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Lobbying does not have a particularly positive image in the United States, mainly because of its association with large banks and corporations, and subverting the legislative and regulatory process in favor of big business against the public interest. Lobbyists spent over a billion dollars a year at the federal level, which was more than money spent on campaign contributions. In 2009, the energy industry spent $450 million lobbying Congress and the finance, real estate and insurance industry $475 million (Wiener 2011). Academic economists and political scientists tend to be overwhelmingly negative about this type of lobbying and its effect on American democracy, and critical of rent-seeking industries, interest groups and politicians. On the other hand, the positive side of lobbying includes grassroots campaigns conducted by a wide variety of organizations, from Common Cause to the NAACP and National Organization for Woman to the Sierra Club and Environmental Defense Fund. While…
Austen-Smith, D. And J.R. Wright (1992). "Competitive Lobbying for a Legislator's Vote." Social Choice and Welfare. Vol. 9, July 1992, pp. 229-57.
Bennedsen, M. And S.E. Feldmann. (2002). "Lobbying Legislatures." Journal of Political Economy. Vol. 110, No. 4, pp. 919-48.
Besley, T. And S. Coate. (2001). "Lobbying and Welfare in a Representative Democracy." Review of Economic Studies. Vol. 68, pp. 67-82.
Debel, E., M. Jackson and A. Wolinsky. (2009). "Vote Buying: Legislatures and Lobbying." Quarterly Journal of Political Science. Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 103-28.
" (Tripathi, Ansolabehere, and Snyder, 2002)
Additionally, groups that place emphasis on lobbying tend to may more attention to the position of power that members hold inside Congress and pay less attention to the electoral circumstances of member than do other groups and as well groups that place emphasis on lobbying "also appear to be more bipartisan and less ideological than other groups, giving more equally to both parties and more broadly across the ideological spectrum." (Tripathi, Ansolabehere, and Snyder, 2002)
t was reported on December 11th 2008 in the work entitled: "Auto ndustry Bailout: House Members Voting 'Yes' Received 65% More from Auto ndustry nterest Groups than those Voting 'No'" that research had revealed that "over the past five years (January 2003-October 2008) auto manufacturers, auto dealers and labor unions gave an average of $74,100 in campaign contributions to each Representative voting in favor of the auto bailout, compared…
Biggest PAC Contributors Boost Spending (2009) Under the Influence -- National Journal 23 April 2009. Online available at: http://undertheinfluence.nationaljournal.com/2009/04/biggest-pac-contributors-boost.php
Lobbying for Federal Policy Change
EA Electronic Arts is a leading global interactive entertainment software company (Company Information, 2012). EA Electronic Arts develops, publishes, and distributes gaming software for Internet-connected consoles, personal computers, mobile phones, tablets, and social networks. They have a voluntary rating system to enable appropriate decision making for consumers and online privacy practices.
Federal fiscal policies affect EA Electronic Arts in respects to being a multinational organization responsible for foreign taxes on repatriated revenue from other countries and in respects to investments and investment credits it is allowed on a federal income tax return. The federal taxation rate is 39.2% for 2013 (Masters, 2012). U.S. have the highest tax rates in the world and coupled with complex tax subsidies and loopholes create a double flawed system. Multinational corporations are taxed on repatriated profits, after being taxed in other countries, which create burdens in business with compliance and…
Company Information. (2012). Retrieved from EA: http://www.ea.com/about
Masters, J. (2012, Apr 5). U.S. Corporate Tax Reform. Retrieved from Council on Foreign Relations: http://www.cfr.org/united-states/U.S.-corporate-tax-reform.p27860
Weil, D. (2008). Fiscal Policy. Retrieved from Library of Economics and Liberty: http://www.econlib.org/library/Enc/FiscalPolicy.html
Some of these organizations and firms need to adopt change because of immigration, demographic, outsourcing, and technological factors. An example of a field that needs some changes is the nursing profession due to changing nature of the workforce and the multicultural working environment.
The main thing I could change in the nursing profession is the ratio between nurses and patients as there are more patients than nurses. The reason for the change is necessitated by the changing nature of the nursing field as more nurses are required to attend to the increasing number of patients in order to improve patient outcome. The most appropriate plan for effecting the change would be Lewin's Three-Step Model i.e. unfreezing, movement, and refreezing (obbins & Judge, 2012). The plan would involve increasing the driving forces for changing the status quo such as creating awareness on the need for improved patient care through increasing the…
"Chapter 25: Lobbying Policymakers: Individual and Collective Strategies." (n.d.). Unit IV:
Policy and Politics in the Government. p. 747 -- 759.
Robbins, S.P. & Judge, T.A. (2012). Organizational Change and Stress Management. In Essentials of organizational behavior (11th ed., pp. 234-246). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Such a bill will be more costly for everyone involved, so the epublicans may also prefer the bill not be passed because they will want to save money. If they are also presented with petitions from consumers, they are likely to back off or fail to support measures taken by the FDA to promote labeling of high fat products. National Pizza must also realize that roughly 15% of economic activity (amsay 4) flows through the health sector, so the economic "stakes" of any policy that is changed or altered may be quite high (amsay 1995). The epublicans are not likely to enforce a bill that may have grave economic consequences on the economy. National Pizza can use this information to its benefit, by letting Congressman know through lobbying efforts just how detrimental to the economy labeling of food products as "high fat" may be.
National Pizza should then embark on…
Berry, Jeffrey M. The New Liberalism, the Rising Power of Citizen Groups. New York:
Brookings Institution, 1999.
Danaher, Kevin and Mark, John. Insurrection: Citizen Challenge to Corporate Power.
New York: Routledge, 2003.
Karen Ignagni, AHIP's president asserts that 77% of all Americans are satisfied with their health insurance coverage. However, the same June survey by the New York Times and CBS News cited by Ignagni also found that 72% of all Americans support the creation of a universal public option of insurance coverage. The public option is opposed by AHIP. Significantly, those who described their health as "excellent -- people who presumably had relatively little experience pursuing medical care or submitting claims -- were almost twice as likely as those in good, fair or poor health to rate their private health insurance as excellent" (Hilzenrath 2009, p1.).
By cleverly spinning such poll results, AHIP has been able to frighten even some moderate and conservative Democrats about their ability to be reelected. epublicans have tried to play a populist 'card' by crowing that their opposition to the Obama Administration's proposed reforms is the…
Adams, Rebecca. (2009, June 1). Harry and Louise: Bit players or lethal weapons?
CQ Politics. Retrieved February 28, 2010 at http://www.cqpolitics.com/wmspage.cfm?docID=news-000003131392
Andre, Claire & Manuel Velasquez. (2010). System overload: Pondering the ethics of America's health care system. Markula Center for Applied Ethics. Santa Clara University.
Retrieved February 28, 2010 at http://www.scu.edu/ethics/publications/iie/v3n3/system.html
Lobbyists in American Government
Lobbying is something that has been taking place for many years. People who have special interests and want to see specific things happen throughout the country often hire lawyers and others who have connections. These connected people will then argue for legislation - generally in Congress. The way lobbyists work can be easily misunderstood, and it is generally quite controversial. A large segment of the American public seems to be very concerned about how lobbyists operate and whether they have the best interests of the country at heart, or whether they are only concerned about the group or cause for which they are lobbying. However, there are many rules that lobbyists must follow. If they do not follow all of the appropriate rules they can be fined and even sent to jail (Clemens, 1997). Lobbying was determined to be free speech by the courts, so it…
Balogh, Brian "Mirrors of desires': Interest groups, elections, and the targeted style in twentieth-century America," in Meg Jacobs, William J. Novak, and Julian Zelizer, eds. The Democratic Experiment: New Directions in American Political Theory, (2003), 222 -- 49
Baumgartner, Frank R., and Beth L. Leech. Basic Interests: The Importance of Groups in Politics and in Political Science (1998), 64 -- 82
Clemens, Elisabeth S. The People's Lobby: Organizational Innovation and the Rise of Interest-Group Politics in the United States, 1890 -- 1925 (1997)
Loomis, Christopher M. "The Politics of Uncertainty: Lobbyists and Propaganda in Early Twentieth-Century America," Journal of Policy History Volume 21, Number 2 (2009)
Abbott Labs Lobbying ecommendations
Lobbying ecommendations for Abbott Labs
Fiscal policies by the Federal and State governments have a direct effect on the ability of Abbott Labs to remain in a growth position. As a member of the drug and medical device manufacturing market segment, health care & medical policies have the greatest impact on business. Abbott Labs includes lobbying funds as part of its annual budget. This is a prudent measure due to the direct impact that Health Care policy has on both revenues and profit from the lab. Lobbying money must be targeted towards issues that have a direct impact on Abbott's current and future product lines. The following outlines several suggestions for prudent use of Abbott's lobbying budget in the 2013 fiscal year.
Medicare Prescription Drug Savings and Choice Act of 2009
H.. 684 proposes to require the U.S. government to negotiate drug prices down for Medicare…
Keenan, J. (2012). Lobbying Expenditures Disclosure 2012 -- Abbott Laboratories. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from http://www.onlineethicalinvestor.org/eidb/wc.dll-eidbproc~reso~9978
Medicare Prescription Drug Savings and Choice Act of 2009. § H.R. 684. (2009). Retrieved
September 1, 2012 from http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z-c111:H.R.684:
White House. (2012), Policies to Contain Cost and Ensure Fiscal Sustainability. Retrieved September 1, 2012 from http://www.whitehouse.gov/health-care-meeting/proposal/whatsnew/cost-sustainability
The European Commission, the executive branch of the European Union, is responsible for proposing legislation and managing its implementation, provides the greatest admission to lobby groups via its Directorates General (DGs). DG's are distinct divisions, made up of Commission staff that is accountable for precise responsibilities or strategy areas. DG's often check with experts and interest groups when studying specific matters falling within EU jurisdiction. In 2008, the European Commission started a voluntary register of lobbyists who seek to pressure EU decision-making (Lobbying in the EU: An Overview, 2008).
The Council of the European Union, which is made up of the ministers of each Member State and is the chief decision-making body of the EU, is the least available of the main EU institutions in terms of lobbying. The Council preserves no register of lobbyists and refers contact with interest groups to the European Commission. Yet, national ministers regularly sustain…
Dedicated body needed to enforce EU waste law, European Commission study says. (2010).
Retreived from http://www.sofiaecho.com/2010/02/01/851107_dedicated-body-needed -
Dedicated EU body needed to ensure enforcement of European waste law. (2010). Retrieved
Many times the individual who desires to give natural childbirth simply is unable to do so because perhaps the baby is too large to move through the birth canal or labor has gone on as long as safety can allow. Ethics should guide both the midwife and the obstetrician in this area and that which is the domain of the midwife should not be crowded by shadowing of the obstetrician and likewise the midwife's ethical responsibilities demand that the midwife hand the client over to the obstetrician when medical safety thus demands. There are many political, socioeconomic, and ethical considerations that drive the focus of the groups that are examined in this study. The AMA and ACOG certainly are likely to feel threatened by the midwives organizations who advocate for childbirth that is free from the offerings of the medical doctors when possible. The offerings of the members of CFM…
Heimann, Margaret, Zoe (2009) a Midwife Unifying Cause: Inducing State Regulation of Midwifery through Grassroots Lobbying. American Public Health Association, 11 Nov 2009. Online available at: http://apha.confex.com/apha/137am/webprogram/Paper203186.html
Background Information about the AMA and ACOG (2009) Citizens for Midwifery. Online available at: http://cfmidwifery.org/pdf/Background%20information%20about%20the%20AMA%20&_%20ACOG%20FINAL.pdf
Hodges, Susan (2008) What Are Our Rights in Childbirth. CFM News Fall 2008. Online available at: http://cfmidwifery.org/pdf/What%20ARE%20our%20rights.pdf
Hodges, Susan (2009) 'Safety' in Childbirth: What Does This Mean? What is 'Safe' Enough?' Citizens for Midwifery. Online available at: http://cfmidwifery.org/pdf/SafetyinChildbirth2009cfm.pdf
Though there has been a requirement to disclose those contributions since January 1, 2008, over the past 18-month period, ending June 30, 2009, over $56 million has been given to organizations and events that honor lawmakers and administration officials (Roth & Knott, 2009). Many of the donations are questionable.
In 2008, Boeing donated $9.2 million, including support for the Johnstown Symphony concert honoring democrat John Murtha of Pennsylvania, who happens to be Chairman of the House Appropriations Subcommittee on Defense. Boeing won more than $24 billion in federal contracts in FY 2007. The House Committee on Standards of Official Conduct is reviewing Murtha's ties to the lobbying firm PMA which made the contribution and which secures defense earmarks from lawmakers (Roth & Knott, 2009, para. 2, 5-6).
Though many in Congress will point to the 2009 prosecution and conviction of lobbyist Jack Abramoff for fraud, tax evasion, and…
Bogardus, K. (2009, September 22). Bundling rule doesn't capture all the fundraising by lobbyists. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from thehill.com: http://thehill.com/business-a-lobbying/59851-bundling-rule-doesnt-capture-all-the-fundraising-by-lobbyists
Chaddock, G. (2007, August 1). Congressional lobby reform aims at disclosure. Retrieved October 4, 2009, from Christian Science Monitor: http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0801/p01s03-uspo.html
HSUS. (2008, May 15). Federal government documents show illegal American Egg Board interference with California anti-cruelty ballot initiative. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from Humane Society of the United States (HSUS): http://www.hsus.org/press_and_publications/press_releases/americaneggboard051508.html
Johnson, M. (2007, January 25). PACs help lobbyists bypass ethics laws. Retrieved October 6, 2009, from nclobbyreform.org: http://www.nclobbyreform.org/press/articles.php?id=593
The lobbyist Maureen Mulhall for example has an Internet presence by means of which she conducts her grassroots lobbying efforts, while also directly communicating with legislators in order to make necessary and effective changes to the legislation (IlOTA, 2010).
Advocacy in turn is a much more broad spectrum of activities, with a much broader focus than lobbying. Lobbying may form a part of the advocacy effort, but this is not necessarily the case. The IlOTA (2010) Website for example includes links to legislative issues that might respond well to advocacy efforts. Advocacy is also most effective when done on an ongoing basis, and over a period of time (Nursing-Informatics.com, 2010). For Occupational Therapy, advocacy could include such actions as placing regular articles in local newspapers that focus on health issues, feature stories regarding the assistance that Occupational Therapists provide to certain interest groups, and provide publications regarding the profession and…
eBasedTreatment.org. (2010). Advocacy vs. Lobbying. Retrieved from: http://www.ebasedtreatment.org/treatment/toolbox/advocacy/advocacy-versus-lobbying
IlOTA. (2010). Lobbying for OT Profession. Retrieved from: http://ilota.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=21&Itemid=36
Nursing-Informatics.com. (2010). Appendix I: What is the Advocacy Process? Retrieved from: http://www.nursing-informatics.com/N4111/LA12_appendix.pdf
This implies the need to identify each member and keep a track of his access to the company services.
The complete elimination of free rider possibilities by not creating any free services. This solution nevertheless is not sustainable from a marketing standpoint as it does not provide the prospective customers with the ability to test the company's services, and it as such does not raise consumer familiarity or interest.
The partial elimination of the free services with the division of a single service into an initial free part, and a paid continuation.
Based on the characteristics of each of the three alternative solutions, the final recommendation is that of providing demonstrative free services, which introduce the customer to the company's services and generate interest and demand. In other words, the third alternative should be selected.
d) Lobbying organization
By becoming a lobbying organization, the Sports Fan Coalition would gain an…
Berger, C., 2008, Strategic sports marketing -- the impact of sport advertising upon consumers: Adidas -- a case study, GRIN Verlag
Hall, R.L., Wayman, F.W., 1990, Buying time: moneyed interests and the mobilization of bias in congressional committees, the American Political Science Review, Vol. 84, No. 3
Wright, J.R., 1989, PAC contributions, lobbying and representation, the Journal of Politics, Vol. 51, No. 3
Yoho, J., 1995, Madison on the beneficial effects of interest groups: what was left unsaid in "federalist" 10, Polity, Vol. 27, No. 4
This functional definition underlies many academic definitions of 'lobbying,' if not the letter of Federal Election Commission reporting statutes. McGrath (2007) quotes what he calls "the most influential P text yet written" (269-70), Grunig and Hunt's 1984 assertion that "lobbyists attempt to focus attention on issues, facts and appeals that will lead to acceptance of their clients' point-of-view." Thomas and Hrebenar (2008) define 'lobbyist' as a "person designated by an interest or interest group to facilitate influencing public policy in that group's favor by performing one or more of the following for the group" which list includes monitoring governmental rulemaking activity, "advising on political strategies and tactics," direct contact with public officials, and managing the overall effort to affect policy outcomes (4). These authors expand these activities to "include decisions about who gets elected to make those policies," including representing "informal groups" not required to report more formalized lobbying expense…
Armour, S. (2012). Food safety official's past work for Monsanto spurs petition for ouster.
Sustainability, Bloomberg.com. 29 Feb. 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2012-02-29/food-safety-official-s-ties-to-monsanto-spur-petition-for-ouster.html
Barker, D. (n.d.). Biotech eggplant: Ignoring the resounding 'no.' Genewatch 23(1). Reprinted in Foundation for Biotechnology Awareness and Education (2008). Retrieved from http://fbae.org/2009/FBAE/website/false-propagand_biotech_eggplant.html
Carson, R. (1962). Silent spring. New York: Fawcett.
In traditional terms lobbying represents a democratic means of expressing the legitimate interest in a certain affair that is the matter of debate on the legislative forum. Groups of interests and businessmen have the right to support their interests and people with experience in Washington are more indicated to promote their cause. Still, there should be a stricter law of the lobbying activity, in which transparence and fairness should be a prerequisite condition for the activity of lobby.
alph eed is an important figure in the scandal, as he is an influential man in Georgia. According to reports, "His expertise as a campaign strategist is widely credited with helping in the election of Sen. Saxby Chambliss, putting Sonny Perdue in the governor's mansion, and allowing the epublicans to win control of the state senate for the first time since the days of econstruction." He even used his organization, the Christian…
American Atheists. Abramoff Cops, Washington Shakes -- Will Trail of Corruption & Influence Peddling Lead to Ralph Reed, Evangelicals. 2006. 14 December 2007 http://www.atheists.org/flash.line/reed1.htm
Birnbaum, Jeffrey "H. Going Left on K. Street. More Democrats Hired to Lobby Despite GOP Efforts to Shut Them Out." Washington Post. July 2, 2004. 14 December 2007. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21972-2004Jul1.html
United States Senate. Lobbying. 2007 14 December 2007. http://www.senate.gov/reference/reference_index_subjects/Lobbying_vrd.htm
Mayo Clinic Influences
When it comes to healthcare, it would be nice if economic and other exterior influences did not put pressure on things like quality of care and so forth. However, the propensity for politicians to squabble, the regulations and mandates that come through and the affordability dilemma that many people face, this is basically impossible with healthcare. While reputable and ethically rich organizations like the Mayo Clinic may try to stay away from this and they often do, they are certainly not immune to this phenomenon. Indeed, they have to worry about things like national and world economic issues, the sustainability of the current organizational care models, healthcare reform and the litany of healthcare regulations that are added, changed or even removed as the months and years go on. While the Mayo Clinic is at its own standard in many ways, there are still some issues and pitfalls…
Barnato, K. (2016). World economy on edge of recession: Citi. CNBC. Retrieved 2 August 2016, from http://www.cnbc.com/2016/01/21/world-economy-teetering-on-edge-of-recession-citis-buiter.html
Brooks, J. (2016). Mayo boosts lobbying as funding bill advances. Star Tribune. Retrieved 2 August 2016, from http://www.startribune.com/mayo-boosts-lobbying-as-funding-bill-advances/204209441/
Evans, M. (2012). Rebound in demand boosts Mayo Clinic balance sheet. Modern Healthcare. Retrieved from http://www.modernhealthcare.com / article/20120229/BLOGS01/302299999
Hiers, M. (2015). Mayo Clinic pushes for Medicare Reimbursement for Telemedicine.
etailer Comparison for Hobby Lobby & Michael's
Hobby Lobby and Michael's are two major competitors in crafting supply and arts and crafts. Michaels is the largest arts and craft retail chain. It currently operates more than 1040 Michaels Arts and Crafts Stores located in 49 U.S. states and in Canada (Marx, 2009). The average Michaels store now contains 40,000 different products in 18,200 square feet of selling space. The stores sell a selection of arts, crafts, framing, floral, wall decor, bakeware, beads, scrapbooking and seasonal merchandise for hobbyists and do-it-yourself home decorators.
Hobby Lobby is a privately held retail chain of arts and crafts stores based in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma with stores located across the U.S.A. A major competitor for Michaels, stores carry a variety of arts and crafts products, including scrapbooking, beading, knitting, rubber stamping, home decor items, floral items, kids' crafts, paints, framing, greenery, baking and many seasonal…
Green, D. (2009). A Matter of Principle. Chain Store Age, 85(6), 22-24.
Marx, P. (2009). MICHAEL'S. New Yorker, 85(42), 30.
Whitford, D. (2010). ONE FAMILY'S HOBBY. Fortune, 162(7), 69-72.
On the Hobby Lobby case, the First Amendment was challenged about whether it protected the religious beliefs of an employer when it comes to the decision not to pay for insurance meant for contraceptives. The Snyder vs. Phelps case was also related to religious picketing where the issue of sidewalk picketing was under the scrutiny of whether it was outrageous. The WBC church had held a picketing in a funeral and was found guilty of saying outrageous comments in a funeral. However, the Supreme Court of United States in an 8-1 decision argued that the church was constitutionally protected to say whatever they wanted as far as they did not affect the ceremony. It was established that they had avoided the ceremony and had not been involved directly in stopping the ceremony (Zipursky, 473).
The Supreme Court of the United States favored Hobby Lobby in its ruling asserting that under…
The tiled area leads directly to the door to the swimming pool. The first isle of lockers provides only small lockers so that members who are just leaving bags and not changing do not have to occupy large lockers or contribute to locker room congestion during peak hours.
Juice and Protein Bar
The Juice and Protein Bar is square-shaped so that it can provide service on all four sides and to members and guests simultaneously without requiring guests to enter the member-only areas to make bar purchases. It is also has redundancy of equipment designed into it so that bar employees have access to refrigerators and stock from all points to minimize cross-traffic behind the bar during peak hours.
Staff Desks and Offices
The third wall of the waiting area is bordered by a line of glass-walled membership consultant/sales offices to facilitate easy access and introductions between prospective members/guests and…
' (EurActiv 2008)
'The traffic light Scheme was shown to be the most effective of by the FSA. hat they also discovered was that consumers wanted product labeling; they liked separate information on 4 key nutrients that include fats, carbohydrates, proteins and salts and sugars.' (EurActiv, 2010) Consumers found traffic color coding easy to understand and use. As a result they wanted numerical information on amount of nutrients in a serving. However they found GDA percentage rather confusing. Also the importance of making nutrition and ingredient labeling mandatory on wines, beers and spirits and having a consistent mandatory labeling system with color codes was emphasized by the NGOs representing different areas of health at the hearing. These products could not be eliminated from the labeling because they were part of the foods that contributed to obesity.
At the public hearing on efficient food, (Public Hearing on Efficient foods, 2011) Mr.…
DN Sanco, (2011) European Vegetarian and Animal News Alliance (EVANA): Renewed Commitment of stakeholders to Combat Overweight and Obesity Related Health Issues Brussels, Belgium
European Public Health Alliance, (2011) putting citizens' health at the heart of Europe, Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from www.epha.org/a/3107
EurActiv, (2008) European Food Safety Authority: Food industry, food labeling Retrieved from http://www.euractiv.com/en/cap/smes-hit-cost-eu-food-labelling-proposals/article-174970
EurActiv, (2011) Europe Urged to recognize Chronic Obesity Brussels, Belgium: Retrieved from http: / www / euractiv.com.en/health / Europe
Second, by partnering with airlines, the hospitality providers can also increase lifetime customer value and also work to attain customer loyalty. Third, the integration of systems and processes that makes kiosks possible help legacy hospitality systems to be much more transaction-oriented. This is critical as it gives hospitality providers the opportunity to serve customers in real-time through an automated interface supported by the airlines. The level of adoption and trust from kiosks and their integration, roll-out and services strategy are critical for driving up customer lifetime value over the long-term for both airlines and hospitality providers.
Carolyn Bigda (2003, November). Three ways to speed your travel. Money, 32(12), 170. etrieved October 15, 2008, from ABI/INFOM Global database. (Document ID: 437544081).
Annalise Bomenblit (2002, October). Delta starts online checkin in NYC. Business Travel News, 19(20), 6. etrieved October 12, 2008, from ABI/INFOM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 279028441).
Carolyn Bigda (2003, November). Three ways to speed your travel. Money, 32(12), 170. Retrieved October 15, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 437544081).
Annalise Bomenblit (2002, October). Delta starts online checkin in NYC. Business Travel News, 19(20), 6. Retrieved October 12, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Trade & Industry database. (Document ID: 279028441).
Christopher D. Kirkpatrick (7 March). Behind the kiosk chaos: Airline's woes ascribed to humans, not popular retail machines. Knight Ridder Tribune Business News,1. Retrieved October 11, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Dateline database. (Document ID: 1228245141).
Hisashi Kurata, Carolyn M. Bonifield. (2007). How customisation of pricing and item availability information can improve e-commerce performance. Journal of Revenue and Pricing Management, 5(4), 305-314. Retrieved October 12, 2008, from ABI/INFORM Global database. (Document ID: 1216894091).
Door Policy -- Literature Review Extension
Revolving Door Members (2011). irst Street -- Where People and Policy Interact. Retrieved http://firststreet.cqpress.com/content/Revolving_Door_Members.aspx
This intelligence tool follows members of Congress who go through the Revolving door. The members of Congress who have disclosed their lobbying activity and members of Congress who previously worked as lobbyists are tracked in the irst Street database. The information contained includes the organizations they represent, the type of work that they have done and are presently doing. Subscribers to this database include advocates from law firms, member-based associations, lobbying organizations, and others. The research dashboard can be customized and saved, contact lists can be established, and bookmarks can be created for people, issues, and organizations of interest. The resource is comprehensive and is of value for anyone needing to do serious research. or the purposes of this project, the site is useful for demonstrations of the…
Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 15 / Monday, January 26, 2009 / Presidential Documents 4673
Executive Order 13490 of January 21, 2009
This document of the Ethics Commitment by Executive Branch Personnel, outlines the Ethics Pledge, which every appointee in every executive agency must sign and agree to, the Lobbyist Gift Ban, the Revolving Door Ban for all appointees entering government, for all lobbyists entering government, and for all appointees leaving government to lobby, the Employee Qualifications Commitment, and the Assent to Enforcement. This Presidential Order is important as it expresses the regulations regarding conflict of interest in plain language that can easily be understood and remembered by all parties to whom it applies, and it ensures that all parties have read and
Each of these was included in the initial Senate bill, but was struck from the final Senate version. Despite the victories, the group isn't ready to pledge support for health reform bills. The AMA will not endorse any legislation unless Congress gets rid of the mandated payment cuts of more than $200 billion over 10 years in the government's Medicare program for the elderly. The cuts are part of Congressional action that was passed in 1997 in order to cut costs in the Medicare program, but have never gone into effect. There are also several hospitals, insurers, pharmaceutical manufacturers and advocacy groups that are withholding final support. Most of these groups have pledged support to health care reform in principle while working privately through lobbyists to protect their industries (Eaton and Pell, 2010).
Healthcare lobbyists range from very large companies and corporations to very small groups who are all looking…
BREAKING: Health care lobby invests in reform summit. (2010). Retrieved March 1, 2010, from Citizens for Responsibility and Ethics in Washington Web site:
Eaton, Joe and Pell, M.B. (2010). Lobbyists Swarm Capitol to Influence Health Reform.
Retrieved March 1, 2010, from the Center for Public Integrity Web site:
As a paid lobbyist of FedEx, I would like to see the government encourage more global trade. There are two reasons for this. The first is that global air trade is one of my company's most profitable services, and the other is that our revenues are tied closely to the state of the global economy. Trade agreements are a form of trade policy that enjoy broad Congressional support and are easier to implement than spending-related fiscal policy or monetary policy. Chiff.com (2012) notes that lobbying is the "process of petitioning the government to intervene in special causes. Aside from broad trade-related issues, FedEx could benefit from its ongoing classification as an airline, something that gives it special privileges compared with UPS, especially with respect to labor freedoms. Maintaining this flexibility and cost advantage helps FedEx and its competitors are trying to undermine this advantage.
Shalal-Esa (2009) notes that there…
Chiff.com. (2012). What is lobbying? Chiff.com. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.chiff.com/society/lobby.htm
No author. (2008). This house believes that elected representatives should not hold any additional posts while serving in government. IDEA Beta. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://idebate.org/debatabase/debates/constitutional-governance/house-believes-elected-representatives-should-not-hold-second-jobs
Shalal-Esa, A. (2009). How many lobbyists are there in Washington? Reuters. Retrieved June 9, 2012 from http://www.reuters.com/article/2009/09/13/obama-lobbying-idUSN1348032520090913
Social workers often have commitments to specific policies, laws, or funding of programs that are vital to the population they serve or an issue that they strongly support. Such commitments often lead social workers to become involved in political issues and the campaigns of specific candidates. Being a social worker, such campaign experiences, the outcomes of your efforts, and how effective you felt you were may affect your view of the political process and the likelihood of becoming involved in similar campaigns in the future. Social workers' involvement in political advocacy is usually influenced by the impact of politics on social work practice. Through advocacy and lobbying in the political arena, social workers seek to promote changes in legislation and policy to enhance social conditions and promote social justice towards meeting basic human needs. In essence, social workers' participation in political advocacy is geared towards protecting individuals' rights and enhancing…
In a democratic system, whose underlying foundation is a philosophy of independence and equal representation, giving somebody the power to buy political power or interest is unethical. For this reason, must governing boards have codes of ethics that specifically prohibit bribery.
The mayor's proposed plan to lure tourism to igtown is akin to the illegal bribery committed by the SLOC. In other words, what the mayor proposes is to give convention planners government contracts for coming to igtown, which is essentially giving the planners political power not available to the city's citizens. According to the governing rules, this form of political bribery is illegal. If the mayor does go through with this plan, he could be punished with such actions as fines or an impeachment from his position.
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt…
15 United States Code Sec. 78. (2006): The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.
Longman, Jere. (1999): "Olympics: 2 Officials Quit in Salt Lake City as Olympic Scandal Details Grow." New York Times.
The contact between the two groups is not always straight forward, and is often fought officially, through judicial practices, and unofficially, through dubious backstage arrangements and activities. However, there is also a legal manner through which interest groups have been given the right to influence political decisions and the laws voted upon. Lobbying is one such activity.
Although lobbyists are the subject of heated debate, as many citizens consider them to be just "wheeler-dealers continually wining and dining public officials in order to secure political favors at the expense of the general public" (Volkomer 282), their main function is to supply "information about their specialized interests to a few select public officials, communicating with members and others who are concerned with their problem" (283). However their role is rather interpretable. On the one hand, they represent the interests of a certain segment of the population, such as farmers, or railway…
Janda, Kenneth, Jeffrey Berry, and Jerry Goldman. The challenge of democracy: government in America. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1989.
Jewell Malcolm E, and David M. Olson. American state political parties and elections. Homewoo: The Dorsey Press, 1982.
Volkomer, Walter E.. American government. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts,1972.
AT&T's code of ethics can be found on its ATT.com website (2014). The code exists in accordance with the requirements of the Securities and Exchange Commission, according to the company. The code contains nine items: honest and ethical conduct, conflicts of interest, disclosure, compliance, reporting and accountability, corporate opportunities, confidentiality, fair dealing and protection and proper use of company assets. Under each category, the company explains its policies. Under "honest and ethical conduct," AT&T says it will "act with integrity," using a synonym to make a redundant statement. It also says it will "observe both the form and spirit of laws and government rules and regulations," which is the same as line IV, compliance. It will "adhere to a high standard of business ethics," another redundant statement, and without defining "high standard."
The company rather curiously defines "conflict of interest:" as arising when a personal interest interferes…
A&T Code of Conduct. (2014). Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.att.com/gen/investor-relations?pid=5595
AT&T (2013) AT&T global supplier diversity. AT&T. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.att.com/gen/corporate-citizenship?pid=17724
Holmes, A. (2014). AT&T buoyed in lobbying push against spectrum auction limits. Center for Public Integrity. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from www.publicintegrity.org/2014/01/07/14081/att-buoyed-lobbying-push-against-spectrum-auction-limits
Saint Louis University. (2013). $1 million AT&T contribution to support global education initiatives. Saint Louis University. Retrieved February 18, 2014 from http://www.slu.edu/x87581.xml
AT&T STANDARDS AND Business
Global business environment is an environment within different sovereign countries and exogenous factors to the home of an organization influence the process of making decisions when it comes to the use of resources and capabilities. These include political, social, economic, legal, cultural, tax, regulatory and technological environments.
Global business environment is an environment within different sovereign countries whereby factors that are exogenous to the home environment of a particular organization have an influence on the process of making decisions when it comes to the use of resources and capabilities. These include political, social, economic, legal, cultural, tax, regulatory and technological environments.
Challenges to global business environment
Unethical business practices,
Failure to embrace technology advancements.
Stiff competition among the businesses.
Unethical business practices exist due to the lack of established ethical code of conduct within an organization
There are serious challenges on the global business environment which…
Hershey's is a listed company. Its products are sold in Hershey's own retail stores, but also in most store chains. In addition to this, the company develops several partnerships with suppliers.
Some of the most important issues in the company's code of ethical conduct that ensure its success are represented by promoting diversity, producing products consumers can trust, and dealing fairly within the marketplace. In order to benefit from productive employees it is important to develop a cultural environment that sustains their productivity (Hershey's, 2012). One of the most efficient ways to reach this objective is to promote workplace diversity. This ensures that all issues are viewed from different points-of-view, and that different solutions can be determined. It also ensures that employees can improve their skills of anticipating situations that can affect the company's activity.
Producing products consumers can trust is one of the most important issues that…
4. Corporate Social Responsibility Report (2014). Hershey's. Retrieved July 6, 2014 from http://www.thehersheycompany.com/social-responsibility/shared-goodness/pdfs/2013_THC_CSR_140505_V6_TR.pdf .
5. The Hershey Company (2012). Industry Today. Retrieved July 6, 2014 from http://industrytoday.com/article_view.asp?ArticleID=FDQ_F23_hershey.
6. Hostetter, C. (2004). Sugar Allies: How Hershey and Coca Cola Used Government Contracts and Sugar Exemptions To Elude Sugar Rationing Regulations.
If there is no control of outsourcing, companies will simply be able to use the cheapest parts and the cheapest labor possible, import goods into the U.S. that were made somewhere else, and not have to worry about quality standards. Governmental regulations exist to protect consumers when it comes to issues such as quality, and the best way to protect consumers with those kinds of regulations is to ensure that companies do not use inferior parts or sell inferior goods that could potentially be dangerous. These goods could be made in the United States, but they are most often created in India and China. That is why the government is targeting outsourcing, and specifically targeting the outsourcing of products to those particular countries. Too much governmental regulation is intrusive to the American people and bad for business, but there must be enough regulation to ensure that the people are being…
Barrera, A. 2004. Fair exchange: who benefits from outsourcing? The Christian Century.
Pagach, D. 2004. Outsourcing at your own risk: before outsourcing any process of function, it's essential to assess the risks enterprise-wide. Strategic Finance.
President Bush came into the hite House with a history as a 'tort reformer.' True to his record, the President backed a 'tort reform' bill last year that was passed by the House of Representatives but floundered in a Democratic controlled Senate. The President has recently renewed his call for the legislature to approve a tort reform bill that relates mainly to medical malpractice. It remains to be seen whether President Bush is successful in getting his proposals approved this time around as debate still rages among the supporters and opponents of the reform bill. This paper looks at the pros and cons of the issue and includes the following:
summary of the proposed public policy on tort reform
The impact of the policy (who shall be affected?)
The lobbying efforts in favor of and against the tort reforms
The present tort reform proposal is restricted to…
Horowitz, Michael. "Can Tort Law Be Ethical? A proposal to curb ill-gotten gains." Hudson Institute. First published in the Weekly Standard March 31, 2001. May 18, 2003. http://www.hudson.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=publication_details&id=810
HR 5: A cruel Proposal in Congress." Center for Justice and Democracy. N.d. May 18, 2003. http://centerjd.org/HR5.doc.pdf
President Announces Framework to Modernize and Improve Medicare." White House Press Release. March 4, 2003. White House Web Site. http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030304-5.html
Sebok, Anthony J. "Can an HMO Be Sued For Medical Malpractice Based on Its Coverage Decisions?: A Recent Federal Appeals Case Says Yes." February, 27, 2003. FindLaw Website. May 18, 2003. http://writ.corporate.findlaw.com/sebok/20030227.html
Newspapers frequently feature stories democratic principles processes contribute democratic governance impact a wide variety issues ranging distribution flu vaccines legal venue terrorist trials. Public policies formulated address issues result influence application democratic principles processes.
Public policy issue: Healthcare reform
The issue of healthcare
Healthcare is an extremely complex, bureaucratic public policy issue. However, it is also very emotional for many Americans given healthcare encompasses the 'hot button' issues of physical health and spending large amounts of money. The recent debate over the Affordable Care Act is only one of many national 'conversations' about healthcare that has resulted in partisan divisions even within families.
Democratic principle 1: Autonomy
Perhaps the most controversial aspect of the ACA is the individual mandate, which states that all Americans must have health insurance or pay a penalty unless this will cause them undue hardship. Many conservatives bridle at the fact that they are being 'compelled'…
Belvedere, M. (2013). Truth about Obamacare? Mandate wasn't needed. CNBC. Retrieved:
Nelson, S. (2013). Colin Powell endorses single-payer health care. U.S. News and World Report.
products or service of your chosen organization, and two (2) key factors in the organization's external environment that can affect its success. Provide explanation to support the rationale.
De Beers is the world's famous diamond company, established in 1888, with proficiency in exploration, mining and marketing of diamonds. More than 20,000 employees make contribution to the communities in which we work. De Beers carries out profitable business which helps the government reach their aims of turning natural resources into natural wealth and is working to provide good long-term development for Africa. Anglo American and the Government of the epublic of Botswana are the two shareholders of De Beers, 85% and 15% respectively. This company is made up of fully owned partnerships, investments and subsidiaries. It is involved in most of the diamond chain value such as exploration in four continents, mining in Namibia, Canada, South Africa and Botswana; valuation, arrangement,…
Austin JE (2000) The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Baker, R (2010). Pepsi Reveals Sustainable Business Plan', Marketing Week U.K., 19 October. Available from: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/sectors/sustainability/pepsico-reveals-sustainable-businessplan/3019459.article
Barkay, T. (2013). When Business and Community Meet: A Case Study of Coca-Cola. Critical Sociology, 39: 277.
Bieri1, F. And Boli, J. (2011). Trading Diamonds Responsibly: Institutional Explanations for Corporate Social Responsibility. Eastern Sociological Society.
In the discussion of cultural forces, we identified 10 fundamental person values that are often listed by individuals as central to them and the American culture. How would you rank these values in terms of their relative importance to you? What was the basis for your selection of the top three ranked values?
Ethics help in defining proper and improper behavior and these set of standards show what comportment is tolerable and intolerable. A few characterizations of proper and improper may be contingent on the viewpoint deliberating matters of principle. 4 essential forces affect ethical conduct of persons and administrations: culture, lawful and supervisory, structural and singular. To begin with, cultural values tend to become the mainstay of ethical decision-making and comportment.
Normally, persons change their beliefs to their life conditions. They promote the significance they attribute to beliefs they can freely achieve and relegate the significance of…
(2009). Retrieved from mathermerketing.com: http://www.mathermarketing.co.uk/how-not-to-go-it-alone/some-examples-of-joint-ventures.php
Adeel, A. (2012). Ethical Communication in an Organization. Islamabad: Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences.
Amadeo, K. (2011). Trade Policy. Retrieved from USeconomy.com: http://useconomy.about.com/od/tradeterms/g/Foreign-Direct-Investment-FDI-Definition.htm
Blagdon, J. (2013, March 06). Retrieved from The Verge: http://www.theverge.com/2013/3/6/4073354/samsung-boosts-lobbying-spend-by-500-percent-in-2012
On the subject of shareholders and adverse publicity, in the book Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance, the authors mention how much investors / shareholders "hate" surprises, in particular when the surprises are caused by the "unethical behavior of senior managers…" (Zimmerli, et al., 2007, p. 155). In today's mass media environment it is a sure thing that some blogger, local newspaper reporter or national cable news talking head is going to find out that company X has hired a lobbying firm to basically bust the competition. hen this story hits the 24-hour news cycle -- and the media today is extremely competitive, so it is a given that several media outlets will dig deeper into the story and be less than objective in their reports -- the shareholders will be hit with the surprise they did not want to be hit with.
An embarrassing public relations disaster like this…
Baglini, Norman a. (2001). Ethical Behavior, Corporate Culture and Financial Services. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance, 26(3), 367-372.
Zimmerli, Walther Christoph, Zimmerli, Walther C., Richter, Klaus, and Holzinger, Markus.
(2007). Corporate Ethics and Corporate Governance. New York: Springer.
To protect themselves, many Americans chose to avoid working with or becoming friends with those who immigrated. A lack of trust permeated everything that the Americans did in regards to the immigrants, at least with the men. This was not always true of the women, as they often got along together and shared the trials and difficulties of raising families. However, many men who owned shops and stores would not hire an immigrant laborer (Glazer, 1998).
They believed that immigrants took jobs away from people in the U.S., and they did not want to catch any diseases that these immigrants might have brought with them. The general attitude during this time period was that immigrants were so different from Americans that they could never mesh into one society, but that attitude has obviously changed, as today America is a mix of all kinds of people (Glazer, 1998; Sowell, 1997).
13 MEXUS 45, P52
21 BYE J. Pub. L. 153 P. 157
U.S.C. Section 1101(a)(15)(F)(i) (2006
U.S.C. Section 1184(g)(1)(a)(i) (2000
Convincing Others Needs 1-2 pages long.
In all actuality, neither Alan Ehrenhalt nor Barbara Dority are exceedingly convincing in their arguments posed in the "The Misguided Zeal of the Privacy Lobby" and "Halt and Show Your Papers!," respectively. Ehrenhalt's conviction largely banks on widely rambling generalizations, while Dority's essay is littered with too many illogical conclusions or, conclusions which may in fact be logical, but for which the evidence that makes them so is not presented and leaves the reader wondering as to how certain effects may be produced from the causes the author mentions. To that end, then, Ehrenhalt's essay is the least illogical, and therefore by default the most convincing.
An example of one of the numerous generalities that Ehrenhalt utilizes throughout "The Misguided Zeal of the Privacy Lobby" can be found near its conclusion, when he is trying to discredit the perceived threat to privacy…
Ehrenhalt, Alan. "The Misguided Zeal of the Privacy Lobby."
Dority, Barbara "Halt and Show Your Papers!"
Zionism is even being identified with Christianity, with evangelicals uniting themselves to Israeli interests. Need we remind ourselves that Zionism is a politico-religious belief that is diametrically opposed to Christian values? The post-war propaganda that followed II even helped obliterate the notion of Jesus Christ as Holocaust and replace it with the Shoah, the Jewish holocaust. At the heart of Zionism is the eradication of Christian culture and the elevation of Zionist policies like the one currently being enacted on the Gaza Strip. Israel is an apartheid state and has been murdering Palestinians for years -- and now it has convinced millions of Christians and evangelicals that they must destroy the Arab before he destroys them. hat kind of value is this? It is a diabolical one.
Refusing to embrace diplomacy also undermines our prosperity. Rather than attacking and occupying countries in the Middle East, we should be working with…
Anders, Chris. "Senators Demand the Military Lock Up of American Citizens." ACLU.
23 Nov 2011. Web. 13 Feb 2012.
Buchanan, Patrick. "Why Are We Baiting the Bear?" 23 Aug 2011.
Corbett, James. "9/11: A Conspiracy Theory." Corbett Report. 11 Sep 2011. Web. 13
Fault: An Alternative to the Current Tort-Based System in England and Wales
The United Kingdom
statistics regarding claims
THE NATIONAL HEALTH SYSTEM
OBSTACLES TO DUE PROCESS
THE CASE FOR REFORM
THE REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT
THE RISING COST OF LITIGATION
LORD WOOLF'S REFORMS
MORE COST CONTROLS
THE UNITED STATES
THE INSURANCE INDUSTRY
TORT REFORM IN AMERICA
STATISTICS FOR ERROR, INJURY AND DEATH
THE CALL FOR REFORM IN 2003: A FAMILIAR REFRAIN
THE UNITED STATES SITUATION, IN SUMMARY
NEW ZEALAND CASE STUDIES
THE SWEDISH SCHEME
COMPARISON: WHICH SYSTEM IS BETTER?
FIRST: UNDERLYING DIFFERENCES
TALKING TORT: AMERICAN PECULIARITIES
AMERICANS CONSIDER NO-FAULT
BRITAIN CONSIDERS NO-FAULT
Appendix A THE UNITED KINGDOM
At issue is the economic effectiveness of tort law in the common law legal system of England and Wales, as applied to medical and clinical negligence and malpractice cases. In response to economic concerns and a continual…
AH&LA: ecent Lobbying Initiative
The American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) is a lobbying group which supports the interests of the hotel industry in congress as well as provides educational and professional resources for members. Networking is a critical aspect of surviving in hospitality and AH&LA offers numerous conferences throughout the year, during which its members can "exchange ideas, strategies, and contacts with industry leaders" as well as with one another ("Conventions and events," 2015). The AH&LA has supported a number of recent acts of legislation to protect the industry including the ADA Education and eform Act of 2015, H.. 3765.
According to the AH&LA, the ADA Education and eform Act of 2015, H.. 3765 addresses what it calls the "unseemly practice of 'drive-by' lawsuits ... by specifying clear, unambiguous rules for identifying and correcting ADA access violations before allowing litigation or a drawn-out settlement process" ("AH&LA applauds," 2015). The…
AH&LA applauds House introduction of legislation to strengthen the ADA, Stop 'drive-by'
lawsuits. (2015). AH&LA. Retrieved from: https://www.ahla.com/pressrelease.aspx?id=38348
Conventions and events. (2015). AH&LA. Retrieved from:
Peter Baker, "As Oil Slips Away, So Do Chances for Obama," New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/us/politics/03memo.html?scp=3&sq=obama health care plan&st=cse
Robert Pear, "Health Insurance Companies Try to Shape Rules," New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/16/health/policy/16health.html
Robert Pear, "Study Points to Health Law's Penalties," New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/05/24/health/policy/24health.html?scp=6&sq=congress%20health%20care%20may%202010&st=cse http://krugman.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/07/28/why-americans-hate-single-payer-insurance/?scp=7&sq=health%20care%20the%20single%20payer%20issue&st=cse
Peter Baker, "As Oil Slips Away, So Do Chances for Obama," New York Times, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/06/03/us/politics/03memo.html?scp=3&sq=obama health care plan&st=cse
The ultimate House vote was two hundred and twenty to two hundred and seven. The senate vote was fifty three to forty three. The republicans were collectively opposed in both chambers (3 June 2010, 3).
The Future of the Health Care ill
Subsequent to disagreements as political enemies for more than a year, the Obama administration and the health insurance industry realized that they require one another.
oth have huge stakes in the success of the new health care law (14 May 2010, 1)
The political destiny of President Obama and Congressional Democrats rely on their capability to interpret it's assurance into realism for voters. This can be attained by restraining health expenses and making insurance accessible to everybody at reasonable price. Similarly, the fiscal future, in fact the continued existence, of the health insurance industry relies on the government. That is on set of laws being written by federal…
1. "Critics Question Study Cited in Health Debate, " New York Times, 2 June 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
2. "Health Reforms," New York Times, 26 March 2010, sec. a, p. 1.
3. "Two Health Care Adversaries Find a Need to Collaborate, " New York Times, 3 June 2010, sec. B, p.3.
4. "Companies Try to Shape Rules, " New York Times, 15 May 2010, sec. a, p.22
The U.S. government, for example, could back the CDMA technology by promising China that it would support its candidature for the WTO, where eventually China acceded.
3. To what extent do economic factors?
The economic factors are essential in explaining the global leadership of GSM, mainly because of the economies of scale that can be made when dealing with the GSM technology. The economies of scale are evident in terms of the equipment, going as far as the handsets, for example. This means that despite a cost advantage for the CMDA, the economies of scale obtained from the GSM technology can virtually nullify this and make GSM more profitable.
On the Chinese market, economic considerations also played an important role in the competition between GSM and CMDA. First of all, China Unicom had already invested significant sums of money in the development of a wireless network based on GSM, so…
Navistar International Corporation, formerly known as International Harvester Company, is a U.S. based holding company that owns the manufacturer of International brand commercial trucks. It is located in Warrenville, Illinois, with about 500 employees and revenues of almost $10 billion. Through a network of about 1,000 dealer outlets in North and South/Central America, and more than 90 global countries, it sells parts and contracts for services for large truck machinery. Most recently, the company has moved into financing for its customers and distributors, adding that niche to its marketing base (Navistar.com). The company has been vociferously criticized for spending over $6 million on lobby and not paying corporate taxes from 2008-10, instead receiving over $18 million in tax rebates -- all the while making a profit of almost $900 million and increasing executive pay by over 80% (Portero, 2011).
Trimco is a supplier to Navistar of kits that complete the…
Brown, M. (2006). Baldrige Award Winning Quality: How to Interpret the Baldrige
Criteria. New York: Productivity Press.
George, M., et.al., (2004). The Lean Six-Sigma Pocket Toolbook. New York: McGraw.
Gupta, P. (2010). Six-Sigma Business Scorecard. New York: McGraw Hill.
difficult buy a gun, a U.S. citizens amendment 8-10 pages length, double spaced, font 12 times roman. MLA standards 8-12 sources, 12-20 citations.
hy the U.S. should not ban gun control
There is presently much controversy regarding the U.S. And its position concerning gun control. ith recent events such as the Newtown, Connecticut (a mass shooting involving 29 persons shot dead) dominating media devices, the public has become agitated concerning gun laws. The fact that these legislations provided an environment where guns can be used by a series of controversial individuals triggered alarm and influenced the masses to lobby with regard to reform. Even though gun control is especially important when considering conditions in the contemporary U.S., it is also significant for the authorities to acknowledge that guns are an active part of society and that people who meet a series of requirements associated with gun ownership need to have…
Daily Mail Reporter, "Father of boy killed in Newtown school shooting heckled during legislative hearing as he begs for stricter gun control," Retrieved April 18, 2013, from the Daily Mail Website: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2269910/Parents-children-slain-Newtown-school-shooting-beg-legislators-stricter-gun-control.html
Gerber, Larry, "The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms," (The Rosen Publishing Group, 15.01.2011)
Gould, Andrew R. "The Hidden Second Amendment Framework within District of Columbia V. Heller," Vanderbilt Law Review, Vol. 62, No. 5
Hatt, Kyle, "Gun-Shy Originalism: The Second Amendment's Original Purpose in District of Columbia V. Heller," Suffolk University Law Review, Vol. 44, No. 2
Nursing Roles for the Elderly
Nursing professionals play a number of valuable and important roles for members of society. They act as reliable sources of information regarding health issues. They also act as educators and counselors to help patients adjust to changes in their health, treatment and lifestyle. Most importantly, nurses act as caregivers who look after the physical, psychological as well as emotional well-being of their patients. Some of these roles become more essential and pronounced for elderly patients because of their distinct needs as opposed to those experienced by other patient groups.
Nurses as Caregivers for the Elderly
The most important role of nursing professionals is that of a caregiver or care provider. Nurses provide care to patients at the hospital as well as at home in the capacity of private nurses. They help patients in the administering of medical treatment and in following the lifestyle changes recommended…
Integrated Business Plan
Brief Outline of the Business Venture
Organizational Issues and Expansion
Legal Issues and Expansion
Financial Competitiveness and Expansion
Allocation of Funds
Pro-forma Cash Flow
Net Present Value
Internal ate of eturn (I)
Profitability Index (PI)
Marketing/Sales and Expansion
Marketing Mix Analysis and Expansion
Mediums of Marketing
An Integrated Business Plan
Management is basically a synergy of four elements i.e., planning, organizing, leading and controlling (Chris & Alan, 1999). The essence of management and its particulars are very important from the perspective of an organization. Businesses and business organizations are the heart of an economy as they have a direct relationship with the long-term fragility of an economy (Chris & Alan, 1999). The basic purpose of company is to earn money and increase profit with the help of different provisions. The ratio of profit for the company is based on the level of…
Cinnamon, R & Larsen, B.H (2006), How to understand Business Finance, British Library Publications
Cinnamon, R & Larsen, B.H (2008), How to understand Business Finance, British Library Publications
Chris, B & Alan, P (1999), Strategic Marketing Communication, Oxford University Publications
Guy, M & Emma, H (2006), Innovative Marketing Communication Plan, McGraw Hill Publications
turned from summer into sudden spring, with wet wind and falling rain tainting the late afternoon, we decided to spend the next few hours indoors. Without knowing beforehand which films were playing at the Cinemark Theater, the four of us headed boldly for the colossal new stadium-seating venue. Because of my diminutive proportions, I can only be sure of a clear view of the screen at Cinemark; everywhere else I pray that a person no higher than five feet tall sits in front of me.
We parked my friend's four-door Toyota sedan mid-row in the giant parking lot, each one of us taking note of the location of the spot. After all, with night upon us, we couldn't be too sure of finding our way back. The lot was only half-full, which surprised me given the weather conditions. However, I knew that also meant less chance of the movie being…
Hydration Advocacy Campaign
Health Advocacy Campaign
Part 1 Developing a Health Advocacy Campaign
Health advocacy programs are mostly tailored to specific groups of people that are in need of special attention. While this approach can be useful, simple approaches are sometimes more effective and can address widespread problems more economically and efficiently. The importance and simplicity of water and its role within our health and well being represents an approach of basic health advocacy and may target many in need of such information. Health advocates must look out for their patients and subscribe to the most important issues of the day that may have a deep and profound impact on healing the individual and the healing processes that can evolve in and throughout the community.
The purpose of this health advocacy development plan is to argue that the issue of hydration, for all people, is one of the most significant…
Manz, F., & Wentz, A. (2005). The importance of good hydration for the prevention of chronic diseases. Nutrition reviews, 63(s1), S2-S5.
Schwartz, L. (2002). Is there an advocate in the house? The role of health care professionals in patient advocacy. Journal of medical ethics, 28(1), 37-40.
Shaner-McRae, H., McRae, G., & Jas, V. (2007). Environmentally Safe Health Care Agencies: Nursing's Responsibility, Nightingale's Legacy. OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing, 12(2).
Stahl, A., Kroke, A., Bolzenius, K., & Manz, F. (2007). Relation between hydration status in children and their dietary profile -- results from the DONALD study. European journal of clinical nutrition, 61(12), 1386-1392.
The activities of businesses affect different stakeholders within the communities they operate in. They affect customers, employees, shareholders, suppliers, financiers, regulatory authorities, and communities. Accordingly, in their pursuit of economic objectives, business organizations have a responsibility to satisfy the concerns of stakeholders affected by their operations. This is the core of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR theory asserts that business organizations exist for not only profit motives, but also social and environmental objectives (Schwartz, 2011). Indeed, CSR has become so that important governments in most countries around the world have enacted laws and regulations that businesses must adhere to so as to foster community wellbeing and environmental sustainability. Inattention to social and environmental concerns may harm an organization's public reputation or have serious legal ramifications on the organization.
WECAREHealth (WCH), a New Jersey-based pharmaceutical company, is facing serious human rights issues and environmental concerns due to its activities in the…
It is important that we be allowed to pursue our business interests with a minimum of government interference. Given that the FTC and DoJ already enforce antitrust legislation, it seems unethical that the FCC also enforce such codes, specifically focused on our particular business.
I believe DI should support the proposed changes. The company would benefit from the opportunity to expand our media properties both horizontally and vertically. It would also give us greater opportunity to exit the business should we so desire in future. Ethical concerns about media consolidation are largely unfounded, especially in light of the way that the Internet provides a low-cost voice for alternative media outlets. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 has significantly reduced barriers to entry in the television business, so the free market can dictate which outlets will have an audience and which will not. Moreover, the FCC's Fairness Doctrine, upheld by the Supreme…
Klinenberg, Eric. (2006). Mega-Merger Mania. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060703/klinenberg
No author. (2008). Hart-Scott-Rodino. Federal Trade Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.ftc.gov/bc/hsr/
McChesney, Robert W. & Nichols, John. (2008). Who'll Unplug Big Media? Stay Tuned. The Nation. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.thenation.com/doc/20080616/mcchesney
No author. (2008). Telecommunications Act of 1996. Federal Communications Commission. Retrieved December 16, 2008 at http://www.fcc.gov/telecom.html
From his entry to the company, Ian and his side of the family was summarily ousted and perceived as outsiders. Ian claimed that Eric "refused to work with him" and as a result had "destabilized the company," ("Vying for Control of Molson Inc.," nd). The cousins had clearly outlined roles within the company so their conflict was not necessarily due to intrarole conflict or to jurisdictional ambiguity. However, their personalities did appear to clash. Ian was obviously to more brash and outgoing of the two and Eric has been described as a "shy man who was uncomfortable with public speaking," ("Vying for Control of Molson Inc.," nd). The clash between the cousins led to significant intergroup and intragroup conflicts. Each believed the other incompetent, and each believed that his methods and strategies were more effective than the other's. Eric leveraged his superior position as Chairman of the Board and his…
Eric Molson Retains Control of Brewery." (2004). Modern Brewery Age. July 5, 2004. Retrieved Mar 31, 2007 at http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3469/is_27_55/ai_n6133475
Vying for Control of Molson Inc." (nd).
I also support the rights of grandparents to see their grandchildren, regardless of the relationship that is held between the child's parents. It can be difficult for a mother or father who is clearly estranged from the other parent to allow his or her child to see that other parent's parents. However, many times the grandparents have had nothing to do with the breakup of the family, and they have a good relationship with their grandchildren. Because of that, they should not be cut from the lives of their grandchildren just because the parents were not able to remain together. There can be extenuating circumstances, of course, but each case should be weighed on its own merits, instead of automatically cutting grandparents out of the lives of grandchildren and not providing them with any legal recourse for that when the parents of their grandchild decide not to remain together.
But when it just recently occurred in 2004 at a store in Jonquiere, British Columbia, the reader must appreciate that a real battle had been won. The original efforts of that particular store for example had the local labor Commission reject certification by a margin of 74 to 65. When the union announced that it won the coveted certification at Quebec, it was quite a blow to the retailer. The Quebec Labour elations Commission issued the order certifying the United Food and Commercial Workers Union (UFCW) as the bargaining agent of employees in Wal-Mart's store in Jonquiere. As noted, the reason a victory of this magnitude is huge is because of the policies and tactics used by Wal-Mart. The retailer works diligently to prevent its workforce from engaging in any collective action and they have consistently shown that they are willing to cross the line to guarantee their position.
Baek, Seung Wook. (2000.) "The Changing Trade Unions in China." Journal of Contemporary Asia: March.
Budd, John W. (1994). "The Effect of Multinational Institutions on Strike Activity in Canada." Industrial and Labor Relations Review.
Corbett, Brian (2002). "Southern hospitality." Ward's Auto World, August.
Delsohn, Gary. (1997.) "UPS Strike May Revive American Labor Movement." Knight Ridder/Tribune Business News: Sept.
Speech: Museum's Bid For Bodies
Good evening ladies -- and yes, good evening gentleman as well.
Well, where should we begin? Ahhhh yes -- Are any of you aware of what a cadaver parade is? Have any of you ever actually heard of a cadaver parade?
Let me read to you a recent headline that I discovered: "Anatomy of competition: 2 museums bid for bodies -- what is a bid -- it is an offer or a proposal of a price."
What do you think about that? (Pause) My initial thoughts after reading those words were: "This is unbelievable, no, it is downright shocking, shameful, and certainly very offensive.
When was the last time a price was hung on us human beings? You probably already know, that's right -- During the days of Slavery. (Pause) Am I right?
I believe that the practice attaching a price to the human body…
I need you to organize this speech - grammar and sentence structure my speech is about provocative questions - please correct the question (grammar)but don't omit them and make some order, that it flows the topic is about body world (and exhibition of cadavers in California-- the web site is www.bodyworlds.com) it's gruesome -- the article is from plain dealer-- the headline is anatomy of competition 2 museums bid for bodies and if you can elaborate little be more by asking questions about the morals of the people who are behind this morbid business, you don't have to add a lot just elaborate on what I have written and organize it more -- note: I need this essay by 3pm today 12/14/04 I want you to use words like
Nature Purpose Human Services Practice
Functions and History of Human Service Professionals
On a fundamental level, the overarching goal of human service workers is to serve their clients. It is widely acknowledged within this profession that there are a variety of client types who have a plethora of issues that human workers assist in solving. To that end, the primary goal of human service employees has been succinctly summarized within the preamble of the "Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals," which unequivocally states that "Human services is a profession developing in response to and in anticipation of the direction of human needs and human problems in the late twentieth century" (No author, no date, p. 81). Therefore, the goal of this profession is to ideally solve problems that plague individuals and groups of people in the latter stages of the twentieth century and in the beginning stages of the 21st…
No author. (No date). Ethical Standards for Human Service Professionals. Journal of Human Services.
Washington State Department of Social and Health Services. (No date). "A History of Human Services." Retrieved from http://www.dshs.wa.gov/history.shtml#1933
Wendi, W. (2012). "What is Human Services? The History of Human Services in America." Retrieved from http://wendiw.hubpages.com/hub/What-is-human-services
Marketing Mix for Panera Bread Company
Advertising refers to any form of non-personal communication meant to persuade, inform, and remind customers to buy a product (Shapiro, 1984). Panera Bread Company has adopted the informative approach as a way of winning and retaining customers. In this strategy, the aim is to let the clients get to know the features of the products being offered. These features include the price, quantities sold, the quality as well as how the products are consumed. Some information to the effect of the ingredients used to bake the breads as well as how the bread needs to be consumed (Peter and Donnelly 2013).
The informative objective also involves teaching the clients about the hazards of overconsumption of the product. Panera Bread Company has warned the clients of over consumption of bread -being a processed food in its adverts. The action seeks to comply with the…
Peter, J. Paul and Donnelly James H. Marketing management: Knowledge and skills. 11. ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Higher Education, 2013. Print.
Scott, David Meerman. The new rules of marketing and PR: how to use news releases, blogs, podcasting, viral marketing, & online media to reach buyers directly. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, 2007. Print.
Shapiro, Benson P. The marketing mix. Boston, Mass.: Distributed by the Pub. Division, Harvard Business School, 1984. Print.
The third secondary source we will look at here is Kaiser (2009). Kaiser argues that money has corroded the electoral process in the United States. He gives statistical data on the rising cost of political campaigns as an indication of how money's importance has grown in the last several decades. If the campaigns of all the candidates for President, the House, and the Senate cost less than a billion dollars in 1976, in 2000 it was $2.8 billion (even if adjusted to the inflation), while in 2004 it was $4.2 billion. "This steady increase appears now to be a permanent fixture of our politics," he says (p. 290). Kaiser also gives examples of how money spent by individuals allowed them to win seats in the House or the Senate. For example, John Corzine, a retired investment banker and a Democrat, won a Senate seat from New Jersey in 2000…
Austen-Smith, D. (1993) Information and Influence: Lobbying for Agendas and Votes. American Journal of Political Science, 37(3): 799-833.
Bartels, L.M. (2005) Economic Inequality and Political Representation. Unpublished paper. Retrieved on February 15, 2001, from http://www.princeton.edu/~bartels/economic.pdf
Derek, C., ed. (2002) the Best Elections Money Can Buy. U.S. PIRG Education Fund Report. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://cdn.publicinterestnetwork.org/assets/_8MuDgm1AnavpYKIfwgxSA/bestelections10_02.pdf .
Farman, T.W., & Eggen, D. (2010) Republican Congressional Candidates Race Ahead in Fundraising. Washington Post. Retrieved on February 15, 2011, from http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2010/10/16/AR2010101603236.html
In other words, these companies expand their business, reach a peak in their business activity, and then go through a period of recession, followed by a period of business expansion, and so on.
It is important that companies understand that the economic sector they represent follows the same business cycle. Therefore, it is difficult for companies to expand their business during periods of recession in the economic sector they represent. But they can expand their business during recession periods of other business sectors, represented by products from indirect competition. This situation can be observed in McDonald's situation.
This can be an explanation of the fact that the company's sales have significantly increased during the crisis. The incomes of most people have been reduced, which means that their purchasing behavior has modified. In such cases, people usually spend less. This means that they purchase less, or they purchase cheaper products. In…