Logical Fallacies Essays (Examples)

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occurred after a, then it necessarily means that a caused B, even though there might not be any actual connection between the two events. The false cause fallacy commonly occurs in arguments for the efficacy of prayer, which suppose that because a certain desirable thing happened (or an undesirable thing did not happen) after someone prayed, then it necessarily means that their prayer caused (or prevented) thus event.
Sweeping Generalization

The fallacy of sweeping generalization is simply an application of inductive logic without a sufficiently large sample size, because it occurs when one makes a claim about something based on insufficient evidence. This is related to the biased sample fallacy, which occurs when someone makes a claim based on a biased set of evidence, but the sweeping generalization fallacy can occur with or without intentional bias.

Slippery Slope

The slippery slope fallacy occurs in an argument when someone proposes that something will necessarily….

Fallacies
Logical Fallacies

Slippery slope is a logical fallacy where one event is said to lead to another event, which in turn leads to another event, which in turn has significant consequences. For example, a person might argue that if one person is given a pay rise, everyone else will expect a pay rise, and that everyone will expect continual pay rises, and that the organization will go bankrupt. The fallacy occurs because there is no definite link between the initial event and the ones that are said to follow it. The problem in relation to critical thinking is that there is no validity to the reasons. This is especially problematic because the reasons are based on what might happen, with the possibilities of what might happen almost endless. This means that for every event there will be the possibility of coming up with a series of chain reactions that lead to….

Then he uses an appeal to authority by quoting a chemistry professor at Columbia University, Dr. Harold Urey, who said, "All of us who study the origin of life find that the more we look into it, the more we feel it is too complex to have evolved anywhere." That's a patently absurd, baseless evidence.
umber 13 -- Slippery Slope. Blair Magida Waddick writes to the Chicago Tribune that he is "horrified that the naive men on the Supreme Court have sided with Wal-Mart" (rather than with the class action suit against them by women claiming to have been discriminated against). "They should now be required to wear the same jump suits worn by race car drivers covered in corporate names, so we all know who owns them" (June 21, 2011).

umber 5 -- Appeal to Tradition. A mascara ad (LashBlast Volume Mascara) by Cover Girl asserts "You may never go….

The generalization is not warranted because it is based on an appeal to ignorance argument -- that if we do not know for certain that climate change was involved in a weather event we should assume that it was not involved. Since there are mitigating factors, it is impossible to tell for certain if any one given weather event is caused by climate change, and the evidence commonly presented in support of climate change never rests on a single weather event, so there is a straw man here as well.
The fourth fallacy comes from a comment made by a friend, arguing that "The TSA doesn't know what it's doing" and citing as evidence "Pocket knives are okay, but water bottles are not?" This is a false analogy. The pocket knife is the thing; the water bottle is the thing to which it is compared. (Or more precisely, the TSA….

And now each and every box is fortified with vitamins and nutrients that work together to help support your child's immunity. To experience the timeless flavor, make your Rice Krispies Treats® squares with the original Rice Krispies® brand cereal" Rice Krispies are, the ad implies, good for a child, simply because the cereal has existed for a long period of time. The fact that the cereal is the oldest rice-based cereal is also used for promotional purposes. Why a rice-based cereal is 'good' or better than cereals made with other grains is never addressed. Finally, the "timeless" nature of Rice Krispie Treats (which can be made with the cereal) is also used to appeal to a parent's sense of nostalgia.
Source: "Kellogg's Rice Krispies Cereal: Coco Krispies." Kellogg's website. October 26, 2009.

http://www.ricekrispies.com/products/cocoa-krispies-cereal.aspx

Common belief: illsbury's Toaster Strudels

illsbury claims that its Toaster Strudels are "the one kids want to eat," implying that….

Logical Fallacies
PAGES 4 WORDS 1320

Poor people should have their welfare cut off, because this will make them work harder. Right now, there is a disease in society, a moral outrage, and that is sloth and laziness. The Bible says that sloth and laziness are sins, but every day we see this in society. We have welfare queens and drug dealers getting welfare paid out of your tax dollars, and if that doesn't get your blood boiling, it should. We just keep the gravy train running. I can't imagine why anybody would think this is a good idea. I defy anybody to tell me why this makes sense.
The bottom line is that the politicians want to raise the minimum wage, keeping these people from pursuing meaningful work in their lives. This is a Christian nation and God does not approve of this type of laziness; He wants people to work hard and be faithful, things….

Ehrenreich's Complaint "Sounds" Disingenuous
Barbara Ehrenreich states that women complaining at the turn of the 20th century about being "robbed of their creative work" were behaving "pointlessly reactionary" (66): she uses the word "sounds" in her argument, as in their complaint "sounds pointlessly reactionary." This use of the word "sounds" is problematic for the following reason: the term "sounds" is used by her instead of the linking verb "is" to avoid making an absolute (though her argument stands by it). The claim of this paper is that this verb usage is disingenuous because it allows her to make an invalid assumption without actually being held responsible for it. hy is the assumption in valid? She is making an assumption that no woman could legitimately issue such a complaint -- but she provides no evidence that this assumption is based on fact.

In fact, Ehrenreich is hardly comfortable with her own thesis, which….

Ethics: Green's Dilemma
Identifying Logical Fallacies

Fallacy 1: Circular Definition (The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition, it is assumed because something is a rule it must be obeyed without saying why)

"I believe that all rules should be strictly obeyed," the officer told himself.

Fallacy 2: Conflicting Conditions (The definition is self-contradictory)

"But this is a special circumstance. Don't all rules have exceptions?

Fallacy 3: Argument from emotion. (No logic, just emotion.)

Besides, I really do love Greek food!"

Fallacy 4: Straw man. (Attacking the person, not the argument.)

"e can't have officers accepting free meals, you dumb rookie!

Fallacy 5: Slippery slope. (Assumes unconnected chain of causal events.)

Free meals lead to cash bribes and corruption. Eventually people will be asking you to get them illegal drugs!

Fallacy 6: Post hoc. (The conclusion doesn't follow from the evidence.)

Besides, the year we started banning free meals, the city's car thefts went down by 20%!….

Fallacy of Emotion Emotional appeals are commonly used in the media, although good journalists avoid them when communicating the facts to the public. Politicians, on the other hand, rely willingly and frequently on emotional appeals to sway their audiences in the same way that marketers do. The politicians’ reactions to the Las Vegas shootings of October 2, 2017 reveals the different ways emotional appeals are used to sway or influence the public, while simultaneously diverting attention from the real issues. President Trump responded to the Vegas mass shooting as an “act of pure evil,” a moralistic judgment that speaks directly to those who believe in the Biblical duality of good versus evil. In fact, Trump went on to say, “We pray for the day when evil is banished. May God provide the grieving families with strength to carry on,” highlighting his appeal to emotion through the socially acceptable medium of religion.….


ecause fallacies like the ones presented above can cause such problems in all forms of research and decision making, it is useful to have some tools to analyze a given statement. Known as "analytical tools," some examples are the "Devils Advocate," a method in which one argues against the stated conclusion to determine its validity (even though one may not agree with the position), "Lateral Thinking," or Edward de ono's term for a type of creative thinking involving "pattern-switching within a patterning system." In basic terms, this means taking a look at a statement from a different perspective. For example, de ono gives the example, "Grandma is knitting and young Susie is disturbing her playing with the wool. The father suggests putting Susie into the playpen. The mother suggests it might be a better idea to put Grandma in the playpen." This definitely gives one a different perspective on the….

By definition, any argument that contains faulty reasoning is termed a logical fallacy. Most logical fallacies are arguments seem psychologically convincing, but are weak logically. Most importantly, a logical fallacy makes people accept certain arguments and conclusions that would ordinarily not be easily acceptable as valid (Doss et al. 2014). This paper discusses some logical fallacies and how they affect criminal justice.
Argumentum ad hominem

The argumentum ad hominem is the argument directed at a particular person.

The ad hominem is considered a fallacy that neither the speaker's character nor the circumstances reveal any facts concerning the validity or the invalidity of the argument presented by the speaker or whether the speaker's conclusion is true or false. Sometimes, even people whose characters do not conform to accepted social norms are known to offer valid arguments, and the instance of the political interests of the speaker coinciding with the conclusion reveal nothing about how….

Appeal to Authority In one advertisement for a skincare product, the company claimed “most dermatologists recommend...” the product. This is an appeal to authority: a classic logical fallacy. With an appeal to authority like this one, the speaker bases its claim solely on the authority of an individual or institution. In this case, the company uses dermatologists as their symbol of authority on skincare. While dermatologists are experts in the medical treatment of skin, a product still needs to be tested empirically.
Appeal to Pity
This false appeal is also used widely in advertisements, particularly those that promote charitable organizations. One commercial shows malnourished children, and begs for the viewer’s money, claiming that the money can help these poor children. Appealing to pity is a variant on emotional appeals more broadly, in which the speaker manipulates audience sentiments, which can cloud rational judgment.
Appeal to Fear
Fear-based appeals are used constantly, particularly by politicians. For….

Assignment 1 Logical fallacies are everywhere, and can be surprisingly persuasive to those who are unaware of their existence. One logical fallacy is red herring, which throws in a random, unrelated idea to throw off the audience. For example, a recent article criticized the anti-gun protesters not because they were violent but because they were “rude to adults.” A more effective means of engaging the protesters would have been to have a reasoned argument based on their actual political points of view. Saying they were “rude” has nothing to do with the central argument, which is related to gun control.
Another logical fallacy is begging the question, which is commonly used also in the gun control debate. For example, gun advocates will claim that gun control is bad because all Americans have the right to own guns because of the Second Amendment. Referring to the Second Amendment is fine, because it is….

Fallacies
The choices that people make determine the shape of things to come. This observation holds true at the individual, organizational, national, and global level. Therefore, it is obvious that close attention needs to be paid to critical thinking ability or the way decisions are made. This inference can be drawn because critical thinking involves the formation of logical inferences, the development of cohesive and logical reasoning patterns, and careful and deliberate determination of whether to accept, reject, or suspend judgment. Thus, learning critical thinking skills can help an individual to recognize propaganda, analyze unstated assumptions in arguments, realize when there is deliberate deception, consider the credibility of information sources, and think a problem or decision through in as objective a manner as possible (Halpern, cited Simon & Kaplan; Stahl & Stahl; Moore & Parker, 1996, p. 5-6). In other words, learning to recognize and avoid unsound reasoning techniques or logical….

So is the appeal to ignorance. One need look no further than Fox News to find such an appeal -- what else can one say about a news site that has a regular featured financial columnist called "the capitalist pig?" Jonathan Hoenig who proudly calls himself by this title, plays into the readers' likely assumptions that greed is good is lauded for selecting the highest yield profile over one year, regardless of the fact that many readers may really want to be long-term investors -- the one with the most money wins, proclaims the "Cash it in Challenge" of Fox. The fine print of the challenge, however, reads that "is FOX News' policy that contributors disclose positions they hold in stocks they discuss, though positions may change. Readers of "Cashin' in Challenge" must take responsibility for their own investment decisions."
Yet even though one might snidely observe that Fox News….

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3 Pages
Essay

Black Studies - Philosophy

Logical Fallacies Mere Assertion Mere

Words: 734
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

occurred after a, then it necessarily means that a caused B, even though there might not be any actual connection between the two events. The false cause fallacy…

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5 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Fallacies Logical Fallacies Slippery Slope Is a

Words: 1661
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Fallacies Logical Fallacies Slippery slope is a logical fallacy where one event is said to lead to another event, which in turn leads to another event, which in turn has significant…

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2 Pages
Research Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Logical Fallacies Hasty Generalization On

Words: 734
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Then he uses an appeal to authority by quoting a chemistry professor at Columbia University, Dr. Harold Urey, who said, "All of us who study the origin of…

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3 Pages
Research Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Fallacy Hunt Logical Fallacies Are

Words: 1176
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Research Paper

The generalization is not warranted because it is based on an appeal to ignorance argument -- that if we do not know for certain that climate change was…

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2 Pages
Research Proposal

Business - Advertising

Logical Fallacies Appeal to Authority

Words: 594
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Research Proposal

And now each and every box is fortified with vitamins and nutrients that work together to help support your child's immunity. To experience the timeless flavor, make your…

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4 Pages
Essay

Black Studies - Philosophy

Logical Fallacies

Words: 1320
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Essay

Poor people should have their welfare cut off, because this will make them work harder. Right now, there is a disease in society, a moral outrage, and that is…

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5 Pages
Essay

Communication - Language

Logical Fallacies in Ehrenreich S Maid to Order

Words: 1685
Length: 5 Pages
Type: Essay

Ehrenreich's Complaint "Sounds" Disingenuous Barbara Ehrenreich states that women complaining at the turn of the 20th century about being "robbed of their creative work" were behaving "pointlessly reactionary" (66): she…

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4 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Ethics Green's Dilemma Identifying Logical Fallacies Fallacy

Words: 1086
Length: 4 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Ethics: Green's Dilemma Identifying Logical Fallacies Fallacy 1: Circular Definition (The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition, it is assumed because something is a…

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2 Pages
Essay

Media

Emotional Ethical and Logical Fallacies

Words: 790
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Fallacy of Emotion Emotional appeals are commonly used in the media, although good journalists avoid them when communicating the facts to the public. Politicians, on the other hand, rely willingly…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Jones Logical Fallacies Tools to

Words: 953
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

ecause fallacies like the ones presented above can cause such problems in all forms of research and decision making, it is useful to have some tools to analyze a…

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3 Pages
Essay

Criminal Justice

Logical Fallacies and Criminal Justice

Words: 1309
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Essay

By definition, any argument that contains faulty reasoning is termed a logical fallacy. Most logical fallacies are arguments seem psychologically convincing, but are weak logically. Most importantly, a logical…

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1 Pages
Research Paper

Philosophy

logical fallacies and false appeals in the media

Words: 341
Length: 1 Pages
Type: Research Paper

Appeal to Authority In one advertisement for a skincare product, the company claimed “most dermatologists recommend...” the product. This is an appeal to authority: a classic logical fallacy. With an…

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2 Pages
Essay

Argumentative

discussion of different logical fallacies

Words: 676
Length: 2 Pages
Type: Essay

Assignment 1 Logical fallacies are everywhere, and can be surprisingly persuasive to those who are unaware of their existence. One logical fallacy is red herring, which throws in a random,…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Fallacies the Choices That People Make Determine

Words: 1115
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

Fallacies The choices that people make determine the shape of things to come. This observation holds true at the individual, organizational, national, and global level. Therefore, it is obvious that…

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3 Pages
Term Paper

Black Studies - Philosophy

Fallacy Fallacious Thinking -- Appeals

Words: 1068
Length: 3 Pages
Type: Term Paper

So is the appeal to ignorance. One need look no further than Fox News to find such an appeal -- what else can one say about a news…

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