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Sleep is often a poetic euphemism for death; Utanapishtim even says as much when Gilgamesh finally catches up with him... "How alike are the sleeping and the dead..." In any event, Gilgamesh's foreboding deepens as they face the entrance to the forest.
Gilgamesh and Enkidu find and confront Humbaba, and Humbaba tries to pursuade Gilgamesh to make friends with it, but Enkidu advises him to kill it, for fearing the wrath of Shammash. Gilgamesh is having second thoughts about killing Humbaba, but Enkidu turns his ear and they do end up killing the monster. Of course, this angers all the gods except Shammash, who are finally provoked past the limits of patience when the duo kill the ull of Heaven which Ishtar petulantly lets loose on Uruk. However, unable to bring themselves to kill Gilgamesh, they focus on Enkidu instead and inflict him with a long terminal illness.
Abusch, Tzvi. (2001). "The Development and Meaning of the Epic of Gilgamesh: an Interpretive Essay." Journal of the American Oriental Society 121.4: 614-622.
Jager, Bernd (2001). "The Birth of Poetry and the Creation of a Human World: an Exploration of the Epic of Gilgamesh." Journal of Phenomenological Psychology. 13.2: 131-154.
Carnahan, Timorthy (ed). "The Epic of Gilgamesh." March, 2005 http://www.ancienttexts.org/library/mesopotamian/gilgamesh
The characters in all of the literary works discussed here experience the elation of rising above whatever ails them on earth, but then being forced to fall back down to the harsh reality that they can never seem to fully escape. Additionally, in each of the works discussed here, ignorant bliss is portrayed is preferable to stark clarity. The primary difference between the poems and Keyes' novel, however, is that for Charlie, both ignorance and acumen are mixed blessings. For the poets, ignorant bliss is the prize waiting at the peak of their ascendance. For Henrik Ibsen, an entirely different journey life's ups and downs prevails.
Since the beginning of time, we have lived in a society in which women have been judged through the eyes of men. Commonly referred to as "the weaker sex," women have been told that they are different from men yet have been held to…
Berryman, John, "The Curse" http://www.eliteskills.com/c/11530
Berryman, John, "The Traveller" http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/john-berryman/4278
Ibsen, Henrik, Four Major Plays: A Doll House, the Wild Duck, Hedda Gabler, the Master Builder, Signet Book; Reissue edition, 1989
Keyes, Daniel, "Flowers for Algernon" Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 1995
Civilization and the ilderness -- Early American Literature
The collision of society against the wilderness in the early stages of the development of America was used often as a theme in early American literature. As "civilization" arrived in the New orld and immediately encroached upon the natural world and the Native Americans who thrived in that New orld there were stories to be told to reflect the conflicts and relationships that occurred. This paper explores the dynamics in the civilization vs. wilderness binary expressed in four stories -- Roger Malvin's Burial, The Pioneers, Hope Leslie and Edger Huntly.
Do "civilization" and the "wilderness" mean or signify the same thing in each of these four works?
In a general way, civilization and the wilderness do signify the same thing in each of the four works, because no matter the different themes, setting, characters and conflicts that are presented, the man v.…
Brown, Charles Brockden. Edgar Huntly, or Memoirs of a sleep-walker, Volume 3. London, UK;
Oxford University, 1803.
Cooper, James Fenimore. The Pioneers. Harvard University: G.P. Putnam, 1853.
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. Roger Malvin's Burial. Selected Stories. Ed. Brenda Wineapple.
.....space below to complete this section. Include the number and first sentence of the prompt you chose from the list of prompts.)
Prompt 2: 'In some stories, characters come into conflict with the culture in which they live.'
For this literary assignment, I have chosen Prompt 2, which explains that the characters of some tales enter into discord with their surrounding culture. Usually, a character may feel estranged and different from the society on account of his/her ethnic/racial group, sex, or social class.
What interests you most about this prompt and why?
The above prompt interests me as it addresses the subject of heritage and culture. Modern-day individuals depict greater cultural sensitivity and awareness and are more mindful of the distinctions between themselves and others, compared to their forebears. Humanity has now permitted its cultural disparities and backgrounds to guide its social interactions with individuals belonging to other backgrounds. Some,…
Racine's Phaedra -- Compared to Blake's "Lamb" and Melville's Billy Budd
As Bernard Grebanier states, Racine's Phaedra speaks "with the violence of life itself" (xiv). If one were to compare the French playwright's most famous female lead to the English-speaking world's most famous male lead (as Grebanier does), it would have to be to Hamlet, whose passionate assessment of life is likewise problematic. Indeed, Phaedra raises many themes, including the importance of origin, innocence, and sin -- themes that may be found in as seemingly disparate works as illiam Blake's "The Lamb" and Herman Melville's Billy Budd. hile Racine's Phaedra is the tale of a woman, torn by a passion that possesses her so cruelly that it destroys not only her life but the lives of others around her -- including the innocent man who is her obsession, Hyppolytus; Blake's poem deals with the triple theme of origin, innocence, and…
Blake, William. "The Lamb." Songs of Innocence and Experience. UK: Oxford
University Press, 1992. Print.
Grebanier, Bernard. Phaedra: An English Acting Version. NY: Barron's Educational
Series, 1958. Print.
Robert Bolano is the writer of the novel "By Night in Chile" published in 2000. Urrutia is the narrator of the novel and entire novel is narrated in the first person. Starting lines of the novel are "I am dying now, but I still have many things to say," and from this point the novel starts describing how Urrutia was able to enter the Chilean literary world.
The narrator of the novel, Urrutia Lacroix used the image of "the wizened youth," for himself which showed how much he struggled with his conscience, during the time when he was trapped in Opus Dei. The narrator has described his life as distorted because of the struggle he made throughout his life.
Narrator has used different styles to engage the readers. At time it was simple, lofty, intense, and believable however on occasion the narrator used harsh and imposing style to describe the…
Strength of the Human Spirit know why the Caged Bird Sings is an autobiography by Maya Angelou. It is the first book of the five volumes of the author's autobiography covering her life from the early 1930s up till 1970. This particular volume "I know why the Caged Bird Sings" is one of the most popular of the five volumes as it talks about her initial years as a child up to the time when she turns sixteen. The autobiography is based on her life as a black child, teenager and woman; it covers all elements of her family and their trials and tribulations.
Although the book is based on Angelous' life, it basically talks about the development of the human self and the impact of various experiences in life on the strength of the human spirit. As Angelou herself describes the reason for writing this book "somebody needs to…
Macbeth and the Struggle between Good and Evil
Like all of Shakespeare's tragedies, the action of Macbeth is based around the fatal flaw of the man who would otherwise be a hero. For Macbeth, his flaw is his ambition. He allows his ambition to drive him and this overcomes his reason. In doing so, he chooses the path of evil over the path of good. In the end though, he cannot live with his own choice and his good side becomes his underdoing. In this way, Macbeth is not only the story of a man choosing evil, but also the story of a man who cannot be driven to ignore his good side. This makes Macbeth a unique play because it shows both sides of the struggle between good and evil and makes it a human struggle. This major theme in the play is expressed in several ways. This…
Bradley, A.C. "The Witch Scenes in Macbeth." England in Literature. Eds. John Pfordesher, Gladys V. Veidemanis, and Helen McDonnell. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1991: 232-233.
Lamb, M.E. "Engendering the Narrative Act: Old Wives' Tales in The Winter's Tale, Macbeth, and The Tempest." Criticism 40.4 (1998): 529-553.
Shakespeare, W. Macbeth. New York: Penguin, 1999.
ole of Women in Othello
The Conflicting Female ole in Shakespeare's Othello
In Shakespeare's Othello, women are in a state of turmoil. On the one hand, the women in the play have to remain obedient to the subservient standards of life as a female in the 15th and 16th centuries in Europe. Yet, on the other hand, there are signs of a new, strong and independent female emerging within Shakespeare's characters. In Othello, Shakespeare juxtaposes the characteristics of the traditional, obedient woman with a new, more independent one. Desdemona's willing death at the hand of her husband illustrates Shakespeare's suggestion that strictly following these outdated gender norms will only lead to individual destruction; while Emilia, and her more independent ways stands up against her husband's ill will.
To understand the role of women in the play, it is first important to see how they are viewed by the men in…
Evans, Ed. "Gender and Race in Othello." University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 2011. Web. http://www.unc.edu/~edevans/othello.html
Shakespeare, William. Othello. Saddleback Educational Publishing. 2011.
A literary critical analysis is not merely a summary of a literary work. Instead, it is an argument that expresses an interpretation, judgment, or critical evaluation of the work. This is accomplished by examining specific literary devices (symbols, themes, metaphors, tone, point of view, diction, structure, etc.), within the work. The purpose of a critical analysis is to demonstrate how these elements convey meaning. In your analysis, you will most likely discuss how certain literary techniques are used to convey specific ideas. You will discuss what a literary piece means and how it achieves its effect. To write critically, you must provide analysis of specific evidence from the text (words and phrases; avoid long quotes). The goal of this assignment is to give the audience an interpretation of the literature.
1. Introduction (explore the subject? of your analysis and end with a thesis statement).
2. Body Paragraphs…
Not of the Same Feather: Cultural Appropriation in The Invention of Wings
As problematic as it may be for a white Southern author to presume understanding of the psyche of a slave, Sue Monk Kidd embeds enough nuances in The Invention of Wings to make the fictionalized account of the Grimke sisters compelling and enlightening. Alternating between the voices of Hetty (Handful) and Sarah is the literary device Kidd relies on to demonstrate different perspectives and points of view, while also showing what Hetty and Sarah have in common too. In fact, Kidd shows how Sarah and Hetty develop the courage to rebel against social norms and even the law in order to make the world a better place. Symbolism also helps tie together the disparate worlds in which Hetty and Sarah live. Thick with symbolism related to the theme of flying and the freedom flight implies, The Invention of…
Portrait of the Artist of a Young Man by James Joyce traces the development of Stephen Dedulas as a writer from infancy to young adulthood. While Joyce shows the maturation of Stephen Deduals, he is also painting a vivid image of Dublin, Ireland and Stephen Dedulas' world. One literary device that Joyce uses throughout his novel is the repetitious appearance of numerous images. Stephen's fascination with women, both real and imaginary, is prevalent from childhood and is used by Joyce as a common strain of imagery throughout the novel.
Stephen's main love interest in the novel is Emma Clere. Emma is a girl who has such an effect on Stephen's life that he relates many events of his life back to Emma. For instance, Stephen feels guilty for his involvement with prostitutes not because it is immoral, but because of what Emma would think of him if she found out.…
John esley Before Referencing
Supernatural tales of death and jealousy: Edgar Allen Poe's "Masque of the Red Death" and Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of a Parrot"
Both Edgar Allen Poe's "Masque of the Red Death" and Robert Olen Butler's "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of a Parrot" use supernatural plots to highlight the intense emotions human beings often feel about common and ordinary subjects, namely death and the loss of a loved one to someone else. Poe's tale is written in the style of American Romanticism, and uses highly ornate language and a European setting to create an atmosphere of death, misery and decay. Poe's tale begins strangely, and becomes even stranger as the narrative wears on. The final appearance by death as a masked figure at a costume ball makes the allegorical theme of the story horrifyingly real -- not even the wealthy…
Butler, Robert Olen. "Jealous Husband Returns in the Form of a Parrot." Fiction from Web Del Sol. 22 Feb 2008. http://www.webdelsol.com/butler/rob-5.htm
Poe, Edgar Allen. "The Masque of the Red Death." Online Literature. 22 Feb 2008. http://www.online-literature.com/poe/36
Shop on the Main Street
Continental European film producers were slow to focus on political and social injustices as the dominant themes after World War II. Heroism in America and Soviet World War II movies was not a significant theme, primarily because, with the exclusion of Switzerland and Sweden, other countries' dwellers either were part of the Nazi regime or collaborated with the rule. Therefore, the filmmakers, when making films, focused on the societies' immersion in the totalitarian ruling systems. Similar to other countries of Europe, excluding Switzerland and Sweden, all other countries in central Europe lived under Authoritarian and totalitarian regimes in the period between the Second World War. However, after the war, the continent split, and this influenced how the filmmakers made films. Germans, Slovaks, Czechs and Hungary embraced the Nazi regime, whereas Austria and three quarters of Germany embraced democracy. This is partly a contributing factor as…
Crowther, B. (1966). The Shop on the Main Street (1965). Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/movie/review?res=EE05E7DF1730E270BC4D51DFB766838D679EDE
Votruba, M. (2011). The Shop on the Main Street: The holocaust in context. Retrieved from http://d-scholarship.pitt.edu/11635/3/Martin_Votruba-The_Shop_on_Main_Street_The_Holocaust_in_Context.pdf
Banovac, S. (2005). JanKadar and Elmar Klos: The Shop on Main Street (Obchod na korze),
1965. Retrieved from http://www.kinokultura.com/specials/3/obchod.shtml
Social Activism and Literature
Two of the major themes in 20th century American literature are war and social protest. The United States has been engaged in a steady series of wars since the beginning of the 20th century. With the carnage of the First World War, the horrors of the Second, the futility of Vietnam, many writers and artists contributed to the literature of protest with respect to war, and America's involvement in it.
Amy Lowell's September, 1918 is a good example of how writers reacted to the First World War. Its presentation of a wistful era where there is no war, juxtaposed against the current "broken world," illustrates the yearning that many had for a world without war. The First World War had essentially eliminated any romance that there was of war in society, and its brutality would spark this sort of response across the world. For the first…
Parini, J. & Cutter, M. (2009). Themes in Contemporary American Literature. Cengage.
Literary Analysis: Sue Monk Kidd’s The Invention of Wings
Sue Monk Kidd uses symbol and theme in The Invention of Wings to tell the story of Sarah Grimke, her sister Nina and Sarah’s slave Handful, whom Sarah vows to help to freedom over the course of her life. The novel is based on the historical character of Sarah Grimke, an abolitionist and activist. To tell the story, Kidd uses the black triangles that Handful’s mother stitches into her quilts to symbolize flight and freedom; likewise, the feathers that Handful and her mother collect to stuff the quilt symbolize the spiritual wings with which one can fly to freedom. Kidd also applies the theme of power in both positive and negative terms: Sarah’s trauma at witnessing the brutality of slavery causes her to develop a stutter, which gives her a degree of powerlessness in terms of speaking her mind; likewise, her…
The principle theme in Jean hys' short story, "I Used to Live Here Once," is the prevalence of racism and the accompanying sentiment of elitism that it gives those of European ancestry. This theme was fairly common in hys' writing, which routinely "would explore the tension between the ordered world of colonial life and the seductive world of island sensuality" (Encyclopedia of World Biography, 2004). hys' theme is supported on the strength of a pair of literary elements, foreshadowing and symbolism. A thorough examination of the text demonstrates that the author utilizes these two literary devices to reinforce her theme and indicate to the reader that the seemingly halcyon journey of figurative and literal remembrance is not as innocent as it appears.
hys utilizes copious amounts of foreshadowing to demonstrate that the narrator's journey to a house she used to live in represents more than that which is appears…
Savory, E. (2003). "Selective memory: white creole, nostalgia, Jean Rhys, and Side By Side." Journal of Caribbean Literatures. 3 (3): 17-25.
Encyclopedia of World Biography. (2004). "Jean Rhys." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Retrieved from http://www.encyclopedia.com/topic/Jean_Rhys.aspx
Salinger is an American literary treasure, best known for his novella Catcher in the ye. However, Catcher in the ye is but one of many in the canon of Salinger works. Salinger's short stories have recently garnered renewed attention because several unpublished Salinger stories were leaked online in November of 2013, three years after the author's death (uncie, 2013). Salinger died a recluse, and a man of mystery who was as much an American antihero as Holden Caulfield of Catcher in the ye. There have been numerous cultural allusions of Salinger's iconic novel and its quintessentially postmodern protagonist. Although no film has ever been made directly from the story of Catcher in the ye, Morgan (2010) points out that there have been allusions to Salinger stories in films like The Collector (1965) and Six Degrees of Separation (1993). Additionally, a 2013 documentary film about J.D. Salinger promises to reveal the…
Gopnik, A. (2010). Postscript: J.D. Salinger. The New Yorker. Retrieved online: http://www.newyorker.com/talk/2010/02/08/100208ta_talk_gopnik
McGrath, C. (2010). J.D. Salinger, literary recluse, dies at 91. International New York Times. Retrieved online: http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/29/books/29salinger.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0
Morgan, K. (2010). Six stories: Salinger inspired cinema. The Huffington Post. Retrieved online: http://www.huffingtonpost.com/kim-morgan/six-stories-salinger-insp_b_443099.html
Runcie, C. (2013). JD Salinger unpublished stories 'leaked online'. 28 Nov 2013. The Telegraph. Retrieved online: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/books/booknews/10480275/JD-Salinger-unpublished-stories-leaked-online.html
contemplated an individual's relationship with his or her environment. In Oedipus Rex and Antigone, Sophocles explores the relationship an individual has with the world and society. In each of these plays, Sophocles juxtaposes divinity and humanity and investigates the role of each within Theban society as well as looks into conflicts that arise when the laws of man conflict with divine laws. Through their narratives, Oedipus Rex and Antigone posit man is intended to serve others, including gods, and that they do not exist to be self-serving.
Oedipus Rex revolves around an eponymous anti-hero who by saving the city of Thebes from a Sphinx inadvertently and simultaneously brought forth a plague upon it. By defeating the Sphinx, Oedipus secured his place upon the Theban throne and as such was not only responsible for ensuring laws were abided, but was also responsible for protecting Thebes' citizens. Because of the plague that…
Sophocles. Antigone. The Complete Greek Tragedies. Eds. David Grene and Richard Lattimore.
2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. 160-212.
-. Oedipus Rex. The Complete Greek Tragedies. Eds. David Grene and Richard
Lattimore. 2nd Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1991. pp. 10-76.
Thus, the term "a new start" came to embody a lofty ideal and it was considered to be more important from the simple fact that the respective period in history dealt with the particular issues addressed by people such as Thomas Paine. For instance, he tried, through his writing to give a new incentive for the people fighting for the independence from Britain and from this point-of-view he is remembered as an important figure of the era (Philip, 2005).
Without a doubt there are periods in history that are dominated by certain interpretations of the notion of "a new start." This is precisely due to the fact that the American literature, it its attempt to escape the influence and the stereotypes of the British creations, have searched for new sources of inspiration. In this sense, while in the British Isles the romantic view of the world was still predominant, in…
Funston, Judith E. (1990) "Authority, Autonomy, and Representation in American Literature, 1776-1865." By Mark R. Patterson. Review. The Journal of American History, Vol. 77, No. 2., pp. 650-651.
Kwok, Gordon. (2001) Civil War Poetry. 13 Feb 2008. http://hometown.aol.com/gordonkwok/cwpoetry.html
Larkin, Edward. (2008). Thomas Paine and the Literature of Revolution. Cambridge University Press.
Outline of American Literature. (2006). Democratic Origins and Revolutionary Writers, 1776-1820. USINFO.STATE.GUV website. 13 Feb 2008. http://usinfo.state.gov/products/pubs/oal/lit2.htm
.....female agency in Wang Anyi's "Granny" and Eileen Chang's "Shame Amah"
The objective of this study is to compare and contrast the work of Eileen Chang's with reference to her theme "Shame Amah" and the work of Wang Anyi focusing on her theme "Granny". The study uses their works of the two writers to analyze their differences and similarities in the writing styles focusing on the themes Shame of Amah and Granny. Remarkably, Zhang was in her early twenties when she had been identified as a discriminating and precious writer. She benefited from both classical Western and Chinese literature making her being one of the most renown Chinese writers in the literary world.
Similarly, Eileen Chang is one of the most talented Chinese writers born in 1921 and has published several collections of English stories as well publishing two English novels. Eileen Chang was born in Shanghai and attended the…
The choice cannot be repudiated or duplicated, but one makes the choice without foreknowledge, almost as if blindly. After making the selection, the traveler in Frost's poem says, "Yet knowing how way leads on to way/I doubted if I should ever come back" (14-15). And at the end, as one continues to encounter different forks along the way, the endless paths have slim chance of ever giving the traveler a second choice. One can see this as similar to Mrs. Mallard's change. As she looks out into the future, she sees endless possibilities for choice and nothing feels like she would ever return to the determinate state of marriage.
The final two lines of "The Road Not Taken" say, "I took the one less traveled by / and that has made all the difference" (19-20). Unlike in Chopin, the traveler determines to take the path. In Chopin, the path forces…
Carver, Raymond. (1981). Cathedral: stories. New York: Vintage.
Chopin, Kate. (2003). The Awakening and selected short fiction. New York: Barnes & Noble.
Frost, Robert. (1969). The Poetry of Robert Frost: the collected poems E.C. Lathem, Ed. New York: Holt.
Barry's "Machine Man"
Originally published in 2011, Max Barry's futuristic science fiction novel "Machine Man" was first made available to readers as an online serial, before being updated and collected into a full-fledged book. Barry bucked publishing industry protocol and posted excerpts from his "Machine Man" to his personal website, imploring his regular readers to submit criticism and feedback in the hope of collectively shaping his creative vision. As one of the first literary works to be "crowdsourced" in terms of content, the version of "Machine Man" which emerged from this collaborative process is, much like its conflicted protagonist, an amalgamation of various constituent parts which comes together to form a harmonious whole. Barry's thematic thrust with the novel -- which tells the tale of Charles Neumann, a subordinate scientist working for a military research conglomerate known as Better Future -- is humanity's ceaseless pursuit of perfection, and the consequences…
Barry, Max. Machine Man. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 2011. Print.
Crerand, Canice E., and David B. Sarwer. "Body dysmorphic disorder." Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (2010).
Gradually, Gregor discovers how unimportant he really is to the family, and how little they really care about him. He has given them his love and devotion, and they repay him by locking him away when he needs them the most.
Kafka uses the plot to show the increasing disinterest of Gregor's family, and how they have used him for the last five years. His father has grown "fat and sluggish," his mother relied on the servants (that he paid for), and his sister did nothing much at all. He worked like a dog to keep the family together, and in thanks, they lock him away in his room when he becomes an embarrassment. Kafka uses this plot device to add information about the family, all the while showing Gregor's sweet disposition. Gregor's life is meaningless and empty, but he does not blame them for any of it. Instead, he…
Bloom, Harold, ed. Franz Kafka's 'The Metamorphosis.' New York: Chelsea House, 1988.
Kafka, Franz. Selected Short Stories of Franz Kafka. Trans. Willa Muir and Edwin Muir. New York: Modern Library, 1952.
Olsen, Eric. "The Labyrinth Within: Franz Kafka and the Predicament of Modern Man." World and I, Volume: 19, Issue: 6, June 2004.
Literary Characters in Exile
Exile can be the self-imposed banishment from one's home or given as a form of punishment. The end result of exile is solitude. Exile affords those in it for infinite reflection of themselves, their choices, and their lives in general. Three prominent literary characters experience exile as part of the overall narrative and in that, reveal a great deal about themselves to themselves as well as to the readers. The three narratives in questions are "The Epic of Gilgamesh," "The Tempest," and "Things Fall Apart." All of the main characters of these narratives experience exile as a result of actions taken by the protagonists at earlier points in the story. The protagonist in each respective story are exiled because of their choices and the exile forces each character to face consequences that ultimately bring their inner character to the surface in a more direct manner…
Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. New York: First Anchor Books Edition, 1994.
Mason, Herbert. Gilgamesh A Verse Narrative. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2003.
Shakespeare, William. "The Tempest." Ed. Barbara A. Mowat & Paul Werstine. New York: Simon & Schuster Paperbacks, 1994.
Sutton, Brian. "Virtue Rather Than Vengeance": Genesis and Shakespeare's The Tempest." Explicator, Vol. 66, No. 4, 224-229.
Minor Characters and Themes
Minor characters in any play act as supporting foils and help to advance the plot. Without these foils, it would be impossible for the play to progress in the way that playwright has envisioned. Besides carrying the play forward, they also help in highlighting the major themes of the literary piece. In almost every piece of fiction, whether a play or short story or novel, we come across certain important minor characters that are minor because while they lend support to the plot, they are not directly influenced by the intentions of the author. The people who remain in the forefront and bear the brunt of all action are the major characters, and thus their in the story is obvious and needs little discussion. However it is the minor characters that need to be closely analyzed or discussed to see why they have been placed in…
An Analysis of Theme and Plot in Carver's "Cathedral"
Raymond Carver states that by the mid-1960s he had tired of reading and writing "long narrative fiction" ("On riting" 46). Shorter fiction, he found, was more immediate. Flannery O'Connor states a similar idea in The Habit of Being: for her, the novel was a literary medium that could bog down all of one's creative powers. Turning to a short story was a way of escape: "My novel is at an impasse. In fact it has been at one for as long as I can remember. Before Christmas I couldn't stand it any longer so I began a short story. It's like escaping from the penitentiary" (O'Connor 127). This mode of thought may help us to understand why Carver turned to composing shorter works of fiction like "Cathedral," a work that acts as a brief glimpse into how one man's…
Carver, Raymond. "Cathedral." 1983. Web. 25 Sept 2012.
Carver, Raymond. "On Writing." Mississippi Review, vol. 14, no. 1/2 (Winter, 1985), pp.
O'Connor, Flannery. The Habit of Being. NY, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux, 1979.
Yin and Yang in Literary Relationships
Yin and Yang in eastern philosophy constitute two parts of a whole. The one cannot exist without the other. They also represent perfect balance; if one dominates, the balance is disturbed and there is conflict. This idea can be applied to several literary relationships, including Adam and Eve from Milton's Paradise Lost and Gilgamesh and Enkidu from the epic Gilgamesh.
Adam and Eve
The Biblical Adam and Eve begin their lives in perfect wholeness and bliss. God makes them equal, they share everything and they lack nothing. Their love binds them in complete unity and balance. They are also bound together by their obedience and love for God.
The imbalance comes with the arrival of the snake. The snake tempts Eve away from what she knows is right. When she tempts Adam, there is an imbalance between the two of them and Adam attempts…
Beowulf experiences tough circumstances and because he does the right things, he emerges a hero and can live knowing he did the best he could. Here, responsibility leads to good works and, subsequently, a good life.
In "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight," we see Christian values displayed when Gawain accepts his responsibility in much the same way that Grendel does. hen examining the story of Sir Gawain, we cannot overlook the importance of chivalry, which is strongly associated with Christian ideals. Gawain maintain the knight's high ideals even when he under pressure. hen Gawain is traveling to the Green Chapel, he speaks with God, working out his own fear and uneasiness. The result of this conversation is a renewed sense of honor and a urgency to continue. Another example of how the poet intended Gawain to carry these ideals with him is in the pentangle, in which he describes…
Beowulf." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 31-78.
Everyman." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. Vol I.M.H. Abrams, ed. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 347-67.
Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." The Norton Anthology of English Literature. New York W.W. Norton and Company. 1986. pp. 233-87.
Conflict Themes in "Age of Innocence" by Edith Wharton
This paper looks at the Age of Innocence by Edith Wharton and discuses certain aspects within the novel, such as the central conflict themes, and the development of certain characters, this paper also looks at in brief the irony and symbolic nature of the time.
Sadly this realistic novel is book set all to well within society that existed then and in many ways exists today, society is in ruin when it is run in such a way as the elite status of the past, this will never end in any society it will only be obscured by the negative aspects of the different society needs.
Wharton E (1996) The Age of Innocence; Penguin Books; London
Imagery and Theme in Frost's "Out"
Robert Frost's "Out" may appear to be simple in its narrative, straightforwardly telling a story, yet its complex poetic style enables the reader to experience the tragic events that occur through a variety of poetic devices that Frost uses. The poem demonstrates the fickleness of fate and how some things are beyond an individual's control. In "Out," Frost explores the limitations that an individual has over how their life turns out through vivid imagery and its theme.
The poem tells the story of a young boy who accidentally had his hand cut off by a buzz saw and who subsequently died from the shock. "Out" highlights how quickly things can happen and how even a quick response may be futile. Frost establishes a narrative backdrop through imagery and onomatopoeia. For instance, the poem opens, "The buzz-saw snarled and rattled in the yard/And made dust…
Brendan Behan contributed much to the literary genre, though his literary achievements often are subordinate to his public recognition as a drunk, disorderly and often amusing or entertaining member of society. Many literary critics fail to recognize Behan for the serious contributions he made to writing, instead choosing to focus on the controversy that exists regarding his work ethic and personal habits.
This paper asserts however that Behan used his writing to voice his disagreement with the notion of cultural nationalism that existed during the time he lived in Ireland. Brannigan (2002) supports this notion claiming that Behan's writing in fact allowed him to "articulate dissident" and contributed to the emergence of revisionist and other critiques of nationalism (Brannigan, 2002).
This paper will also delve into the idea that Behan wrote from a strictly humanistic point, attempting to enlighten his audience with amusing anecdotes about human nature, sharing the notion…
Jasto, K. (2000). "Brendan Behan." [online] October 10, 2004, at http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/behan.htm
Silltoe, A. (1959, August). "Proletarian novelists. Books and Bookmen, 13; from Brannigan, J. (2002). "Belated Behan: Brendan Behan and the cultural politics of memory" Eire-Ireland: A Journal of Irish Studies.
.. They are neither man nor woman- They are neither brute nor human- They are Ghouls..."
Graham's (2003) analysis of "ells" show that Poe intentionally creates different categories of bells in order to illustrate the various emotional states individuals have had experienced in their life. She argues that the poem "not only...powerfully convey emotional effects to...readers, but also makes readers subconsciously convey those effects with facial expressions...," a characteristic found more strongly in Poe's depiction of the Iron and razen bells.
Indeed, through "ells," readers undergo what Poe identifies as 'excitements' that are "psychal necessity" or "transient." Emphasis on these point proves that shifts in emotions ultimately results to restlessness, instability of one's psyche, and ultimately, escape from this instability, which may be achieved by either succumbing to insanity or death. This is the natural state of the human mind that Poe provokes in his poem, a situation similar to…
Frank, F. (1997). The Poe Encyclopedia. Westport: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Graham, K. (2003). Poe's "The Bells." Explicator, Vol. 62, Issue 1.
Magill, F. (1998). Notable Poets. CA: Salem Press.
Magistrale, T. (2001). Student Companion to Edgar Allan Poe. Westport: Praeger.
Joseph Conrad and His Influence on British Literary History
Joseph Conrad was born in the Polish-dominated side of Ukraine in the year 1857, and was originally known as Jozef Teodor Konrad Nalecz Korzeniowski. He was at sea for twenty years, after which he became an author. He wrote in English, which was the language he learnt third. hat he went through while in Africa, the Caribbean and Southeast Asia, along with all the reading and the knowledge he had about Europe were the bases for his writing. He was listed as the top British author of the 20th Century (Larabee).
He was well-known as a sophisticated and subtle observer of the physical world and the behavior of humans. Conrad was also a renowned literary artist. He had many writings including memoirs, novels and short stories, which are still widely read and studied today. For example, his 1899 story, Heart of…
Encyclopedia Britannica. "Joseph Conrad: British Writer." Encyclopedia Britannica, 2016, https://www.britannica.com/biography/Joseph-Conrad . Accessed 23 August 2016.
Larabee, Mark. "Joseph Conrad." Oxford Bibliographies, 30 September 2013, http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/view/document/obo-9780199846719/obo-9780199846719-0089.xml . Accessed 23 August 2016.
In this reading, Dobyns' "Counterparts" is his statement of personal philosophy that argues the only way to reach the Apollonian ideals is to work with, and embrace, the Dionysian and thus create a whole, or a yin-yang. This practice of using the Dionysian in order to achieve the Apollonian is a common strategy used in Dobyns' poetry.
Likewise, poet Frank O'Hara also uses Apollonian themes in the majority of his works. Like Dobyns, Frank O'Hara is also an American poet. He is best known as being a key member of the New York School of poetry.
O'Hara is known for his ability to write provocative and provoking poetry that was composed immediately, sometime even over the time frame of a lunch break. Thus, both high and low brow cultural references are common in O'Hara's work, as they are in Dobyns'.
O'Hara was good friends and deeply inspired by numerous leading…
In fact, one of the principle facets of Moominpappa's character is to introduce didactic messages to his family, particularly to his children. Doing so is part of his job as a father and as the head of a household. Unfortunately, not all of his methods of teaching his family are as entertaining as his memoirs, as the following quotation from Moominpappa at Sea, in which he warns his family of the dangers of forest fires, proves.
He had warned the family. Time and time again he had explained how necessary it was to be careful in August. He had described the burning valley, the roar of the flames, the white-hot tree trunks, and the fire creeping along the ground underneath the moss. Blinding columns of flame flung upward against the night sky! aves of fire, rushing down the sides of the valley and on toward the sea… (Jansson).
Jansson, Tove. Moominpappa's Memoirs. London: Square Fish. 2010. Print.
Jansson, Tove. Moominpappa at Sea. London: Square Fish. 2010. Print.
Janson, Tove. Tales from Moominvalley. London: Square Fish. 2010. Print.
Blurring the Gap Between Fiction and eal Life
This is a paper that outlines how modern literature integrates personal experiences of the writers into works of fiction. It has 5 sources.
It is quite interesting to note the means by which eminent writers attract attention to their ideas and literary content. On closer examination, we may come to the conclusion that the means by which public attention may be grabbed has followed a definite pattern through the years. While writers like Shakespeare and his contemporaries used fiction to project their literary geniuses, modern day writers strive to catch the attention of the masses by presenting their own personal conflicts and tragedies to the public. The modern writer has lessened the gap between a literary piece of work and real life. However, literature in the classical period is known for its often unnatural and over-dramatized perspectives on life. Today, the stories…
Wright, Richard A., Black Boy, Perennial, September 1, 1998
Williams, Tennessee. The Glass Menagerie, New Directions Publishing; June 1999
Ward, Jerry, M. "Richard Wright-Black Boy," retrieved at http://www.newsreel.org/guides/richardw.htm . On April 2, 2004
King Thomas, L. Irony and distance in the Glass Menagerie in Tennessee Williams. Ed. Harold Bloom, New York: Chelsea house, 1987, 85-94
They have been together so long that they have to reason to leave each other now, but it is clear their lives are no longer satisfying or meaningful. It is good the narrator dies, because she has been dead for a long time anyway, she just will not admit it. She does not seem to have any compassion for Mary Alice either. She describes her cancer as matter of factly as she does her own death, just repeating the facts, but never empathizing with the pain and suffering Mary Alice must feel. Because she has no empathy, she has no real emotion, and that is another element of the story that points to the narrator already being dead inside. She is cold, hard, and not very sympathetic, and it is clear it has not been easy for Mary Alice to live with her. She is the "man" in the relationship,…
Sapphire. "The Grey Wolf." 53-56.
From the narrator of the story, the readers find out that Alcee's family was unconventional in that their living arrangements are peculiar, for his wife and children chose to live in another place instead of with him. In the same manner that Calixta becomes the unconventional mother and wife to Bibo and Bobinot, respectively, Alcee has also achieved freedom by agreeing to the peculiar arrangements of his family right after he has resumed relations with Calixta.
On a nutshell, Chopin extends the message that it is only through Calixta and Alcee's unconventional relationship that their respective families have achieved happiness not only for themselves, but for the characters as well. As a minor character of the story, the author has effectively reflected in Alcee's character every ideology and belief that society holds as deviant or unconventional: his agreement to live separately with his family and his commitment to re-establishing romantic…
Chopin, K. (1898). E-text of "The Storm." Available at http://www.geocities.com/short_stories_page/chopinstorm.html.
The evolution of mankind on all levels, and especially the new focus of the modern society on technology and material development, has brought about an estrangement from the spiritual life.
The new world offers "alternatives," as it were, to love, through a complexity of personal, both material and social developments, that seem to been able to replace or fill the spiritual needs.
Although men and women still interact what happens between them seems to be different from what was called love before, and it is often said that more and more isolation and solitude result from these interactions. The pressure of the material complex world and of the various social facts do not allow for the openness required by love. It can be said that the complexity of the modern society influence the emotional sates of the individual and make it impossible for him or her to return to the…
Abandonment in Shelley's Frankenstein and Bronte's Jane Eyre: a Comparison
Abandonment is a substantial theme in literature written by women. It appears in the poems of Emily Dickinson, in the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, and in the novels of the Bronte sisters -- uthering Heights and Jane Eyre. It is not a theme that is only addressed by women in literature, to be sure, but it is one that seems to be utilized most evocatively by them. This paper will provide a comparative analysis of two literary sources -- Shelley's Frankenstein and Bronte's Jane Eyre -- to show how abandonment can cause depression, deep emotions and despair, but how it can also open up new doors for an individual; it will show how unprofitable it can be and yet how beneficial to one's life it can also prove in the long run.
Jane Eyre is a romantic-gothic novel by…
Bronte, Charlotte. Jane Eyre. London: J. M. Dent, 1905. Print.
Linker, Damon. "Terrence Malick's profoundly Christian vision." The Week, 2016.
Web. 2 Apr 2016.
Macdonald, D. L.; Scherf, Kathleen, eds. Frankenstein: The 1818 version. NY:
Harlem Dancer" and "The eary Blues"
Times Change, but the Struggle is Still the Same
The Harlem Renaissance was a cultural and political movement during the 1920s and 1930s that sought to celebrate African-American culture through literary and intellectual means. Two of the era's prominent poets were Claude McKay and Langston Hughes. Their poetry helped to highlight the struggles that African-Americans were faced with. In "The Harlem Dancer," written by McKay, and "The eary Blues," written by Hughes, the poets use music as a backdrop for the narratives of their poems. Although the blues, as music, are not limited to African-Americans, the style emerged from the experiences of African-Americans. Furthermore, the Harlem Renaissance sought to celebrate these experiences by bringing together the struggles of past generations and juxtaposing them with the struggles that younger generations were going through. "The Harlem Dancer" and "The eary Blues" are depictions of the struggles…
"Claude McKay." Poets.org. Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.
Hughes, Langston. "The Weary Blues." Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.
"Langston Hughes." Poets.org. Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.
McKay, Claude. "The Harlem Dancer." Web. Accessed 2 April 2012.
FEMINIST THEMES IN ITI IHIMAERA'S HALE RIDER
The paper will present arguments to show the relative importance of the book "hale Rider" by Ihimaera. Its importance and possible impact on young girls will be discussed in the paper with special reference to the story of the book. After reading the book and after analyzing the story, the reader would know that the author wrote the book for his daughters. The paper will be technical and argumentative in nature. The paper will also provide a conclusion based on the findings and information.
Prolific Maori writer iti Ihimaera's early works were written with the intention of helping convey Maori heritage and legend to young urban Maori. Much of his fiction is based on fact and has autobiographical elements, exploring what it is to be Maori in New Zealand society. The hale Rider (1987), a mythical work about a young girl whose relationship…
As retrieved from Whale Rider
http://www.computersupply-reviews.com/amazon/cheap-B0000CABBW.html. On May 2nd, 2004
As retrieved from The Whale Rider Witi Ihimaera Harcourt Paperback 168 pages May 2003 http://www.curledup.com/whalerid.htm . On May 2nd, 2004
As retrieved from The Whale Rider
John Milton's Paradise Lost tells the story of Heaven and Hell both before and after Adam and Eve fell from grace. At the center of Milton epic poem is the story of the character of Satan, a being who has been sent to the underworld to live in agony forever after trying and failing to take over the control of Heaven from God. Satan will spend the rest of eternity amid the demons and monsters that live in what is now his realm. As he was punished for disobeying and daring to challenge God, so he wishes to damn all of God's creations in kind. Mankind is God's newest experiment and thus the subject of Satan's diabolical machinations. Before, God had made angels and other celestial beings that were extremely powerful and thus could pose a challenge to Him. ith man, God took a different position with his…
Anderson, Gary A. "The Fall of Satan in the Thought of St. Ephrem and John Milton." Hugoye:
Journal of Syriac Studies. 3:1. 2000. Print.
Benet, Diana Tevino. "Adam's Evil Conscience and Satan's Surrogate Fall." Milton Quarterly.
39:1. 2005. 2-15. Print.
The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn is perhaps the best example of Realism in literature because of how Twain presents it to us. Morality becomes something that Huck must be consider and think out as opposed to something forced down his throat. He knows the moral thing to do would be to report Jim, noting, " "People would call me a low down abolitionist and despise me for keeping mum -- but that don't make no difference. I ain't agoing to tell" (Twain 269). Furthermore, he cannot send Miss atson his letter he because his friendship with Jim trumps the morality he knows. Similarly, Jim wrestles with issues of good vs. bad. This is evident because of they way he decides to escape. He even begins to understand what Huck is going through when Huck does not turn him in. His revelation forces him to realize that Huck is "de bes'…
Crane, Stephen. Maggie, a Girl of the Streets. New York: Random House. 2001.
The Red Badge of Courage. New York: Aerie Books Ltd. 1986.
Steinbeck, John. Of Mice and Men and Cannery Row. New York: Penguin Books. 1986.
Clemens, Samuel. "The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn." The Heath Anthology of American Literature. Lauter, Paul, ed. Lexington D.C. Heath and Company. 1990.
In order to fully understand the religious element in this novel one firstly has to understand the meaning and function of magical realism in the book. This novel explores the foundations of religion and religious experience in an unconventional way through the use of the technique of magical realism. This style reduces the distance that we normally expect between the supernatural and the natural. In other words, the book explores the religious not as a dimension that is outside or beyond the human, but rather an intimate and integral part of human life and experience.
Therefore, we can conclude that the way this novel explores the area of religion and the spiritual is decidedly unconventional. It could also be argued that the view of religion in this book is more 'primitive' or vital and older than the formal and conventional religions of the modern world. This can be seen…
"Acts of God." Foreign Policy Mar. 2001: 14.
Johnson C. Religion in One Hundred Years of Solitude and The Lost Steps. November 21, 2009. 1998.
Johnston I. On Marquez's One Hundred Years of Solitude. November 20, 2009.
Harvey, Graham. Animism: Respecting the Living World. New York: Columbia University Press, 2006.
Booker Prize-winning novel Amsterdam by Ian Mcewan is not really about euthanasia per se; it is about the twisted relationships between the two main characters, Clive Linley, composer, and Vernon Halliday, newspaper editor. Deeply affected by the death of their mutual friend and lover Molly Lane, Clive and Vernon agree that if they should ever exhibit the symptoms of some deadly illness, that they agree to assist the other in euthanasia. Thus, the two friends initially start out by presenting a view of euthanasia that is strongly ethical; euthanasia is a meaningful and sometimes even necessary means to alleviate unnecessary suffering. After all, life is already filled with enough suffering. Extension of life by a matter of days, weeks, or even years does not necessarily equate with promoting the values inherent to a good quality of life.
As the events of the novel progress, however, Vernon and Clive demonstrate that…
McEwan, Ian. Amsterdam. New York: Anchor, 1999.
Okonkwo, the protagonist of Chinua Achebe’s novel Things Fall Apart, exemplifies the traits of a classic tragic hero. Determined to cling to the past and its out-dated traditions and social norms, Okonkwo uses violence to maintain his power and prestige in the community. As a result, he is a feared leader even more than an effective one. Through the character of Okonkwo and the setting of the Nigerian village, author Chinua Achebe shows how things fall apart when leaders resist change.
Things Fall Apart has several interrelated themes, the most notable of which is linked to the title. Okonkwo believes that in order to be an effective leader, he must use violence and aggression instead of methods that promote peace and collaboration. He understandably resists the colonial influences on his village, but fails to provide his fellow people with a viable alternative they can embrace. As a result of his…
changing because of advances in technology. How we communicate with each other has changed dramatically with the implementation of powerful and popular social media platforms, like Facebook. Today, both teams and adults spend a surprising amount of time on the social media sites. The question here is whether or not such activities can actually be a positive potential in regards to the growth of literacy and language development.
Social media is a trend that is only continuing to grow. It is used by most adolescents and young adults, who are still rolling in terms of their literacy and reading skills. This current dissertation aims to explore how we use and prevalence of social media can actually assist in developing literacy skills. As teenagers and young adults spend so much time on social media sites like Facebook, they are bombarded with visual and textual material. The current research was aiming to…
Ronda, Natalia Sinitskaya. (2011). Facing the Facebook challenge: Designing online social networking environments for literacy development. Graduate Programme in Language, Culture, and Teaching. York University.
The short stories "The hite Heron" by Sarah Orne Jewett and "The Story of an Hour" by Kate Chopin focus on strong and sensitive heroines who seek to forge some sort of path of autonomy in a world of men. It is without question that men control the worlds that these characters find themselves in, and each protagonist struggles to find some sort of autonomy within those worlds. Both stories depict the successful achievement of liberation from these masculine worlds by the heroines -- though the liberation occurs in dramatically different ways.
Sylvia in "The hite Heron" is accosted with the adult world of men when she encounters the hunter in the forest. However, she doesn't succumb her values to this strange and exciting world. If anything she becomes stronger for it. Sylvia becomes friendlier with the hunter, and he even provides her with a jack-knife as a…
Jewett, Sarah (2004). A White Heron. New York: Godine Publishers
Chopin, Kate (2010). Story of an Hour. New York: Harper Collins.
6). Beattie, like anyone else, was a product of her times.
She is also, again like anyone else, a product of her own individual circumstances. A further interpretation of the bowl as a symbol of the feminine finds a deeper connection between the circumstances of the fictional Andrea and the real-life Ann Beattie. Though she is not especially forthcoming with personal details, there are some facts with which a correlation can be drawn.
Though (presumably) happily married for many years, Ann Beattie and her husband have no children (Frost, par. 1). Again, she has not shared the reasons for this, nor would it be a reasonable question to pose to her. It is a significant fact to note, however, given the resemblance of the bowl to the female womb. Henningfield suggests an interpretation of the bowl, especially of the husband's turning away from it and Andrea's refusal to let him…
Beattie, Ann. "Janus." The Norton Introduction to Literature. Ed. Allison Booth, J. Paul Hunter, Kelly J. Mays. New York: Norton, 2005. 280-283.
Brent, Liz. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
Frost, Adam. "Beattie, Ann." Literature Online bibliography. Cambridge, 2002. ProQuest Information and Learning Company. 12 Mar. 2009. http://gateway.proquest.com/openurl-ctx_ver=Z39.88-2003&xri:pqil:res_ver=0.2&res_id=xri:lion-us&rft_id=xri:lion:ft:ref:BIO006220:0
Henningfield, Diane Andrews. "Overview of 'Janus.'" Short Stories for Students, Vol. 9, the Gale Group, 2000.
Literary realism, of course, focuses on the everyday cultural experience of everyday people who may, within their banal experience, do extraordinary things. The Postmodern movement, as a reaction to a number of 20th century trends, tends to be anti-establishment and looks for meanings hidden in the text, those meanings needing to be exposed and reflected through deconstructing that text (Perkins & Perkins, 2008).But what of the authors who tend to combine both genres -- those who are slightly anti-establishment, allow for deep contextual symbolism, but also find wonder in the everyday? Fortunately, that genre, and the combination of realism and postmodernism, has blossomed globally into a genre called magical realism. For the contemporary reader, magical realism is a genre in which magical, or some would say illogical, scenarios and events appear in a normal setting. The power of this genre seems to be the juxtaposition of the two elements --…
Faris, W. (2004). Ordinary Enchantments: Magical Realism and the Remystification
Of Narrative. Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University Press.
Humm, M. (2003). Modernist Women: Virginia Woolf, Vanessa Bell. Trenton, NJ:
Rose, P. 91986). Women of Letters: A Life of Virginia Woolf. New York: Routledge.
First, evil in Sleepy Hollow is more equating with a satirical view that, in this case, evil is a more benign humor, bumbling, caustic in disrupting the town, and, as it was in Ancient Greek and oman drama, simply more of an irritant than planned destruction. Focusing again on the time period, our first introduction to this theme is one of Dutch New York against Urban New England. The Dutch community is sylvan, nostalgically conceived, changeless, and an Eden for its inhabitants. Ichabod arrives as a Yankee whose spoiling of this Eden simply cannot be tolerated -- and even more, by marrying the daughter of a wealthy and high-ranking community member, becoming part of Eden himself. This simply could not happen to a community that is so "European in nature."
Sleepy Hollow, as a town is clearly Dutch, with Dutch values, culture, and mores, or for riving, "population, manners, and…
REFERENCES and WORKS CONSULTED
Albert, H. (2009). Life and Letters of Edgar Allen Poe, Volume 2. Biblio-Bazaar.
Burstein, A. (2007). The Original Knickerbocker: The Life of Washington Irving.
New York: Basic Books.
Irving. W. (1820). The Legend of Sleepy Hollow. Forgotten Books. Cited in:
Preacher and the Ancient Text
This was an extremely technical text which offers deeper insights for anyone who desires to have a deeper understanding of all biblical issues and literary themes. This is because this text is able to offer a more nuanced perspective of major biblical pillars in terms of their own historical and literary viewpoint, while interlacing it with strong theological content. One of the deeper insights that were gleaned from studying this text was the fact that this book offers a superb means of explaining some of these more intricate pillars.
One of the more lucid insights that were gained from studying this book was as a result of the fusion developed from the hermeneutics and homiletics and the holistic approach that was engaged in. All insights gain were as a result of the link that Greidanus is able to forge in regards to the different arenas…
Greidanus, S. (1988) The Modern Preacher and the Ancient Text. Eerdmans Publishing:
In comparing a number of literary elements in one story, Smith and Wiese (2006) contend that at times, when attempting to transform an old story into a modern multicultural version, cultural meanings of the original story may be lost. In turn, the literature does not subject the reader to another culture. For instance, in the story about the fisherman, that Smith and Wiese access, the plot remains similar plot, however, significant changes transform the reported intent to make the story multicultural. Changes included the fisherman's daughter's stated name, being changed from one common to her culture to Maha. Instead of God, as written in the original version, the reference notes "Allah." Other changes Smith and Wiese point out include:
& #8230;The admonition to retrieve the fish or "be sorry" instead of the threatened curse, the reference to the golden shoe as a sandal instead of a clog;
Anderson, Connie Wilson. (2006). Examining Historical Events through Children's Literature.
Multicultural Education. Caddo Gap Press. 2006. Retrieved May 03, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1P3-1229798181.html
Banned Book Quiz. (2009). Retrieved May 03, 2009 from http://www.shetland-library.gov.uk/documents/BannedBooksWBD09quiz.pdf
Bottigheimer, Ruth B. (2008). Stories of heaven and earth: Bible heroes in contemporary
Pride in Literature
As a universally human characteristic, pride plays an important part in world literary themes. However, pride can be defined and perceived differently, and the term also has many different definitions. For example, pride can refer to a dignified type of satisfaction, as comes from taking pride in one's work. More often in literature, though, pride is depicted in a negative light and is usually featured as a tragic flaw that, if not overcome, brings about the hero's downfall. Moreover, the implications and meaning of pride in literature has changed over the course of time. Pride was portrayed as a necessary but dangerous trait of powerful leaders in the ancient epics of Greece and Mesopotamia like Gilgamesh, the Iliad, and the Odyssey. The trait of pride reached a sort of thematic culmination in the Old English work Beowulf, in which the title character's pride contributes positively to his…
Poe's The Fall Of The House Of Usher
Of all the authors to employ use of the Gothic style in their poetry or prose, none mastered the craft more than Edgar Allen Poe. The classic American fiction writer specialized in fostering a unique sense of dread and terror for his readers by successfully using elements of the Gothic genre such as the grotesque, or distorted imagery and setting, mysterious circumstances and a slowly building and suspenseful pace. The short story which best displays Poe's use of Gothic literary themes is believed by many to be The Fall of the House of Usher, his hauntingly disturbing depiction of a man's descent into madness and the consequences that unbridled fear can ultimately have. Considered to be a masterpiece of Gothic prose, Poe's The Fall of the House of Usher touches on all of the centerpieces of the genre, including perfectly chosen diction…
Purple is the color of dusk and twilight, a time in-between day and night, night and day. As such, purple symbolizes transition and transformation. Color is often a mystical symbol for Dickinson in her poetry. Silver and gold make frequent appearances; Dickinson writes about "An everywhere of silver," whereas gold is used in relation to sunlight in "Nature, the gentlest mother." In "Nature rarer uses yellow," Dickinson admires the sparing use of the hue in the natural world. For Dickinson, each color conveys a mood or meaning; its appearance in nature is never arbitrary. Her liberal use of color imagery suggests a deep contemplation of color as an interface between the mundane and mystical worlds.
Spiritual themes in the poetry of Emily Dickinson usually centers on religious awakenings, revivalism, and on personal relationships with God. In "ill there really be a morning?" The narrator is a "little pilgrim" crying out…
All poems retrieved from Dickenson, Emily. "The Complete Poems." Online at Bartleby.com. Retrieved July 2, 2008 at http://www.bartleby.com/113/
Emily Dickinson." Biography from Poets.org. Retrieved July 2, 2008 at http://www.poets.org/poet.php/prmPID/155
Emily Dickinson." Retrieved July 2, 2008 at http://www.americanpoems.com/poets/emilydickinson
If they can change the fundamental beliefs of the tribe, then they can control the natives more easily: "The white man is very clever. He came quietly and peaceably with his religion. e were amused at his foolishness and allowed him to stay. Now he has won our brothers, and our clan can no longer act like one. He has put a knife on the things that held us together and we have fallen apart" (Achebe 152). Confronted with change, individual members of Ibo society react differently. Those who stand to gain from change -- the outcasts, the oppressed -- welcome it. Those who have risen to positions of authority by following the old way -- Okonkwo, for example -- resist change. The battle between the old and the new is highlighted by the arrival of Christian missionaries and colonial authority. Okonkwo and Obierika recognize that many of their clansmen…
1. Achebe, Chinua. Things Fall Apart. Anchor, 1994.
2. Conrad, Joseph. Heart of Darkness. Dover Publications, 1990.
3. Plato. "Apology." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
4. Plato. "Crito." The Collected Dialogues of Plato: Including the Letters. Princeton University Press, 2005.
Originally developed in 1989, the World Wide Web has fundamentally changed the way many people shop, work, recreate and receive an education. Likewise, the emergence of e-commerce has had enormous implications for the business world and governments alike, making this innovation one of the most significant in human history. Moreover, tens of millions of new Web pages are added to the World Wide Web every day, and current signs indicate this growth will continue to accelerate into the foreseeable future. One of the more important trends to emerge in recent years has been the use of the World Wide Web for social interaction in what has been termed the "Social Web." To gain a better understanding of the Social Web and its implications, this paper provides a review of the relevant literature, followed by a summary of the research and important findings in the conclusion.
eview and Discussion…
Alpert, J. & Hajaj, N. (2008, July 25). We knew the Web was big. The Official Google Blog.
Retrieved from http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2008/07/we-knew-web-was-big.html .
Anklam, P. (2007). Net work: A practical guide to creating and sustaining networks at work and in the world. Boston: Elsevier/Butterworth Heinemann.
Barnes, S. (2007). E-commerce and V-business: Digital enterprise in the twenty-first century.