occurred after a, then it necessarily means that a caused B, even though there might not be any actual connection between the two events. The false cause fallacy commonly occurs in arguments for the efficacy of prayer, which suppose that because a certain desirable thing happened (or an undesirable thing did not happen) after someone prayed, then it necessarily means that their prayer caused (or prevented) thus event.
The fallacy of sweeping generalization is simply an application of inductive logic without a sufficiently large sample size, because it occurs when one makes a claim about something based on insufficient evidence. This is related to the biased sample fallacy, which occurs when someone makes a claim based on a biased set of evidence, but the sweeping generalization fallacy can occur with or without intentional bias.
The slippery slope fallacy occurs in an argument when someone proposes that…… [Read More]
Slippery slope is a logical fallacy where one event is said to lead to another event, which in turn leads to another event, which in turn has significant consequences. For example, a person might argue that if one person is given a pay rise, everyone else will expect a pay rise, and that everyone will expect continual pay rises, and that the organization will go bankrupt. The fallacy occurs because there is no definite link between the initial event and the ones that are said to follow it. The problem in relation to critical thinking is that there is no validity to the reasons. This is especially problematic because the reasons are based on what might happen, with the possibilities of what might happen almost endless. This means that for every event there will be the possibility of coming up with a series of chain reactions that…… [Read More]
Then he uses an appeal to authority by quoting a chemistry professor at Columbia University, Dr. Harold Urey, who said, "All of us who study the origin of life find that the more we look into it, the more we feel it is too complex to have evolved anywhere." That's a patently absurd, baseless evidence.
umber 13 -- Slippery Slope. Blair Magida Waddick writes to the Chicago Tribune that he is "horrified that the naive men on the Supreme Court have sided with Wal-Mart" (rather than with the class action suit against them by women claiming to have been discriminated against). "They should now be required to wear the same jump suits worn by race car drivers covered in corporate names, so we all know who owns them" (June 21, 2011).
umber 5 -- Appeal to Tradition. A mascara ad (LashBlast Volume Mascara) by Cover Girl asserts "You may never…… [Read More]
The generalization is not warranted because it is based on an appeal to ignorance argument -- that if we do not know for certain that climate change was involved in a weather event we should assume that it was not involved. Since there are mitigating factors, it is impossible to tell for certain if any one given weather event is caused by climate change, and the evidence commonly presented in support of climate change never rests on a single weather event, so there is a straw man here as well.
The fourth fallacy comes from a comment made by a friend, arguing that "The TSA doesn't know what it's doing" and citing as evidence "Pocket knives are okay, but water bottles are not?" This is a false analogy. The pocket knife is the thing; the water bottle is the thing to which it is compared. (Or more precisely, the TSA…… [Read More]
And now each and every box is fortified with vitamins and nutrients that work together to help support your child's immunity. To experience the timeless flavor, make your Rice Krispies Treats® squares with the original Rice Krispies® brand cereal" Rice Krispies are, the ad implies, good for a child, simply because the cereal has existed for a long period of time. The fact that the cereal is the oldest rice-based cereal is also used for promotional purposes. Why a rice-based cereal is 'good' or better than cereals made with other grains is never addressed. Finally, the "timeless" nature of Rice Krispie Treats (which can be made with the cereal) is also used to appeal to a parent's sense of nostalgia.
Source: "Kellogg's Rice Krispies Cereal: Coco Krispies." Kellogg's website. October 26, 2009.
Common belief: illsbury's Toaster Strudels
illsbury claims that its Toaster Strudels are "the one kids want to…… [Read More]
Poor people should have their welfare cut off, because this will make them work harder. Right now, there is a disease in society, a moral outrage, and that is sloth and laziness. The Bible says that sloth and laziness are sins, but every day we see this in society. We have welfare queens and drug dealers getting welfare paid out of your tax dollars, and if that doesn't get your blood boiling, it should. We just keep the gravy train running. I can't imagine why anybody would think this is a good idea. I defy anybody to tell me why this makes sense.
The bottom line is that the politicians want to raise the minimum wage, keeping these people from pursuing meaningful work in their lives. This is a Christian nation and God does not approve of this type of laziness; He wants people to work hard and be faithful,…… [Read More]
Ehrenreich's Complaint "Sounds" Disingenuous
Barbara Ehrenreich states that women complaining at the turn of the 20th century about being "robbed of their creative work" were behaving "pointlessly reactionary" (66): she uses the word "sounds" in her argument, as in their complaint "sounds pointlessly reactionary." This use of the word "sounds" is problematic for the following reason: the term "sounds" is used by her instead of the linking verb "is" to avoid making an absolute (though her argument stands by it). The claim of this paper is that this verb usage is disingenuous because it allows her to make an invalid assumption without actually being held responsible for it. hy is the assumption in valid? She is making an assumption that no woman could legitimately issue such a complaint -- but she provides no evidence that this assumption is based on fact.
In fact, Ehrenreich is hardly comfortable with her own…… [Read More]
Ethics: Green's Dilemma
Identifying Logical Fallacies
Fallacy 1: Circular Definition (The definition includes the term being defined as a part of the definition, it is assumed because something is a rule it must be obeyed without saying why)
"I believe that all rules should be strictly obeyed," the officer told himself.
Fallacy 2: Conflicting Conditions (The definition is self-contradictory)
"But this is a special circumstance. Don't all rules have exceptions?
Fallacy 3: Argument from emotion. (No logic, just emotion.)
Besides, I really do love Greek food!"
Fallacy 4: Straw man. (Attacking the person, not the argument.)
"e can't have officers accepting free meals, you dumb rookie!
Fallacy 5: Slippery slope. (Assumes unconnected chain of causal events.)
Free meals lead to cash bribes and corruption. Eventually people will be asking you to get them illegal drugs!
Fallacy 6: Post hoc. (The conclusion doesn't follow from the evidence.)
Besides, the year we…… [Read More]
Fallacy of Emotion
Emotional appeals are commonly used in the media, although good journalists avoid them when communicating the facts to the public. Politicians, on the other hand, rely willingly and frequently on emotional appeals to sway their audiences in the same way that marketers do. The politicians’ reactions to the Las Vegas shootings of October 2, 2017 reveals the different ways emotional appeals are used to sway or influence the public, while simultaneously diverting attention from the real issues. President Trump responded to the Vegas mass shooting as an “act of pure evil,” a moralistic judgment that speaks directly to those who believe in the Biblical duality of good versus evil. In fact, Trump went on to say, “We pray for the day when evil is banished. May God provide the grieving families with strength to carry on,” highlighting his appeal to emotion through the socially acceptable medium of…… [Read More]
ecause fallacies like the ones presented above can cause such problems in all forms of research and decision making, it is useful to have some tools to analyze a given statement. Known as "analytical tools," some examples are the "Devils Advocate," a method in which one argues against the stated conclusion to determine its validity (even though one may not agree with the position), "Lateral Thinking," or Edward de ono's term for a type of creative thinking involving "pattern-switching within a patterning system." In basic terms, this means taking a look at a statement from a different perspective. For example, de ono gives the example, "Grandma is knitting and young Susie is disturbing her playing with the wool. The father suggests putting Susie into the playpen. The mother suggests it might be a better idea to put Grandma in the playpen." This definitely gives one a different perspective on the…… [Read More]
By definition, any argument that contains faulty reasoning is termed a logical fallacy. Most logical fallacies are arguments seem psychologically convincing, but are weak logically. Most importantly, a logical fallacy makes people accept certain arguments and conclusions that would ordinarily not be easily acceptable as valid (Doss et al. 2014). This paper discusses some logical fallacies and how they affect criminal justice.
Argumentum ad hominem
The argumentum ad hominem is the argument directed at a particular person.
The ad hominem is considered a fallacy that neither the speaker's character nor the circumstances reveal any facts concerning the validity or the invalidity of the argument presented by the speaker or whether the speaker's conclusion is true or false. Sometimes, even people whose characters do not conform to accepted social norms are known to offer valid arguments, and the instance of the political interests of the speaker coinciding with the conclusion reveal…… [Read More]
Appeal to Authority
In one advertisement for a skincare product, the company claimed “most dermatologists recommend...” the product. This is an appeal to authority: a classic logical fallacy. With an appeal to authority like this one, the speaker bases its claim solely on the authority of an individual or institution. In this case, the company uses dermatologists as their symbol of authority on skincare. While dermatologists are experts in the medical treatment of skin, a product still needs to be tested empirically.
Appeal to Pity
This false appeal is also used widely in advertisements, particularly those that promote charitable organizations. One commercial shows malnourished children, and begs for the viewer’s money, claiming that the money can help these poor children. Appealing to pity is a variant on emotional appeals more broadly, in which the speaker manipulates audience sentiments, which can cloud rational judgment.
Appeal to Fear
Fear-based appeals are used…… [Read More]
Logical fallacies are everywhere, and can be surprisingly persuasive to those who are unaware of their existence. One logical fallacy is red herring, which throws in a random, unrelated idea to throw off the audience. For example, a recent article criticized the anti-gun protesters not because they were violent but because they were “rude to adults.” A more effective means of engaging the protesters would have been to have a reasoned argument based on their actual political points of view. Saying they were “rude” has nothing to do with the central argument, which is related to gun control.
Another logical fallacy is begging the question, which is commonly used also in the gun control debate. For example, gun advocates will claim that gun control is bad because all Americans have the right to own guns because of the Second Amendment. Referring to the Second Amendment is fine, because…… [Read More]
The choices that people make determine the shape of things to come. This observation holds true at the individual, organizational, national, and global level. Therefore, it is obvious that close attention needs to be paid to critical thinking ability or the way decisions are made. This inference can be drawn because critical thinking involves the formation of logical inferences, the development of cohesive and logical reasoning patterns, and careful and deliberate determination of whether to accept, reject, or suspend judgment. Thus, learning critical thinking skills can help an individual to recognize propaganda, analyze unstated assumptions in arguments, realize when there is deliberate deception, consider the credibility of information sources, and think a problem or decision through in as objective a manner as possible (Halpern, cited Simon & Kaplan; Stahl & Stahl; Moore & Parker, 1996, p. 5-6). In other words, learning to recognize and avoid unsound reasoning techniques or…… [Read More]
So is the appeal to ignorance. One need look no further than Fox News to find such an appeal -- what else can one say about a news site that has a regular featured financial columnist called "the capitalist pig?" Jonathan Hoenig who proudly calls himself by this title, plays into the readers' likely assumptions that greed is good is lauded for selecting the highest yield profile over one year, regardless of the fact that many readers may really want to be long-term investors -- the one with the most money wins, proclaims the "Cash it in Challenge" of Fox. The fine print of the challenge, however, reads that "is FOX News' policy that contributors disclose positions they hold in stocks they discuss, though positions may change. Readers of "Cashin' in Challenge" must take responsibility for their own investment decisions."
Yet even though one might snidely observe that Fox News…… [Read More]
Douglass asks, "Must I undertake to prove that the slave is a man? That point is conceded already. Nobody doubts it" (Douglass, 1852). However, this statement was simply not true; the humanity of blacks was a seriously debated point at that period of time. He repeats this phrase in two more phrases, "For the present it is enough to affirm the equal manhood of the Negro race" and "the manhood of the slave is conceded" (Douglass, 1852). Furthermore, he provides a significant amount of evidence that supports his proposition, but those statements only highlight his circular argument, because he always begins not with the proposition that a slave is human, but with the proposition that nobody doubts that slaves are human.
The third fallacy that Douglass employs is the appeal to belief. "Appeal to Belief is a fallacy that has this general pattern: Most people believe that a claim, X,…… [Read More]
Next, Colbert skewers Donald Trump. In his role as a conservative newscaster, Colbert begins with feigned outrage that Trump is not running "ho is going to tell OPEC the fun is over?" he cries when Trump is shown making his announcement that he is not running for the presidency. Colbert mocks Trump's hyperbolic self-promotion with his own hyperbole. Additionally, this is another example of how Colbert's deliberate, humorous false analogies reveal the sloppy thinking and fallacies of his subjects of ridicule. Trump had recently created a smokescreen or 'red herring' issue by crying out for President Obama's birth certificate, a non-issue except amongst members of the extreme right.
Then, Colbert shows a clip of former Reagan screenwriter Peggy Noonan endorsing Newt Gingrich as a 'new voice for a new generation.' Colbert states that Noonan is last generation's news herself, noting that young people, watching her speak, are probably wondering: "ho…… [Read More]
In the article, Taubes correlates the increase in sugar in the American diet with an increase in weight gain. In 1986, according to United States Department of Agriculture analysts, every American consumed on average 75 pounds of sugar. In the early 2000s, consumption had increased to more than 90 pounds per person per year (Taubes 3). However, Taubes neglects to note that consumption of total calories have also been increasing -- of all kinds of food, of fat as well as sugar. Physical activity has also been decreasing. Furthermore, while Taubes dismisses the additional negative effects of the addition of high-fructose corn syrup to foods and the burgeoning obesity epidemic, he also admits that the addition of HFCS to foods during the 1970s is correlated with an increase in the body mass index of Americans. In short, when statistics suit his argument -- increased sugar consumption in general as…… [Read More]
Fallacies of easoning in TV Commercials
The DIECTV- Stop Taking in Stray Animals-Commercial
The DIECTV Commercial demonstrates the series of events that occurs when an individual has bad cable. The events are as follows: when you spend too much of your money on cable, you get angry and you start throwing things. When you start throwing things, people begin to think you have anger issues. Consequently, your schedule clears up because people do not want to deal with your anger. When the schedule clears up, you start growing a beard, then you start taking in stray animals until you cannot stop. So to stop taking in stray animals, you have to get rid of cable and upgrade to DIECTV.
Fallacy of reasoning
The DIECTV commercial uses the slippery slope fallacy. Grand Canyon University (2012) explains that the slippery slope fallacy is an analogy that takes an argument in one direction…… [Read More]
His philosophy of a ruler who used any means necessary to achieve his goals is not too far off from what Bush has done in the war in Iraq. Bush has misled the public; whether he did this deliberately or not is still up for debate but the result of his misleading behavior has been financial and political gain for him and his cronies. Vice President Cheney has made tens of millions of dollars in the Iraq conflict through his ties with Halliburton. One has to wonder if the political and financial gains being made by those in the hite House had anything to do with the initial decision to go to war in Iraq. The fallacies of the Iraq war go deeper than just policy decisions. Great philosophers and politicians warned against greed and unjust wars, and the Bush Administration took the Iraq war far beyond the limits of…… [Read More]
My erections are at a healthier state from using VolumePills™, as from before to now they are a lot stronger and healthier."
HY THIS IS a FALLACY: This is begging the question because the writer (assuming a real person actually wrote that testimonial) is expecting the reader to accept on faith that this is true, without any way to check its validity. It is also an appeal to ignorance because very few men in the general population have any scientific or medical knowledge about penis enlargement, sperm enhancement, etc.
FALLACY #4 (a): The Ku Klux Klan KKK (on its eb site) asserts that the U.S. should "Abolish all anti-gun laws and encourage every adult to own a weapon." Further, the KKK asserts that, "The cure for crime in America is not take guns off the streets but to put more guns on the streets."
HY THIS IS a FALLACY: This…… [Read More]
Fallacies in Advertising
It has been more than twenty years since a relatively unknown actress named Julia oberts stole every scene in the sleeper hit Mystic Pizza. She charmed audiences with beautiful brown eyes, a wild mop of dark hair and a smile that lit up the screen. Some of her co-stars continued their Hollywood success, most notably Vincent D'Onofrio, who stars in Law and Order: Criminal Intent. No one enjoyed success like oberts, however; she is an Oscar winner, a top box office draw, and considered by many to be one of the most beautiful women in the world. Now forty-two, she recently signed on with Lancome Paris to become the face of their beauty products.
In an ad featured in O, The Oprah Magazine (2011, p. 19), a radiant oberts is the subject of a close-up portrait. Her hair is blonde, silky and simply styled. She wears modest…… [Read More]
The Existential Fallacy Behind Arizona's Immigration Policy
Few issues currently featured in American public debate are clouded by as much emotional bias, invective and distortion as that of immigration reform. Particularly as this concerns America's shared border with Mexico, immigration is a discussion which carries significant political ramification, clear racial overtones and distinctions in ideology where American openness is concerned. As a result, many political figures have been moved to comment or drive policy on the issue-based less on the support of fact than on the employment of inflammatory rhetoric. And quite frequently, this rhetoric is presented with little concern for the logical fallacies which may underlie is basic formative claims. Rarely has this been evidenced with more vitriol or determination than in the state of Arizona over the last several years. In the context of our discussion, Arizona Governor Jan Brewer is particularly noted for her steady…… [Read More]
build a logical argument by clarifying facts and speaking to a particular audience; and the conclusions must be strong and communicated well so that the intended audience can logically say, "I understand and agree with that."
Marc Siegel, a professor of Medicine at New York University and also a doctor with a practice, wrote an argument based on the doctor's role in treating pain and suffering by helping the patient end their life -- euthanasia. He was persuasive to me in his argument for several reasons: 1) He is a medical doctor who has taken the Hippocratic Oath and believes in helping patient's whenever possible; 2) He is logical and factual when he talks about some illnesses and conditions in which there is no cure; 3) He supports his arguments with the sound moral and ethical facts that show the audience just how much certain people suffer, and have a…… [Read More]
The narrator provides a few different reasons why Jack "is silly to think he can win the math contest." The first issue of course is that "silly" is entirely subjective, and that nothing the narrator says has anything to do with silly. It is not unreasonable to reframe the argument as that the author does not think that Jack can win the math contest. Never mind the silliness.
The first piece of evidence provided is that Jack has only won awards for writing essays. This is logical fallacy in that one has nothing to do with the other. The two types of contests test different skills, but where the narrator assumes that these skills are mutually exclusive, the reality is that they are not. Thus, it is possible that Jack can be good enough to win both types of contest.
If anything, Jack might have an edge if there…… [Read More]
According to Miller and Wright (2002), "When it comes to plea bargaining, we have created a false dilemma. The dilemma grows out of the central reality of criminal adjudication in the United States. The vast majority of criminal cases are resolved through guilty pleas rather than trials. Most of those guilty pleas result from negotiations between prosecution and defense" (p. 29).
According to Walton (2004), "The straw man fallacy is committed when the proponent's argument is based on premises that do not represent the commitments of the other party in the dispute, and where his argument used a distorted version of these commitments to try to refute the other party" (p. 25). The straw man fallacy represents a common technique that is used to divert attention away from the actual issues involve to irrelevant or even imaginary ones that can be impossible to defend against. In this regard,…… [Read More]
fallacies and it is important to detect fallacious arguments and then form decisions. Below is an analysis of three such fallacies which have been described and examples are described to show why it is important to detect them.
This fallacy is on the principle that in the case there is a lack of evidence to prove it to be true, it is considered naturally to be false. An atheist might claim that as a creationist cannot prove that God exists therefore God does not exist. Similarly a creationist can say that because the atheist cannot prove that God does not exist, hence God exists. Basically this fallacy deals with the burden of proof and in the absence of any proof it labels the opposite to be absolutely true. This fallacy is used in the judicial systems that are based on the principle of "innocent until proven guilty."…… [Read More]
Tick just one.
Can the following discourse be reasonably interpreted as containing an argument?
If we command our wealth, we shall be rich and free; if our wealth commands us, we are poor indeed. So if we do not want to lose our wealth and freedom, we should see to it that we are masters of our wealth, not the other way around.
(The main points of this discourse are borrowed from Edmund Burke, Letters On a Regicide Peace (1796))
(1) Scott said that if the light was on when we came by, we could be assured that he was home, and (2) the light isn't on. Therefore, (3) Scott must not be home.
(Adapted from T.Edward Damer, Attacking Faulty Reasoning: A Practical Guide to Fallacy-Free Arguments, Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2009, 6th edition, p.89)
Which of (a), (b), (c) or (d) is correct in relation to…… [Read More]
logical errors one may make as discussed in Part Five of the book (1200-1500 words). nclude in this paper precise definitions and your own example of the following logical errors: undistributed middle, begging the question, straw man, abusing tradition, democratic fallacy, ad hominem, uses and abuses of expertise, red herring, inability to disprove does not prove, false dilemma, and simplistic thinking,
The book Being Logical: A guide to Good Thinking (Random House, New York, 2004, pp.131) was authored by D. Q Mcnerny, a professor of logic to student s at Notre Dame, the University of Kentucky, and Our Lady of Guadalupe Seminary. The author has written three previous textbooks on philosophy. This is his first book on logic, but as he writes, logic undergirds all thinking and goes to the core of what we mean by human intelligence.
Logic is the basis of all human thinking. t can be seen…… [Read More]
STATMENT: y all means, teenagers should be the best drivers in the world. Their muscles and their reflexes should be quick enough to handle anything.
FALLACY: False dichotomy
The arguer sets up the situation so it looks like there are only two choices. The arguer then eliminates one of the choices, so it seems that we are left with only one option: the one the arguer wanted us to pick in the first place.
Certainly, teenagers do have quick reflexes. However, quick reflexes aren't enough. It also takes considerable experience in order to drive well. While reflex speed declines in later life, the gap is at least partly filled up by driving experience. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety has statistics on drivers based on both age and driving experience. They found that inexperience behind the wheel contributes substantially to both accident rate and fatality rate. In addition,…… [Read More]
Inductive Reasoning and Fallacies in Today's Popular Mass Media (Tabloid News Articles and Advertising Campaigns)
In popular mass media, information has become a valuable source of profit. Motivated by the lucrative media business, publishing companies and media agencies sought to provide people with sensational stories and numerous information in order to generate a following in the society. Through tabloid newspapers and advertising, the mass media are able to cater to the public's interest in sensationalism and curiosity. What happens is the prevalence of news that are neither valid nor reliable, as well as advertisements that provides information that can be categorized as "far from the truth." Sensationalism and false reporting of facts and information is prevalent among tabloid news and ads presented by the media today. Often, they resort to inductive reasoning (generalization) and other forms of fallacies that hamper the delivery of truthful and ethical information to the people.…… [Read More]
These are shaped by real conditions.
I use my lawn for recreational activities and fear that this would impede on these.
Special breeds of grass can be used to create lawns and recreational spaces that carry the characteristics of a traditional lawn.
I am afraid that it would be too costly to create a specialized garden.
Argument from Ignorance
A xeriscaped garden will ultimately reduce the amount of waste which is produced by the use of water, fertilizers or pesticides. It will also reduce the amount of money spent on these resources. The xeriscaped garden will actually be far more cost effective in the long run.
I don't want to be limited in plant choices for my landscape.
Base Rate Fallacy
The assumption that xeriscaping limits plant choices to the extent of being undesirable is only…… [Read More]
App Fallacy," a columnist New York University's ashington Square News argues wisdom Common Application college application process. You read essay college newspaper; opportunity responds.
The fallacy of "The Common App Fallacy"
The Common Application is a standardized application that makes it very easy for college students to apply to a multitude of schools, all of which use its basic format. A student merely has to fill out the forms associated with the Common Application once and then can send the form electronically to a wide range of institutions spanning from Cornell University to the University of Miami to The College of New Jersey. According to NYU student Damon Beres, it has made it too easy to apply to college, particularly competitive colleges, with a touch of a 'send' button. Beres cites statistics which indicate only a very tiny minority of highly qualified students are able to get into the Harvards…… [Read More]
Specifically, Heuer advocated the use of tools that help the thinker to "...clearly delineate their assumptions and chains of inference," and to "specify the degree and source of the uncertainty involved in the conclusions." Thus, Heuer advocated the use of analytic debate, devil's advocate arguments, brainstorming, competition between analyses, peer review and outside "points-of-view." Edward de ono, on the other hand, specifically emphasized the value of creativity in the development of a "new way" of thinking of problems from non-logical angles -- in effect, using the creative mind to compensate for its areas of deficiency in the logical or perceptional realm.
Unfortunately, however, there are some forms of mental "problems" or analytical fallacies that are famously resistant to even the best "tools" or creative thinking -- "learned" or no. Further, because both men consider the real issue at hand to be the problem presented by the "lenses" through which the…… [Read More]
Critical Thinking Action Project
Finding fallacies in the prior assignment
In the Introduction the statement was made that because the two offices of ExtraVert are in different locations and have "different objectives" that strategic situation will "create tension and conflict, which detract from the objectives and mission of ExtraVert."
This phrase could raise the question as to the possibility that a "sweeping generalization" (Fullerton.edu) was made. Is it likely that "tension and conflict" are the logical results of having different objectives? It is possible, but a sweeping generalization doesn't assure that tension and conflict are inevitable. Asserting that the tension and conflict will detract from the mission and objectives could be considered a "hasty generalization" (Fullerton.edu) as well. Moreover, stating that solutions can "almost always be arrived at" if understanding, courtesy and thoughtfulness are embraced could be considered "post hoc" (unc.edu). In other words, asserting that because one thing happens…… [Read More]
Solar is the Solution, author Steve Heckeroth argues that solar energy is the key to alleviating climate change. Heckeroth builds his argument on the statement that "Solar is a promising source of future energy supplies because not only is it clean, it's remarkably abundant." Another one of Heckeroth's claims is that "relying on coal, oil and natural gas threatens our future with toxic pollution, global climate change and social unrest caused by diminishing fuel supplies." These statements are internally valid; although Heckeroth does not provide quantitative data to back up these statements, they are easy to reference. Moreover, Heckeroth establishes his own credibility as an author qualified to write about environmental science by stating "I have been studying our energy options for more than 30 years." Of course, "studying" something for thirty years does not automatically make a person an expert. Heckeroth is admitting that he is a layperson who…… [Read More]
Insufficient or inadequate information is usually seen as the greatest threat to the integrity of an argument. However, the fact is that even arguments, which are supported with a great amount of information, can prove to be faulty because of structural weaknesses. For example, suppressed, ignored, or unconsidered evidence can invalidate conclusions. Similarly, biased assumptions, failures in logic, and the neglect of counter-arguments can all lead to fallacies in reasoning (UNB, para 1). Thus, it is evident that critical thinking necessarily involves the consideration or avoidance of logical fallacies if it is to succeed in being "...purposeful, self-regulatory judgment which results in interpretation, analysis, evaluation, and inference, as well as explanation of the evidential, conceptual, methodological, criteriological, or contextual considerations upon which that judgment is based." (Facione, 1998, p. 14) There are a multitude of logical fallacies that may occur in reasoning or arguments. Since it would not be possible…… [Read More]
According to Halpern (1996, p. 197), arguments that utilize irrelevant reasons are fairly common: "The Latin word for this sort of fallacy is non-sequitur, which literally translates to 'it doesn't follow.' In other words, the reason or premise is unrelated to the conclusion." Since relevant premises are a key criteria for building sound arguments, it follows that critical thinkers must learn to recognize and avoid such fallacies.
However, in the real world this is perhaps easier said than done since the use of force often tends to sway decisions in favor of the person who is making the threat, implied or otherwise. An example that comes readily to mind is the manner in which advertisers have coerced sports bodies to disallow ambush marketing: "It is important that any sports body has the right to control what is being brought into their events...to protect the millions of pounds of investment that…… [Read More]
(Eljamal; Stark; Arnold; Sharp, 1999)
To conclude, it be said that if we will not be able to master imparting the capability to think in a developed form, our profession, as well as perhaps our world, would be influenced and taken over by someone who would be able to outsmart us to find it out. We would in that case not only remain thinking as to what happened but would also not have the skills required to provide answers to our own question.
Braun, N.M. (2004, March/April) Critical thinking in the business curriculum. Journal of Education for Business, 79(4). etrieved from ProQuest database on February 20, 2007.
Carroll-Johnson, .M. (2001, April - June). Learning to think. Nursing Diagnosis, 12(2).
etrieved from Thomson Gale database on February 14, 2007.
Cheung, C., udowicz, E., Kwan, a.S.F., & Yue, X.D. (2002, December). Assessing university students general and specific critical thinking. College Student…… [Read More]
role in any process of enquiry that is undertaken to arrive at the truth, a sound argument or an objective opinion. In fact, good critical thinking is conceptualized as: distinguishing between verifiable facts and value statements; distinguishing relevant from irrelevant reasons; determining the factual accuracy of statements and the credibility of sources; identifying ambiguous statements and unstated assumptions; detecting bias; identifying logical fallacies; and determining the overall strength of an argument or conclusion (Duplass & Ziedler, cited Beyer, 2002). Thus, it is evident that learning to recognize and avoid logical fallacies is vital to the process of critical thinking. It is the objective of this paper to discuss the significance of three such logical fallacies: personal attack; two wrongs make a right; and red herring.
The fallacy of personal attack also referred to more formally as argumentum ad hominem, is a popular tactic that is often used to deny the…… [Read More]
But if one agrees with the jury that convicted her, that the evidence supports that "Stewart acted on illegally obtained information in selling her stock," the fact that some corporate executives might 'do worse' things does not make her illegal actions correct or 'a good thing.' Ironically, one of the reasons so many celebrities used the 'two wrongs make a right' defense of Stewart -- even if she did lie, there are worse things she could have done, and many CEOs do worse -- is that Stewart has so often been personally attacked as a successful female corporate executive, domestic diva, and brand wrapped up into one -- allegations that have nothing to do with her quality as a leader and a developer of a quality brand. But two logical fallacies in Stewart's case do not make a right either -- merely because Martha Stewart has been unfairly attacked does…… [Read More]
It is not only subjective but also offensive. On the other hand, even if there may be cases in which people may be reluctant to work, this cannot be cause for generalization to the entire population that is not paying taxes. Further, the speaker dismisses this generalization when arguing that children, that do not pay taxes either, cannot be "punished" which means that at least they are not lazy.
Identify one psychological fallacy found in the speech. Provide the sentence and explain why it is a psychological fallacy
A psychological fallacy in the speech may be considered the one presented in the sentence "Before you know it, the Slackers will demand a new iPhone5." This sentence implies a generalization of an assumed practice on the one hand. Although the use of "iPhone 5" is symbolic, the speaker makes reference to a general good that the slackers may consider to be…… [Read More]
adverts analyzed long fallowed prompt explicit... Please I provide.
Similar persuasive goals and logical fallacies for three different products
This McDonald's advertisement attempts to visually persuade the viewer that McDonald's is an all-natural product by showing McDonald's fries literally carved out of a potato ("Print advertising: 90 brilliant examples." Creative Bloq: 1). This is an example of a visually arresting advertisement designed to draw the viewer's attention but does not really communicate information about the product. After all, McDonald's fries are still unhealthy, deep-fried and laden with artificial ingredients and have a seemingly indefinite shelf life. However, simply because French fries contain potatoes, they are portrayed as a wholesome, all-natural product. Thus, the advertisement exhibits the "the fallacy of composition" which "is the fallacy of inferring from the fact that every part of a whole has a given property that the whole also has that property" (Fallacy of…… [Read More]
C. with interest 4 1/2 per cent.
To further arouse compassion, he includes the personal detail about his parents:
"I owe $3,500 to my parents and the interest on that loan which I pay regularly, because it's the part of the savings they made through the years they were working so hard, I pay regularly 4 per cent interest."
. He calls himself "a man of modest means" adding that Abraham Lincoln said: "God must have loved the common people -- "he made so many of them." Nixon, inother words, refers to himself as a 'common'man.
In Paragraph 4, he abuses his opponent commiting the as hominem fallacy i.e. attemtpting to negate the truth of a claim by pointing out negative characteristics or beliefs of the person supporting it.
And now I'm going to suggest some courses of conduct. First of all, you have read in the papers about other…… [Read More]
Business Critical Thinking
To whom it may concern:
'Logically speaking...' How often do we say this simple phrase? There is a presumption that logic is not only good, but that the human mind can easily calculate the pros and cons of most decisions. However, the human brain did not evolve to naturally gravitate to an emotion-free, Spock-like way of evaluating options. "hen people face an uncertain situation, they don't carefully evaluate the information or look up relevant statistics. Instead, their decisions depend on mental short cuts, which often lead them to make foolish decisions. The short cuts aren't a faster way of doing the math; they're a way of skipping the math altogether" (Lehrer 2011). The sooner we admit this, the better we can cope with the challenges with which life presents us; the sooner a business organization admits this, the better it can guard against irrationality, or at least…… [Read More]
In a context in which the majority of the media sources were blaming Shirley Sherrod of racism and bigotry, some journalists showed signs of professionalism and documented the entire situation. One such example is constituted by Matt McLaughlin who sought the tape with the entire video and gave it context. McLaughlin revealed that after the initial delegation of the white farmer to a white lawyer, the latter party failed to help the farmer. The help needed came from Sherrod who learnt the lesson that help was needed not only by the blacks, but by all poor people, regardless of race.
"The farmer called me and said the lawyer wasn't doing anything. And that's when I spent time there in my office calling everybody I could think so to try to see -- help me find the lawyer who would handle this. […] Well, working with him made me see that…… [Read More]
Pitch for Implementing Community Outreach
A community outreach initiative should be implemented in which area high school kids who have struggled with their behavior will go to local nursing home, cooking for and eating with residents on a weekly basis.
This community outreach initiative will be an effective one because it will be mutually beneficial to both the elderly folks and the students, thereby engendering a sense of solidarity within the community. This project will be productive since the kids will gain a sense of compassion for the elderly; at the same time, sharing a meal and conversing with the kids will help maintain the lucidity of the elderly. Nevertheless, there are a number of potential challenges that face such a project.
First, it will undoubtedly be difficult to convince these area youths to help the elderly; the vast majority of those selected for the project will have a poor…… [Read More]
Statement of the Issue
Beginning with a discussion of Social Darwinism's inherent logical fallacy, this study examines whether or not wealthy industrialists of the nineteenth century actually practiced what Social Darwinism called for. By considering the history of the concept and its relation to capitalism, it becomes clear that not only did wealthy industrialists practice Social Darwinism, but that they embraced it precisely because it provided a justification for the unethical business practices they were already engaged in.
Statement of the Issue
Social Darwinism was a major force in the political, economic, and social landscape of the nineteenth and early twentieth century, but it represents something of a conundrum for the historian attempting to determine whether or not the wealthy industrialists who were proponents of Social Darwinism actually practiced what they preached. The difficulty stems from the fact that Social Darwinism is itself an example of a formal…… [Read More]
The metaphor of the jigsaw puzzle-- "what good would it do to finish early? Three, the jigsaw puzzle isn't the important thing. The important thing is the fun of four people (one thin person included) sitting around a card table, working a jigsaw puzzle"-- illustrates that fat people enjoy the process of life and live in the moment, versus thin people who are purpose-driven and obsessed with completing tasks, even leisure-time activities that are supposed to be fun.
Q5. Identify the author's purpose and discuss whether or not she achieved that purpose.
The purpose of the author is to deflate society's obsession with perfection and to turn a bit of conventional wisdom -- the superiority of thinness and perfectionism -- on its head. The essay, through humor, achieves this purpose. Asserting the position in a serious way would likely have given rise to a debate about the health problems fostered…… [Read More]
According to the authors, this dynamic that many contemporary views consider to be a universal fact of life actually evolved only after the social changes introduced by the Industrial evolution. In fact, any so-called "modern" shift to a more egalitarian sharing of family responsibilities represents more of a return to the more natural state of families than any "radical" or "new" approach.
Branden (1999) agrees, again tying in excessive adherence to typical male and female roles as a potential source of unnecessary strain, especially where marital partners may be better suited to a different arrangement or sharing of responsibilities. Likewise, oberts (2007) also acknowledges the damage caused to marriage by dissatisfaction, especially among wives, as to the roles prescribed to them by society.
Myth # 4 - the Unstable African-American Family:
In their criticism of the notion that the African-American community reflects a lower level of marital and family stability…… [Read More]
Minds," Norman Malcolm attempts to highlight the difficulty of establishing the existence of minds other than one's own, specifically by dismantling the so-called "argument from analogy" (Malcolm 969). This actually makes Malcolm's argument a little easier to track, because he constructs it carefully in order to avoid the same logical fallacies he believes the argument from analogy engages in. By carefully tracking Malcolm's argument, one can see not only how the argument from analogy is insufficient as evidence for the knowledge of other minds, but also how Malcolm makes a convincing case for the ultimate impossibility of this knowledge, or at least, that the lack of this knowledge does not actually represent a true problem for philosophy.
Malcolm begins his argument by outlining a number of different variations of the argument from analogy. He begins with the most basic form, which is the idea that "I conclude that other human…… [Read More]
.....personal ethics derive from a combination of established codifications of moral conduct, such as those embedded in political documents or in religious scripture, but also from my personality, my upbringing, and my worldview. I tend towards a utilitarian point-of-view, in that I do believe that the consequences of actions are more important than worrying about whether an action is inherently right or wrong. I also believe that there are situational variables that make true deontological ethics almost impossible to apply universally and without hypocrisy. Although I make some decisions based on the principle of doing the maximum amount to good for the maximum number of people, I also recognize the importance of a strong ethical character when making decisions "Six Ethical Theories Rough Overview," n.d.). This is why I believe that there can be no one ethical theory that encompasses all situations. A person who has a strong ethical character,…… [Read More]
The right to choose
In her article "The ight to Choose? eally?," Kathryn Jean Lopez outlines a number of benefits to the Abortion Non-Discrimination Act (ANDA) and denigrates the viewpoints of the pro-abortion opponents to ANDA. As Lopez notes at the start of her article, ANDA was enacted to enable hospitals and other healthcare providers to not have to perform abortion against their will. Lopez's main argument is that the bill is necessary because otherwise, healthcare providers have no choice but to provide abortions, even when abortions are antithetical to their sensibility. She argues that by preventing life, abortions are an affront to the purpose of the hospital. Accordingly, Lopez contends that ANDA actually promotes freedom since it allows hospitals the autonomy to choose whether or not to perform abortions.
By stating that ANDA endorses freedom, Lopez erroneously privileges the healthcare provider over the patients themselves. The purpose…… [Read More]
Lying: Deceit in Language
Tools, such as hammers, have no inherent intent to deceive or malign. Only in the hands of its users do morals come into play. Lying is relative and in some instances the best of choices. Introspection accompanied with reasoning skills will help those receiving language signals to properly classify, and then act upon or ignore, these relations. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relative use of language, and specifically the relationship to its use and intentional miscommunication or deception.
I will develop this argument using the suggested written materials in order to point out how every argument can be interpreted with doubt and the intended consequence of deceit. I will also explore the idea of manipulation through deceptive language and the characteristics of such actions. It is my opinion that manipulation is a self-inflicted process that relies on an individual's decision to rely…… [Read More]
Business Case Studies
Critical Thinking -- Erroneous Thinking
Logical Fallacies in Business Reporting
lthough the reporting of facts and figures is often thought of as an objective science, quite frequently even business reporting is characterized by logical fallacies, including but not limited to appeals to ignorance, hasty generalizations, and ad hominem attacks. In fact, one could argue that these logical fallacies, however, are particularly common and pernicious in business reporting because of the frequently technically complex nature of the subject matter in regards to facts and figures, combined with the emotional texture of business reporting that involves the fabric and texture of individuals lives. Reporters wish to attract attention and render complexities comprehensible, but frequently fall into logically fallacious traps to accomplish these objectives.
Hasty Generalization hasty generalization is often characterized by an all or nothing style of reporting. The fallacy of the hasty generalization is a failure of…… [Read More]
According to G.E. Moore, Ethics is a "systematic science," that seeks to offer "correct reasons for thinking that this or that is good," (6). As a science and a rational discourse, Ethics must be based in logic and must not reflect any logical fallacies. Therefore, in sections 5-13 of Principia Ethica, Moore systematically analyzes the nature of 'good' and proves that it is logically impossible to define the term. In fact, Moore shows that one of the most common philosophical pitfalls is the attempt to define 'good,' either in absolute or relational terms. As Moore illustrates, good is indefinable because the concept is too simple and too fundamental. A definition necessarily implies a breaking down of something into relational parts; because the concept of 'good' cannot be broken down into any smaller elements, it cannot be defined logically. Because Ethics is a logical discourse, no philosopher studying Ethics…… [Read More]
If the impact was the result of government collusion against Hatfill, then many might believe that actual freedom can only be guaranteed by forcing the press to reveal those sources, so that corruption could be eliminated from the government. However, Martin does not even mention arguments like those found above. Instead, she touts the ideals of the free press, without any mention of who the press is meant to serve, the people, and without any look into the history of journalistic freedom in the United States.
I. Introduction: Martin's fails to adequately support her thesis, which is that the courts are using a new method, financial compulsion, to silence and intimidate journalists.
Martin's describes Toni Locy's predicament.
1. Judge Reggie alton, the judge from the Scooter Libby trial, is presiding over Hatfill's lawsuit.
2. alton has held Locy in contempt for failing to divulge sources.
3. Hatfill's sued the…… [Read More]
Blending pop psychology with cognitive science, Christopher Chabris and Daniel Simons write about perceptual biases and inattentional blindness in The Invisible Gorilla. Sparked by a now-famous experiment the authors performed, The Invisible Gorilla: How Our Intuitions Deceive Us is not as much about intuition as the subtitle of the book suggests. Rather, the book describes six ways our brains are fooled by illusions. Recognizing and understanding the illusions can prevent people from making critical mistakes in judgment. Those mistakes can sometimes be egregious, as when cops presume a black man is a criminal or when drivers overestimate their ability to multitask on the road. Salesmen and stage magicians count on the brain’s susceptibility to illusion to be successful. Memories of past events are reconstructions, rather than accurate recordings of the facts. Therefore, the main reason why Chabris and Simons translated their research findings into a popular book written for a…… [Read More]
The internet is a primary source of entertainment, the different cultural music and arts are uploaded on the internet, making the different cultures more accessible to the diverse cultures in other parts of the world. Apart from music and movies, which are freely ready for download on the internet, there is plenty of news on the internet, both in print and video form, which can be accessed by those interested. There is a lot of rebellion towards the use of internet, as some people are of the perception that some of the information from the internet might be prone to human error, and might be misleading to the users. Some authors and researchers have also indicated that there are several negative implications brought about by the internet; these include health, social and interpersonal implications, just but to name a few. Regardless of the criticisms and concern by certain groups of…… [Read More]
convince the reader that the reason that something happens (the cause) is linked to the result of that cause (the effect). In developing a cause and effect essay, the writer must be concerned with clearly determining and differentiating causes and effects, and creating a reasonable and believable argument to convince the reader. Often, cause and effect essays are marred by the presence of two logical fallacies, the non-sequitur (it does not follow) and the post hoc (after this, therefore because of this). In the non-sequitur fallacy, the author makes a conclusion that is not justified by the reasons given. The post hoc fallacy occurs when the reader concludes that a later event is caused because something occurred earlier (Capital Community College Foundation). When either of these fallacies occurs, it can do a great deal of damage to the credibility of an entire argument, and thus defeat the purpose of a…… [Read More]