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Lung cancer was a less known condition till after the WWI when a sudden increase in number of cases affected by tumors of the lower respiratory tract was noticed. Prior to the WWI, the tobacco industry has increased its production manifold which was directly related with the increase in number of patients with lung cancer. Even though the tobacco industry denied having anything to do with this increase, it was conclusively established in 1950s that there existed a strong link between cigarette smoking and development of tumors in lower respiratory tract. Even though initially most of the cases were found in males, since 1987 things have changed dramatically and now women account for 40% of lung cancer cases found in the U.S.
Statistics show that in 1878, lung tumors were found in hardly 1% of cases emerging at the Institute of Pathology of the University of Dresden in Germany. After…
History of Lung cancer. Accessed online from http://www.lungcancersurgery.org/lung_cancer_history.htm
Witschi, Hanspeter. A Short History of Lung Cancer. Toxicological Sciences. Volume64, Issue 1 Pp. 4-6.
Causes of Lung cancer. Accessed online from http://www.emedicinehealth.com/lung_cancer/page2_em.htm#Lung%20Cancer%20Causes
Wood ME, Kelly K, Mullineaux LG, Bunn PA Jr. The inherited nature of lung cancer: a pilot study. Lung Cancer. 2000 Nov;30(2):135-44.
Apical growth may lead to shoulder pain radiating in an ulnar distribution. "The superior vena cava can become obstructed and involvement of the heart and pericardium can occur. Lymphatic obstruction and spread can lead to dyspnea, hypoxia, and pleural effusions. Distant metastatic disease can affect most organs. Neurologic symptoms may suggest brain metastases or spinal cord compression, and pain could indicate bone metastases" (Mazzone 2004).
Surgery is the usual recourse for early-stage non-small cell lung cancer Radiotherapy has been used with curative intent in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer, either in patients who cannot tolerate surgery or in those who elect not to undergo surgery. Chemoradiotherapy to shrink the tumor followed by surgery, or surgery followed by radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy may be used in more aggressive cases (Mazzone 2004).
Palliative care, through analgesics for pain, antiemetics for nausea, and antidepressants are common. "Radiotherapy can be used to…
Huether, Sue & Kathryn McCance. (2008). Understanding Pathophysiology. 4th ed. Mosby.
Mazzone, Peter. (2004, 6 May). Lung cancer. Cleveland clinic. Retrieved 2 Nov 2008 at http://www.clevelandclinicmeded.com/medicalpubs/diseasemanagement/pulmonary/lungcancer/lungcancer.htm#signsymptoms
Cancer nurses with sufficient knowledge of the biological basis of these therapies would be better equipped to deal with the practical clinical implications and provide better symptoms management. The technical understanding of the nurses is also crucial in educating and in enabling the patients to take care of themselves. Further, it also goes without saying that nurses, as the primary caregivers are responsible for the emotional well being of the patients. Improving the quality of life is one of the most important features of cancer care and the cancer nurse plays a large role in this by providing proactive and treatment centric nursing interventions for symptoms palliation.
CDC, "Lung Cancer: Statistics," Accessed!4th Dec 2007, available at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lung/statistics/
Caldas, C. (1998) "Science, medicine and the future - Molecular assessment of cancer': ritish Medical Journal: No.316 pp. 1360-1363,
Available online at, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1113070
3) Nobuaki Ishii and N. de Tribolet, "Are p53…
CDC, "Lung Cancer: Statistics," Accessed!4th Dec 2007, available at http://www.cdc.gov/cancer/lung/statistics/
Caldas, C. (1998) "Science, medicine and the future - Molecular assessment of cancer': British Medical Journal: No.316 pp. 1360-1363,
Available online at, http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1113070
3) Nobuaki Ishii and N. de Tribolet, "Are p53 mutations and p53 over expression prognostic factors for astrocytic tumors? Critical reviews in Neurosurgery, vol 8 / no 5, Sept 1998.
Provide a rationale and support for your recommendations.
A story of radon-related lung cancer in Minnesota was publicized to thousands of viewers via media followed by the Minnesota-legislature passing a law that required radon-resistant construction in all new homes. imilar legislation was passed in Illinois.
Pennsylvania can adopt a similar stance preceding the legislation with widespread publicity in order to educate the public about the matter. teps should also be taken regarding considering implementing this radon construction in all homes across the state. More constructive may be the idea of devising an instrument that can detect radon in homes or identify homes that may be more susceptible to radon. It may be the building materials of the home itself or their easy access to radon or penetrability factor. Lowering costs so that all people can afford this and devising cost-effective methods may be a profitable idea for scientists, law-makers…
Gold et al. (2011). The BATTLE to Personalize Lung Cancer Prevention through Reverse Migration Cancer Prev Res July 2011 4; 962
Northeast Regional Cancer Institute of Pennsylvania http://www.wmh.org/dashboard/articleImages/Cancer%20in%20NEPA%202011.pdf)
Penn Lung Center http://www.pennmedicine.org/lung/services/smoking.html
Penn Medicine. http://www.penncancer.org/patients/cancer-types/lung-cancers-related-disorders/about-lung-cancer/
Lung Cancer isk Factors
Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world, accounting for 12.7% of all new cancers cases annually (McErlean and Ginsberg, 2011, p. 173). Lung cancer is also the most lethal, killing more people each year (18.2%) that any other type of cancer (Molina, Yang, Cassivi, Schild, and Adjei, 2008, p. 584; Brennan, Hainaut, and Boffetta, 2011, p. 399). There are very large geographical differences (30 to 60-fold) in the prevalence of lung cancer, with developing countries representing a full 55% of all new cases each year (McErlean and Ginsberg, 2011, p. 173). The geographical difference in incidence highlights the dominance of environmental risk factors in lung cancer etiology.
Types of Lung Cancer
Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type, representing 85% of all lung cancers (Molina, Yang, Cassivi, Schild, and Adjei, 2008, p. 584). The three types of NSCLC are…
Bissett, Randall J. And McLaughlin, John R. (2010). Radon. Chronic Diseases in Canada, 29 (Suppl. 1), 38-50.
Brennan, Paul, Hainaut, Pierre, and Boffetta, Paolo. (2011). Genetics of lung-cancer susceptibility. Lancet Oncology, 12, 399-408.
McErlean, Aoife and Ginsberg, Michelle S. (2011). Epidemiology of lung cancer. Seminars in Roenterology, 46, 173-177.
Molina, Julian R., Yang, Ping, Cassivi, Stephen D., Schild, Steven E., and Adjei, Alex A. (2008). Non-small cell lung cancer: Epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and survivorship. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83, 584-594.
diseases i.e. lung cancer, childhood leukemia, obesity and Alzheimer's disease. In each explanation, I have included a definition of the disease, risk factors, treatments, prognosis, and prevention. Later, I have provided short literature reviews of four articles.
Lungs are those organs in the body that help the human beings to breathe i.e. inhale and exhale oxygen. Their primary function is to provide oxygen to every cell in the body. As far as cancer cells are concerned, they are abnormal and deformed cells with the basic property of rapid growth and multiplication as compared to healthy cells. Thus, lung cancer begins in the lung tissues when lung cells start to become deformed. It is the Lung cancer is the deadliest cancer for all human beings as it is due to lung cancer that more people die each year as compared to other cancers that occur in breast, colon, and…
Alzheimer's disease from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed..Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved January 27, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-Alzheime/alzheimer-s-disease
Childhood Leukemia: Symptoms, Treatments, Risk Factors, Tests. (n.d.).WebMD - Better information. Better health.. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.webmd.com/cancer/childhood-leukemia-symptoms-treatments
Lung Cancer. (2007). cancer.org. Retrieved January 28, 2013, from http://www.cancer.org/acs/groups/content/@nho/documents/document/lungcancerpdf.pdf
lung cancer from The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed.. (n.d.). Questia, Your Online Research Library. Retrieved January 26, 2013, from http://www.questia.com/read/1E1-lungca/lung-cancer
The risk factors of the treatment are discussed as well as their possible benefits, along with the needs of specific population groups during treatment, such as the elderly.
Treatment choices. (2013). The American Cancer Society. Retrieved:
Despite the fact that SCLC has been well-known for many years as a threat to the lives of Americans, treatment remains relatively limited. In contrast to the more common form of the illness (NCLC) surgery is often impossible to remove the widespread small cells of the cancer in SCLC. Chemotherapy and radiation in some form is the usual suggested treatment.
hat is small cell lung cancer? (2013). The American Cancer Society. Retrieved:
This article provides an overview of SCLC and contrasts it with NCLC. It discusses the effects upon the body and the progression of the illness. It details the rate of incidence of SCLC and explains why SCLC is often more…
What are the risk factors for small-cell lung cancer? (2013). The American Cancer
Society. Retrieved: http://www.cancer.org/cancer/lungcancer-smallcell/detailedguide/small-cell-lung-cancer-risk-factors
Smoking is the major risk factor for SCLC, although there are other risk factors, such as environmental causes. This article reviews the major risk factors for developing lung cancer, with a focus on lifestyle practices vs. genetic factors or demographic factors that could predispose one to develop lung cancer.
" (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005)
CONCEPTS in DIFFUSION of INNOVATIONS
Innovation an idea, object, or practice that is thought to be new by an individual Organization, or community
Communication Channels the means of transmitting the new idea from one person
Social system a group of individuals who together adopt the innovation
Time How long it take to adopt the innovation
SOUCE: U.S. DEPATMENT of HEALTH and HUMAN SEVICES (2005)
It is related that "diffusion of innovations that prevent disease and promote health requires a multilevel change process that usually takes place in diverse settings, through different strategies." At the individual level, involved is a change in lifestyle. At the organizational level "it may entail starting programs, changing regulations, or altering personnel roles." (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2005)
III. LINKING FAMEWOK to POBLEM/INTEVENTION
The intervention in this study…
Blumenthal, Daniel S. (2007) Barriers to the Provision of Smoking Cessation Services Reported by Clinicians in Underserved Communities. The Journal of American Board of Family Medicine 20 (3): [HIDDEN] . Online available at http://www.jabfm.org/cgi/content/full/20/3/272
Crane, Rob (2007) the Most Addictive Drug, the most deadly substance: smoking cessation tactics for the busy clinician. Primary Care: Clinics in Office
Practice Vol. 34 Issue 1 Mar 2007 117-35
Denny, John T. (2002) Hospital Incentives in Promoting Smoking Cessation: A Survey of Internet and Hospital-Based Programs Targeted at Consumers. Medscape. 10 Oct. 2002. Online available at http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441848
...It can spot moderate to severe dysplasia (irregular tissue), "some of which may turn out to be malignant and you'll have a case of lung cancer," he explains. Patients with dysplasia can then be closely monitored, and if cancer appears, it can be treated in its earliest stages. The second diagnostic tool is an imaging agent called Nofetumomab (verluma). Approved by FDA in 1996, it can determine the extent of disease in patients already diagnosed with small cell lung cancer through a biopsy but who have not yet been treated. Nofetumomab is a fragment of a monoclonal (synthetic) antibody that, when tagged with a radioisotope, can detect a protein found on the surface of most small cell lung cancers. The antibody collects in tumor sites and other areas of the body where protein is detected and, using special cameras, doctors can see the areas as "hotspots." (Brown, 1999, p. 7)…
American Cancer Society "How many people get non-small cell lung cancer?" http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1x_How_Many_People_Get_Non-small_Cell_Lung_Cancer.asp?rnav=cri
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer" http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_2_1x_What_Is_Non-small_Cell_Lung_Cancer.asp?sitearea=
Beder, J.D. (2004). Voices of Bereavement: A Casebook for Grief Counselors. New York: Brunner-Routledge.
Brown, E. (1999, May). Waging War on Lung Cancer. FDA Consumer, 33, 7.
It is reported in the work of Morrow (2009) that prior to palliative sedation being considered the team of people caring for the patient or the palliative care team "…will look at many possible options to help relieve suffering, such as aggressive symptom management (using any and all medications and treatments that may help) and mental support to help with emotional concerns. The goal is to make the patient as comfortable as possible. When this effort isn't enough, palliative sedation may be an option. " (Morrow, 2009, p.1) in some cases the symptoms are difficult if not impossible to treat and fail to respond to any treatment despite extremely high doses of pain medications. Also causing severe distress is such as "frequent and severe nausea and vomiting, uncontrollable tremors or seizures, and severe breathlessness are just a few examples of distressing conditions. In these cases, sedation may be…
Lung Cancer Etiology (nd) Retrieved from: http://www.meddean.luc.edu/lumen/MedEd/medicine/pulmonar/lungca/smok-med.htm
Eldridge, L. (2009) Definition of Palliative Sedation. Health's Disease and Condition. 2009. Medical Review Board 20 Dec 2009.
Kvale PA, Selecky PA, Prakash UB, American College of Chest Physicians. Palliative care in lung cancer: ACCP evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (2nd edition). Chest 2007 Sep;132(3 Suppl):368S-403S. PubMed.
Morrow, Angela (2009) Palliative Sedation: Alleviating Suffering When All Else Fails. 10 July 2009. Medical Review Board.
Smoking and Lung Cancer
Cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies are together known as observational studies. These studies are frequently the only feasible manner of analyzing certain problems (Mann, 2003). In this particular case, the observational studies shall concentrate on smoking together with lung cancer.
This is the most appropriate manner of establishing the condition's prevalence and natural history.
A group of individuals that do not have the desired outcome shall be selected. Several variables, which may be significant to the condition's development shall then be measured by the researcher. The individuals in the selected sample are monitored over a length of time to observe if they develop the desired outcome (lung cancer). For the two cohorts utilized, one group shall have actually been exposed to or been smoking while the other has not, thus serving as an external control (Mann, 2003; Chen et al., 2010).…
Brenner, D. R., Hung, R. J., Tsao, M.-S., Shepherd, F. A., Johnston, M. R., Narod, S., ... McLaughlin, J. R. (2010). Lung cancer risk in never-smokers: a population-based case-control study of epidemiologic risk factors. BMC Cancer, 10, 285. http://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2407-10-285 .
Mann, C. J. (2003). Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies. Emergency Medicine Journal, 20(1), 54-60.
Chen, B., Li, W., Jia, Y., Guo, N., Liu, D., Tang, X., ... & Xiao, L. (2010). A Cross-sectional Investigation on Risk Factors of Lung Cancer for Residents over 40 Years Old in Chengdu. Sichuan Province, China. Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer, 13(11).
Immunotherapists can provide sensitive and accurate cancer diagnostic tools for the successful treatment of the disease and to stop it well in its tracks (cancerresearch.org, 2009). The outward advantages of immunotherapy are as follows: certain drugs have fewer side effects and offer patients a higher quality of life, bolstered anti-cancer effectiveness and rates of survival, benefits are often reaped quickly for the patient (cisncancer.org). The disadvantages are as follows: some varieties of this treatment have serious side effects, are very expensive and occasionally offer just a short-term efficacy (cisncancer.org)
5. An overexpression of proto-oncogenes can cause cancer as mutated forms of these genes can promote unrestrained cell proliferation: "oncogenes actively promote proliferation (analogous to the gas pedal of the cell cycle). Mutations that convert proto-oncogenes to oncogenes typically increase the activity" (Hyland). An underexpression of tumor suppressor genes can also put an individual in a precarious situation. Tumor suppressor genes…
Cancer.gov. (n.d.). Understanding Cancer Series. Retrieved from Cancer.gov: http://www.cancer.gov/ cancertopics/understandingcancer/cancergenomics/AllPages
Cancer.gov/topics. (n.d.). Tumor Markers. Retrieved from Cancer.gov:
Care of Cancer:
In the past few years, cancer has developed to become one of the major leading causes of deaths across the globe. The disease can be described as the uncontrolled growth or development of abnormal cells in the body even as cancerous cells are also known as malignant cells. Since cells are the building blocks of humans and other living things, cancer develops out of the normal cells within the body. Generally, the normal cells multiply when needed by the body and die when the body does not need them. When the growth of the cells in the body is out of control and cells divide too quickly, cancer appears to occur. Nonetheless, cancer also appears to happen when cells in the body forget how to die.
Causes of Cancer:
There are various kinds of cancer because the disease can develop in nearly every tissue or organ like…
Barraclough, J. (2002). Integrated Cancer Care. Retrieved from Royal College of Psychiatrists
"Cancer Complications." (n.d.). Info.com. Retrieved August 31, 2012, from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
"Cancer Staging." (2010, September 22). National Cancer Institute Factsheet. Retrieved from National Cancer Institute website: http://www.cancer.gov/ cancertopics/factsheet/detection/staging
Medical Advances in Cancer Treatment Research
This paper discusses the medical advances in cancer treatment research. The writer explores several treatment options and compares them to treatment options of the past. There were two sources used to complete this paper.
There was a time when a diagnosis of cancer meant a death sentence. The word still strikes a chord of fear among the millions each year who are told they have it, but in recent years there have been many advances in medical science that allow many who would have died from the disease to live long and full lives. There are more cancer survivors now than ever before and treatment options continue to be made available.
In the past there were only two options for the treatment of cancer. One could have surgery and one could be given a course of radiation treatments. The surgery was for the purpose…
This is related to bronchitis, asthma and long-term conditions such as lung cancer and bladder cancer (obinson, 2009).
It is estimated that the chances of getting bladder cancer is high for ex-smokers and passive smokers even after thirty years later. This brings us to the question of management of bladder cancer for current and ex-smokers as well as passive smokers.
The management of bladder cancer is a three-pronged approach that involves reducing the progression of the disease, protecting the bladder and increasing the chances of survival. The course of treatment depends to a large extent on the stage of the cancer. During the earlier stages, surgery, trans urethral resection, intravesical chemotherapy and immunotherapy are used to contain the disease and prevent it from progressing further. The malignant areas are treated with one of the above procedures to remove the tumor. In the case of a more advanced stage, radical cystectomy…
Cancer Research UK. (2011). Cancer in the UK: April 2011. Retrieved from http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/cancerstats/mortality/
Friedman, Howard. (1990). Personality and Disease. Publisher: New York, John Wiley & Sons.
Abrahamson; Seligman; Teasdale. (1978). Learned Helplessness in Humans: Critique and Reformulation. Abnormal Psychology. Vol 87. pp 49-74.
McAllister, Robert. (May 1974). Viral Etiology of Cancer: Two Hypotheses with relevance to chemical exposure. Pediatrics. Vol 53 (5). pp826.
In the daily diet; (5) Include cruciferous vegetables in the diet. (russels sprouts, kohlrabi and cauliflower); (6) Consume alcoholic beverages only moderately; and (7) Only moderately consume salt-cured, smoked and nitrate cured foods. (American Cancer Society, 1984, pp. 122-123) What little was understood about nutrition as it relates to cancer rates is summed up in the following specific food categories by the American Cancer Society in its 1984 report:
Food Additives -- chemicals of a variety are added to foods for improving the color and flavor of the foods and to preserve the foods. While some of these have been banned due to having been shown to cause cancer in animals others are believed to protect against carcinogens.
Vitamin E -- Vitamin E is an oxidant and while it may prevent cancer in animals more research is needed of the role Vitamin E plays in preventing cancer in humans.
American Cancer Society.: Nutrition for the Person with Cancer: A Guide for Patients and Families. Atlanta, Ga: American Cancer Society, Inc., 2000.
Brown, J. (2001) Nutrition During and After Cancer Treatment A Guide for Informed Choices by Cancer Survivors. Ca Cancer J. Clin. 2001; 551: 153.
Doyle, Leonard (2009) New Film Exposes Unsavory Side of U.S. Food Industry. 14 Jun 2009. Telegraph online available at: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/film-news/5533075/New-film-exposes-unsavoury-side-of-U.S.-food-industry.html
Jemal, A. et al. (2009) Cancer Statistics, 2009. Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 27 May 2009.
This then leads to the activation of a number of genes whose products trigger cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, or DNA repair" (Lakin 1999, p. 7644).
In research led by Hussain, he investigated the targets of free radicals, which are DNA, proteins, NA, and lipids. He noted that, "mutations in cancer-related genes or post-translational modifications of proteins by nitration, nitrosation, phosphorylation, acetylation or polyADP-ribosylation-by free radiacals or lipid peroxidation byproducts…are some of the key events that can increase the cancer risk" (Hussain 2003, p. 276). Furthermore, changes in DNA occur when the person has been exposed to high levels of nitric oxide or NO. p53 plays a role in that it acts as a mediator to stress but NO "causes p53 accumulation and post-translational modifications that inhibit cellular growth" (Hussain 2003, p. 278). His research has revealed that when exposed to NO during chronic inflammation sans wild-type p53, there might be increased…
American Cancer Society (n.d.) Cancer Facts & Figures 2010, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/research/cancerfactsfigures/cancerfactsfigures/cancer-facts-and-figures-2010 [Accessed: April 19, 2011].
American Cancer Society (n.d.) What Causes Cancer?, [online] Available at: http://www.cancer.org/Cancer/CancerCauses/index [Accessed: April 19, 2011].
Croce, C. (2008) Oncogenes and Cancer, N Engl J. Med, 358, p. 502-511.
Hasty, P. (2005) the impact of DNA damage, genetic mutation and cellular responses on cancer prevention, longevity and aging: observations in humans and mice, Mech Ageing Dev, 126(1), p.71-77.
Empyema Clinical Manifestation
Empyema: Lung Sounds and other Clinical Manifestations
Over the past decade, empyema has consistently been recognized as an acute, potentially life-threatening respiratory disease. A large number of studies have been conducted over the last years that address the unique symptomatology of empyema and the clinical implications of these symptoms.
The biggest diagnostic challenge of empyema is that patient often present with symptoms very similar and difficult to distinguish from an uncomplicated pneumonia. A patient typically shows symptoms such as fever and chills, excessive sweating, malaise, cough, dyspnea, pleuritic chest pain and unintentional weight loss (Sahn, 2007). These symptoms individually do not warrant a diagnosis of empyema. They do, however, require precautionary follow-up testing that should include a pleural fluid aspiration. The presence of pus -- an opaque, whitish-yellow viscous fluid consisting of serum coagulation proteins, cellular debris and fibrin deposition -- aspirated from the pleural space is…
1. Walker W, Wheeler R, Legg J. (2011). Update on the causes, investigation and management of empyema in childhood. Archives of Disease in Childhood, 96, 5, 482-488.
2. Sahn SA. (2007). Diagnosis and management of parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 45, 11, 1480-1486.
3. Heffner JE, Klein JS, Hampson C. (2010). Diagnostic utility and clinical application of imaging for pleural space infections. Chest, 137, 2, 467-479.
4. Froudarakis ME. (2008). Diagnostic Work-Up of Pleural Effusions. Respiration, 75, 4-13.
Screening for breast cancer before there are symptoms is very important. Screening helps doctors find and treat cancer in its early stages. Treatment is more likely to be successful when the cancer is detected early. A doctor may suggest any of the following screening tests for breast cancer: screening mammogram, clinical breast exam, beast self-exam (Stoppler, 2009).
Mammograms can often show a breast lump before it can even be felt. A mammogram is a picture of the breast that is made with an x-ray. It can also show a cluster of tiny deposits of calcium. These deposits are known as micro calcifications. Lumps can be from cancer, precancerous cells, or a host of other conditions. Further tests may be needed to find out if abnormal cells are present. Women in their 40s and older should have mammograms every 1 to 2 years (Stoppler, 2009).
During a clinical breast exam the…
Cancer Gap Between Whites, Blacks May Be Biological in Part. (2009). Retrieved August 11,
2009, from http://healthday.com/Article.asp?AID=628785
Carcinogen Found in KFC's New Grilled Chicken. (2009). Retrieved August 13, 2009, from News and Media Center Web site: http://www.pcrm.org/news/release090521.html
National Breast Cancer Awareness Month. (2008). Retrieved August 11, 2009, from American
Dietary Fibers on the Risk of Developing Cancer
Cancer is a genetic and complex disease caused mainly due to environmental elements. Carcinogen is a cancer agent that and can be present in water, food, air and in sunlight and chemicals as well. Almost ninety percent of the cancer occurs in epithelia because the epithelia cells cover the human's skin, lines the alimentary and respiratory tracts, and also metabolize ingested carcinogens. Currently, the causes of diseases are changing and infection can cause problems like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There were more than ten million cancer cases in 1996 globally while six million people died from cancer. Unhealthy lifestyle like smoking cigarettes and adopting modern diet that includes fiber content and high fat is causing increased incidences of cancer in humans (Alison).
Development of Cancer
Cancer cells are different from normal cells and they continue to grow other abnormal cells in the…
ACS. "Genes and Cancer." American Cancer Society (2014).
-- . "Wilms Tumor ." American Cancer Society (2015).
Alison, Malcolm R. "Cancer." NCYCLOPEDIA OF LIFE SCIENCES (2001): 1.
Harras, A. "CANCER RISK FACTORS." NEW JERSEY DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH & SENIOR SERVICES (2002).
Pharmacotherapy for Hematologic Disorders
The hematologic disorder selected in this case cancer –specifically, breast cancer. It is important to note, from the onset, that breast cancer has been identified as one of the leading causes of death amongst women across the world. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – CDC (2018), without taking into consideration some skin cancer types, breast cancer is not only “the most common cancer in women” in the United States, but also “the second most common cause of death from cancer among white, black, Asian/Pacific Islander, and the American Indian/Alaska Native women.” The first position, as far as mortality rates amongst women with cancer is concerned, is occupied by lung cancer.
The most prominent symptom of breast cancer is a lump inside the breast. Other symptoms, according to the National Cancer Institute (2018), could be inclusive of an inverted nipple, sore nipple, and…
neoplasm: "abnormal mass of tissue that results when cells divide more than they should or do not die when they should" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
benign: noncancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
malignant: cancerous ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
carcinoma: "Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs," ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
sarcoma: "A type of cancer that begins in bone or in the soft tissues of the body, including cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, fibrous tissue, or other connective or supportive tissue" ("NCI Dictionary of Cancer Terms," 2016)
anaplasia: Features of cells which indicate malignancy ("Anaplasia," 2016).
Q2. Identify the correct name for both benign and malignant tumors in the following locations:
Benign Tumors/Malignant Tumors
Pancreas: Adenoma / Adenocarcinoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Fat: Lipoma / Liposarcoma ("Tumors by name," 2016)
Bone: Osteoma / Osteosarcoma ("Tumors…
About immunotherapy. (2016). Chemocare. Retrieved from:
Anaplasia. (2016). USC. Retrieved from:
Phenoxodiol, a Medication for Cancer
Clinical studies have predominantly focused on a couple of standard benzopyrans, namely flavopiridol and phenoxodiol (by Novogen, via MEI Pharma, the company's subsidiary at the time). Although a benzopyran, the former's method of action apparently differs from phenoxodiol's action neither of the two aforementioned benzopyrans has gained FDA (Food and Drug Administration) or EMA (European Medicines Agency) approval. The height of research on phenoxodiol was one 'Phase III' research on resistant cancer cells in the ovaries. Although slow recruitment led the trial at this phase to formally close down, results clearly displayed that oral consumption of phenoxodiol would most probably not have benefited patients, if the trial phase had been completed. Phenoxodiol results (in combination with others) led to the following hypothesis by Novogen: the problem with phenoxodiol pertained to bioavailability (in other words, the ingested drug wasn't reaching the site of cancer in adequate…
Marc Sinatra. (2015). Novogen Limited. Lodge Partners Research.
Marshall Edwards Inc.2003Investigational New Drug Status Cleared By FDA for Phenoxodiol in Oral Formpr Newswire
Paul Howard. (2015, November 1). Why The FDA Rejected A Drug That Helps Cure Lung Cancer -- And What We Can Do To Fix It. Forbes.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services1998Guidance for Industryrockvillefood and Drug Administration
According to the National Institute of Health (NIH) "Brazil nuts may contain as much as 544 micrograms of selenium per ounce. They also may contain far less selenium. It is wise to eat Brazil nuts only occasionally because of their unusually high intake of selenium."
The reasons that selenium is so effective in cancer prevention are uncertain, although it has been speculated that it possesses anti-oxidant properties, "especially when used in conjunction with vitamin C, vitamin E and beta-carotene" and "works to block chemical reactions that create free radicals in the body (which can damage DNA and cause degenerative change in cells, leading to cancer)" (Black 2006). Selenium has also been found to prevent damaged DNA molecules from reproducing, thus preventing the development of tumors as well (Black 2006). This is supported by a University of Arizona-Cornell research team which linked low selenium levels in the blood to increased risk…
Black, Alexis. "The mineral selenium." Natural News. January 4, 2001. October 18, 2010.
"Dietary supplement fact sheet: Selenium." National Institutes of Health. NIH. October 18, 2010.
Care of Cancer
In many cases the sooner cancer is diagnosed and treatment begins the better the chances of a person recovering fully. If one develops cancer they can improve the chance of early detection if they have regular medical checkups and do some self-exams. Doctors often find early cancer during a physical exam or when carrying out routine tests even when there were no symptoms presented.
There are several methods that are used to diagnose cancer .with technological advancement these methods are now better as they help in a better understanding of cancer .there are now many diagnostic tools that can be used in cancer detection. Once cancer I suspected a diagnosis is made by pathologists and oncopathologists and imaging radiologists. The common diagnostic methods are;
This test involves a small tissue sample being taken from the area where cancer is suspected using a fine tipped…
Mandal, A.(2010). Cancer Diagnosis.Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.news-medical.net/health/Cancer-Diagnosis.aspx
American Society of Clinical Oncolog.(2013). Stages of Cancer. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancer.net/all-about-cancer/treating-cancer/stages-cancer
Armstrong, B.(2012).What are the different stages of cancer and what do they mean? Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://www.cancerinstitute.org.au/patient-support/what-i-need-to-know/about-cancer/what-are-the-different-stages-of-cancer
Info.com.(2013).Cancer complications. Retrieved September 24,2013 from http://topics.info.com/Cancer-Complications_3416
Colon cancer is defined as a cancer that begins in the rectum or colon. The cancers are referred to as colon or rectal cancer with reference to their orientating point. Colon and rectal cancers share different features and ultimate diagnosis procedures. The disorders are discussed collectively in this paper including their treatment approach.
In case cancer forms within polyps, they eventually start growing into the colon or rectal walls. While cancer cells attach to the wall, they continue growing within blood and lymph vessels. The lymph vessels are relatively thin, and tiny channels are carrying away fluid and waste (Acton, 2013). They occasionally drain into subsequent lymph nodes that are bean-shaped structures and contain immune cells to helping fighting the infections. Immediately the cancer cells start spreading to lymph or blood vessels, they travel to the lymph nodes and other distant body parts like the liver. The…
Acton, Q.A., (2013). Colon Cancer: New Insights for the Healthcare Professional: 2013. New York: ScholarlyEditions.
Peterson, E., (2014). The Colon Cancer. New York: Sea Salt.
Young, A., Hobbs, R., & Kerr, D., (2011). ABC of Colorectal Cancer. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Anti-Cancer Drug Anaerobin
a) EFFECTS ON KIDNEYS, HEART AND BRAIN
Cytotoxic metabolites are created when bio-reductive drugs go through a metabolic process because they contribute to curing cancer by lowering oxygen to areas where the cancer affects the body. The local auto regulation process of the body provides the oxygen to all parts of the body where it is needed. The arterioles supplying that tissue for oxygen dilate to supply more oxygen than usual. This happens also in the case of the tumor when it demands more oxygen; it is supplied by the body and anaerobin affects the auto regulation process in all areas as it reduces the blood flow to all organs, except the lungs. It can reduce the oxygen and supply of nutrients to the tumor by up to 99%. Therefore this bio-reductive drug can help in treatment of cancer in modern therapy.
Anti-cancer drugs reduce the cell…
Linda Bren, 2005. Cancer Drugs: weighing the Risks and Benefits. FDA Consumer, 41(1), pp.10+.
Nootropic. Available at: Http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nootropic#Vitamins_and_supplements (Accessed at 2 December 2011)
Paual Ravasco, Isabel Monterio-Grillo, Pedro Marques Vidal & Maria Ermelinda Camilio, 2005. Dietary Counseling Improves Patient Outcomes: A Prospective, Randomized, Controlled Trial in Colorectal Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 23(7), pp. 1431-1438.
Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160
Huget P, van Dam P,
Vermeulen P. (2002), 'Plasma fibrin D-dimer levels correlate with tumor volume, progression rate and survival in patients with metastatic reast Cancer', ritish Journal of Cancer, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11875705
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MEDSURG Nursing -- October 2006 -- Vol. 15/No. 5, Available online at, http://www.medsurgnursing.net/ceonline/2008/article10282288.pdf
Race, Tara Kay SN, RN, CCRN; Collier, Paul E. MD, (July-Sep 2007), 'The Hidden Risk of Deep Vein Thrombosis -- the Need for Risk Factor Assessment: Case Reviews.', Critical Care Nursing Quarterly, 30(3):245-254
Susan egelman MD, 'Venous Thromboembolism',…
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Alexander G. Turpie, (2002) 'ABC of Antithrombotic Therapy', British Medical Journal, available at http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/325/7369/887
Pfizer, 'NEW FRAGMIN INDICATION FIGHTS SECOND LEADING CAUSE of DEATH in CANCER PATIENTS, CANCER-ASSOCIATED THROMBOSIS', retrieved feb 29th 2008, from, http://www.pfizer.ca/english/newsroom/press%20releases/default.asp?s=1&releaseID=160
Treatment and Management of Cancer
Obligations of community health nurse in providing healthcare
The high demand for healthcare services, especially to those managing dreadful illnesses such as cancer, there is a dire need to understand the health promotion strategies and also ensure quality lives. Here, is a discussion assisting to analyze how best to improve health and better management of dreaded conditions like diseases such as cancer. Those affected will learn to adopt the right measures that will help to improve functional abilities, and what to practice in case self-care is not an option. The mandate of community health nurses will be scrutinized, to help acquire general knowledge on efficient management of diseases.
Cancer is a disease, which has characteristics of growths that cannot be controlled, and also the abnormality of how rapidly the cells are spread to other organs. Cancers vary in their areas of…
Fantastic Voyage-Fem artery to ight lung
A Fantastic Voyage from the ight Femoral Artery to the ight Lung
The human body is an intricate system of labyrinths that work together to maintain essential functions and thus maintain an individuals physical health. Two systems that work together are the circulatory and cardiopulmonary systems. Together, these systems help to transport gasses, nutrients, wastes, and hormones to various organs in the body. While it is may be easy to get lost in the multitude of paths that lead to the rest of the body from the heart, finding one's way from the right femoral vein to the lower lobe of the right lung via the right pulmonary artery is much simpler than would be expected.
Let us begin our journey in the right femoral vein. After a long and treacherous journey, we find ourselves in the right femoral vein and must figure out…
Cotterill, S. (2000). The cardiovascular system (heart and blood): medical terminology for cancer. Department of Child Health. University of Newcastle upon Tyne. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://www.cancerindex.org/medterm/medtm8.htm
Gregory, M (n.d.). The circulatory system. Clinton Community College. State University of New York. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/michael.gregory/files/Bio%20100/Bio%20100%20Lectures/Organ%20Systems/Circulatory%20System/Circulatory%20System.htm
Inner Body (2011). All systems. Retrieved 19 July 2012, from http://www.innerbody.com/htm/body.html
diet and cancer. The orks Cited five sources in MLA format.
Food, Diet and Cancer
Diet is fuel for our body. On the same account a balanced nutritious intake is what a human body needs more than anything. Hence food is one of the most cardinal factors that determine the quality of our healthy as well as the longevity of our lives. Knowing which food to eat in what quantity and how food helps us in building our defence mechanisms is essential.
This argumentative essay based on thorough analysis as well as extensive research revolves around and proves the following thesis statement:
There is a correlation between diet and cancer
Correlation between milk as well as other dairy products and Cancer
There are several forms of cancer killing thousands of people worldwide. One of the most common types of cancer is breast cancer affecting women under the age of 50…
Got breast cancer. Available at: http://www.milksucks.com/breast.html (March 20,2003)
Cancer fighters for food. Available at: http://www.umdnj.edu/umcweb/hstate/fall99/cancer_f99.htm (March 20,2003)
Fried Food Link to Some Cancers Disputed. Available at: http://forum.lowcarber.org/t82676.html (March 20,2003)
Study doubts acrylamide in food causes cancer. Available at http://bhagh.nhshealth.org/HealthNews/reuters/NewsStory0128200320.htm (March 20,2003)
moking and Lung Disease
moking is a hazardous habit that has the ability to greatly affect the health of the smoker and those that are close to them. The purpose of this discussion is to investigate smoking and lung disease. The discussion will focus on possible community health nursing interventions/teaching strategies. We will also use Orem's nursing model to describe the community, its health issue/problem, and proposed interventions.
Community and Health issue
The community in question is Grady County which is located in Chickasha, Oklahoma. moking is a prevalent problem in this community and people are seemingly unaware of the health consequences related to smoking. The reason why this issue was chosen was due to my mother having evere Emphysema and the effects this disease has on her, also because of the impact that second hand smoking can have on non-smokers For example, I am Deathly Allergic to moking. My…
Sources, and Consumption Values of Teenagers: Implications for Public Policy and Other Intervention Failures. Journal of Consumer Affairs, 36(1), 50+.
American Lung Asociation. 2005. http://www.lungusa.org/site/apps/s/content.asp?c=dvLUK9O0E& ; b=34706& ct=910873
Cigarette Smoking and Cancer, 2004. National Cancer Institute. http://cis.nci.nih.gov/fact/10_14.htm
Nicotene Addiction. (National Institute on Drug Abuse. Research Reporthttp://www.drugabuse.gov/PDF/NicotineRR.pdf
revolution in understanding genetic contributions to the susceptibility for developing particular diseases and disorders has been the development of the notion of "personalized medicine." The "personalized" connotation of this growing facet in the practice does not refer to individualized treatments as much as it refers to a personalizing of treatments targeted at a specific subset of patients, for example the development of certain drugs that can target specific cancer-causing genes found in patients' tumors. A drug currently being reviewed by the FDA for release is crizotinib, an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. ALK is believed to be active in several different types of tumors, including about five percent of non-small-cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC). In patients with advanced NSCLC it has been found that those carrying the echinoderm microtubule-associated protein-like 4 anaplastic lymphoma kinase (EML4-ALK) fusion gene possess a protein product of this fusion that contains a constitutive kinase activity that…
Bang, Y., Kwak, E.L., Shaw, A.T. et al. (2010). Clinical activity of the oral ALK inhibitor PF- 02341066 in ALK-positive patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Clinical Oncology, 28 (18S), 3.
Christensen, J.G., Zou, H.Y., Arango, M.E., Li, Q., Lee, J.H., McDonnell, S.R., Yamazaki, S., Alton, G.R., Mroczkowski, B., & Los G. (2007). Cytoreductive antitumor activity of PF-2341066, a novel inhibitor of anaplastic lymphoma kinase and c-Met, in experimental models of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma. Molecular Cancer Therapy, 6, 3314-3322.
Ku, G.Y. & Lima Jopes Jr., G. (2011). EML4-ALK in non-small-cell lung cancer: the breathtaking progress from benchtop to Phase III clinical trial. Therapy, 8(1)55-61.
Kwak, E.L., Bang, Y.J., Camidge, D.R. et al. (2010). Anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibition in non-small-cell lung cancer. New England Journal of Medicine, 263(18), 1693- 1703.
As random noise is introduced in the study which would help estimate the responses in the sample, the result is more error will be accounted in the study. In effect, some modifications of the true responses may not estimate statistical values accordingly, which then, as explicated earlier, leads to erroneous development of findings/conclusions in the study.
And since we are just estimating the actual responses, the results become less efficient and less reliable. It becomes less efficient because the difference to the true effect of being studied will be greater (greater standard error), and data results become less reliable that the results generated using the random noise will not have a truthful description of the population.
The data will still be useful for the public health purposes. Identifying this white noise would help the researcher control these variables in such a way the true effects of the relationship will be…
How Genes Influence Breast Cancer
Director of the National Cancer Institute
How Genes Influence Breast Cancer
Many environmental factors can affect a person's risk of breast cancer, but they are not the only issues to consider. Genetics also play a strong role in whether a person develops breast cancer or avoids it. A strong family history of the disease can predispose a person to breast cancer, but it is not a guarantee that the person will acquire the disease. Conversely, people with no family history have also contracted breast cancer, so genetics are not the only issue. They are merely a part of the puzzle. The research here indicates that genetics may be a larger part of the puzzle than first thought, however, and proposes recommendations to spend more time and financial resources on discovering the significance of genes and how they influence breast cancer. Recommendations for action…
Cao, Qiang, Qin, Chao, Meng, Xiaoxin, Ju, Xiaobing, Ding, Qi, Wang, Weilin, Zhu, Jian, Wang, Wei, Li, Pu, Jiawei, Chen, Zhang, Zhengdong, and Yin, Changjun. Genetic Polymorphisms in APE1 Are Associated With Renal Cell Carcinoma Risk in a Chinese Population. Molecular Carcinogenesis, 50: 863-870. 2011. Print.
Chang-Claude, Jenny, Popanda, Odilia, Tan, Xiang-Lin, Kropp, Silke, Helmbold, Irmgard, von Fournier, Dietrick, Haase, Wulf, Sautter-Bihl, Marie Luise, Wenz, Frederik, Schmezer, Peter, and Ambrosone, Christine B. Association between Polymorphisms in the DNA Repair Genes, XRCC1, APE1, and XPD and Acute Side Effects of Radiotherapy in Breast Cancer Patients. Clinical Cancer Research, 11: 4802-4809. 2005. Print.
Kang, Huafeng, Dai, Zhijun, Ma, Xiaobin, Ma, Li, Jin, Yaofeng, Liua, Xiaoxu, and Wang, Xijing. A genetic variant in the promoter of APE1 gene (?656 TNG) is associated with breast cancer risk and progression in a Chinese population. Gene, 531: 97-100. 2013. Print.
Poletto, Mattia, Di Loreto, Carla, Marasco, Daniela, Poletto, Elena, Puglisi, Fabio, Damante, Giuseppe, and Tell, Gianluca. Acetylation on critical lysine residues of Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1(APE1) in triple negative breast cancers. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 424. 2012. Print.
According to the Kohlberg theory, the post-conventional level is when a person develops social contract orientation and becomes principled. I believe I felt that I owed society an obligation to work and try to make it better, so I sought public welfare work (Fowler, p. 56).
Eventually, a better job opportunity came to me in the form of a state job in the Department of Youth and Family Services, so I decided to leave the school system. I transferred from my city job and was able work in my chosen field. Between working there and at Families Matter, New Jersey, I learned quite a bit. I would spend hours with parents who did not have the skills to help themselves and children who were in crisis. This motivated me even more to finish my bachelor's degree. This experience made me realize how lucky I was to have supportive family and…
Colby, a and Kohlberg, L. (1987). The Measurement of Moral Judgment, Vol 2. Standard Issue Scoring Manual. Cambridge University Press.
Fowler, J.T., Hennesey, T. (ed.) (1976) "Stages in faith: the structural developmental approach," Values and Moral Development. New York: Paulist Press.
Harder, a.F. (2002). The developmental stages of Erik Erikson. Learning Place Online.com. Retrieved August 8, 2007 at http://www.learningplaceonline.com/stages/organize/Erikson.htm .
Kohlberg, Lawrence (1973). "The claim to moral adequacy of a highest stage of moral judgment." Journal of Philosophy. 70: 630-646.
enefits After Quitting Smoking
Among the many health risks that toll life, smoking is considered as the most preventable cause of mortality. Globally, smoking has been one of the principal factors that lead to diverse type of diseases, such as cancer, coronary heart disease, lung disease, and many others. The number of smokers worldwide grows everyday, both in developed and developing countries. According to Karl Fagerstrom's Epidemiology of Smoking, from a 1995 estimate, the rate of smoking-related mortality will grow from 3 million to 10 million annually by 2030.
In response to the risks that smoking causes to the increasing number of smokers', many health organizations worldwide conduct different programs that are hoped to minimize and prevent people from smoking. This includes the provision of enough information on the effects of smoking to one's health, as well as information on how to quit from the smoking habit.
Many research and…
Fagerstrom, Karl. "The Epidemiology of Smoking."
Fagerstrom Consulting (2002): 1-9.
Benefits of Quitting Smoking."
Texas Medical Association. 02 April 2004. http://www.texmed.org/cme/phn/ndt/benefits_quitting.asp
elationship of high cholesterol levels to the development of cardiovascular disease
Diabetes, heart disease, and high cholesterol are all strongly correlated. Even when diabetes is being well-managed, the patient's risks factors increase for comorbidity with these disorders. "High blood pressure has long been recognized as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Studies report a positive association between hypertension and insulin resistance. When patients have both hypertension and diabetes, which is a common combination, their risk for cardiovascular disease doubles" (Cardiovascular disease and diabetes, 2014, AHA). Also, in the case of Ms. X, because of her uncontrolled diabetes, her risk for high cholesterol is higher than average even in the absence of obesity and inactivity. "This triad of poor lipid counts often occurs in patients with premature coronary heart disease. It is also characteristic of a lipid disorder associated with insulin resistance called atherogenic dyslipidemia, or diabetic dyslipidemia…
Burden, M. (2003). Diabetes: Treatment and complications. Nursing Times, 99(2) 30/
Cardiovascular disease and diabetes. (2012). American Heart Association. Retrieved from:
activities which are more popular or enjoyable than sitting down to watch a movie with a steaming bag of freshly popped microwave popcorn. The smell and taste of microwave popcorn both invoke strong sensory cues often associated with the pleasant experience of cinema viewer-ship. It is not often that we stop to consider the content of these convenient single-serve bags, either nutritionally or chemically. However, new evidence is emerging all the time to suggest that there are significant and alarming health imperatives to begin examining our popcorn more closely. As the discussion here will show, popcorn as a snack-food is fairly innocuous and, in fact, if served properly, can be an excellent low-calorie source of carbohydrates. However, when combined with the synthetic substances, the additives and the packaging compounds used in a bag of microwave popcorn, popcorn can present its consumer with severe health risks.
This is particularly troubling because…
Adams, M. (2011). Did you know? Microwave popcorn gives off a toxic, lung-damaging gas when cooked. Natural News.
Hendrickson, K. (2011). The Cancer Risk of Microwave Popcorn. Livestrong.com.
Noble, K. & Noble, L. (2011). When Popcorn Attacks! Microwave Popcorn, Infertility and Cancer. This Green Earth.
Richards, P. (2008). New Research Suggests Microwave Popcorn Contains High Levels of Cancer-causing Chemicals. Yahoo! News.
The First Nuclear Test
Of course, the first nuclear test occurred before the 1950s and was part of the United States' effort to develop an atomic weapon during World War II. This test occurred at 5:30 A.M. On July 16, 1945, at a missile range outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. Even that test was enough to convince a large group of scientists that the atomic weapon was a dangerous and powerful weapon. "The Franck Report," a petition issued by Leo Szilard and 68 other scientists urged President Truman to first demonstrate the capabilities of the atomic bomb before using it as a weapon against the Japanese, because of the mass destruction that came with the bomb.
This test, known as the Trinity Test, was a tremendous success. "The energy developed in the test was several times greater than that expected by scientific group. The cloud column mass and top reached…
Adams, Cecil. 1984. "Did John Wayne die of cancer caused by a radioactive movie set?" The Straight Dope. http://www.straightdope.com/classics/a2_016.html (Accessed August 19, 2008).
American Cancer Society. 2006. "Radiation exposure and cancer." Cancer.org. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PED/content/PED_1_3X_Radiation_Exposure_and_Cancer.asp?sitearea=PED (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Ball, Howard. 1996. "Downwind from the bomb." The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A0DEED61438F93AA35751C0A960948260&sec=health&spon=&pagewanted=1 (Accessed August 19, 2008).
Brodersen, Tom. 2002. "Compensation available to fallout cancer victims." Sharlot Hall
roles do genes play in determining cell structure and function? How is gene expression regulated?
Genes are composed of sequences of DNA which pass on the organism's genetic blueprint through the process of replication. "By serving as the blueprints of proteins in the body, genes ultimately influence all aspects of body structure and function... An error in one of these genes can lead to a recognizable genetic disease" (McCance & Huether 2012: 126).
What is the role of the environment in development of congenital disorders?
Genes have a considerable influence upon the probability of individuals developing particular disorders. For example, not every smoker develops lung cancer; not every overweight person develops type II diabetes. However, genes determine the likelihood that individuals will develop such disorders. The environment can trigger the expression of certain genes or support the conditions that make the manifestation of such conditions more or less likely to…
Cri du chat syndrome. (2010). National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
DNA replication. (2002). VBS homepage. Retrieved:
acial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (EACH 2010 Program)
The health objectives for the United States for the 21st century have been described in The Federal Initiative to Eliminate acial and Ethnic Health Disparities and Healthy People 2010. The national interest in the areas of racial and ethnic disparities has been renewed with the public health initiatives with the leadership for the discussion being taken by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention. The overall health of the nation has improved a lot, but the members of the minority groups in the ethnic and racial areas have not been benefited. This includes the African-Americans, Alaska Natives, American Indians, Asian-Americans, Hispanic-Americans and Pacific Islanders.
This segment of our population is more likely to have poor health and premature deaths than the white Americans. During 1992 to 1998, the deaths from breast cancer have come down noticeably, but there are more…
Author Unknown) (n.d) Chronic Diseases, Risk Factors, and Preventive Services, Alabama. Retrieved at http://www.4woman.gov/owh/reg/4/overview.htm. Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Health Disparities and Non-insulin Type 2 Diabetes. Retrieved at http://www.medicalnewsservice.com . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) HHS Awards more than 65 Million to eliminate health disparities. Retrieved at http://apps.nccd.cdc.gov/BurdenBook/DeathCause.asp?state=alAccessed on 15/10/2003
Author Unknown) (n.d) Overview of Region lV. Retrieved at http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/exemplary/racial.htm . Accessed on 15/10/2003
Friends From the Wrong Crowd
One of the most challenging things among the young people on America is the idea of bad company. This problem is so pronounced and serious taking into account that the people who surround and individual largely dictates the direction of the life that the individual will take and hence shaping their future.
Ryan a 23 years old boy came from a humble Christian family where no one was allowed to smoke. When Ryan joined campus he met Pat and Torrey who were cigarette addicts. They became his close friends and went a head and invited him to hang out with them for a weekend. Pat and Torrey offered Ryan a whiff of cigarette for the first time in his life. Ryan was hesitant and said an emphatic "No" to the request but they kept on insisting on him to smoke. Ultimately he ended up smoking…
Patient Access to Experimental Drugs
Experimental drugs are being used in treating cancer and other life-threatening diseases in the hopes that effective cures and treatments can be identified. There are however, ethical questions relating to the use of experimental drugs and this work seeks to answer the question that asks whether patients should have access to experimental drugs and to answer why or why they should not have this access.
Experimental drugs have carved inroads to treating cancer patients and most recently; this has been reported in the form of a drug that serves to "neutralize two mechanisms cancers need to survive." (Coghlan, 2012) The new drug is Cabozantinib. This drug is reported by one individual interviewed in this study to have been used by a family member who died while taking the drug for non-small cell carcinoma in the form of lung cancer. When asked the question…
Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from: http://books.google.com/books?id=_14H7MOw1o4C&source=gbs_navlinks_s
Coghlan, A.K (2012) New Cancer Drug Sabotages Tumor's Escape Route. 24 Feb 2012. New Scientist. Retrieved from: http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn21516-new-cancer-drug-sabotages-tumours-escape-route.html
Beauchamp, TL and Childress, JF (2001) Principles of Biomedical Ethics. Oxford University Press. 15 Feb 2001. Retrieved from:
Therapies Deprive Patients From Conventional Cancer Therapies
Future Ethical Prospective
Do public demand for, and clinicians' tendencies to prescribe novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system deprive other patients of conventional treatment? If so, can it be justified?
Over the years, there have been several studies which have shown that a small but noteworthy fraction of cancer patients drop one or more conventional cancer treatments and use novel targeted cancer therapies instead. When it comes to recent public demands in healthcare, research into cancer control has addressed issues relevant to novel targeted cancer therapies in a resource starved healthcare system. Disparities have been addressed to a much greater degree than before, with studies of the conventional treatment of cancer especially in our variety of ethnic and socioeconomic settings. Conventional treatment have a greater social impact and the demand for such treatments of many (male and female) of…
Borja-Cacho, D.J.E.H.S.A.K.B.D.J. & V.S.M., 2008. Molecular targeted therapies for pancreatic cancer.. The American Journal of Surgery, 196(3), p. 430.
Garvalov, B.K. & A.T., 2011. Cancer stem cells: A new framework for the design of tumor therapies.. Journal of Molecular Medicine, 89(2), pp. 95-107..
Kim, J.A., 2003. Targeted therapies for the treatment of cancer. The American Journal of Surgery, 186(3), pp. 264-8.
Kundu, S.K. & N.M., 2012. Targeted therapy in head and neck cancer.. Tumor Biology, 33(3), pp. 707-21.
This has been the traditionally used mode of treatment for non-Hodgkin's Lymphomas, but the fact remains that there have not been many clinical trials conducted that would reveal the benefits of CHOP in comparison to various other chemotherapy options for the treatment of CLL, which is a very slowly growing form of cancer and is therefore conversely very difficult to treat and cure because of the fact that all the traditional methods of treatment, whether chemotherapy or radiation, are meant to quickly and rapidly destroy the fast growing cancerous cells. (Cancer Treatment and Prevention)
Curing a patient with the CLL or SLL forms of cancer is considered to be highly unusual, but it is true that these patients will b able to lead productive lives even after 6 to 10 years after the cancer have been diagnosed for them. A patient when he is making the choice of treatment for…
Bischof, Delaloye a. (2003) "The role of nuclear medicine in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL)" Leuk Lymphoma. Volume: 44 Suppl 4; pp: S29-36
Cancer Treatment and Prevention" Retrieved at http://patient.cancerconsultants.com/treatment.aspx?id=782Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP - complementary considerations. Lymphoma-tion" (2 October, 2004) Retrieved at http://www.lymphomation.org/chemo-CHOP.htm . Accessed on 26 December, 2004
CHOP Patient Information Sheet" Newcastle General Hospital, Northern Center for Cancer treatment. (June, 2005) Retrieved at http://www.newcastle-hospitals.org.uk/v2/PDF/patientleaflets/NCCT/Standard/CHOP.PDFAccessed on 26 December, 2004
Public AIDS Policy -- And the Band Played on, for Republicans and Democrats alike, during this public health crisis of the 1980's
Today, it hard to remember a day before 'AIDS alks' through Central Park, before television advertisements in the voice of hoopi Goldberg proclaimed that "AIDS affects everyone," before AIDS became a public health enemy 'Number One.' But one must look back to the days when AIDS was a disease of secrecy and shame to truly learn from the illness, as it exists today. Most of us of Generation Y mercifully cannot even remember a time when AIDS was not even a name, but something called 'the gay cancer.' During America of the 1980's the disease of Acquired Immune Deficiency Disorder, it was thought only to affect those marginalized by society because of their sexuality.
Randy Shilt's book And the Band Played On acts as an important journalistic and…
Shilts, Randy. And the Band Played On.
Siplan, P. Aids & The Policy Struggle In the U.S. Georgetown Press, 2000.
During the consumer movement of the 1960s and 1970s, Congress enacted a substantial amount of legislation to protect "the good of the people." There is only one problem with consumer protection laws -- they are slow to react and even harder to enforce. As a result of this situation, corporations are allowed to profit at the expense of consumers' health. The resistance comes in a number of stages. The first is denial of the problem, wherein the corporations argue that there is not enough evidence to link their products with the negative outcomes that are being reported. Then there is the lobbying that causes politicians to defer action until a later date, or ignore the call to action altogether. Too often, when statutes are enacted, corporations fight them to the end, resulting in flawed legislation that either has loopholes, require interpretation from the judicial branch or is difficult…
Bray, G., Nielsen, S. & Popkin, B. (2004). Consumption of high-fructose corn syrup in beverages may play a role in the epidemic of obesity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Vol. 79 (4) 537-543.
Goldberg, C. & Zimmerman, R. (2011). What's making us fat? Researchers put food additives on suspect list. Common Health. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://commonhealth.wbur.org/2011/08/food-additives-obesity
Hellmich, N. (2009). Rising obesity will cost U.S. health care $344 billion a year. USA Today. Retrieved April 11, 2012 from http://www.usatoday.com/news/health/weightloss/2009-11-17-future-obesity-costs_N.htm
Miller, R. & Jentz, G. (2010). Business law today: 9th edition. South-Western/Cengage Learning.
In addition, the radiation doses contained in the CT scans can be especially harmful to people suffering from certain types of diseases, such as lung cancer, and they can be especially harmful to children, as well, so they are not recommended annually in these cases. Dr. Dehn continues, "adiation exposure from CT scans should be taken into account, since a whole-body scan will expose the patient to a dose of radiation equivalent to 500 chest x-rays" (Dehn). Thus, annual whole body CT scans could put people at risk of many other problems from radiation, which would far outweigh the benefits of getting a whole body scan each year.
Finally, whole body CT scans can lead to two types of misdiagnosis, "(1) not diagnosing treatable disease that is present and (2) the detection of disease that is not present" (Dehn). This could lead to additional unnecessary tests to verify the diagnosis,…
Dehn, Richard. "Are Whole-Body Scans Useful as a Screening Tool?" Medscape.com. 2004. 7 Feb. 2008. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/441566
Editors. "Whole Body Scanning." FDA.gov. 2005. 7 Feb. 2008. http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ct/
For basement and Slab- on -- Grade houses, the reduction is done through any of the four methods of soil suction: drain tile suction, sump-hole suction, drain tile suction or block wall suction. For claw-space houses, the radon levels are reduced effectively by using high-density plastic sheet to cover the floor. Radon is vented to the outdoor by drawing it under the sheet using fans and vent pipe. Other method of radon reduction is sealing of the cracks found in the foundation that limit the radon flow into the house ("How to reduce radon levels in your home").
Association between lung cancer and exposure in the residential houses has been shown by many studies conducted by scientists In the United States and other parts of the world though not all studies has shown this association. The reason for this inconsistencies in the different studies is because of disparate radon…
"Cancer and radon: Studies on the carcinogenicity of radon," Radon. 2 Jun. 2009. 21 March.
Field, Bill. "A Review of Residential Radon Case-Control Epidemiologic studies Performed in the United States," Reviews on Environmental Health 16.3 (2001): 1091-1102.
"How to reduce radon levels in your home," Pennslyvania Consumer's Guide to Radon
Since radon is a widely known and established carcinogen, researchers have found it important to investigate the biological risks associated with exposure. Catelinois et al. (2006) sought to assess the lung cancer risk in France due to the inhalation of radon. In particular, these researchers examined exposure-response results of both studies involving miners as well as case control studies, and furthermore investigated the interaction between radon and tobacco. The results of this study indicated that the estimated number of deaths due to lung cancer that could be attributed to radon exposure ranged from 543 to 3108 with a 90% uncertainty level. The specific number of deaths was dependent on the particular model being adhered to. From this number, the researchers suggested that 2.2% to 12.4% of these lung cancer deaths may actually be due to indoor radon exposure (Catelinois et al. 2006).
Since exposure to radon is widely considered to…
Breier, R., Bohm, R., Kopani, M. "Simulation of radiation damage to lung cells after exposure to radon decay products." Neuro Endocrinology Letters 27.2 (2006): 86-90.
Catelinois, O., Rogel, a., Laurier, D., Billon, S., Hemon, D., Verger, P., Tirmarche, M. "Lung cancer attributable to indoor radon exposure in France: impact of the risk models and uncertainty analysis." Environmental Health Perspectives 114.9 (2006): 1361-6.
Lubin, J.H., Boice, J.D. Jr. "Lung cancer risk from residential radon: meta analysis of eight epidemiologic studies." Journal of the National Cancer Institute 89.1 (1997): 49-57.
Samet, J.M. "Residential radon and lung cancer: end of the story?" Journal of Toxicology and Health. Part a 69.7 (2006): 527-31.
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, esophagus, and pharynx. In addition, cigarette smoking is a contributing cause of cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, bladder, pancreas, uterine cervix, and kidney. Finally, cigarette smoking is a contributing factor in some leukemias. Currently, cigarette smoking is responsible for approximately 180,000 cancer deaths every year. However, quitting smoking immediately can reduce the risk of cancer. Ten years after quitting smoking, an ex-smoker's risk of lung cancer is about half that of a current smokers. Furthermore, quitting smoking reduces the risk of developing cancers of the mouth, esophagus, throat, bladder, cervix, and pancreas within a ten-year period.
Finally, cigarette smoking increases the risk of heart disease. Heart disease is the number one cause of death in America, and smoking cigarettes is the number one risk factor for heart disease. Smoking is the main cause of sudden heart…
Few hospitals offered both the expertise and the necessary facilities.
Location of the donor and the recipient also impacted availability. Human organs cool and degenerate quickly when removed from the donor. Transportation in the 50s, 60s, and 70s was in the early stages of rapid jet aircraft travel and was too slow for the transportation of organs. The donor needed to be in close proximity to the recipient which was possible with living family members and donors. Research during this time focused on immunosuppressant drugs and on methods to maintain a viable organ outside the host.
In his discussion of justice in respect to the allocation of scarce goods, Jon Elster (1992) identified three levels of scarcity: natural, quasi-natural and artificial. The availability of twins with one needing a kidney transplant and one willing to donate a kidney generates a natural scarcity similar to the availability of natural black pearls.…
The information gathered from testing the two houses shows how radon can be present in the homes anywhere. The gas affects the house without regard to the houses age, the economic situation of the occupants, or any other factors. Since only two houses were checked, truly accurate results for the area as a whole cannot be calculated due to the small population size. The occupants of the homes had no knowledge of the radon levels in their homes nor had they ever had them tested. Luckily the levels were too low to cause any serious effects. Out of the two women, only one had any knowledge of radon and the seriousness it; but even with the knowledge she had never tested or had tested the home.
Awareness must be made to alert the public to this issue and availability to test equipment for lower income families provided. Lung cancer from…
Cancer.gov. (2010). "Radon and Cancer: Questions and Answers" Retrieved on April 19, 2010
From http://www.cancer.gov/ cancertopics/factsheet/Risk/radon eHow.com. (2010). "Identification" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.ehow.com/about_4672754_symptoms-radon-poisoning.html
EPA.org. (2010). "A Citizens Guide to Radon" Retrieved on April 19, 2010 from http://www.epa.gov/radon/pubs/citguide.html
Healthcare.com. (2010). "What is the Definition of Radon Gas?" Retrieved on April 19, 2010
Decriminalize Marijuana in Canada
The question as to whether Canada should decriminalize the use, sale, and cultivation of marijuana has been debated over the past few years, and the debate has taken a sharper turn now that it is being decriminalized in Colorado and soon in ashington State.
hat are the economic and social benefits of making marijuana legal in Canada -- and what is the residual impact on human health? Given that today there are glaring inconsistencies in Canadian law regarding marijuana -- as opposed to the legal sale of alcohol and tobacco -- how does the Canadian government propose to adjust its current laws if indeed marijuana becomes legal? These are the pertinent questions to be answered in this paper.
Thesis: The position of this writer is that Canada should proceed to decriminalize marijuana and remove the label of "controlled substance" -- because marijuana does less harm to…
Danovitch, Itai. "Sorting Through the Science on Marijuana: Facts, Fallacies, and Implications for Legalization." McGeorge Law Review, 43.1 (2013): 91-108.
Flister, Larissa Ducatti. "The Economic Case for Marijuana Legalization in Canada."
Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5.1 (2012): 96-100.
Riley, Diane. "Drugs and Drug Policy in Canada: A brief review and commentary." Canadian
This RIS includes Toshiba digital desktop telephones, plus 24 SpectraLink wireless telephones; these wireless phones were programmed to extend the features and capabilities of the users' desktop telephones to anywhere they roam at the 22-bed hospital; however, other wireless technologies such as cellular, could not be used due to the interference with sensitive medical equipment (Just the right prescription 24). The hospital's chief operating officer, Darryl Thornton, reported, "Being able to be mobile, yet still receive all our telephone calls, has greatly improved our efficiency and productivity. Toshiba's SpectraLink solution was the only one we found that would extend our desktop telephones to the palms of our hands" (Just the right prescription 24). The RIS also accommodated the needs of the hospital's remote users: "The system is so flexible that we were able to connect our remote users and still have it look like they are located at our corporate…
Abelha, Antonio, Jose Machado, Victor Alves, and Jose Neves. (2004). "Health Data Management in the Medical Arena." Universidade do Minho, Braga, Portugal. [Online]. Available: https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/886/1/473-245.pdf.
Adelhard, K., S. Nissen-Meyer, C. Pistitsch, U. Fink and M. Reiser. (1999). "Functional requirements for a HIS-RIS-PACS-interface design, including integration of 'old' modalities." Method. Inf. Med. 38(1):1-8.
Albensi, B.C., E.V. Ilkanich, G. Dini and D. Janigro. (2004, December). "Elements of Scientific Visualization in Basic Neuroscience Research. Bioscience, 54(12): 1127-38.
Arenson, R.L., K.P. Andriole, D.E. Avrin and R.G. Gould. (2000). "Computers in imaging and health care: now and in the future." Journal of Digital Imaging 13(4):145-56.
The meat comes from a local independent packing company that doesn't buy beef that has been injected with growth hormones; the buns are from a bakery in Pueblo, Colorado; and two hundred pounds of potatoes are "peeled every morning in the kitchen and then sliced with an old crank-operated contraption." The cooks make $10 an hour, and all other employees earn $8.00 an hour. hen asked why the Conway family provides health insurance for all full time employees, Rich Conway said, "e want to have healthy employees."
The author also calls for changes in the way the U.S. Congress oversees advertising, asserting on page 262 that Congress "should immediately ban all advertisements aimed at children that promote foods high in fat and sugar." The justification for that ban would be that 30 years ago, congress banned cigarette ads from TV and radio, because of course cigarettes were seen as a…
Robbins, John. (2001). The Food Revolution: How Your Diet Can Help Save Your Life and Our
World. Boston: Conari Press.
Schlosser, Eric. (2001). Fast Food Nation: The Dark Side of the All-American Meal. New York:
Houghton Mifflin Company.
Pleural Effusion in Children -- An Overview
Pleural Effusion is a disease resulting from excess production of fluids or a decrease in absorption or in some instances both thereby leading to an abnormal collection of fluids in the pleural space. It is the commonest pleural disease and has etiologies that include symptomatic inflammatory, cardiopulmonary disorders and malignant diseases that require speedy evaluation as well as treatment (Jeffery ubins 2016).
Disorders like an infection are some of the primary afflictions that could lead to the collection of fluids in the pleural space leading to pediatrics pleural effusion. The fluid accumulation can result from poor absorption or an increase in filtration. While mild effusion is asymptomatic, complications like septicemia, pneumothorax, pleural thickening, bronchopleural fistula, and respiratory failure might accompany it (Shahla Afsharpaiman, et al. 2016). a chest ultrasound or lateral decubitus indicates the probability of the existence of a large pleural effusion.…
Andrews CO & Gora ML., 1994. Pleural effusions: pathophysiology and management. SAGE Publications - Anual Pharma, 28(8), pp. 894-903.
Hyeon Yu, 2011. Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess. Seminars in Interventional Radiology, 28(1), pp. 75-86.
Jeffrey Rubins, 2016. Pleural Effusion. [Online]
Available at: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/299959-overview
Developmental perspective was the concept that the nursing students participating in this study were typically younger than they patients they were caring for. This made it difficult for them to ask the "older" patient questions about a lifestyle they had been practicing for many years.
Environmental constraints were noted that prevented the participants in the study from fully implementing best practice guidelines. The primary of which was time. They noted that because of other duties and paper keeping requirements, they had little time to properly present the best practice guidelines. Some noted that they had little time to do expected things such as breathing, much less introduce the patient properly to best practice guidelines.
During their third year of training the nurses were introduced to a comprehensive program concerning cigarettes and cessation programs. In addition they had already been taught more efficient time management training. With these new tools they…
10) Sanders, D., Fowler, G., Mant, D., Fuller, a., Jones, L., & Marziller, j.
Randomized controlled trial of anti-smoking advice by nurses in General practice. Journal of the Royal College of General
Practitioners, 1989, 39, pp 273-276.
Luther Terry was the Surgeon General of the United States during the Kennedy Administration and the first part of the Johnson Administration, from 1961 to 1965. Terry changed the nature of the office, which until that time was obscure enough so that many Americans did not know there was such a post. Since Terry's time, and specifically because of one important action he took, the office of Surgeon General has been more prominent, taking the lead in public health issues and ruffling feathers in many American industries. Terry issued his report on smoking and its dangers in 1964, leading to the greater prominence of anti-tobacco forces, the warnings on cigarette packages, the banning of cigarette ads on television and radio, and recently court and legislative actions taken against the tobacco industry after decades of resistance.
Terry's action in issuing the report on smoking is much better known than Terry himself,…
History of the 1964 Surgeon General's Report on Smoking and Health. http://www.corporate-business-training.com/stink/Pro/1964SGR.html.
History of the Office of the Surgeon General." 2002. http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/library/history/sghist.htm .
Kluger, Richard. Ashes to Ashes. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1996.
Parascandola, John. "The Surgeons General and Smoking." Public Health Reports 112 (19 Sept 1997), 440-432.