign language are able to comprehend English more quickly and perform better educational development on the whole after receiving many years of teaching in their regional language. (Leon, 2001) Jay Greene belonging to the Manhattan Institute employed more accurate statistical instruments compared to those employed in the earlier researches and discovered that bilingual education possess encouraging effects. He inferred that attempts to eradicate the use of local language in teaching does damage to the children by refuting them access to beneficial methods. Almost every researcher who has made an assessment of the scientific research has inferred…
Alvarez, Roberto. (2002) "Bilingual Education" St.: James Encyclopedia of Pop Culture.
Brisk, Maria Estela. (November, 1999) "Education Quality Bilingual Defining Success" Presented at the Symposium on Language Policy. Bar Ilam University, Israel.
Brisk, Maria Estela. (2000) "Defining Success: Quality Bilingual Education" LAB at Brown University.
Cummins, Jim. (9 February, 1998) "Beyond Adversarial Discourse: Searching for Common Ground in the Education of Bilingual Students. Presentation to the California State Board of Education. Sacramento, California. Retrieved at http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/JWCRAWFORD/cummins.htm. Accessed on 26 November, 2004
"hat was the plot of the book you read for today?' 'hat is the name of the main character?' 'hat is the setting of the story?' Often teachers are so happy that students have completed a reading assignment in a timely fashion, and can recollect the basic details of what they read, they do not encourage the student to go 'one step further' and to critically think about the reading material assigned. But students must also learn to thoughtfully engage with the written materials at hand. If teachers ignore the importance of thoughtful as well as technical literacy, teachers are not setting high enough goals for student achievement. They also inadvertently create the effect of making reading seem like a chore to be mastered for a test in the immediate future, rather than a source of personal enrichment and pleasure over the course of one's life.
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
Though extrapolating these results to public K-12 programs is somewhat premature, especially given the difference in resources between the average university and the schools that comprise the Mobile County school system, it seems reasonable that developing techniques of ESL instruction within mainstream classes could be beneficial to all.
Indeed, the standardization of expectations and benchmarks for academic success have proven an effective means of designing and implementing programs, as well. Both ESL standards developed by various educational organizations and agencies as well as overall academic standards for performance and achievement have, when applied to ESL students in proper settings, led to greater student improvements and teacher performance (Nunan 2007). The overriding principle of the Mobile County ESL program is to develop the same level of achievement for ESL students as exists for all students in the system, meaning that some sort of standards-based instruction is already present in this program,…
IES. (2007). "Effective Literacy and English Language Instruction for English Learners in the Elementary Grades." Institute of education sciences. U.S. Dept. Of Education.
MPCSS. (2010). Mobile county public schools. Accessed 18 September 2010. http://www.mcpss.com/?DivisionID=2149&DepartmentID=2013&ToggleSideNav=ShowAll
Nunan, D. (2007). "Standards-Based Approaches to the Evaluation of ESL Instruction." International handbook of English language teaching 15(3), pp. 421-38.
O'Day, J. (209). "Good Instruction is Good for Everyone -- Or Is It? English Language Learners in a Balanced Literacy Approach." Journal of education for students placed at risk 14, pp. 97-119.
The following a marketing plan for entering the Vietnamese market. There will be several issues covered, including the market and product analysis, external analysis, an internal analysis, and an action plan. Then there will be conclusions. The Vietnamese market is a terrible one to enter, in short. There has to be a better market. While the market is large in population, and its wealth is growing, the average Vietnamese cannot afford to pay tuition for Western-quality higher education. The actual size of the market, which would consist only of wealthy Vietnamese students who cannot get into Western schools, is quite small. The report will outline the size of this market, and how best this market can be reached.
The product we are selling is higher education. The business school proposes to enter the Vietnamese market with numerous courses of study. There are two products -- a baccalaureate…
In addition to supplying training so that workers can obtain and maintain entry-level jobs, training must be given that is based on national skills principles, assessments, and qualifications that will improve a participant's ability to compete successfully in the current global economy. This component will be the focus around which the other four HD training components will revolve. This training component will be broken down into five different categories: Job Training, Job-Looking Skills, Job-etention Skills, Lifetime Learning, and Life Abilities.
Job Looking Skills
Job etention Skills
1. Job Search 1. Personal esponsibilities 5. Job performance
2. Application/esume 2. Time Management 6. Interpersonal Skills
3. Interviewing 3. Economic Literacy 7. Learning Skills
4. Job Selection Process 4. Work Attitudes 8. Math Skills
Lifetime Learning Life Abilities
1. eflection 1. Consumer Buying 3. Preventative Health Care
2. Change Management 2. Parenting Skills 4. Community esources
1. Communication Styles 4. Observation…
Human Resources Development Program Evaluation Guide. (2010). Retrieved May 18, 2010,
from Web site:
These facts do not even address the personal bias that may exist among employers who are more likely to hire welfare recipients than ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
The problems ex-offenders face do not stop with employment. Male ex-offenders unable to hold steady or appealing jobs are often less appealing to potential partners as they are perceived as unable to "Contribute economically" and many carry a stigma associated with a past conviction (Western, 54).
All of these facts support the need for better rehabilitation programs to prevent increased recidivism among ex-offenders (Western, 2003). May have likened parole to law enforcement processes than social work, suggesting that parole officers are more surveillance oriented than supportive in their roles toward ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Many groups that do support the needs of ex-offenders including nonprofit agencies often lack the resources necessary to help ex-offenders (Western, 2003).
Significance of the Study
Every year more than 600,000…
Etters, K. (2002 - Dec). "Job-readiness training program at the Wayne County Jail prepares offenders for success." Corrections Today, 64(7): 112.
Fischer, M., Geiger, B. & Toch, H. (1991). "Reform through community: Resocializing offenders in the Kibbutz." New York: Greenwood Press.
Lattimore, P. & Witte, A.D. (1985). "Programs to aid ex-offenders: We don't know nothing works." Monthly Labor Review, 108(4): 46.
Lemieux, C.M. (2002). "Social support among offenders with substance abuse problems:
Public Program Quality Evaluation
Overview of the Program and the Program ationale
In 2011, approximately 23% of all children in the United States were children of immigrants. Many of these children have come from countries where the educational systems have not prepared them with competitive skills that will support a good standard of living. Various policies to address this issue have been proposed. Of the feasible options, the policy most likely to achieve popular approval is the provision of preschool education to all low-immigrant children. In part, the basis for this support is the historical national approval of programs such as Head Start. ecently, the nation has seen an upswing in state-funded pre-K programs that focus on preparing low-income 4-year-old children for kindergarten and elementary school. Head Start programs continue in a parallel manner, and necessarily so, as only a handful of states offer pubic school-based pre-K programs to all…
Haskins, R. & Tienda, M. (2011). The future of immigrant children. The Future of Children. Princeton University and the Brookings Institution.
Lawrence L. Martin, L.L. & Kettner, P.M. (1996). Measuring the performance of human service programs. Sage Publications.
Neuman, W.L. (2012). Basics of social research: qualitative and quantitative approaches (3rd ed.).
Puma, M. Bell, S., Cook, R., & Heid, C. (2010, January). Head Start Impact Study Final Report, Executive Summary. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Administration for Children and Families. Washington, DC.
The analysis provided is thorough and bias at the same time. However, Armstrong provides a valuable background and policy analysis.
In terms of the relations between Ghana and its major donors, China and the EU, Giles Mohan writes a comprehensive overview of the relations Ghana has with China and the potential political and economic interests that may drive China to indeed become a crucial donor for Ghana. More precisely, the author connects the new found Chinese desire to invest in the African country to the new found oil reserves in Ghana. Furthermore, he contents that given the past nature of the relations between China and the rest of the world (such as the EU for instance), the presence of China in Ghana is also geopolitically related and not necessarily humanitarian and development related. The perspective is valuable because the author points out potential political linkages between the resources found in…
Boafo-Arthur, K & Essuman-Johnson, a 1993, Ghana, Some Foreign Aid issues, Institute of South Africa, Pretoria.
Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). 2010. Ghana. CIDA. viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/acdi-cida/ACDI-CIDA.nsf/Eng/JUD-124141510-QL7
Chachage, C.S.L., 1987, Towards a critique of development theories in Africa. Vol. l9 No J / 987.
Crawford, G 2004. "The European Union and Democracy Promotion in Africa: The Case of Ghana" POLIS Working Paper Number 10 viewed on 18 January 2011 http://www.polis.leeds.ac.uk/assets/files/research/working-papers/wp10crawford.pdf
Treating the whole patient and the patient's family, social, and economic environment was essential, rather than merely regarding diabetes as a medical problem. I also referred her to a nutritionist who could provide additional assistance, as well as other local and community resources devoted to helping people eat more healthfully on a budget.
Different roles for the Advanced Practical Nurse (APN)
This is one example of how the program has influenced my development as an Advanced Practical Nurse (APN). I had to act as an educator, as well as merely a caregiver and dispenser of medical knowledge. As well as a practitioner who identifies areas of patient need, such as future health problems in need of correction along the lines of high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and poor lifestyle choices that could lead to heart disease, a nurse must teach the patient about lifestyle changes that the patient can…
Merrill, Piper. (2001, May).Wake-up call for U.S. health care system and APNs. Nursing
Economics.. Retrieved 26 Jan. 2009 from FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0FSW/is_3_19/ai_n18612037
Even if these students were special education students, Iowa regularly places at the top of the national average for student scores and abilities. Thus, using Iowa students may bias the results by increasing the benefits in a way not reflective of the national average, which is typically much lower than Iowa's averages.
Unfortunately, there is little if any independent data available on the benefit of Read 180 for low level reading students with special needs. Therefore, to come to a sound conclusion on the programs overall benefits, one will need to conduct an independent study. This will best be done by following the example used in the Des Moines Independent School District study, following and tracking test scores for a five-year period of 180 Read's use. However, to get a better sample the studies should be conducted at schools located at various income levels, minority backgrounds and overall school achievement…
Hewes, Gina M., Nancy Palmer, M. Bruce Haslam, and Monica B. Mielke. (2006): Five Years of Read 180 in Des Moines: Improving Literacy Among Middle School and High School Special Education Students. Scholastic, Inc.
Scholastic Homepage. Read 180 Product Information. www.scholastic.com.
program READ 180 is designed for children in elementary school through high school whose achievement of reading is not above the level of proficiency. The main objective of this program is to address the gap in the skills of the students by using direct instruction, literature and computer program in the reading skills. The goal of the software is to adapt and track the progress of every student. Apart from that, the program also includes audio books with CDs for modeling reading, paperback books for independent reading and workbooks for addressing the comprehension skills of the students (WWC, 2009).
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI): Decision Making Process
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) is a test of reading comprehension that assesses the reading skills of the students. The scores that come from this test help the teachers to place the students on the correct path and help the teachers to adjust their style…
Betebenner, D.W. (2011). A Technical Overview of the Student Growth Percentile Methodology: Student Growth Percentiles and Percentile Growth Projections/Trajectories. New Hampshire: The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment Dover.
Bonds, M., Blewett, P., Sain, M., Spence, J., Woodward, A., Miller, L., . . . Falk, T. (2011). District Report Card. Milwaukee Board of School Directors.
Data Interpretation Guide. (n.d.). SPI.
Flynn, J.E., Bieler, D., Kim, H., Dow, R.R., Wong, C., & Worden, L. (n.d.). Recruiting and Retaining Students from Underrepresented Groups in University of Delaware Teacher Preparation Programs. Collaborative to Diversify Teacher Education at the University of Delaware.
" I still do that, " and for the question of what happens when you get stuck on a word he replied, "Just mainly that or just ask somebody"
Subject 2: Was a much more confident reader and this is most likely because of the ability to use phonics' based reading and thinking process. The subject had advanced phonics' in a previous grade and those principles have carried forward into the self-esteem and confidence in regard to reading. He has a viable solution for answering his own questions regarding words or sounds he does not know.
According to the analysis of the spelling features, both boys are in similar spelling stages, however, the phonics background in subject 2 will help him develop faster as both a readier and a speller. The children were both using phonetic spelling techniques to pass the spelling portion of the assessment, however, subject one is…
Oldest and Largest Federal Aid Program to Schools
Department of Education Web site, the headline above Title 1 reads: "Improving the Academic Achievement of the Disadvantaged." Further into the government's description of Title 1 - the largest and oldest federal aid program for elementary and secondary schools - readers learn that it exists in order "...to ensure that all children have a fair, equal, and significant opportunity to obtain a high-quality education and reach, at a minimum, proficiency on challenging State academic achievement standards and state academic assessments." Those are laudable, lofty, idealistic and thoroughly worthy goals. But numerous questions arise in the mind of an objective Title 1 researcher, such as: 1) what is the most effective way in which Title 1 funds may be used? 2) what do teachers envision when they project Title 1 impacts five years from now? 3) Do the Title 1 resources truly make…
Borman, Geoffrey D. (2002). "How Can Title 1 Improve Achievement?" Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Cardman, Michael (2003). "Bush: all state plans now approved; funding ample (implementing NCLB)." Education Daily.
Education Program for Gifted Youth (2002). "A Brief History of Title 1 and its Applicability to Gifted Education." www.epgy.stanford.edu.
Etheridge, Sheldon D. (2001). "Case Study: Title 1 Schoolwide Programs: District Support for Achieving Success: Berkeley County School District." Journal of Education for Students Placed At Risk.
Client Report: Early Literacy Template
Kayla is a first grade student who has passed the kindergarten literacy standards. Although she passed the kindergarten literacy standards, she has not passed the first grade reading standards due to her difficulty with reading. Recent assessments revealed that she continues to perform below average in reading skills, particularly with decoding, fluency and comprehension.
List of Assessments (to be included with Client Report: Final Submission)
Parent Permission Form with your full name and first name of parent typed in
Teacher Referral Form with all information typed on this template
Observation Checklist: Early Literacy Behavior with all information typed on this template
1. Early Literacy riting Sample with form completed in template and a jpg file of actual writing sample included.
Early Literacy Assessments -- Complete all parts of the Test Summary Sheet (from John's Basic Reading Inventory: Early Literacy)
Word recognition -- ___ -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ --
Comprehension/retelling -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ -- ___ --
From Jerry L. Johns, Basic Reading Inventory (11th ed.). Copyright © 2012 by Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company (1- *** , ext. 4). May be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes. Website: www.kendallhunt.com
Even though a child may process the ability to decode written text this does not necessarily mean the child understands the content of the text.
Using informational texts in the primary grades will reduce the need for Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports for most students.
Content learning and content literacy are inseparable.
Language arts curriculum should be premised on reading to learn.
Increase the number of student encounters and experiences with print informational texts
This article presents a common sense approach to teaching reading. I appreciate the fact that "all reading is learning" and the content in many basal readers is unappealing to a curious mind. Basing the teaching of reading solely in literature is a disservice to many learners who yearn for more diverse content. Utilizing a wide range of informational texts in the classroom in the primary grades serves the purpose of building a child's repertoire…
Work First Family Assistance Program
Welfare states are recognized by their efforts to help the citizens in leading a better life. Such states also help citizens rise to the point where they are able to lead a stable financial life. There are many programs currently running in America at state or federal level that help the citizens in one way or the other to be able to maintain basic operations of live. One such program is Work First Family Assistance. The Work First Family Assistance Program is an initiative by North Carolina that helps needy families and gives them funds. The program offers funds to the custodians for the dependent family members. These payments are normally made on the monthly basis. The assistance program supports only those citizens that can fulfill the criteria of the program. While every one-out-of five citizen of the state of North Carolina is potentially affected…
Department of Social Services, (2013), Retrieved from:
How to Find Financial Aid and Advice, (2011), Retrieved from:
http://www.aacr.org/home/survivors -- advocates/information-about-support-groups,-clinical-trials,-financial-help-and-fundraising/how-to-find-financial-aid-and-advice.aspx
Balanced Spelling Program
Unique spellings are created by the children as they are developing their skills of spelling development referred to as invented spellings. Based on the knowledge of phonology that the children have, spelling creation is a unique phenomenon in the children. In most of the cases, it is seen that the children use letters for spelling words and consonants rather consistent usage of sounds. Some of the main examples include night (NIT), girl (GL) and TIG (tiger). There are five main stages of spelling development in children. 1st stage, emergent spelling, is known for the scribbling of letters, letter like forms, and scribbles and children do no associate marks with phonemes (Tompkins, Campbell, and Green, 2011), p. 168). This stage represents a more natural expression of alphabets along with many language related concepts. Second stage, letter name alphabetical setting is represented by the representation of phonemes along with…
Cowen, J.E. (2003). A Balanced Approach to Beginning Reading Instruction: A Synthesis of Six Major U.S. Research Studies. International Reading Assoc.
Lacina, I., and Silva, C. (2010). Cases of Successful Literacy Teachers. SAGE.
McLaughlin, M., and Allen, B.M. (2002). Guided Comprehension: A Teaching Model for Grades 3-8. International Reading Assoc.
Moss, B., and Lapp, D. (2009). Teaching New Literacies in Grades 4-6: Resources for 21st-Century Classrooms, Solving Problems in the Teaching of Literacy. Guilford Press.
adolescents lack the necessary skills needed for solving-problems, self-esteem, and communication skills (Fertman & Linden, 1999; Sullivan & Larson, 2010). Moreover, adolescents tend to lack self-esteem, motivation, moral value, and a positive outlook on life (Sullivan & Larson, 2010). However, to be competitive in the world of business, adolescents must learn and be trained on way to effectively manage their emotions. Moreover, James Heckman states that investing in children's education to enhance "non-cognitive" skills such as motivation, perseverance, and self-control -- is a cost-effective approach to increasing the quality and productivity of the workforce (Brackett, Divecha & Stern, 2015, p.2).
According to the National Alliance for Secondary Education and Transition (2010), youth leadership development helps encourage healthy adolescent growth by providing young people the ability to analyze their own strengths and weaknesses while being able to set their own personal and vocational goals; and to gain the self-esteem, confidence, motivation,…
Baxter, P. & Jack, S. (2008, December 1). Qualitative Case Study Methodology: Study Design and Implementation for Novice Researchers. The Qualitative Report, 13(4), 544-559.
Bean, C., Harlow, M. & Forneris, T. (2016, February 29). Examining the Importance of Supporting Youth's Basic Needs in One Youth Leadership Programme: A Case Study Exploring Programme Quality. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 1-15.
Cho, J. & Trent, A. (2006). Validity in Qualitative Research Revisited. Qualitative Research, 6(3), 319-340.
Coyne, I.T. (1997). Sampling in Qualitative Research: Purposeful and Theoretical Sampling: Merging or Clear Boundaries? Journal of Advanced Nursing, 26, 623-630.
There are many of these individuals, and it is time that this is changed.
Parents often look away from these kinds of problems, or they spend their time in denial of the issue because they feel that their child will not be harmed by parental involvement with drugs or alcohol. Some parents have parents that were/are addicts themselves, and some are so busy with their lives that they do not actually realize that their child has any kind of problem with the lifestyle of the parent until it becomes so severe that it cannot be overlooked, or until it is brought to their attention by police, the school, or someone else that has seen it first hand. Parents are not the only ones that overlook this issue, though.
Sometimes siblings and friends also see problems that they ignore, do not understand, or do not talk to anyone about, and the…
Aleman-Padilla, L. 2002. Babies First gets last word on infant care Hundreds recognize groups contribution at fourth annual event. The Fresno Bee.
Anderson, D. 2004. Funding cuts impact health services. Precinct Reporter.
Anderson, S.A. (2000). How parental involvement makes a difference in reading achievement. Reading Improvement.
Baker, P.L. (2000). I didn't know: discoveries and identity transformation of women addicts in treatment. Journal of Drug Issues, 30, 863-881.
Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is also referred to as the City of Chicago School District Number 299, for the purposes of funding provisions. In particular, this is the 4th biggest school district in the United States (Chicago Public Schools, 2016). Chicago Public Schools (CPS) is a massive system that consists of primary schools, secondary schools and disability schools restricted to the boundaries of Chicago City. Moreover, this enormous system is the second biggest employer in Chicago. Majority of the schools within the Chicago district, irrespective of what school level it is, have attendance borders confining student admission to within a certain area. A school may possibly choose to enroll students beyond its attendance borders, if there is space in its classrooms or if it has a magnet cluster program (Chicago Public Schools, 2016). In the past school year, Chicago Public Schools' report indicated that its administration included a total of…
Chicago Public Schools. (2016). CPS Stats and Facts. Retrieved 22 February 2016 from: http://www.cps.edu/About_CPS/At-a-glance/Pages/Stats_and_facts.aspx
Chicago Public Schools. (2016). Language and Cultural Education. Retrieved 22 February 2016 from: http://cps.edu/Pages/DualLanguagePrograms.aspx#
DeJong, E. (2011). Foundations for Multilingualism in Education: from Principle to Practices. Caslon Publishing ISBN: 978-1-9340000-06-9.
Diez, V., & Karp, F. (2013). Two-Way Bilingual Education in Boston Public Schools: Required Features, Guidelines and Recommendations.
Dual credit programs have been around for decades, allowing a large body of evidence to emerge. The evidence from the past twenty years have also permitted longitudinal studies that reveal the efficacy of dual credit programs in promoting models for peace in higher education. Dual credit programs are executed differently in different states. Program feature diversity and results from empirical literature also permits the body of literature to inform best practices for administration, management, and program assessment in Hawaii. Themes in the literature include a historical overview showcasing the practically incontrovertible evidence in support of dual credit programs, with recent literature trending towards specific elements of program design, implementation, and assessment. Other trends include the ability of dual credit programs to promote equity through the promotion of minority students in higher education and to increase the representation of minority students and faculty in institutes of higher learning. The literature, particularly…
Laptop Implementation Program - Action Plan
The ideal school in the modern era of global education evokes dynamic and progressive thought to what exactly enables a student population to excel and succeed in life's endeavors. Truly, this is central to any discussion regarding educational reformation via school and classroom development. The critical component to these decisions is inherent to the leadership at the school to understand that, according to Cause & Chen, "the children's active use of technology in making decisions, technology resources in writing and drawing, and logical thinking programs to solve problems and illustrate ideas." (Cause, Chen, 2010)
The ideal school will therefore target the way young children learn and teach accordingly. According to Cause & Chen, an appropriate method to educate the young is to "offer pictures and sounds to support the natural ways that young children learn." (Cause, Chen, 2010) The importance of vision…
Katie Ash. (2010, March). Building on a Decade of 1-to-1 Lessons: Sustaining a laptop program at a middle school in Michigan requires a wireless vision and parent purchasing power.. Education Week, 29(26), 12, 14, 15. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2030552671).
Cause, L., & Chen, D.. (2010). A Tablet Computer for Young Children? Exploring Its Viability for Early Childhood Education. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 43(1), 75-98. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 2134707481).
Dawson, K., Cavanaugh, C., & Ritzhaupt, A.. (2008). Florida's EETT Leveraging Laptops Initiative and Its Impact on Teaching Practices. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 41(2), 143-159. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from Research Library. (Document ID: 1609084841).
Chris Kieffer. (15 September). Tupelo hopes to expand school laptop use. McClatchy - Tribune Business News,***[insert pages]***. Retrieved December 20, 2010, from ABI/INFORM Dateline. (Document ID: 1859409821).
CTE Program Evaluation Based on the WASC Self-Study Model
CTE Program Evaluation
Career Technical Education (CTE) programs generally conduct accreditation evaluations through the Western Association of Schools and Colleges (WASC). egional Occupational Programs/Centers (OCPs) fall within the CTE program category and are evaluated using the post-secondary WASC process. The process of reviewing and approving institutional educational programs of all types is known as accreditation, and it is conducted across the globe. The major components of an accreditation process typically are self-study, internal review, and external validation by trained educators -- in that order. The phases of the accreditation process provide opportunities for educational institutions to assess the strengths and weaknesses of their programs in detail. As the educational institutions work through the various evaluation phases, stakeholders develop a school-wide action plan that will articulate and guide the school through a continuous improvement processes.
In order to commence an accreditation process,…
Assembly Bill 2448 Program Summary. (2006). Retrieved http://www.cde.ca.gov/ci/ct/rp/ab244807summary.asp
Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Act of 2006. Reauthorization of Perkins. (2006). Laws & Guidance | Vocational Education. Department of Education. Retrieved http://www2.ed.gov/policy/sectech/leg/perkins/index.html
Office of Career, Technical, and Adult Education (OCTAE). (2014). Laws & Guidance | Vocational Education. U.S. Department of Education. Retreived http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ovae/index.html
Outreach and Technical Assistance Network for Adult Learners. (2014). Retrieved http://www.otan.us/browse/index.cfm?fuseaction=doc&catid=34128&ref=6263
home health care services in extending care delivery to the home setting is increasing in contemporary times. Home health care aims to shorten hospitalization and reduce the frequency of visits to the hospital for patients recuperating from a surgical operation or disease, or living with a chronic illness such as cancer, heart disease, and diabetes (Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services [CMS], n.d.). It enables patients to have more independent living and a better quality of life. The author's organisation specialises in home health care. In conjunction with hospitals and physicians, the organisation delivers a wide range of individualised care services to patients at their own homes. Whereas the organisation has performed impressively in terms of patient satisfaction, there is still room for improvement. In cognizance of increased demand for home health care due to the underlying greater demand for healthcare in general, it is imperative for the organisation to…
Centres for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) (n.d.). What is home health care? Retrieved from: https://www.medicare.gov/what-medicare-covers/home-health- care/home-health-care-what-is-it-what-to-expect.html
Ellenbecker, C., Samia, L., Cushman, M., & Alster, K. (2008). Chapter 13: Patient safety and quality in home health care. In R. Hughes (ed.), Patient safety and quality: an evidence-based handbook for nurses. Rockville: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Tracking normal activity patterns of users is essential to enable abnormal activity to be flagged. Also, unintentional user errors such as logging onto unsecure websites and opening up potentially infected documents must be flagged. Sending an email from an odd-looking address and seeing if employees open the email is one way to gage the relative wariness of employees. If employees open up the email, it staff can include a message warning them that this is just the kind of message employees should delete.
Creating 'backdoor' threats and viruses to attack a system, and see if it is vulnerable is one potential 'fire drill' that can be used by the organization to assess potential areas that can be compromised. General assessments of the knowledge of non-it and it staff of proper security procedures and the areas which can pose new threats are also essential.
Simple systematic procedures, such as requiring employees…
Viability of Community Sports Programs
There has been raging debate on whether or not sports projects are wise municipal investments. Experts have raised concern that although such programs may appear very attractive at face value, they end up delivering very little returns in the long-term owing to the incremental nature of the associated hidden costs. This has prompted researchers to shift from studying the benefits of community sport projects as tools of investment to analyzing how the benefits of such investment compare with the costs. The research questions below have been derived from multiple studies seeking to establish the economic impact of community sporting programs on the overall economy by comparing the real costs and benefits of the same.
Q1: Do sporting projects help in tackling the problem of youth crimes?
In this case, we can define sports projects, the independent variable, in terms of the proportion of the budget…
Black, K. (2011). Business Statistics: For Contemporary Decision-Making (7th ed.). Danvers, MA: John Wiley & Sons.
Huck, S.W. (2012). Reading Statistics and Research (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Johnson, R. & Kuby, P. (2011). STAT 2. Boston, MA: Cengage Learning
Business and Entrepreneurship)
If I were to describe myself in a single word, it would be 'fluent.' I have striven to make myself fluent in a variety of languages and cultures so my skill set can be adaptable to my current workplace and to the workplace of the future. For example, in my role as a marketing assistant for Pepsi Co. In Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, I found myself working for an American company that was attempting to solidify its market base in the Middle East. I had to translate the all-American appeal of Pepsi to a foreign setting, and persuade consumers in a manner that was culturally comprehensible that Coca-Cola was not 'it,' and they should try the Pepsi brand.
As part of my work for Pepsi, I designed and crafted marketing materials, spanning from articles, brochures, projects, press releases, and event announcements, to company newsletters, trade-show passes, and reports,…
Opioid abuse is a problem in the US, particularly among the youth population. This is a health risk behavior that has arisen in the US for quite some time, largely due to the influence of the pharmaceutical industry’s push of drugs like Oxycontin onto the market (Coplan et al., 2016). The US Department of Health and Human Services (2020) reports that 0.7 percent of young people aged 12 years and up have reported an opioid use disorder, such as heroin or prescription pain reliever, in the past 12 months. One of the objectives of Healthy People 2030 is to “reduce the proportion of people who had opioid use disorder in the past year” (Healthy People 2030, 2021). This paper discusses the program that can be initiated to address this issue. It identifies the target group, the key stakeholders, the plan of action, and the barriers to be overcome.
Bandura, A. (2018). Toward a psychology of human agency: Pathways and reflections. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 13(2), 130-136.
Coplan, P. M., Chilcoat, H. D., Butler, S. F., Sellers, E. M., Kadakia, A., Harikrishnan, V., ... & Dart, R. C. (2016). The effect of an abuse?deterrent opioid formulation (OxyContin) on opioid abuse?related outcomes in the postmarketing setting. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 100(3), 275-286.
Doster, L. (2013). Millennial teens design and redesign themselves in online social networks. Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 12(4), 267-279.
Governor.PA. (2017). Governor Wolf Voices Support for House Bill that Makes Opioid Education Mandatory in Schools. Retrieved from https://www.governor.pa.gov/newsroom/governor-wolf-voices-support-for-house-bill-that-makes-opioid-education-mandatory-in-schools/
Healthy People 2030. (2021). Opioid use. Retrieved from https://health.gov/healthypeople/objectives-and-data/browse-objectives/drug-and-alcohol-use/reduce-proportion-people-who-had-opioid-use-disorder-past-year-su-18
Keleher, H. (2002). Public and population health strategic responses. Health Canada.
McCoy, S. S., Dimler, L. M., Samuels, D. V., & Natsuaki, M. N. (2019). Adolescent susceptibility to deviant peer pressure: Does gender matter?. Adolescent research review, 4(1), 59-71.
Roberts, M., Callahan, L., & O’Leary, C. (2017). Social media: A path to health literacy. Information Services & Use, 37(2), 177-187.
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…
(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from: http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf
(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf
(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf
Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .
Allington's sixth chapter
In the sixth chapter of his text, hat Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs, literacy expert Richard Allington gives important tips to teachers as to how they can effectively improve instruction for struggling readers in their classrooms. This is often one of the most difficult tasks for any teacher, regardless of the grade he or she teachers.
In fact, one of Allington's first areas of critique is teacher-focused. To help teacher improve classroom instruction for such challenged readers, Allington stresses the need to provide additional support for teachers' professional growth. Since this field of how to approach struggling readers is undergoing continual professional debate, teachers need to keep in touch with new pedagogical developments, as well as receive support from their fellow professionals. Regular classroom teachers must strive to become expert educators, as well as have adequate access to resource room staff.
Enhancing Access to…
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
Computing: Why We Need This Program and How We Can Implement it Effectively and Efficiently
I believe that the motion picture is destined to revolutionize our educational system and that in a few years it will supplant largely, if not entirely, the use of textbooks.
I should say that on the average we got about two percent efficiency out of schoolbooks as they are written today. The education of the future, as I see it, will be conducted through the medium of the motion picture . . . where it should be possible to obtain one hundred percent efficiency.
I think it's fair to say that personal computers have become the most empowering tool we've ever created. They're tools of communication, they're tools of creativity, and they can be shaped by their user, . . . We are not even close to finishing the basic dream of what…
Alberta Education (2006). One-to-One Mobile Computing: Literature Review. Alberta Education, 1-65.
Bebell, D., & O'Dwyer. (2010). Educational Outcomes And Research From 1:1 Computing Settings. Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 9(1), 1-15.
Cox, M., & Hanson, R. (2009). One-to-One Computing: The Future Is Now. Library Media Connection, August/September, 54-55.
Cuban, L. (1986). Teachers and Machines: The Classroom Use of Technology Since 1920. New York: Teachers College Press.
Teaching writing to young children
Learning how to write is an important tool in encouraging young children to get excited about reading. A 2010 experimental study in the Journal of Educational esearch (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010) compared two common techniques used in kindergarten classrooms to help young readers learn to write: interactive writing and the writing workshop method. "As children write, they analyze thought and meaning, experiment with words and form, and learn concepts of directionality, sequencing, and spacing" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). Previous studies indicated that even the very youngest readers could benefit from writing instruction, given the way that writing can help them analyze words letter by letter and that "letter-sound correspondence cannot be learned outside the written system" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). The benefits of writing instructions at the kindergarten level exist "even after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and IQ effects" (Jones, eutzel…
Berson, M.J., Ouzts, D.T., & Walsh, L.S. (1999). Connecting literature with K-8 national geography standards. The Social Studies, 90(2), 85-92.
Bishop, A.G., & League, M.B. (2006). Identifying a multivariate screening model to predict reading difficulties at the onset of kindergarten: A longitudinal analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29(4), 235-252. Retrieved: doi: 10.2307/30035552
Diane, C.N., & Monson, D.L. (1996). Effects of literacy environment on literacy development of kindergarten children. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(5), 259-259.
Jones, Cindy D'On; Reutzel, D Ray; & Fargo, Jamison D. (2010). Comparing two methods of writing instruction: Effects on kindergarten students' reading skills. The Journal of Educational Research, 103 (5): 327-341. Retrieved: