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Recognition of the visual shapes of letters before reading is mentioned, as well as the fact that letters can be exposed in different ways, such as by the use of blocks and magnetic letters. The authors then discuss how storybook reading can be used by teachers to facilitate learning in early students.
Storybook Preview is used to introduce a new book or a follow-up activity, and consists of teacher interaction with a small group of students. This assists teachers in interacting effectively with students, responding to and expanding on each child's language. Storybook Read Aloud is also explained, which can be used in a large group of children, where the teacher reads the book aloud in a manner that captures the children's attention. Storybook celebration is where teachers have the children respond to the book through an activity such as making a craft or drawing pictures. Storybook Sounds focuses on…
Two of the most effective assessments of literacy skills include writing portfolios, and peer- and self-assessments. Peer and self-assessments are student-led practices, which have been liked with measurable improvements in core skills development in writing, as well as increased accountability in the classroom, increased social interactions, and increased accuracy (Harris & Brown, 2013). Writing portfolios have for decades been a reliable method of assessing writing literacy, capturing a “richer array of what students know and can do” as well as revealing the “processes by which students produce work,” (Arter & Spandel, 1992, p. 36). Both writing portfolios and peer- and self-assessments offer the means for instructors to develop the “careful and rigorous approach” that leads to meaningful and accurate assessments of literacy (Scharf, Elliot, Huey, et al, 2007, p. 462). Writing portfolios and peer- and self-assessments also offer the potential for multifaceted assessments that extend beyond the measurement of core…
Arter, J.A. & Spandel, V. (1992). Using portfolios of student work in instruction and assessment. Educational Measurement: Issues and Practice 11(1): 36-44.
Crusan, D., Plakans, L. & Gebril, A. (2016). Writing assessment literacy. Assessing Writing 28(2016): 43-56.
Harris, L.R. & Brown, G.T.L. (2013). Opportunities and obstacles to consider when using peer- and self-assessment to improve student learning. Teaching and Teacher Education 36(2013): 101-111.
Scharf, D., Elliot, N., Huey, H.A. et al (2007). Direct assessment of information literacy using writing portfolios. The Journal of Academic Librarianship 33(4): 462-477.
Xu, Y. & Carless, D. (2016). Only true friends could be truly honest. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 42(7): 1082-1094.
The other sector of life where information literacy is vital and omnipresent is the career field. It is not simply a matter of preference or choice. Many businesses actively embrace the harnessing and day-to-day use of computer and informatics technology because the business being able to thrive in the marketplace or even survive in general as a business can literally depend upon it. Such a state of affairs requires employees and leaders that are well-versed and adept in literacy regarding information, computers and informatics, among other things such as project management skills, leadership traits, and so on.
Job descriptions discoverable online are bereft and thick with requirements that relate to information, computer and informatics literacy. Examples include prospective employees being familiar with the construction and/or use of database technology, internet technology, familiarity with operations systems such as Mac OS and Windows, software suites like Microsoft Office and so on. Failure…
Creedy, D.K., Mitchell, M., Seaton-Sykes, P., Cooke, M., Patterson, E., Purcell, C., & Weeks, P. (2007). Evaluating a Web-Enhanced Bachelor of Nursing Curriculum:
Perspectives of Third-Year Students. Journal of Nursing Education, 46(10), 460-
Edwards, J., & O'Connor, P.A. (2011). Improving Technological Competency in Nursing
Students: The Passport Project. Journal of Educators Online, 8(2), 1-20.
Activities such as reading the names of street signs and stores and reading the ingredients on packages can help make children aware of the importance of printed words.
One of the most important things parents can do to encourage literacy in their early learner is to talk to their child. In a study conducted by Hart and isley (1995, 1999 as cited by osenkoetter & Barton, 2002), children whose parents talked to them more frequently learned to read faster, had more proficient oral and written vocabularies, better grammatical skills, and performed higher on academic tasks than children whose parents were less verbal. Asking questions and sharing experiences are simple but effective methods of having children retell information and use sequencing skills.
Children who have access to computers and learning software have an academic advantage over other students. A study conducted by Zevenbergen & Logan (2008) examined the ways…
Campbell, a. (2009, June). Learning with technology for pre-service early childhood teachers. Australasian Journal of Early Childhood, 34(2), 11-18. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/learning_with_technology_for_pre_service_early_childhood_teachers.html
Freeman, L. & Bochner, S. (2008, December). Bridging the gap: improving literacy outcomes for indigenous students. Australian Journal of Early Childhood, 33(4), 9-16. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www.earlychildhoodaustralia.org.au/australian_journal_of_early_childhood/ajec_index_abstracts/bridging_the_gap_improving_literacy_outcomes_for_indigenous_students.html
Fluckiger, B. (2006). Children's cross-cultural literacy experiences in three worlds: enacting agency. School of Cognition Language and Special Education. Retrieved March 20, 2010 from http://www4.gu.edu.au:8080/adt-root/uploads/approved/adt-QGU20070814.144647/public/01Front.pdf
Gillet, J. et al. (2008). Understanding Reading Problems: Assessment and Instruction. (7th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc.
21st Century Knowledge
There was probably a point in time in the not-so-recent past when it could be asserted that many to most people in the modern world did not need to possess scientific knowledge, skills and understanding. However, as the society and technology of the world, the West in particular, becomes more advanced and demanding, this is becoming less and less true and some would say that entirely too many people in today's society are woefully unprepared when it comes to possessing skills that are needed for a modern context and society. To be sure, the assertion being made does not mean that everyone is destined to work in hi-tech fields and thus will need advanced degrees and training. However, the proverbial bar that signifies what is needed for the "average" person has certainly gone up. While advance training and degrees are not necessary for the average person, everyone…
In a world that favors early adopters and revolves around the latest technology, individuals will be better served if they continue to seek out learning opportunities after their formal education has ended. Local governments and communities should provide these opportunities through libraries, universities and community centers. The skills gap applies to all.
Although people are defined by their different skill sets and this diversity enhances the richness of life in America, it is also clear that some skills are more important than others. If young people aspire to be successful adults, they must gain the skills they need to succeed in higher education, and those higher education skills must then translate into useful skills for the workforce. Focusing on process and information application, rather than restricting curricula to the collection of facts and information, is a critical step for successful learning. Integrating business leaders in the effort of re-defining…
American Society for Training and Development 2006. 'Bridging the Skills Gap: How the Skills Shortage Threatens Growth and Competitiveness and What to do About It' Alexandria, VA.
Daggett, Willard R. 'Jobs and the Skills Gap. International Center for Leadership in Education' Rexford, N.Y. Available at: www.state.me.us/education/diploma/jobsandskills.pdf
'Job Skills Checklist', Purdue University. Available at: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/626/01/
National Education Association 'Statement of Principles: 21st Century Skills and the Reauthorization of NCLB/ESEA'. Available at: http://www.nea.org/home/17154.htm
literacy before ENG115
The way I understood literacy before the literacy class was majorly in three major sections, the ability to write correctly, ability to think before I spoke and ability to comprehend.
Writing correctly; was perceived as the ability to put down the content on paper in the correct grammar.
Ability to think before speaking; I considered this the capacity to contemplate the consequences of the words that I would speak before speaking them out.
Ability to read and comprehend; this was considered the capacity to take up material, read it and know exactly what it is talking about. These were the three perceptions that shaped my understanding of literacy before the ENG 115 class.
Newly developed definition of literacy (how/why it has changed)
After attending the full course class of literacy, there are changes that I had in perception of literacy and these included.
Using correct grammar was…
Brands R., (2014). 8 Step Process Perfects New Product Development. Retrieved March 1, 2014 http://www.huffingtonpost.com/robert-f-brands/8-step-new-product-development_b_4556363.html
Education Development Center Inc., (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.edc.org/newsroom/articles/what_literacy
Jamea Paul G. (2014). What is Literacy. Retrieved March 5, 2014 from http://www.ed.psu.edu/englishpds/Articles/CriticalLiteracy/What%20is%20Literacy.htm
Balanced Literacy Program for Second Grade
This paper outlines a sample balanced literacy program and how it is organized for second grade students. In addition, the paper explains instructional approaches that can be integrated in the balanced literacy program to improve students' reading and writing skills. Moreover, the paper gives an insight of school practices that when initiated can improve students' classroom learning. The paper further notes components of balanced literacy program that the instructional approaches satisfy.
ecently there has been a downhill trend in reading and writing among students in second grade. This is due to establishment of literacy programs providing students with little phonemic awareness. Additionally, the balanced literacy programs are poorly designed; often lacking effective educational support for students (Mermelstein, 2005). Furthermore, teachers undertake improper training on implementation of learning instructions such as phonics; often prodding the students to memorize lessons. Given this, integration of instructional approaches…
Altieri, J. (2011). Content Counts! Developing Disciplinary Literacy Skills, K-6. Houston:
International Reading Association .
Camilli, G., & Wolfe, P. (2004). Research on Reading: A Cautionary Tale. Educational Leadership Journal, 26-29.
Fresch, M.J. (2003). A National Survey of Spelling Instruction: Investigating Teachers' Beliefs
Literacy is more than knowing how to read and write in a given language. At the level of college education, literacy pertains to mastering the means of communication for different subjects. Literacy therefore may entail understanding specific jargon of a chosen field, but it may also mean being literate in the modes of inquiry, paradigms, assumptions, and methodologies of specific subjects. Each college major will have different literacy needs and requirements for a successful college term and for graduation. It is crucial that college students master the literacy skills that relate to their chosen major, if they hope to graduate and succeed in their future career.
One type of literacy that pertains to almost all college majors is information literacy. According to the Association of College and esearch Libraries (ACL, 2014), information literacy is defined as "the set of skills needed to find, retrieve, analyze, and use information," (p. 1).…
Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL, 2014). Introduction to information literacy. Retrieved online: http://www.ala.org/acrl/issues/infolit/overview/intro
"The Many Forms of Literacy," (n.d.). National Writing Project. Retrieved online:
Language Development in Young Children
Early Childhood and Literacy
Language is a physical link of a child to his outside world. Language acquisition is essential for a child's social, physical and cognitive development. It plays a vital role in developing an individual who would be able to express himself adequately to his family, friends and the world around him. A vast majority of the children can develop linguistic skills effortlessly, whereas some have difficulty in developing these essential skills. They are slow to learn a language and eventually struggle with academic and literacy skills throughout their educational career. The first few years of a child's life are important and critical for their performance.
This project examines the issues related to language development in first two years of a child's life. It also discusses the importance of the language and the role linguistics play in preparing a child for his academic…
Byrne, M. (1978). Appraisal of child language acquisition. Diagnostic methods in speech pathology, 102-177.
Clark, B.A. (1991). First- and Second-Language Acquisition in childhood. Retrieved from http://ceep.crc.uiuc.edu/pubs/katzsym/clark-b.pdf
CLLRNet. (2007, June). Early Childhood Learning. Retrieved from http://www.ccl-cca.ca/pdfs/ECLKC/bulletin/ECLKCBulletinLanguage.pdf
fund, O. o. (2007). The Language of Babies, Toddlers and preschoolers. . Retrieved from http://www.ounceofprevention.org/research/pdfs/LanguageofBabies.pdf
Next, the teacher, through questioning and eliminating, reduces the categories and establishes consensus on the order of information expected to be found. She also gets the students to consider the search terms that might get results. Once this in done a scaffold is constructed using the established order.
Still, in a group setting, students use personal semantic maps and begin to learn to create a collective scaffold of meaning in a way that is meaningful to their cognitive processes -- they learn how to learn, and how to communicate that learning in a classroom environment to the teacher and to their peers. (Grid of Constructs about Learning, 2004)
The teacher then takes the students to the computer room where they search the net for information that pertains to their particular category. They add the additional information that they have found their section of the scaffold.
This adds technical reinforcement and…
Grid of Constructs about Learning." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.math.uow.edu.au/people/ap_contnt.pdf
Reinhardt, Erica. (May 27, 2004) "Learning cycle." Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.human.cornell.edu/units/dns/extension/youth/sciencediscovery/cornellnutritionresources.html
Scaffolding." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/students/learning/lr1scaf.htm www.uws.edu.au%2Fdownload.php%3Ffile_id%3D6974%26filename%3DA4611G__Spring_2000.University of Western Sydney, Macarthur "Erica Model -- Whole Language Strategies." (2004) Accessed on October 5, 2004 at http://www.uws.edu.au/download.php?file_id=6974&filename=A4611G__Spring_2000.pdf&mimetype=application/pdf
The quality of this lesson is consistent from the beginning to the end of the project.
Lesson Plan #3: Adding Fun Game
Aim of the Lesson:
In this lesson, the students learn to decode using a chart where certain letters have an assigned number value. The students must solve the mathematical problem by decoding the word.
Literacy Elements Incorporated:
This lesson incorporates the concept that letters have a certain value. This can be tied to phonics, as the students develop the concept that a letter has a certain sound. Students use literacy skills to decode math problems and create number sentences.
How, when why, where and for whom they were used:
This lesson is designed for 3rd graders. One of the key difficulties with this age group is that consistency with skills is varied. Some students are more proficient than others at this stage. This makes it difficult to integrate…
Bintz, W., Moore, S., Hayhurst, E., Rubin, J., & Sherry, T. (2006). Integrating Literacy, Math, and Science to Make Learning Come Alive. Middle School Journal. 37 (3), 30-37. ERIC ID EJ752859.
Literacy Matters (2007). Math. Retrieved December 16, 2007 at http://www.literacymatters.org/content/math.htm.
In middle school, I discovered that I had a knack for telling stories -- and this discovery came about as a result of an assignment given to us by our English teacher. The assignment was to write a personal narrative about something that we had experienced in our lives. Being only in middle school and not having ever really done anything remarkable in my life up to that point, I was completely stumped about what to write. I could think of nothing that would be interesting to anyone else: I went to school, went home, watched TV, played with my friends, and ate dinner with my family. (Had I been skilled in realism at that age, I might have made this into an interesting narrative -- but my literacy skills were still very premature). Thus, with a deadline fast approaching I simply began writing about the first thing…
This model views literacy as woven into the person's identity, based in turn from his acculturation and participation in his socio-cultural community. Spoken or written communication is understood and appreciated according to who is reading or writing and the context and purpose of the communication. Learners come to the educational setting with individual experiences, perspectives, values and beliefs. They perform tasks subjectively. Their cultural background is, therefore, an essential requirement to teaching functional literacy.
The U.S. Department of Education through the Department of Adult Education and Literacy implements the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act. This legislation provides support money for adult literacy and basic education programs. It perceives adult education as that falling below post-secondary level for persons 16 years old and older. Statistics say there are about 51 million American adults in this category. Eligibility was adjusted from 18 to 16 in 1970; approved funding to non-profit organizations…
Guy, T. (2006). The adult literacy education systems in the United States. Literacy for Life. Education for All Global Monitoring Report. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 from http://unedoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001462/146281e.pdf
Onwuegbuzie, a., et al. (2004). Reading comprehension among African-American graduate students. The Journal of Negro Education: Howard University. Retrieved on February 24, 2009 at http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3626/is_200410/ai_n13506807?tag=content;col1
Newsline. Adult literacy classes improve lives in California communities. Issue 4.
Office of Multifamily Housing Programs: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban
..now requires understanding and manipulating the processes used to create messages in the modern world" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22) in fact the student is expected to be able to decode the information from various types of media. However the equally important point is also made that this expanding definition of what literacy comprises does not "...diminish the importance of traditional reading and writing skills; rather, it recognizes the increasing importance of information and communication technology" (Adams & Hamm, 2000, p. 22).
This is an important caveat to the enthusiastic embrace of modern technology and visual aspects of modern teaching. In other words, while visual literacy has become more important and while this aspect is closely linked to the use of modern technological tools such as computer, yet the basics of teaching and education should not be forgotten. Of equal importance however is the view that; "Today's students live…
Adams, D., & Hamm, M. (2000, Winter). Literacy, Learning and Media. Technos: Quarterly for Education and Technology, 9, 22. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002377227
Bleed R. (2005) Visual Literacy in Higher Education. Retrieved August 6, 2007, at http://www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/ELI4001.pdf www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928
Brumberger, E.R. (2005). Visual Rhetoric in the Curriculum: Pedagogy for a Multimodal Workplace. Business Communication Quarterly, 68(3), 318+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5010939928 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729
Bustle, L.S. (2004). The Role of Visual Representation in the Assessment of Learning. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, 47(5), 416+. Retrieved August 7, 2007, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5005970729 www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011600259
Students then move to advisory to discuss what they learned from the principal, then begins first period science class.
Science is tutorial based, but often broken up into groups of four for lab and experimentation work. Math lab includes a number of different activities that change out regularly.
Following math, the students meet for Art class, which varies daily in activities, social and spatial development.
Lunch and a brief recess follows.
First class after lunch focuses on learning tools combined with independent reading; teacher uses only worksheets as student activity after reading; question worksheet designed to uncover comprehension and vocabulary development
Next class is social studies, work in pairs, teacher uses a number of different strategies and course outlines for variety.
Final period of the day focuses on English, or ESL for international students.
Reviewing a typical day for Ahmad, however, shows some serious disconnects in terms of his continual…
What do Tom and Mary have in common?
Outside of the purview of this essay, but nevertheless vital to the arguments presented when dealing with multicultural education, one must understand that there is a rather hierarchical taxonomy regarding the topic: Conservative multiculturalism, which assumes that unsuccessful minorities come from culturally deprived backgrounds and require ethnicity "stripping" for economic success of the child; Liberal multiculturalism which formats the sameness of all groups and requires manifesting language, but remaining culturally aware of the base culture; Pluralistic multiculturalism that shares features with the liberal view but focuses more on learning about differences and integration of race into simply being part of the individual; Left-Essentialist multicultural that holds that the conservative element uses language and other educational means as a way to control a minority and that essential traits may be romanticized for effect; and Critical multiculturalism that takes race, class, gender and even sexuality and transcends to a larger, more complex, social struggle. See: Kincheloe, J. And S. Steinberg. (1997). Changing Multiculturalism. Open University Press; and D. Campbell (2008). Choosing Democracy, a practical guide to Multicultural education. Allyn/Bacon.
Increased vocabulary levels leads to increases in reading comprehension. Students with higher levels of vocabulary can also express themselves in more unique and complex formats, essentially increasing their ability to comment on the reading material in a way that better correlates with their exact emotions or experiences associated with that reading material.
Writing summaries for reading material is another method of using writing exercises to increase literacy levels. Teachers should implement lessons were students write hierarchal summaries that help organize the structure of reading material in a shape that is more familiar and understandable to students (Meltzer, Cook, & Clark, 2011). Writing summaries force students to internalize the material and reassert it in a different way. This further engages them with the texts, as they are forced to put the material in their own words.
Thirdly, using student-generated content to expose weaknesses in understanding can play a key role. Having…
Guthrie, John T. (2001). Contexts for engagement and motivation in reading. Reading Online. 4(8). Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://www.readingonline.org/articles/art_index.asp?HREF=/articles/handbook/guthrie/index.html
Guthrie, John T. (2012). Adolescent literacy: Issues, knowledge base, design principles, and challenges. Center on Instruction. Web. Retrieved September 21, 2012 from http://centeroninstruction.org/
Melzter, Julie, Cook, Nancy, & Clark, Holly. (2011). Adolescent Literary Resources: Linking Research and Practice. Center for Resource Management. Brown University. Web. Retrieved September 20, 2012 from www.alliance.brown.edu/pubs/adlit/alr_lrp.pdf
Adolescent Literacy Plan of Action
Successful academic learning and student performance are founded on literacy (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). Listening, reading, observational, writing, presentation, speaking and critical thinking skills are used by literate students to learn, communicate what they have learned and even transfer the knowledge gained to other scenarios (Meltzer & Ziemba, 2006). A literacy leadership team and the school principal must lead continual improvement as a goal for students to develop literacy. When an entire school community collectively holds expertise in literacy, it becomes the most beneficial to students (Irvin, Meltzer & Dukes, 2007). In addition to expertise, schools must do what's necessary to enhance their ability to minimize the gap existing between practice and knowledge. All school aspects, like assessments, curriculum, resource allocation, policies and structures, professional development of teachers, instruction and culture of the school, are impacted by the existence of systemic literacy development efforts (Irvin,…
ACT (2006b). Reading for college and reading for work: Same or different? (Report). Iowa City, IA: Author.
Cooney, S. (1999). Leading the way: State actions to improve student achievement in the middle grades. Atlanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.
Elmore, R. F. (2002). Bridging the gap between standards and achievement: The imperative for professional development in education. Washington, DC: Albert Shanker Institute.
Graves, Michael, and Lauren Liang. (2008). "Four facets of reading comprehension instruction in the middle grades," Middle school journal (March 2008).
Curriculum Early Childhood Education
Literacy is considered to be a fundamental human right and is considered to be "essential to social and human development," used for exchanging knowledge and ideas" (UNESCO, 2015).
The development of literacy is critical to learning, in particular the development of communication skills, critical thinking and fostering the ability to analyse and comprehend material (Australian Curriculum, n.d.). While basic reading and writing skills are the foundation of literacy, the concept of multiliteracies reflects that there are many different purposes for which students must become literate. Literacy is not simply about learning the mechanics of a language, but about being able to function in a society. Multiliteracies recognizes this, in particular that language is used for business, for social purposes, and for the performance of everyday tasks. The concept has emerged in light of the realization that simply being able to read and write is insufficient for…
Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority [ACARA]. (n.d.). English: Rationale. Retrieved from http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/English/Rationale
Australian Institute or Teaching and School Leadership [AITSL]. (2012). Multiple literacy outcomes [video file]. Retrieved from http://www.aitsl.edu.au/australian-professional-standards-for-teachers/illustrations-of-practice/detail?id=IOP00179
Meiers, M. & Department of Education and Training, Victoria. (2006). A Chronological Review of Literacy Policies and Programs of the Western Australia Department of Education & Training, Victoria, 1980-2005. Retrieved from https://www.eduweb.vic.gov.au/edulibrary/public/publ/research/publ/Literacy_Chronology_Paper_9-rpt-v1.01-20060830.pdf
Connor, J. (2011). Foundation for Learning: Relationships between early years learning framework and the Australian curriculum [An ECA-Australian Curriculum and Assessment Reporting Authority paper]. Early Childhood Australia: Canberra.
Even though a child may process the ability to decode written text this does not necessarily mean the child understands the content of the text.
Using informational texts in the primary grades will reduce the need for Tier 2 and Tier 3 supports for most students.
Content learning and content literacy are inseparable.
Language arts curriculum should be premised on reading to learn.
Increase the number of student encounters and experiences with print informational texts
This article presents a common sense approach to teaching reading. I appreciate the fact that "all reading is learning" and the content in many basal readers is unappealing to a curious mind. Basing the teaching of reading solely in literature is a disservice to many learners who yearn for more diverse content. Utilizing a wide range of informational texts in the classroom in the primary grades serves the purpose of building a child's repertoire…
.." And is a concept which has as its basis that "at the beginning of learning, students needs a great deal of support" and over time the support is removed in a gradual manner as the student become prepared to be more independent. Modeling is the process of assisting the students in the construction of meaning and assisting them in learning the necessary strategies and skills in the learning process and in meaning making with what has been learned. Cooperative learning is a strategy for instruction that has been found to be especially effective in literacy instruction and the students "learn to read, write, and think by having meaningful engagements with more experienced individuals." (Wells, 1990; as cited in Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, 1997) the Greece School District website 'eading Strategies: Scaffolding Student's Interactions with Texts' document provides information concerning reading strategies that may be used along with…
Tom D. (1994), Teaching method: Best practice for teachers, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://northonline.sccd.ctc.edu/eceprog/bstprac.htm
Saskatoon Public Schools (2004),Balanced Literacy Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://olc.spsd.sk.ca/DE/PD/instr/strats/balancedliteracy/index.html
The TELUS Learning Connection, What is balanced literacy? Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.earlyliterature.ecsd.net/balanced%20literacy.htm
Houghton Mifflin Company (1997), Useful Instructional Strategies for Literature-Based Instruction, Retrieved July 25, 2007 at http://www.eduplace.com/rdg/res/literacy/lit_ins4.html
By placing the demands of literacy education on the community as a whole, a shared responsibility is created and therefore a substantial interest is gained in the process. Literacy is indeed a problem of not just students and teacher, but for the entire population. The purpose of this essay is to review literature pertaining to this argument in order to defend my position and create an opportunity for knowledge and learning. This essay will discuss and reveal some expert opinions about the subject at large and adds context and ideas to the already heavily discussed topic of literacy programs and ways to successfully implement large scale educational changes within an already existing format.
eese & Goldenberg (2008) found explicit data that literacy resources within immigrant Latino families are seriously lacking. They wrote " findings from a study of 35 communities show that communities with greater concentrations…
Epstein, J. & Salinas, K. (2004). Partnering with Families and Communities. Educational Leadership, 61,8. May 2004, 12-18. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/may04/vol61/num08/Partnering-with-Families-and-Communities.aspx
Reese, L. & Goldenberg, C. (2008). Community Literacy Resources and Home Literacy Practices Among Latino Families. Marriage & Family Review, 43 (1/2) 2008. Retrieved from https://people.stanford.edu/claudeg/sites/default/files/Parental-Involvement.pdf
Sheldon, S.B., & Epstein, J.L. (2002). Improving student behavior and school discipline with family and community involvement. Education and Urban Society, 35(1), 4-26.
Literacy Short Assgts
READING. Fadi Awwad
My Reading Engagement Journal for Chapter 3
I already knew about the need for sensitivity to cultural differences in the classroom because I was raised in a devout Muslim home (that was also an American home), and the years corresponding to my own secondary education were years in American life where a kind of noxious Islamophobia very frequently poisoned public discourse. I am grateful to the extent that I had teachers who were able to rise above the level of Fox News idiocy.
I want to know more about the use of graphic novels in teaching content area literacy, as described by Vacca and Mraz on pages 79-80, because I happen to be a fan of a particular graphic novel, Palestine by Joe Sacco, which describes the artist's experiences staying on the Gaza Strip in 1991-1992. If graphic novels are an easier way to…
An often-forgotten component of advancing a nation’s economy is its literacy rate. As the world grows increasingly globalized as well as sophisticated in terms of the technology demanded to function at an optimal level, a literate population is critical for developing the necessary technological infrastructure needed for the state to operate within that global framework. However, not every nation has allowed female literacy to be a focus within its developmental strategy. In the Central African Republic, Iran and Myanmar, for example, female literacy rates are lower compared to male literacy rates—though there are differences that emerge when these rates are compared among one another. High levels of female literacy have been found to have a particularly dramatic impact upon a nation’s social and economic development, given the link between female literacy and lower birth rates, lower poverty rates (as a result of smaller family sizes), and improved health outcomes.[footnoteRef:2]…
teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
"Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
Student is in 2nd grade and reading on Pre-Primer 2, per QRI-5. She has trouble with beginning and final sounds, sight words, retelling, and short vowels.
Literacy Intervention Plan
Literacy Intervention Action Plan
Each tutoring session will be between 30-40 minutes
*Some Days may be doubled up due to school scheduling
* "The teacher will" will be abbreviated by TTW and "the student will" will be abbreviated by TSW.
* "Phonemic Awareness" will be abbreviated by PA, "phonics" will b P. "fluency" will be F, and "omprehension" will be .
*During each week, the fluency session will begin with a systematic review of the Dolch Sight Words. Week 1 will be the Pre-Primer Sight…
C: TSW read along with an audio book in which the emphasis is a word with a short vowel sound.
PA: With digital media (Raskind & Stanberry, 2009), TSW hear a list of words and put a thumb up if they think the vowel is short in a word. Short vowels, as well as long vowel words will be used.
P: TSW plays the sound game. TTW will have two words on the board representing the two different sounds for student to practice, e.g., RUN, RAN. TTW
Literacy in Secondary School in Ireland
The literacy curriculum in secondary school in Ireland is based on a strategy of language-related lesson modifications, identified by Peregoy and Boyle as good methods of ensuring that differentiation occurs in the classroom. This strategy allows for the use of "visuals, concrete objects, direct experience, and other nonverbal means to convey lesson content" alongside the main lesson taught by the teacher in the classroom (Peregoy, Boyle 86). In my area, this is consistent with what we experienced in school, and differentiation is a huge part of the cycle -- as much of what is centered on literacy is done so with direct relation to experiential learning, the use of visual aids, and the expression of ideas identified in readings via nonverbal means, such as drawings, videos or performance in the classroom. At the same time, there is a notable urgency among literacy leaders and…
Department of Education and Skills Press Release. Education.ie, 2011. Web. 1 June
Gottlieb, M. Assessing English Language Learners. CA: Corwin Press, 2006. Print.
Peregoy, S., Boyle, O. Reading, Writing and Learning. MA: Pearson, 2013.
Reading and writing skills are taught explicitly, directly, and systematically using research-based strategies.
here are opportunities during each school day for vocabulary development to occur both directly and indirectly.
eachers use multiple strategies and combinations of strategies to teach vocabulary and reading comprehension.
eachers model their thinking processes, encourage student inquiry, and keep students motivated and engaged.
Learning-to-read and reading-to-learn skills are taught in the school's literacy program.
Multicultural resources and materials are used across the curriculum
he school provides diverse texts that present a wide range of topics at a variety of reading levels.
Reading and intensive writing instruction are integrated and taught across the curriculum
Students have multiple opportunities each day to practice their writing skills.
eachers use differentiated instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners.
eachers use strategic tutoring that includes teaching learning strategies…
The New Jersey State Report Card revealed some important information regarding the performance of this school and how it measured against other schools. The report itself, is complex and uses many interesting statistical measurements to reach conclusions, but it appears that a commendable endorsement is displayed. All sate wide literacy targets were met within the school at all grade levels 5-8. The school was in the top 40% of statewide rank according to Language Arts and literacy assessments. Each and every grade level has performed above the state level requirements suggesting that something is being done correct at this school.
Things are not perfect however, and improvements can be made at all levels of this literacy program in order to keep advancing the educational profession and not settling for just getting by as the temptation is strong to do. Teachers must allow students to gain a confidence in their own literacy skills and realize that others have different ways of interrelating the written word an making good use of it. It is also very important to keep the entire community involved in the process as well. If adults in the community are not reading and improving their own literacy skills, it is unfair to ask our offspring to do anything different. Leadership is necessary to set the example and show others how the community should be operating at a certain level of professional and courteous standards. Using the imagination in coordination with reading can be a very useful and practical skill that can be adapted into all facets of society. The domination of television and other distractions prevents reading from being embraced to its fullest extent, and until it is, the larger group must tolerate ignorance.
State of New Jersey, School Report. Thomas Jefferson Middle School, 2013. Retrieved from http://www.state.nj.us/education/pr/2013/03/035150070.pdf
teacher instructional technology literacy instruction improve elementary (K-5) student achievement reading vocabulary? Create a qualitative research scenario phenomenology approach.
Does the use of instructional technology improve elementary (K-5) student reading vocabulary?
In the era of high-stakes testing, student performance on reading has become increasingly important in determining school evaluations. eading is a fundamental skill necessary for future success in life. Students are reading in a paper-based format less frequently, at younger ages. This research study will attempt to asses the impact of using technology within the classroom to enhance vocabulary recognition. Previous research indicates that "teacher-made online learning resources provide course content anchored resources that focus on specific real world tasks in class, and a supportive authentic learning environment to learners" (Li 2011).
Using technology to teach reading has several apparent advantages. First of all, it can deploy a multimedia strategy to enhance student engagement. Students are often…
Introna, Lucas. (2011). Phenomenological approaches to ethics and information technology.
The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2011/entries/ethics-it-phenomenology
Li, S., Price, D., & Fu, Y. (2011). The impact of the teacher-made online learning resources.
The Business Review, Cambridge, 18(1), 35-40.
Language and Literacy
Jeanne S. Chall was born in Poland on January 1, 1921. She moved to New York at a tender age of seven with her family. Jeanne S. Chall was one of the chief educators and researchers in the field of literacy during the past century. The Harvard Reading/Literacy Lab has recently been renamed in accolade of Dr. Chall.
hat follows is an account of Dr. Chall's life and work. Chall grew up in New York City, taught there, and received her bachelor's degree from City College in 1941. Due to a dearth of teaching posts open during the early 1940's, Chall took an assistantship at Teacher's College, Columbia University, subordinate to Irving Lorge, an intelligence-test researcher. It was there at Teacher's College that Chall first advanced a fascination and liking for educational research.
Chall then went on to seek her master's and doctoral degrees at Ohio State…
THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT CHALLENGE: WHAT REALLY WORKS IN THE CLASSROOM?
The Guilford Press, March 2000
scu.edu).Andre goes on to say some critics see Hirsch's efforts to bring culture into the classroom are not so much "cultural literacy" but more like "cultural indoctrination." Not only is the Hirsch strategy and methodology seen as flawed, Andre and Velasquez continue, the "content" he prescribes is subject to criticism. For example, the question of "Whose form of knowledge, culture, vision, history and authority will prevail as the national culture?" should be asked, and Hirsch knows that is an issue. "Will they, like Hirsch, be white, middle-class males?" Andre wonders, and will they be elitist?
Hirsch meanwhile answers these accusations in his Core Knowledge Web site, saying that the contend must arise from "a broad consensus of diverse groups and interests." That consensus should include the parents, teachers, scientists, "professional curriculum organizations, and experts on America's multicultural traditions." The "central motivation behind" his core knowledge initiative is "to guarantee equal…
Booklist. "Reference Books Bulletin: The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy." (2003): 1702.
In the first edition of Hirsch's book, the author was criticized as being "elitist," but the Subsequent editions add "tools for assessing cultural literacy" that makes sense and Now it does "keep up with changes in American culture."
Chylinski, Manya S. "Hirsch, E.D. Jr., & others. The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy: What Every American Needs to Know." Library Journal, 127.18 (2002): 78-80. Chylinski writes that the book has been given "an exciting update" - "sorely needed"...for those "who like to have a great reference work..."
Giddings, Louise R. "Beyond E.D. Hirsch and Cultural Literacy: Thinking Skills for Cultural
It is important that children know how to use the resources in the room to get the words they do not know (alanced Literacy -- Helping Your & #8230;).
The alanced Concept Summary
This concept incorporates all reading approaches, realizing students will need to use multiple strategies to become proficient readers. Technology can also be integrated into a balanced approach for teaching literacy. Research indicates that student learning can be improved through the use of computers. Gains in self-confidence and motivation can be seen in those students who are using computers to enhance literacy instruction. The definition of literacy now includes a new literacy, where students need to read and write print text and also need to navigate and use the computer in their everyday lives (Cooperman and Cunningham).
alanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area…
Balanced Literacy - Helping Your Child Love to Read and Write . (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Ovid-Elsie Area School District: http://www.oe.k12.mi.us/balanced_literacy/index.htm
Cooperman, N., & Cunningham, a. (2003, May). Balanced Literacy and Technology. Retrieved Mar 28, 2009, from Teaching Matters, Inc.: http://backend.teachingmatters.org/files/whitepaper.pdf
Definition of Balanced Literacy. (n.d.). Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from Phillipsburg k12: http://www.pburg.k12.nj.us/CURRICULUM/Definition%20of%20Balanced%20Lit.pdf
Frey, B., Lee, S., Pass, L., & Tollefson, N. (n.d.). Balanced Literacy in an Urban School District. Retrieved Mar 29, 2009, from School of Education University of Kansas: http://web.ku.edu/~spear/Documents/Balanced_Literacy_in_an_Urban_School_District.pdf
Thus, this needs assessment is required in order to determine the best ways to use resources in order to obtain maximum results for students. In order to conduct the assessment, then, data must be collected and analyzed. First, to address the problem of ESL students and their desired interactions with speakers of their own languages, researchers must determine whether or not interaction with a speaker of one's native language is beneficial when one is learning proficiency in another language. Methods of collecting this data include perusing already existing studies regarding the correlation between these two variables as well as conducting further studies based on the performance of a group that had access to a speaker of one's native language and one that did not. Furthermore, the students' expressed need regarding access to technological equipment and personalized training with that equipment can be assessed by gathering data that examines the best…
functional literacy activities? What are some examples?
Functional literacy activities refer to activities that focus on reading or writing in direct connection to actual tasks that can be easily applied or used in the real world. For example, functional literary activities might involve reading street signs, reading maps or drafting a grocery list.
What are ways to share literature with young children? What are important factors to consider when selecting literature to share and stocking classroom libraries? What are some effective story-reading strategies (read-alouds and shared reading)?
One way to share literature with young children would be to present it in the most dynamic and hands on approach possible. For example, using puppets or dolls or figurines when presenting a new book to students can be a way to help engage students' minds and imagination. Or dynamic follow-up activities which relate to the text can also be used with success:…
Golembeski, K. (2013). Preparing for Kindergarten Begins the Year Before. Retrieved from Getreadytoread.org: http://www.getreadytoread.org/early-learning-childhood-basics/early-childhood/preparing-for-kindergarten-begins-the-year-before
Teachervision.com. (2013, January). Shared Writing. Retrieved from Teachervision.com: https://www.teachervision.com/reading-and-language-arts/skill-builder/48883.html
Virginia.edu. (2003). What's the difference among phonological awareness, phonemic. Retrieved from Virginia.edu: http://www.readingfirst.virginia.edu/pdfs/Phon_Spel_Handout.pdf
The learning and skills sector (LSS) is an Essential part of educational development in the United Kingdom. For many years this educational program faltered and was not taken seriously. However in recent years Legislators in the UK have dedicated a great deal of time and resources to improving LSS. According to Maxwell (2009)
The Learning and Skills Sector (LSS) in England is diverse, comprising further education (FE) colleges, sixth-form colleges, personal and community development learning and work-based training and learning in other adult settings such as prisons and the uniformed services. Over the last 15 years the sector has moved from a position of 'benign neglect' (Young et al. 1995, 7) to being placed 'at the forefront of UK's attempt to raise its skill profile' (Department for Innovation, Universities and Skills, and Department for Children, Schools and Families 2007, 3). Developing the workforce needed to support this ambitious agenda…
Curriculum for diversity guide. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from: http://shop.niace.org.uk/media/catalog/product/C/u/Curriculum-for-Diversity-Guide.pdf
Fisher, R., and Webb, K. (2006) Subject specialist pedagogy and initial teacher training for the learning and skills sector in England: the context, a response and some critical issues. Journal of Further and Higher Education. 30(4), 337 -- 349
Foundation Learning Curriculum for adults. Retrieved January 4, 2011 from:
Also, the privacy of the venue, outside of a workplace or family setting, would encourage participation and attendance amongst fellow learners undergoing the same struggle.
c. How can finding a solution result in significant changes/improvements?
Possessing the skills that make one literate means an individual is less likely to need government assistance, is better able to be promoted and to find a secure job, and can feel more meaningfully engaged with society. Also, recruiting teachers and even properly trained volunteers from the community will enable more people to see that illiterate adults are often not lacking in intelligence, but simply in opportunities. Special volunteer campaigns could be created soliciting teachers with specializations in learning disabilities and ESL to treat the needs of these populations. To educate adults with more foundational skills, teenage volunteers and members of the community could provide tutoring services. This would create greater community connections between different…
"hat was the plot of the book you read for today?' 'hat is the name of the main character?' 'hat is the setting of the story?' Often teachers are so happy that students have completed a reading assignment in a timely fashion, and can recollect the basic details of what they read, they do not encourage the student to go 'one step further' and to critically think about the reading material assigned. But students must also learn to thoughtfully engage with the written materials at hand. If teachers ignore the importance of thoughtful as well as technical literacy, teachers are not setting high enough goals for student achievement. They also inadvertently create the effect of making reading seem like a chore to be mastered for a test in the immediate future, rather than a source of personal enrichment and pleasure over the course of one's life.
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
hat is Multicultural Literacy?
Approaching the subject of multicultural literacy for the first time a student might think it has to do with getting minorities to become literate -- to be able to read and write in English or in their native language. That would be wrong, albeit it is a good goal in terms of bringing all students up to speed in communication skills. hat is important to remember about multicultural literacy is that by the year 2020, an estimated fifty percent of the student population in American public schools will belong "…to an economic, ethnic, racial, religious, and/or social class minority" (Stevens, et al., 2011, p. 32). Teachers and counselors must be fully knowledgeable vis-a-vis the culturally relevant issues that are present when the classroom is diverse, as it clearly is becoming today and will continue to be in the near future as well.
Authors and Artists for Young Adults. (2001). Diego Rivera. Retrieved October 16, 2012,
Encyclopedia of African-American Culture and History. (2006). W.E.B. Du Bois. Retrieved October 15, 2012, from Gale Biography in Context.
Stevens, Elizabeth Years, and Brown, Rachel. (2011). Lessons Learned from the Holocaust:
Blogging to Teach Critical Multicultural Literacy. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 44(1), 31-51.
teacher instructional technology with new literacy instruction to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary?
The alternative hypothesis would be that new literacy instruction does have th potential to improve elementary (K-5) student achievement in reading vocabulary. In other words that significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The null hypothesis would be that no significant difference is found between classrooms that employ new literacy instructions and classrooms that do not use this method.
The study will choose 2 different schools in a certain district with classes k-5 where one school has introduced new literacy techniques (namely technological strategies), and the other school is still employing traditional instruction.
The schools would be as closely matched as possible with students coming from a similar socio-economic background and with their parents generally sharing a similar educational niche (i.e. either…
Babchuk, W. (1996). Glaser or Strauss? Grounded theory and adult education. Presented at the Midwest Research-to-Practice Conference in Adult, Continuing, and Community Education, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska, October 17-19, 1996.
Glaser, B. (1993). Examples of grounded theory: a reader. Mill Valley, CA:
Glaser, B. (1998). Doing grounded theory. Mill Valley: Sociology Press.
assist students with literacy difficulties. The studies all used the academic classroom as the center of education and tested different learning methods.
Factors that influence the book selection process of students with special needs" is a study to learn how students with special needs react to choosing their own reading material. The results show that these children use a similar process as that of other students. The students with special needs do use more factors then typical children but it is clear that they want to read the same stories as typical children.
Many studies have concluded that choice is a necessary motivator to children and has a positive impact on their education. The most natural forum for self-selection is learning to read. Every child has different interests, unique needs and backgrounds and therefore tends to choose different books to read. There are different factors that affect children's book selection.…
Factors That Influence The Book Selection Process of Students With Special Needs" by Swartz and Hendricks.
Journal of Adolescents Adult Literacy 43:7 April 2000 pages 608-617
Writing Instruction For Struggling Adolescent Readers: A Gradual Release Model" by Fisher and Frey.
Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy 46:5 February 2003 pages 396-404
Embedding Elements of Functional Skills in K-9 Handling
Skills in individual areas become much more valuable to instructors and to learners when they are fully integrated or embedded within functional applications (Gravells, 2008). Generally, a good canine handler needs to have a command of factual knowledge about canine behavior, human psychology, criminal law and procedure, computer Internet technology, (ICT), and good writing skills. However, raw knowledge about canines, or so-called "textbook" knowledge (breed identification, history, physiology, general behavior, etc.) is comparatively useless in the field. Instead, the functional or "embedded" knowledge a canine handler must understand about dogs would include identifying predictable behaviors of various canines in specific situations. For example, knowledge about the respective lineage of the Belgian Malinois and German Shepherd is not particularly useful in the field as compared with embedded knowledge of their respective likely responses to gunshots.
Likewise, textbook knowledge of the history of the…
Gravells, A. (2008). Preparing to Teach in the Lifelong Learning Sector -- Level 3
Coursebook. Learning Matters Ltd.
As children we must learn how to interact with the world we were delivered into. One type of children's education comes in the form of literary training. Children must learn to conceptualize meanings from a set of two dimensional objects as well as the story being read or told. Upon the surface this seems like a fairly straight forward process. However, as this article points out, when the process of learning is dissected it is definitely more complex than it may first appear. For example, it takes a high level of cognition to realize that a certain two dimensional object represents a three dimensional counterpart in the real world. Connecting the association between a two dimensional representation of a pig on a page and a living, breathing pig on a farm takes quite a bit of mental ingenuity.
This article highlights many of the subtle aspects and processes…
program READ 180 is designed for children in elementary school through high school whose achievement of reading is not above the level of proficiency. The main objective of this program is to address the gap in the skills of the students by using direct instruction, literature and computer program in the reading skills. The goal of the software is to adapt and track the progress of every student. Apart from that, the program also includes audio books with CDs for modeling reading, paperback books for independent reading and workbooks for addressing the comprehension skills of the students (WWC, 2009).
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI): Decision Making Process
Scholastic Reading Inventory (SRI) is a test of reading comprehension that assesses the reading skills of the students. The scores that come from this test help the teachers to place the students on the correct path and help the teachers to adjust their style…
Betebenner, D.W. (2011). A Technical Overview of the Student Growth Percentile Methodology: Student Growth Percentiles and Percentile Growth Projections/Trajectories. New Hampshire: The National Center for the Improvement of Educational Assessment Dover.
Bonds, M., Blewett, P., Sain, M., Spence, J., Woodward, A., Miller, L., . . . Falk, T. (2011). District Report Card. Milwaukee Board of School Directors.
Data Interpretation Guide. (n.d.). SPI.
Flynn, J.E., Bieler, D., Kim, H., Dow, R.R., Wong, C., & Worden, L. (n.d.). Recruiting and Retaining Students from Underrepresented Groups in University of Delaware Teacher Preparation Programs. Collaborative to Diversify Teacher Education at the University of Delaware.
" I still do that, " and for the question of what happens when you get stuck on a word he replied, "Just mainly that or just ask somebody"
Subject 2: Was a much more confident reader and this is most likely because of the ability to use phonics' based reading and thinking process. The subject had advanced phonics' in a previous grade and those principles have carried forward into the self-esteem and confidence in regard to reading. He has a viable solution for answering his own questions regarding words or sounds he does not know.
According to the analysis of the spelling features, both boys are in similar spelling stages, however, the phonics background in subject 2 will help him develop faster as both a readier and a speller. The children were both using phonetic spelling techniques to pass the spelling portion of the assessment, however, subject one is…
Client Report: Early Literacy Template
Kayla is a first grade student who has passed the kindergarten literacy standards. Although she passed the kindergarten literacy standards, she has not passed the first grade reading standards due to her difficulty with reading. Recent assessments revealed that she continues to perform below average in reading skills, particularly with decoding, fluency and comprehension.
List of Assessments (to be included with Client Report: Final Submission)
Parent Permission Form with your full name and first name of parent typed in
Teacher Referral Form with all information typed on this template
Observation Checklist: Early Literacy Behavior with all information typed on this template
1. Early Literacy riting Sample with form completed in template and a jpg file of actual writing sample included.
Early Literacy Assessments -- Complete all parts of the Test Summary Sheet (from John's Basic Reading Inventory: Early Literacy)
Word recognition -- ___ -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ --
Comprehension/retelling -- ___ -- ___X___ -- ___ -- ___ --
From Jerry L. Johns, Basic Reading Inventory (11th ed.). Copyright © 2012 by Kendal/Hunt Publishing Company (1- *** , ext. 4). May be reproduced for non-commercial educational purposes. Website: www.kendallhunt.com
In an information age, developing discernment and discrimination when digesting sources of information is a critical skill. Information literacy is the critical skill of being able to recognize credible sources and become a critical consumer of data. As Head & Wihbey (2014) point out, “finding useful information and a sense of what to trust” are now considered essential job skills (p. 1). Therefore, information literacy needs to be approached in a more serious manner. Knowing how to research and locate adequate, appropriate, and correct information is important in almost every field. Information literacy is not just a job skill; lifelong learning depends on developing information literacy (Module 1).
As importance as researching on the Internet can be, the ability to research is not sufficient. Information literacy involves an understanding of the process of delving into academic databases and utilizing the professional research skills that librarians can offer. Research shows that…
What Needs to Be Done
The research quite clearly suggests that something needs to be done about the gender gap in literacy rates and the lower comprehension and skill levels of male students. What is somewhat less clear is exactly what needs to be done or how to go about implementing the necessary changes. This is not to say that certain strategies and methods have not been suggested, many of which have even been studied and demonstrated to have a positive impact, but developing a full teaching strategy that addresses this gap in many ways requires an overhaul of general teaching practices that is complex and difficult to concretely define let alone implement. Certain entrenched policies and practices also increase the difficulty of implementing the necessary adjustments to curricula and methodologies.
Education has tended towards greater freedom for independent exploration and less rigid instruction, and while this can lead…
Basic financial literacy is sorely lacking in today's America, and the results affect us all. For some, basic financial literacy is a personal issue, and it is that, but it is also a social issue because high debt levels affect everybody when they contribute to economic volatility. Malcolm (2013) notes that the standards of education in money management tend to be low, which leads people with incoherent savings plans. This is turn has them avoid saving altogether, instead spending on immediately desires. The result is that American is a nation of debtors. We all joke about owing money to the Chinese, but the sad reality is that most people owe money, and of those most have no real plan to deal with that debt. It's a ticking economic time bomb, and we need to resolve this issue. The time has come to bring financial literacy to the fore.…
Investopedia. (2014). Definition of financial literacy. Investopedia. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from http://www.investopedia.com/terms/f/financial-literacy.asp
Lusardi, A. (2013). Financial literacy around the world. FINRA. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from http://www.finrafoundation.org/web/groups/foundation/@foundation/documents/foundation/p240590.pdf
Malcolm, H. (2012). The cost of financial illiteracy. USA Today. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/money/perfi/basics/story/2012-04-23/millenials-financial-knowledge/54494856/1
Malcolm, H. (2013). Financial literacy education has real life impact. USA Today. Retrieved May 5, 2014 from http://www.usatoday.com/story/money/personalfinance/2013/11/13/financial-literacy-education-requirements/2953667/
Identify two new pieces of financial information that you learned about this week that will help you make informed financial decisions about your future and eventual retirement.
Personal financial management and financial planning can be daunting. It helps to learn more about the tools people can use to plan their savings and budget for the future. One of the things I learned this week that will help me make informed financial decisions is how to be a responsible borrower. For one, I never considered credit cards as being a form of lending. Essentially, people who forget that credit cards entail borrowing money from a bank can get into a lot of trouble with debt accumulation. Next, taking out loans can be tricky. Student loans tend to have reasonable interest rates, but any amount of interest is still going to add up over time. The less the loan principal, the less…
Career Preliminary Questionnaire
It is in line with the advert that appeared in the national daily paper concerning the vacancy in your organization that I wish to express my wish to feel the advertised position. I strongly believe I have adequate skills that meet the threshold requirements for a financial advisor trainee in your organization. I have a bachelor's degree in Economics (Honors) from Queen's University-Kingston, Ontario. This implies my vast knowledge in economics related fields such as Accounting, Macroeconomics, Microeconomics, Econometrics, and Statistics among other fields. Apart from this, I have a certificate in Canadian Security Course (CSC) and Investment Funds in Canada (IFIC) from the Canadian Securities Institute. I completed my high school level studies from the Langley Secondary School- Langley, British Columbia with Honors in Grade 11 and 12. Presently, I work with the CIBC Langley Banking Center as a Customer Service Representative (since 2012). Working with…
It uses indicators such as life expectancy, literacy and infant mortality of nations around the world to develop an index of well-being. he U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1972 identified quality of life components in six environmental areas- economic, political, social, health, natural and physical. Coping behavior is one characteristic of quality of life as seeking an improved quality of life involves making good decisions, meeting one's needs and having greater access to resources. Basic human rights -- the right to be born, right to develop to full intellectual potential, right to full access to resources of the nation and right to live a satisfying life are included in conceptualizing quality of life. In the Human Ecological approach to quality of life individuals and families must be assisted to strengthen their abilities to reach their full potential. Human Ecology study therefore seeks to train leaders who understand basic human needs…
This chapter explains the 'quality of life' phrase which was born in the 1970s, and relates it to coping skills and why it must be an important aspect of Human Ecology study. Each person and family defines their own quality of life. The Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI) was developed to measure quality of life. It uses indicators such as life expectancy, literacy and infant mortality of nations around the world to develop an index of well-being. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1972 identified quality of life components in six environmental areas- economic, political, social, health, natural and physical. Coping behavior is one characteristic of quality of life as seeking an improved quality of life involves making good decisions, meeting one's needs and having greater access to resources. Basic human rights -- the right to be born, right to develop to full intellectual potential, right to full access to resources of the nation and right to live a satisfying life are included in conceptualizing quality of life. In the Human Ecological approach to quality of life individuals and families must be assisted to strengthen their abilities to reach their full potential. Human Ecology study therefore seeks to train leaders who understand basic human needs and will be able to help individuals and families to secure their basic needs through policy approaches and community services.
Chapter 16. International Study of Human Ecology and Quality of Life.
The School of Human Ecology has determined that it is important to include an international dimension in the Human Ecology course. It stresses the importance of understanding other cultures and values especially of people in less-developed areas of the world. The Program in International Studies in Human Ecology was therefore developed to address this need. Some of the international concerns and issues that must be addressed to bring about improvements in the quality and condition of the lives of people in developing countries include poverty and illiteracy. Individuals preparing for leadership roles in international areas must therefore have knowledge of these issues, and be able to manage and coordinate programs which affect large numbers of people, resources and environments.
It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.
The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less…
Badiru, Adedeji, Triple C. Model of Project Management: Communication, Cooperation, and Coordination. Oxon: CRC Press, 2008.
"History of Greece." History World. 5 Jun. 2000. 22 March. 2010.
Hyman, Kavett. "Mesopotamia, A Difficult but Interesting Topic." Social studies 70.3 (1979):
Progression and Foundation of Language
Learning of primary language complements skills development; this includes learning about language, as well as learning other subjects in the school curriculum via language. Language learning facilitates general literary skills and allows children to revert to, and strengthen skills and concepts studied through their first language (The National Strategies Primary, 2009).
Curriculum is enriched by language learning. Teachers as well as children find it fun and challenging, and display enthusiasm towards language; this leads to creation of interested learners and the development of positive attitudes towards learning languages, all throughout one's life. A natural link exists between language and other curricular areas, and this enriches the overall teaching-learning experience. Proficiencies, understanding, and information learned through language contribute greatly to literacy and oracy development in children, as well as to better understanding of one's own and others' cultures. Language is also integral to community and…
(n.d.). Anticipatory Set/Hook. Weebly. Retrieved from: http://ed491.weebly.com/uploads/8/4/6/1/8461140/anticipatorysets.pdf
(2013). Arizona Early Learning Standards. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED486135.pdf
(n.d.). Developing Lessons with Technology. Retrieved from: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/assets/hip/us/hip_us_pearsonhighered/samplechapter/0136101259.pdf
Huppenthal, J., Stollar, J., & Hrabluk, K. (n.d.). Arizona State Literacy Plan. Arizona Department of Education. Retrieved from: http://www.azed.gov/standards-practices/files/2012/06/arizona-state-literacy-plan-compiled-doc-9.29.11.pdf .
The face of literacy is changing. In 1955, being literate meant being able to read and write well enough to do such things as read a newspaper and write letters. In the year 2005, however, many more demands are made on reading and writing skills. In addition to being able to read such things as magazines and books and being able to write letters or other short written communication, the majority of people now communicate extensively using computers in the form of email, news groups, instant messaging, mailing list, weblogs, and web pages. These methods, all of which rely heavily on writing, have put more emphasis on written communication than ever before.
The Smart Library on Literacy and Technology notes that literacy instruction has already begun to reflect emphasis on the computer in both reading and writing. In fact, computer technology has changed not only how we write…
Author not given. 2005. "Join Newsgroups: All About Newsgroups." Accessed via the Internet 10/8/05.
Heller, Steven. 2004. "Blog me, blog me not: design blogs offer stimulating idea forums, along with rambling, self-indulgent rants." Print, May 12.
Huang, Josie. 2004. "Instant message, instant relief; E-mails ease families' fears about Maine Guardsmen attacked in Iraq." Portland Press Herald (Maine), April 21.
Pillemer, Jack. No date given. "E-mail as a teaching tool." In ETAI Summer 1997. Accessed via the Internet 10/8/05.
Allington's sixth chapter
In the sixth chapter of his text, hat Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs, literacy expert Richard Allington gives important tips to teachers as to how they can effectively improve instruction for struggling readers in their classrooms. This is often one of the most difficult tasks for any teacher, regardless of the grade he or she teachers.
In fact, one of Allington's first areas of critique is teacher-focused. To help teacher improve classroom instruction for such challenged readers, Allington stresses the need to provide additional support for teachers' professional growth. Since this field of how to approach struggling readers is undergoing continual professional debate, teachers need to keep in touch with new pedagogical developments, as well as receive support from their fellow professionals. Regular classroom teachers must strive to become expert educators, as well as have adequate access to resource room staff.
Enhancing Access to…
Allington, Richard. (2001) What Really Matters for Struggling Readers: Designing Research-Based Programs. New York: Longman.
Teaching writing to young children
Learning how to write is an important tool in encouraging young children to get excited about reading. A 2010 experimental study in the Journal of Educational esearch (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010) compared two common techniques used in kindergarten classrooms to help young readers learn to write: interactive writing and the writing workshop method. "As children write, they analyze thought and meaning, experiment with words and form, and learn concepts of directionality, sequencing, and spacing" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). Previous studies indicated that even the very youngest readers could benefit from writing instruction, given the way that writing can help them analyze words letter by letter and that "letter-sound correspondence cannot be learned outside the written system" (Jones, eutzel & Fargo 2010). The benefits of writing instructions at the kindergarten level exist "even after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES) and IQ effects" (Jones, eutzel…
Berson, M.J., Ouzts, D.T., & Walsh, L.S. (1999). Connecting literature with K-8 national geography standards. The Social Studies, 90(2), 85-92.
Bishop, A.G., & League, M.B. (2006). Identifying a multivariate screening model to predict reading difficulties at the onset of kindergarten: A longitudinal analysis. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29(4), 235-252. Retrieved: doi: 10.2307/30035552
Diane, C.N., & Monson, D.L. (1996). Effects of literacy environment on literacy development of kindergarten children. The Journal of Educational Research, 89(5), 259-259.
Jones, Cindy D'On; Reutzel, D Ray; & Fargo, Jamison D. (2010). Comparing two methods of writing instruction: Effects on kindergarten students' reading skills. The Journal of Educational Research, 103 (5): 327-341. Retrieved:
The author reiterates the basic elements of reading must be understood, and so they must be consistently repeated until they become automatic for students. The author also notes, "Teachers also should not use the time spent on tasks as a measure of student progress; instead, educators should focus on the total number of exercises that students have mastered" (MacGregor, 2004, p. 52). Thus, the teaching techniques must include specific exercises and instructors should completely understand what the results of those exercises are, and how their students are mastering the exercises. The instructor must be familiar with the educational software and its uses to gain the most for students and study time. This information can increase the effectiveness of reading remediation and student's results with reading exercises.
MacGregor, D. (2004). Literacy software saves struggling…
MacGregor, D. (2004). Literacy software saves struggling readers the Journal (Technological Horizons in Education), 32(4), 52.
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Liability Zero. (N.d.). Protocol Financial Consulting Logo. Retrieved from Deviant Art: http://liabilityzero.deviantart.com/art/Protocol-Financial-Consulting-Logo-266912882
Omni Hotels. (N.d.). Diversity. Retrieved from Omni Hotels: http://www.omnihotels.com/aboutomnihotels/omnihotels/diversity.aspx
Souvenir Technologies. (N.d.). Careers. Retrieved from Souvenir Technologies: http://souvenirtechnologies.com/careers/job-postings/
Classroom-based reading assessment is the measurement of children's progress in learning reading by using both formal and informal measurement tools.
Classroom assessment collects useful information about what students do and do not know about reading. Teachers can use four different types of assessments to accomplish this.
Leveled books can be used to figure out where exactly a student is in terms of reading level.
Rough observation and measurement can be used to figure out where exactly students are in terms of reading level.
Tests can be administered to find out where students' strengths and weaknesses are.
Collecting samples of a student's work can be instructive in figuring out where a student is in terms of reading level
Determining Student's Reading Level
Teachers must figure out where students are in terms of reading level so that they can progress in their learning…
Askov points out that many adults returning to the educational system after failing to meet its standards will not succeed in a system that is built upon the same ideals. Race, class, gender, and corresponding power structures also play into how educators approach adult learners. Adult education presents a host of challenges not present in elementary education, problems that refer to the very values upon which the society is formed. Research and theories in psychology and learning present multiple perspectives upon which educators and policy makers can build a more promising future for adult learners. Visions for the future include embedding metacognitive skills into adult learning programs. Adult learners need literacy skills, not so they can score well on standardized testing but so they can reach their highest potential as human beings. Grassroots movements may be the key to promoting adult literacy throughout the country, to making adult literacy and…
In "Emergent Literacy," uth Wilson claims that formal reading instruction "especially if introduced too early…can actually interfere with emergent literacy," (p. 1). The author bases her claim on personal observation with her own children, as well as on empirical evidence related to early childhood literacy education. Using a combination of anecdotal and empirical evidence strengthens the author's stance, and offers a rich opportunity for personal reflection. Wilson does not disparage structured or formal literacy training in early childhood. Instead, she calls for a more organic approach that stresses parental engagement.
Wilson cites evidence from a number of sources showing that literacy emerges in many different settings, and is not dependent on print. Folk practices, including playing with sounds and simply engaging children with words, can be as effective if not more, in helping immerse the child in a literate universe. Finally, Wilson emphasizes the importance of the home…
Wilson, R.A. (n.d.). Emergent literacy. Early Childhood News. Retrieved online: http://www.earlychildhoodnews.com/earlychildhood/article_view.aspx?ArticleID=212